U. S. Dept. of Agri.,
R 6CSG VEI
U. S. Postage
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1
Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA
Official Publication of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION
$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by theFlorida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume IV
10 Cents a Coy rus Growers Clearing House Association, AUGUST 1, 1932 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven. Number 21
0 Cent a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3 1879. Number 21
Call Issued For Advertising Support
Questionnaire To Be Mailed Immediately To Growers
So That Definite Plans Can Be Made for Campaign
The effort being made to obtain grower sup-
port for the proposed joint advertising cam-
paign, to be sponsored this coming season by
the Clearing House and the Exchange, is to be
climaxed this month with the issuance of a
questionnaire to the growers. Through the
questionnaire Clearing House officials expect
to obtain a definite idea from the growers as
to whether or not they are in favor of an ad-
vertising campaign. Two questions are asked
in the questionnaire, which will be sent out
within a few days, the questions being:
1-Are you in favor of the all-state ad-
vertising program of FLORIDA oranges,
grapefruit, and tangerines being spon-
sored by the Clearing House and the Ex-
2-Do you agree to an advertising as-
sessment on your fruit of 2c a box on or-
anges, 2c a box on grapefruit, and 5c a
box or strap on tangerines, and authorize
the deduction of said amounts by the con-
cern through whom you market or to
whom you sell your fruit to help defray
costs of such advertising?
With the questionnaire, when it is issued,
will go the explanation that the signing of the
questionnaire by the grower does not prevent
the grower from shipping his fruit through the
marketing agency of his selection, from selling
it on the trees, or making any disposition he
may see fit.
Decision to issue the questionnaire was made
at a meeting of the Clearing House Advertis-
ing Committee held the first day of this month.
A statement was prepared at that time by the
Committee which is to be sent to the growers
along with the questionnaire, the statement
explaining in detail how the Clearing House
and the Exchange plan to work together in
making possible an effective advertising pro-
gram for Florida citrus.
PLAN MEETING APPROVAL
The movement during the past few weeks
has gained many supporters. The question of
advertising our crop has been discussed freely
by growers throughout the fruit belt and in-
dications are that the growers as a whole are
solidly behind the plan. Newspapers of the
state and other publications have contributed,
and are contributing, generously to support
the movement. Editorials have appeared al-
most daily in the press of the state as well as
educational matter pertaining to the value of
Citrus Growers Will Have Big
Program During Farmers' Week
A vast amount of up-to-date information
awaits citrus growers during Farmers' Week
at the University of Florida August 8-12. A
special citrus program covering many interest-
ing subjects is being planned.
After a tour of the Experiment Station and
College of Agriculture test plots and farms
Monday afternoon, August 8, the citrus pro-
gram will get under way Tuesday morning.
At this program, refrigeration, citrus diseases,
and cultivation and mulching will be discussed
by College workers. The afternoon program
will be devoted chiefly to soils and organic
matter, presenting five talks by well known
The Wednesday morning program will be
devoted to economical fertilization and the ef-
feet of fertilizer elements on the trees. In the
afternoon there will be talks about grove irri-
gation, simple grove implements, advertising,
and record keeping.
The bulk fruit movement will be the major
topic Thursday morning with representatives
of the Federal Farm Board, Florida Citrus Ex-
change, State Department of Agriculture,
Growers' and Shippers' League, American
Fruit Growers, and the College of Agriculture
speaking. In the afternoon there will be a
special program about packing house manage-
ment on which specialists and leading packing
house managers will speak.
The final citrus program Friday morning
will be a laboratory study of the major citrus
insects and diseases from specimens that have
been collected by the Experiment Station.
(Continued on Page Three)
advertising which has been sent to them by
the Clearing House and the Exchange.
Efforts are to be continued throughout the
summer to interest the growers in the adver-
tising program, but because of the necessity of
starting the advertising as soon as possible the
questionnaire is to be sent out immediately so
that further details of the campaign can be
studied and completed.
The Advertising Committee's statement
reads as follows:
The Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House
Association, through its Board of Directors,
Committee of 50, and shipper members, has
approved and is working to bring about con-
sumer advertising of FLORIDA citrus fruit,
participated in by the industry during the
1932-33 season, featuring the merits and su-
periority of Florida oranges, grapefruit, and
The Florida Citrus Exchange has approved
the idea of uniting the industry on an adver-
tising program and has made a definite finan-
cial commitment, providing that Clearing
House members and outside growers and ship-
pers raise an equal amount and also providing
the total volume of fruit participating is not
less than 80 percent of the total citrus volume
The Clearing House and the Exchange have
agreed that the administration of the adver-
tising program be under the direction of a
joint committee, two members of which would
be selected from the Clearing House, two mem-
bers from the Exchange and one member from
outside shippers, provided the outside growers
contribute 25 percent of the amount con-
tributed by the two first named organizations.
The Exchange decided in making its com-
mitment that the amount it contributes, in case
the advertising fund is raised, shall be taken
from its fixed advertising retain and that no
additional assessment shall be made on its
grower members for this purpose.
The financial commitment of the Exchange
is definite and it is now necessary that the in-
dependent growers who ship their fruit through
or sell to shipper members of the Clearing
House, as well as growers outside of both the
Exchange and the Clearing House, assure their
(Continued on Page Eight)
FLORIDA CLEARING.* HOUSE NEWS,
Committee of Fifty Department
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)
Earning Consumer Confidence
Because of our enthusiasm about advertising we per-
haps are in danger of losing sight of the two other most
important factors in any successful merchandising program
-standardization and uniform distribution. Modern busi-
ness no longer accepts the old principle of "Caveat emp-
tor" or "Let the buyer beware," but is leaning more toward
the other extreme evidenced in the slogan of Marshall
Field, "The customer is always right."
Differing from many other groups, the citrus grower
seldom comes in personal contact with his friend, the con-
sumer, and because of this frequently does not realize as
he ought, his obligation and duty to the person purchasing
his fruit. So, in considering a needed advertising program
in order to create consumer demand, we must not lose sight
of the fact that advertising can only be wholly successful,
if the product sold is of such quality that it proves to the
consumer the truthfulness of the advertising.
This brings us to the thought of standardization; stand-
ardization in maturity as demanded by our state maturity
law and standardization of quality as provided for in
United States standards of grade and pack. The maturity
law and the standards of grade and pack have a two-fold
purpose; first, to provide uniformity in individual decision
as to maturity and quality and, second, to prevent a few
unscrupulous persons from adopting, toward the con-
sumer, the unethical and injurious attitude of "Caveat
No Florida citrus grower sending fruit to a friend but
makes every effort to send only such fruit as will be pleas-
ing and palatable. Every Florida grower engaging in mail
order business realizes that his success and his only hope
for repeat orders depends upon his sending only desirable
fruit to his customers. So it is that the industry as a whole,
although not coming in such direct contact with the con-
sumer as we do with our immediate friends or mail order
buyers, must realize that the obligation to the unknown
consumer is just as great and important as the obligation
to our friends or direct mail order customers. No citrus
grower or shipper can afford to impair his own reputation
or the reputation of the industry as a whole, by permitting
fruit to be shipped from his grove or packing house that
will not be accepted by the purchaser as value received
for money paid.
Mr. Holmes Bishop, Chairman of the Citrus Depart-
ment of the Orange County Farm Bureau, discussing this
question at the Citrus Institute in Santa Paula, California,
makes the following remarks on this subject which are
distinctly applicable to the Florida marketing problems:
"There are two points of view on the subject of mar-
keting. First is that of altruism, for we should want to
give our customers value for value received. Wise men,
more than ever before, are preaching the value of moral
obligation between contracting parties. Secondly, we are
in a business and should employ the most honorable busi-
ness methods to properly safeguard our future.
"Poor grade of fruit may be determined from two
angles. The simplest method is employed by every pur-
chaser; that of appearance. It is instinctive with us to
withhold from that which is not pleasing to the sight. It
is a part of our nature that those things which are beauti-
ful most appeal to us. Much has been said of the effect
of the predominance of small size fruit on the market, yet
records prove that prices decline based on lack of quality,
faster than they do on size.
"With the buyer thus trained naturally to judge his
product by outward appearance, the law of supply and
demand will determine the amount of fruit that can be
profitably disposed of from that standpoint. However,
there is another method of determining fruit quality; that
which is on the inside. It is not enough to have a beautiful
orange or lemon; it must have juice in it.
"Certain varieties of oranges become deficient in juice
because of crystalization or granulation of the juice cells,
but all varieties of citrus fruits are subject to a juiceless
state as a result of excessive cold temperatures.
"Deception is an undesirable and an unpardonable
breach between the buyer and the seller, no matter what
the commodity, and a frozen citrus fruit is one of the worst
of deceptions. Picture yourself buying an orange or lemon
or a grapefruit, blemishless on the outside and juiceless
on the inside.
"The shipper of such fruit has sold his conscience for
a mess of pottage, and stifled his integrity beneath the
scum of moral as well as legal disregard.
"Let us remember that the world progresses by the
encouragement of initiative for good. Selfishness is its
"We are aware of the activity throughout California
during the past season to prevent undesirable fruit from
reaching the local public, and this campaign was very
commendable. Yet if there is one place that must be neg-
lected, by all means it should not be that vast market that
lies beyond our borders. There has been held out to them
the constant invitation to use our products. Efforts,
thought and money have been lavished to promote their
good will, and we should not permit it to be jeopardized
by shipping such goods as we would hesitate to buy. We
are a part of a great partnership, and the corner stone of
successful partnership is trust.
"Any astute business man will maintain that a cus-
tomer retained is just as important as a customer gained.
An automobile manufacturer will practice this principle,
notwithstanding the fact that his sales to many of us are
far apart. Every successful business from the great auto-
motive industry down to the corner grocery, recognizes
the fundamental principle of customer satisfaction. Yet in
our own enterprise, somewhere along the line, we do not
know or we have forgotten, the fundamental principle of"
'sell as you would buy.'
"When a manager once told one of his growers, 'The'
consumer must be satisfied,' the grower rose in indignation
to ask the manager who he was working for, 'the grower
or the consumer?'
"Much can be spared the distributor if the mental atti-
tude of the producer is improved. Surely it cannot be-
denied that the principle is logical. If so, would it not be
advantageous to direct a campaign of consistent advertis-
ing to the grower, constantly impressing him with the
principle of consumer satisfaction, that he may more fully'
recognize his moral as well as his physical obligation?
"There are some who may refuse to be educated. Per-
haps they are not naturally of the cooperative spirit. May-'-
hap they are driven by desperation. Regardless of the
cause, their insistence that their fruit shall be shipped irre-
spective of the quality, is a menace to the industry, a con-
scienceless, fraudulent perpetration, on a faithful public,'
and their activities should be curbed if the industry is to
"Most all products we buy are delivered to us with aw
guarantee against faulty materials and workmanship,
whether it be a tool from your implement dealer or canned,
goods from your grocer. The purpose is to insure satisfac-
tion to the purchaser.
"Confidence is a fundamental of purchasing. It inspires
August 1, 1932
August 1. 1932
the grower in his buying. Then he must recog-
nize the same principle in what he has to sell.
The buyer of a citrus fruit should be entitled
to the same confidence he enjoys when pur-
chasing other commodities.
"A uniform, strict, unbiased enforcement,
a low tolerance of frost, a uniform sugar con-
tent, more uniform container laws, and inter-
ested, well informed and conscientious growers
would be of immeasurable aid in purging our
industry of this menacing threat to its pros-
"The results would be a most enviable pres-
tige with the consuming public, insuring us of
a more ready market for our product, and the
consciousness that we are a helping part of a
great industry which has aimed to deal with
the people of the world, with integrity and
purity of purpose."
Citrus Growers Will Have
Big Program Farmers' Week
(Continued from Page One)
Throughout all of the programs liberal time
will be allowed for growers to ask questions
and for general discussions that will help to
clear up the problems in question.
The program for citrus and small fruits fol-
CITRUS AND SMALL FRUITS
E. F. DeBusk, In Charge
TUESDAY MORNING, AUG. 9
W. R. Briggs, Presiding
8:30-Problems in Refrigeration and Cold
Storage of Citrus Fruits, Dr. A. F. Camp, Hor-
ticulturist, Exp. Sta.
9:00-Research Work in Citrus Disease
Control, Dr. W. B. Tisdale, Plant Pathologist,
9:15-Life History Studies of the Fungi
Causing Scab and Melanose, Dr. G. D. Ruehle,
Associate Plant Pathologist, Lake Alfred.
9:45-Studies of Stem-end Rot of Citrus,
W. A. Kuntz, Associate Plant Pathologist,
10:15-Calcium Requirement of Florida
'Citrus Trees and How to Supply It, E. L. Lord,
Prof. of Horticulture.
Joint Program With Farm Grops Group
E. F. DeBusk, Presiding
2:00-Interrelation of Soils and Fertilizers,
SDr. R. W. Ruprecht, Chemist, Exp. Sta.
2:45-Classification and Utilization of Flor-
ida Soils, Dr. O. C. Bryan, Prof. of Agronomy.
3:30-Soils Organic Matter, Dr. R. M. Bar-
nette, Chemist, Exp. Sta.
4:15-Soil Reaction and Crop Growth, Dr.
R. M. Barnette and Dr. O. C. Bryan.
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 10
Dr. O. C. Bryan, Presiding
8:30-Essentials of an Economical Citrus
Fertilizing Program, Dr. R. W. Ruprecht.
9:25-Growth and Yield of Grapefruit as
Affected by Nitrogen Fertilizer, John P. Camp,
Assistant Agronomist, Exp. Sta., and Dr. O. C.
9:55-Cultivation and Mulching as Affect-
ORIDA CLEARING S HOUSE NEWS
ing Soil Moisture and Tree Conditions, E. F.
DeBusk, Extension Citriculturist.
10:35-Acid Citrus Fruits, Dr. A. F. Camp.
Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, Presiding
2:00-Economical Grove Equipment Steph-
en Chase, Dunedin.
2:30-Grove Implements and Irrigation
Equipment, E. H. Hurlebaus, Clearwater.
3:00-Some Observations on Grove Irriga-
tion and Rainfall, E. F. DeBusk.
3:30-Citrus Industry Advertising, James
C. Morton, Vice-President, Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association.
4:00-Observations on Marketing Florida
Citrus Fruits in the South, C. A. Cobb, Editor,
THURSDAY, AUGUST 11
(Economics Program-Packing House
D. E. Timmons, Presiding
8:30-Packing House Costs, Dr. H. G. Ham-
ilton, Prof. of Agricultural Economics.
9:00-Symposium on Packing House Man-
agement: R. T. Carleton, Manager, Plymouth
Citrus Growers Association; E. B. Lytle, Man-
ager, Wiersdale Packing Company; G. W.
Bailey, Manager, Haines City Citrus Growers
A. N. Tissot, Presiding
2:00-Aphids, W. L. Thompson, Assistant
Entomologist, Lake Alfred.
2:30-Natural Control of Scale-Insects and
Whiteflies, Dr. E. W. Berger, Entomologist,
State Plant Board.
3:10-Rust Mites and Plant Bugs, J. R. Wat-
son, Entomologist, Exp. Sta.
3:50-Grove Record Work, W. R. Briggs,
Assistant Extension Economist.
FRIDAY MORNING, AUGUST 12
3rd Floor, Experiment Station Building
J. R. Watson and W. B. Tisdale, In Charge
8:30-Laboratory Study of Citrus Insects
Morton Continuing Talks
On Behalf Of Advertising
The second month of the campaign to ac-
quaint growers with the necessity of support-
ing a national advertising campaign for Flor-
ida citrus starts today with two meetings on
the east coast. James C. Morton, vice-presi-
dent of the Clearing House, who has been ad-
dressing various civic organizations through-
out the fruit belt during the past month will
begin the August campaign at Ft. Pierce where
as the guest of the Rotary Club of that city
he is scheduled to deliver a talk on the pro-
posed program. Following the Ft. Pierce meet-
ing Mr. Moiton will address the Miami Cham-
ber of Commerce at night.
Practically every town of importance, from
a citrus production standpoint, will have been
visited by Mr. Morton at the conclusion of the
campaign. In delivering his talks he has em-
phasized the opportunity which Florida citrus
growers enjoy of cashing in on the value of
the state name. Evidence of this point he
makes clear by the use of charts prepared
EXPORTS OF CANNED
1931 32 ..........
Friend-"Which of your works of fiction
do you consider the best?"
Author-"My last income tax return."
from information obtained in a survey of re-
tail grocery advertising (these charts were
reproduced in a recent issue of the Florida
Clearing House News). He also has pointed
out to his hearers an actual instance of where
advertising unquestionably more than paid its
cost. This example is that of the emergency
grapefruit advertising which was done jointly
with the Exchange during the past spring. At
that time a fund of $40,000 was spent by the
Clearing House and the Exchange and the
price for grapefruit was boosted more than
fifty cents per box.
The schedule of meetings which Mr. Mor-
ton will attend during this month follows:
Fort Pierce, Rotary Club, August 1, noon.
Miami, Chamber of Commerce, August 1,
8 p. m., McAllister Hotel.
Orlando, Chamber of Commerce, August 2,
12:15, (broadcast over WDBO).
Leesburg, Rotary Club, August 3, 12:30,
Tarpon Springs, Rotary Club, August 4,
12:15, Presbyterian Church.
Eustis, Rotary Club, August 5, noon.
Lake Wales, Rotary Club, August 9, noon.
Gainesville, (Farmers' Week) Engineering
Building, August 10, 3:30 p. m.
Daytona Beach, Rotary Club, August 15,
Kissimmee, Kiwanis Club, August 16, noon.
Clearwater, Lions Club, August 23, noon.
Tampa, Kiwanis Club, August 24, noon.
Sanford, Rotary Club, August 30, noon.
Winter Haven, Chamber of Commerce, Au-
gust 31, 12:30.
Canned Citrus Production
The table below represents Florida produc-
tion of canned grapefruit and grapefruit and
orange juices during the past three packing
seasons. This information was collected from
individual canners by the Florida district of-
fice of the U. S. Department of Commerce, at
the request of and with the cooperation of the
Florida Grapefruit Canners' Association.
The figures represent the number of cases
of 24 cans, No. 2 size:
Page 4 FLORIDA CLEARINGHOUSE NEWS Ags .13
CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.
E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE .Winter Park
JOHN D. CLARK Waverly
L. P. KIRKLAND .Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON Auburndale
M. 0. OVERSTREET Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
GEORGE F. WESTBROOK. .Clermont
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. 0. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT Manager
The failure of California citrus mar-
keting organizations to make a success
of their plan to prorate valencia ship-
ments is of particular interest to Florida
citrus growers in that the situation on
the Pacific Coast shows only too well the
injury which organization selfishness
can do to an industry. Ever since the
Clearing House was created, more
than four years ago, leaders in the
Florida citrus industry have repeated-
ly urged growers of the state to join
the Clearing House movement and thus
compel their marketing agencies to do
likewise. With one hundred percent of
the fruit in the state, or at least as
much as can be practicably enrolled,
in the Clearing House, improvements
in Florida's citrus marketing efforts
would manifest themselves almost
When one or more marketing or-
ganizations refuse to bury their own
selfish plans in the interest of the in-
dustry's welfare and refuse to go along
with others there can be no other ex-
planation of their attitude than that
they are more interested in their own
well-being than they are in the indus-
try as a whole. Obviously, such an at-
titude is shortsighted and one not cal-
culated to produce maximum benefits
in the long run.
"The Daily Facts," a newspaper
published in Redlands, California,
brings out this same point in editorial
comment concerning the failure of the
Pacific Coast valencia prorating deal.
"Much has been said and much heard
of the proposed plan for prorate of
valencia orange shipments," says this
newspaper. "The plan is an agree-
ment among all the selling agencies to
clear orange shipments through a com-
mon committee, or rather, that the
committee make diligent study of the
marketing situation and allot each
agency a certain ratio of fruit to ship
from week to week. Controlled and
orderly shipments would stabilize the
markets and result in better returns for
fruit, is the theory.
"The demand for such a committee
has come about because of a tremen-
dous surplus of valencia oranges. Slug-
gish sales and glutted markets have
been the principal factors in the de-
mand for controlled output.
"The Valencia Orange Proration
Committee originated with the Farm
Bureau in Orange County and the idea
has been passed along to San Bernar-
dino County citrus interests. Several
shipping organizations joined in the
plan, with the stipulation that ninety
percentof the valencia orange shippers
of California would become parties to
the agreement before it became effec-
"More than sufficient to make it ef-
fective had expressed willingness to
accept the prorate, until two shipping
organizations withdrew, causing the
committee's collapse because of insuf-
"Reasons for the termination of the
proration agreement are variously
stated. There are charges and counter
charges, such as bad faith, jealousy,
attempted domination, insincerity, use
of the movement to advance political
ambitions-all of which may or may
not have foundation in fact.
"Perhaps the greatest weakness was
the fact that it was never a strictly
growers' committee. As set up it was
in reality an organization affair, the
agreement of organizations being nec-
essary for its continuance. When the
plan was wrecked it was an organiza-
tion that withdrew-without its grow-
ers having anything to say about it.
"Prosperity does not foster coopera-
tion. The plan could have been born
only because of surplus or poor mar-
kets. And, it seems very likely that
unless some such plan is carried out
there never will be any certain pros-
perity for the grower. It is highly im-
portant, therefore, that the growers
look into their own affairs and concoct
their own medicine, independent of
their selling agencies. By just such a
determination were the cooperative
marketing organizations born, and it
is highly important that the growers
do not allow their own original organi-
zations get out of hand. The growers'
selling agencies must make proper use
of the growers' money, especially of
that which does not return to the
"They say that growers cannot get
together. That is refuted by the his-
tory of the citrus industry. For nearly
forty years growers' organizations
have handled ninety percent of the citrus of
California. There is promise in the Citrus
Growers' Committee of the Chamber of Com-
merce, or in the reviving of the Citrus League.
Despite its present dilemma the citrus com-
mittee will eventually see its way out of the
"The Facts suggests that the movement
should first come unmistakably from the grow-
ers; that there should be removal of any or-
ganization control, and elimination of any pos-
sible political ambition or influence.
"The Facts believes this can be done, and
urges that it be done, for the wholesome and
healthy continuance of the citrus industry."
Important Advances Made
In Preparing Citrus Juice
The problem of preserving extracted citrus
fruit juices is one step nearer solution as a
consequence of experiments recently conduct-
ed at the Florida Experiment Station by work-
ers of the Florida Station and the United
States Department of Agriculture. The re-
sults of the tests were announced recently by
officials of the two cooperating organizations,
and are of particular interest to those attempt-
ing to find ways to keep prepared citrus fruit
juices frozen or on cold storage.
The tests have shown the cause of the bitter
taste developed in prepared citrus juices on
standing, and point the way to its prevention.
They have shown the causes of changes in color
and a method of preventing settling or rising
of solid particles in the juices.
The bitter taste was found to be due to cer-
tain compounds called glucosides. The gluco-
side naringin is the cause of the characteristic
bitter taste in grapefruit. Other citrus fruits
contain other glucosides. These glucosides are
present in the inner peel, the veins, and the
walls lining the sections of the fruit. When
the juices are extracted in such manner that
the parts containing these glucosides are little
disturbed, the bitter taste does not develop.
The citrus oil in the outer peel does not cause
the bitter taste.
As the fruit matures the quantity of gluco-
sides contained becomes less, and mature fruit
is more desirable for juice extraction. The
amount of glucosides contained varies to a cer-
tain extent with the variety of fruit.
The change which takes place in the color
of the juice has been traced to citrus oil. The
addition of this oil to the juice mixture causes
a change in color from the original to lighter
shades. Since color of the right shade is dis-
tinctly worth while in high grade juice, the
blending of tangerine juice with sweet orange
juice is suggested. Earlier work at the Experi-
ment Station has shown this to be one of the
most satisfactory citrus juices known.
Citrus juice consists of solids suspended in
a liquid. The more completely the solids re-
main in suspension over a long period of time
the better. It has been determined that the
rate of settling of the solids appears to be
definitely affected by the size of the particles,
the smaller particles remaining in suspension
longer. Also it has been determined that the
presence of small amounts of citrus oil causes
the particles to remain in suspension longer.
Sufficient amounts of citrus oil will cause all
the particles to rise.
August 1, 1932
August 1, 1932 FLORIDA CLEARING ( HOUSE NEWS
.State Is Not Cashing In On the Value
Of the Name 'Florida,' Hilty Declares
By GEORGE R. HILTY, Public Relations Counsel, Fla. Power and Light Co.
tat Annual meeting o
S"Florida today looks better than any state
in the union," stated somebody at an advertis-
ing meeting in Montreal. "Florida banks top
the list on bank reports."
I replied, "Florida, hardened with hurricane,
deflation, fly, is ready to do things while the
rest of the country is still thinking about it."
Florida has the best people of any state in
.the country or any country in the western
hemisphere. When the angel was making the
'country he dropped everything worthwhile in
Florida. I don't know another state with the
"climatic and soil conditions of Florida. I don't
.know any state that has greater possibilities
and greater advantages, or that occupies a
.greater strategic position in the western hemis-
phere than Florida. Here we have within a
*radius of 1250 miles, 96,000,000 of the con-
Of that 96,000,000 persons, 10,000,000 are
sick on their feet and don't know what's the
matter with them. I was one of those fellows
'before I came to Florida. I commenced inves-
tigating grapefruit and oranges. Now every
'day I eat grapefruit. If I can't get it fresh, I
get it canned. Every day I try to get oranges.
My idea is that if people eat grapefruit every
-morning, just before dinner, and at night, or
during the middle of the day, when they are
,tired, drink some fresh orange juice or eat a
fresh orange, they are going to be well, going
'to keep well. Nothing is more body-building
You have at your door the best markets.
-New York buys $4,000,000 worth of food
every day of the year. Are you selling these
people the fruit that is produced here? I don't
know whether you know what you are grow-
ing. The hen lays eggs but I can make a bet-
ter omelet than the hen can. I can tell you
what to do with your fruit, although I don't
,grow fruit. I think we don't advocate our fruit
enough. Florida today has magic in it. Some-
how everybody has a kindly feeling toward
Florida. Brands don't mean anything. Florida
means more than brand names. (California
iceberg lettuce, Georgia melons). We in Flor-
ida are not sold on Florida products. You of
.the citrus business are not sold on Florida
cabbage, you are not sold on Florida carrots,
'you are not sold on Florida watermelons, you
are not sold on what the other fellow is pro-
ducing. You should insist that you want Flor-
ida products, then go and sell these people on
Florida oranges. Right here we could sell more
fruit than anywhere else. People of wealth
Spend their winters here and don't know any-
'thing about our fruit. They come down here
for Florida oranges and grapefruit and don't
get them. It seems to me one of the things you
must do is to sell the Florida restaurants, the
Florida doctors, the Florida dentists, the Flor-
ida hospitals, the Florida colleges and institu-
htions on the things produced in Florida.
SI just read where Victor Lamar said, "Men
die young and don't attain old age because of
lack of calcium and phosphorus." Florida or-
janges have more juice, more sugar, more vita-
min D, more calcium, more phosphorous, more
I ~lranrmg -ouusel
mineral products than any other fruit produced
in the United States of America or any foreign
country, yet the world doesn't know it. If you
are trying to sell oranges you are making a
mistake; if you are trying to sell grapefruit
you are making a mistake-you must sell
health. Women buy cosmetics to make them
look young from the outside, oranges and
grapefruit will do it from the inside. You are
selling health, selling reduced figures, selling
everything, when you are selling Florida or-
anges and grapefruit.
Advertisements are usually prepared to
tickle the eye or the vanity of the people. I
am not concerned about that. I like to tickle
the pocketbook, get the money into mine. I
am concerned about profits, because it is profits
to the grower that makes us all happy. I think
Florida oranges and grapefruit ought to de-
mand better prices than any in the United
States because she has better oranges and
Why should not every car leaving Florida
take a crate of oranges and grapefruit along?
There is something wrong if it doesn't. Grape-
fruit should be used for cocktails instead of
There are unlimited possibilities. You must
sell the public at large. This may be a hard
job for the Clearing House, but put it over. I
am not concerned with having a big Clearing
House but concerned about a good Clearing
House that is building-building in everything
it does. The green fruit problem-must be over-
Remember we are doing the people a favor
when we let them eat Florida oranges and
Coca-Cola had more competitors than any
other institution. Yet they, by careful, judi-
cious advertising, made a profit this year over
last year of $504,000-in a harder year and
with more competition.
If I were you I would sell the health proper-
ties of our oranges and grapefruit to every hos-
pital in the United States, to every physician
in the United States, to every college in the
United States. The big cities, New York, Phil-
adelphia, Chicago, are eating fruit but I would
tell them Florida oranges and grapefruit have
the sunshine of Florida in them, the calcium,
the phosphorous, the health minerals, the
iodine, all these properties-that you can't
take the sunshine to them but can send it in
your oranges and grapefruit.
The Florida Power and Light Co. is spending
more money this year in advertising than in
any other year. It is an off year. We realize
as every business man does, that more adver-
tising must be done to get the goods across.
Back up your advertising program; you can't
lose. It is the best investment you can make.
Advertising is what is going to put you on top
of the world. The world is ready for you but
it doesn't know what you have for it. I think
this year things will be better, I believe you
are going to put this across and get better
This interests me because if you are made
prosperous, I am made prosperous. If you make
money and are successful, I make money and
Every business failing to advertise last year
went down and every one that advertised did
more business. Twenty-five concerns in Flor-
ida increased their sales from thirty to fifty
percent in hard times because they advertised.
Fewer Carlots of Fruits
Shipped In Last Year
Total carlot rail and boat shipments of ap-
proximately fifty fruits and vegetables have
fallen off more than 53,000 cars in the last
two years, according to records compiled by
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S.
Department of Agriculture. The peak of car-
lot movement of these commodities was reach-
ed in 1929 when 1,074,069 cars were shipped,
whereas in 1931 shipments filled 1,021,474
cars. Ten years ago the shipments totaled
Some of the reduced rail business in fresh
fruits and vegetables the last two years-the
bureau does not know how much-has gone to
motor trucks. It is known also that motor
trucks are hauling large quantities of low
grade produce which could not be handled by
rail with any return above expenses. The
bureau has been unable as yet to set up ade-
quate statistical measures of the volume of the
motor truck business.
The money you spend on your grove is
an investment made to produce a good
crop. The next important step is to get
that crop into the market in the best
possible condition to realize the most out
of it. Over a period of years the records
carries fruit into the market in splendid
condition and holds it that way in the
hands of the dealer. Here is what Brog-
dex will do for you-
Grade out more No. 1 fruit
Save a large portion of the custom-
ary refrigeration expense
Deliver the fruit in sound condition
Hold it that way in the hands of the
Give it better appearance
Control decay and shrinkage
Meet the market 'demand
Bring you more money
Before contracting this year's crop dis-
cuss these things with a Brogdex packer
or with any of the growers he serves.
There is a Brogdex house near you.
B. C. SKINNER, Press.
Palfe 6 FLORDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS Ags ,13
County Agents Doing Bit
In Helping Agriculture
By A. P. SPENCER
Extension Division, U. of F.
(Broadcast over Station WRUF, Gainesville)
Farming operations have gone through very
definite changes for several years in the past.
The United States government as well as the
states have recognized the pressing needs of
the farmers. Agencies have been established
looking to improved conditions in the rural
areas of America and in this the county agents'
work has been a part of the plan.
The agricultural extension service fostered
by the United States Department of Agricul-
ture and the states has been in operation for
18 years. This piece of legislation giving to
every state an agricultural extension system
carried out by the agricultural colleges was
intended to develop a safe, stable, independent,
forward-looking rural leadership, intended to
be devoted to every phase of country life-
social, economic and financial with definite
uniform conditions for the future and a leader-
ship capable of organizing agriculture in be-
half of its ideals. Through these 18 years the
extension service, county and home agents
have been working with a view to bringing
about better conditions for the man and
woman, boy and girl who live on the farm.
A similar effort and purpose was followed
with additional congressional legislation, pro-
viding for vocational agricultural instruction
in the rural schools that the boys and girls who
farm may get a training in agriculture and
home economics that here-to-fore has been
Through the early days of systematic ex-
tension work, production was the basis of
most programs. During the war and imme-
diately following, a demand for agricultural
extension work was created. Gradually the
various states have made funds available to
employ county and home agents who work
with rural people.
CHALLENGE TO LEADERSHIP
The present agricultural situation challenges
our most capable leadership because agricul-
ture is linked so closely with all lines of busi-
ness. Any condition that reduces incomes in
the city or country, reduces the demand for
agricultural- products. Our present surplus
would readily.be absorbed if the buying power
of the public was on a normal basis. To illus-
trate the under-consumption, a statement
issued by the Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics states as follows: "The consumption
of butter, cheese, canned milk in terms of
milk equivalent during January, February,
March and April of this year was one billion
pounds less than a year ago. The farmers'
income has been reduced from fifteen billion
in 1928 to six billion in 1931. Apparently
efforts to control these surpluses or to raise
the price of the farmer's products have met
with little success even though Congress and
the state legislatures have passed laws hoping
to remedy conditions."
If the citrus growers of Florida cannot pro-
duce citrus fruit for what the market would
pay for it, their crops will be unprofitable and
necessity will compel citrus growers to reduce
production expenses. The Florida Extension
Service, through the county agents, has shaped
the extension citrus program to reduce pro-
duction and marketing costs, without a sacri-
fice of quality or normal yield.
Among the things recommended has been
the growing of cover crops, principally Cro-
talaria, turning this into the soil and a modi-
fication of culture and fertilization practices.
This program of grove fertilization, cultivation
and cover crops is intended to reduce the
average per box costs and help the grower
make his grove profitable.
PUTTING EXPENSES IN LINE
The one-crop system in agriculture as found
in many parts of our state has always been
hazardous, meeting with large profits in favor-
able years, and heavy losses in other years.
During the past twenty years, Florida has
profited by several years of prosperity and it
has been comparatively easy for a farmer to
turn to other things in case his farm did not
pay. During the past 18 months the incomes
of some of our truck farmers have been so
uncertain that farmers have been compelled to
draw on other resources. Many have lost their
farms due to loans and mortgages against
them. There is little remedy for this situation
except where the farmer can bring it about.
The time has arrived when the expenses must
correspond with the incomes.
The marketing of farm products must now
be given the most careful attention. The ex-
tension service of Florida is leading the way
so that farmers may study their own produc-
tion and marketing problems. Programs in
farm management as carried out by county
agents point out the leaks and good practices.
These studies must necessarily continue
through a period of years and conclusions
cannot be arrived at until several questions
have been settled. This side of the work is
new and will take some time to develop but is
intended to meet the demand for more accurate
information on production and marketing
practices affecting the farmers of this state.
The home demonstration agents of Florida
have been able to market a large quantity of
surplus products of the home. The incomes
from some of these minor sources have made
it possible to hold the business of the farm
together. It opens the way for increased earn-
ing capacity for each member of the family,
also makes it possible to provide better living
and home comforts too often denied; So that
whatever phase of agriculture or horticulture
the extension agents' program for 1932 con-
tains, it is directed toward the ultimate pur-
pose of better business arrangement and a
more satisfactory income so that mortgages
will be decreased and good living standards
Never before has such a problem faced the
rural people. During other depressions in-
comes have been often less than at present
but living standards have so increased that a
larger income is necessary and it is probable
that many may not survive on the farm. Others
will so improve their methods and farming
operations that the farmer will get a better
living and with a greater degree of certainty
than at any previous period. In every rural
section, rural leadership is the greatest asset
that a community can have. The extension
service offers programs that will develop rural
leadership so that each community may to a
New Operating Committee
It will not be long now until the men, whose
photos appear on the opposite page (the new
Operating Committee) will be giving their
united attention to the job of moving and mar-
keting the coming season's crop. The mem-
bers of the Operating Committee, most of
whom have given their services on this group
during the past four seasons, are experienced
shippers and the Clearing House is fortunate
in having men of this type to direct marketing
The members of the Operating Committee
serve without pay and at their own expense
and when it is remembered that they meet at
the Clearing House headquarters every week
during the shipping season, the service they
render becomes highly significant. Mr. W. H.
Mouser, Orlando, has been re-elected chair-
man of the Committee to serve during the
The Growers' Voice
Under this heading will be published communications
from grower members of the Clearing House Associa-
tion, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of gen-
eral interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association
cannot assume responsibility for opinions expressed in
these letters, but believes growers should have the op-
portunity of expressing themselves if willing to assume
the responsibility. Communications should be as brief
as possible-preferably not more than 250 words in
length-and MUST be signed with the writer's name and
address (although not necessarily for publication).
ORGANIZATION IS SOLUTION
July 30, 1932.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
Winter Haven, Florida.
How can I be a member of the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association and
still sell fruit through the Exchange? It seems
to me that the Exchange should be a member
of the Growers Clearing House Association.
My grove is located at -- and it means a
long haul if I do not do business with a pack-
ing house at Organization, in my
opinion, is the only successful way of coping
with the citrus business.
Another thing-while it is on my mind.
Why is it we have so much difficulty in getting
Florida fruit, especially oranges, here at Pe-
tersburg, Menard County, Illinois? We are
only twenty-five miles from Springfield, sixty.
miles from Peoria, and one hundred miles
northeast of St. Louis. I have my patients
trained to eat Florida oranges, and in many
instances they will go to Springfield to get
them in preference to any other orange. The
only time we can get them here, in any quan-
tity, is when they are sold in bulk, by the peck,
and people sure do buy them that way. It has
done a lot to advertise the Florida orange if
I am not saying that I am in favor of that
method of marketing the fruit, but with a big
crop it would dispose of a lot of it as both the
chain stores and independents handle it then.
I also appreciate getting the Florida Clear-
ing House News.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) H. P. MOULTON, M.D.
large extent work out its own problems in a
way most satisfactory to them.
August 1, 1932
August 1932 'T.npTnA ( .TA,ERTNG1( HOUSE NEWS
E" iiori i air
Page 8 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
Over Advertising Campaign
The effort now being made by the Clearing
House to enlist grower support for the pro-
posed advertising campaign for Florida citrus
this coming season is being accorded consid-
erable comment from the Florida state press.
Newspaper publishers know, possibly better
than anyone else, that it pays to advertise and
Florida papers have been
quick to give their sup-
Sport to the effort now be-
ing made. These publish-
ers are well aware that
Sif Florida citrus is effec-
., tively advertised so as to
increase consumer de-
mand for it, the higher
returns for the state crop
which will result, will
ida newspapers but the
The Lakeland Ledger
and Star-Telegram, in a
recent issue, went a step
J. C. Smith, Business further and supplement-
Mgr. Lakeland Ledger ed editorial comment on
the value of advertising by reproducing in a
four-column advertisement, full depth of the
paper, some figures that recently were releas-
ed by the Clearing House showing the results
of the $40,000 emergency grapefruit cam-
paign of last spring. Naturally enough, this
advertisement called attention to the value of
the Lakeland paper as an advertising medium,
but at the same time the prominence which it
gave to the data on advertising citrus could
have had no other result than to awaken the
interest and enthusiasm of the Ledger citrus
grower readers in the proposed advertising
campaign. The advertisement is reproduced
in the adjoining column.
Advertising Support Asked 1
(Continued from Page One)
shippers that they favor the advertising pro-
gram and authorize the shippers through whom
they may market their fruit or to whom they
may sell their fruit, to deduct a fixed sum on
each box, the money to be applied specifically
toward the advertising fund to be administered
under this program.
It is up to you and other growers outside the
Florida Citrus Exchange to determine whether
or not you want the industry to advertise Flor-
ida oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines, and
in that event it is necessary that you definitely
commit yourself to the program, thereby en-
abling the shippers who will handle or pur-
chase your fruit to make the necessary finan-
cial commitment so that at least 80 percent of
Florida's 1932-33 citrus crop may be repre-
It is necessary that the growers of the state
go on record at once so that the details of the
advertising can be worked out before shipping
begins. Please, therefore, answer and sign the
enclosed questionnaire at your earliest con-
venience and mail same to the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association, Winter
How One Florida Newspaper Regards Advertising of Our Citrus
The Results Obtained by Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing
Spent for Advertising Shows Increased
Returns to the Grower of More than
$40,000 Spent Advertising Grapefruit and the Result
Total Grapefruit Shipments in the 10 Weeks Preced-
ing the Advertising.............................................---2,550,010 Boxes
Average delivered price at auction......-----...................................$2.05
Total Grapefruit Shipments in the Next 10 Weeks
Following the Advertising.....................................2,481,612 Boxes
Average delivered price at auction----------.......................---........--- $2.67
AVERAGE GAIN IN PRICE............62c
Total gain in 10 weeks' shipments-
2,481,612 Boxes @ 62c............. ..... ......... ..... ........$1,538,599.64
DID IT PAY TO ADVERTISE?
These Figures are Very Interesting and Prove Conclusively the Benefits
Derived from Advertising Expenditure Made on Grapefruit
It had been asserted by some that the increase in price had been largely due to les-
sened volume, but a check of the 10 weeks preceding March 3 when advertising began
and the 10 weeks following that date shows an almost equal volume of fruit for the two
periods, so the increase in price cannot possibly be credited to lessened volume. Others
had asserted that each year shows a natural increase in prices during this period. A
study of last year's records shows that the increase in price for the corresponding two
10-week periods was only 8c per box. Figures of the two previous years were without
value because of the Mediterranean Fly regulations. The total additional returns
shown on the boxes shipped during the 10 weeks following the advertising was money
in growers' pockets, inasmuch as picking, packing, hauling, transportation and sales
charges were the same and, therefore, the additional money went directly to the growers.
This additional amount means a return of $38 for every $1 invested in advertising or,
if you do not wish to give all the credit to advertising, then cut off the half million dollars
and we have $25 return for every $1 spent in advertising; or again cut off the million
dollars and we find $13 return for every $1 spent in advertising; or again cut the half
million in two, leaving a quarter of a million dollars increase and we still have $6.50
return for every $1 invested in the advertising, and that is only taking into considera-
tion a 10 weeks' period instead of considering the whole remaining part of the season.
This is a very convincing argument in favor of adver-
tising and is of tremendous value in the presentation
of the proposed advertising program to the grower
The Ledger and Star-Telegram
For Best Results in Polk County
August 1, 1932