Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00090
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: June 15, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00090
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
. Dept. of Agri.. 2-24
Library-Period. Div.,
S Washington, D.C. FLORI


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit



U. S. Postage
Ic. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
/ ~Permit No. 1


Ofvrfca^&^ bication of the

S$2.00 a Year
10 Cents a Copy

Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla.

JUNE 15, 1932

Entered as second-class matter August 81,
1928, at the postofice at Winter Haven,
Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879.

Clearing House Enters Fifth Season

Dr. E. C. Aurin Is Elected President For The New Year;
Other Officers And Working Committees Also Chosen -

The first half of June has been a busy per-
iod for the Clearing House. Routine tasks,
closing the work of the 1931-32 shipment
season, were dovetailed during these weeks by
re-organization matters and consideration of
plans,and policies for the coming season-the
fifth year of the Clearing House.
The election of a new president and other
' officers which already has been announced by
the press of the state, confirmation of the
members of the Operating Committee on whom
will fall the marketing work for the new year,
and the election of Committee of Fifty offi-
cers, were the principal items of business put
through during the past fortnight. Dr. E. C.
Aurin, of Ft. Ogden, the only member of the
Clearing House Board who was also one of the
incorporators of the organization, was unani-
mously elected president to serve for the com-
ing season. The election was held at the new
Board's first meeting on June 8. The other
officers elected are: vice-president, James C.
Morton, Auburndale, who has served contin-
uously on the Committee of Fifty, two years
as its chairman; Secretary, L. P. Kirkland,
Auburndale, a member of the Board last year;
Treasurer, M. O. Overstreet, Orlando, also a
member of the Board last year.
The new Board includes four new members,
namely, John D. Clark, Waverly, who succeeds
A. M. Tilden as director from District 1;
George F. Westbrook, Clermont, who succeeds
W. J. Howey from District 3; E. W. Vickers,
Sebastian, who succeeds A. R. Trafford from
L District 6; and James C. Morton, who succeeds
0. F. Gardner from the state-at-large. Al-
though the fiscal year of the Clearing House
does not begin until July 1 the organization
year starts June 1, hence the directors went
into office on that date.
Other routine business accomplished by the
SBoard at its first meeting included the ap-
pointment of the Executive Committee, ap-
pointment of representatives from the Board
on the Advertising Committee (this body being
made up of three from.the Board and three
from the Operating Committee), and the ap-
proval and appointment of the members of the
SOperating Committee who were nominated
some time ago by the shipper-members of the
) Clearing House.

The members of the Executive Committee
are: James C. Morton, chairman; R. B. Wool-
folk, John D. Clark, J. H. Letton, and L. P.
Kirkland. The representatives from the Board
on the Advertising Committee are R. B. Wool-
folk, E. W. Vickers, and M. O. Overstreet. The
members of the Operating Committee, as nom-
inated by the shippers and approved by the
directors, are:
John S. Barnes W. H. Mouser
Randall Chase J. J. Parrish
A. E. Fowler William G. Roe
R. D. Keene S. J. Sligh
L. P. Kirkland Ed. Welles
L. Maxcy C. N. Williams
R. B. Woolfolk
At the time this issue of the News went to
press the Operating Committee had not yet

held its first meeting. Organization of this
group probably will be completed when its
members hold their first meeting. The organ-
ization of the Committee of Fifty is detailed
elsewhere in this issue of the News.
One of the most important matters to be
worked out by the Clearing House during the
summer is that of promulgating a national
advertising campaign for Florida citrus. In-
formal meetings with representatives of the
Florida Citrus Exchange have resulted in an
agreement between the Clearing House and
Exchange officials to work toward such a
program. In that grower support for an ad-
vertising program is essential to its success,
it is quite likely that the two organizations will
work together during the summer to encour-
age state-wide support from growers gen-

Entry Of California Oranges Opposed

By Committee Of 5o At Cocoa Meeting

Following its policy of placing "Florida's
citrus industry first," the Committee of Fifty
has begun work upon two important problems
confronting the industry. The problems in
question involve the raising of a fund for ad-
vertising Florida oranges and grapefruit next
season and the rescinding of the State Plant

Notice of

Annual Meeting
June 15, 1932
Notice is hereby given, as re-
quired by Article III, Section 4, of
the By-Laws, that the annual
meeting of the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Associa-
tion will be held at 11 a.m. Tues-
day, July 12, 1932, at the Ritz
Theatre, Winter Haven, Florida.

Board's recent ruling lifting the quarantine
against California oranges. Action on both
these matters was taken at the Committee's
meeting in Cocoa on June 10.
Prior to getting into the work above, re-
organization details were completed for the
coming season. Norman H. Vissering, Babson
Park, was unanimously re-elected chairman of
the Committee of Fifty. Messrs. A. F. Pick-
ard, Lakeland, and H. M. Papworth, Sanford,
were elected first and second vice-chairman
respectively and Fred T. Henderson, Winter
Haven, was re-elected Secretary. The Cocoa
meeting was the first of the new year, practi-
cally every member of the Committee being in
attendance and joining whole-heartedly in the
work of the session.
Discussion of the advertising program re-
vealed the fact that steps already have been
taken by both the Clearing House and the
Florida Citrus Exchange to work out some
practicable plan whereby various competing
factors in the state can work together along
common lines. Unanimous support of the
(Continued from Page Three)

Volume IV
Number 18


Committee of I
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the

Fifty Department
thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

Working Together --- California Oranges --- Knowledge or Guesswork --- Fifty-fifty

"Now, more than ever before in the life of American
agriculture, it is imperative that cooperative principles
be supported. And it is equally important that we under-
stand anew that cooperative groups are formed to serve
the growers, not to impose dictatorial policies.
"This does not mean, of course, that members of a co-
operative should not give careful and thoughtful con-
sideration to recommendations handed down by their
leaders. It does mean that those members should scrutin-
ize with infinite care all such policies and plans and
should determine whether or not such are for the ulti-
mate good of their industry.
"There must be confidence on the part of the members
in a cooperative before the organization can give max-
imum services. That confidence is based on the unselfish-
ness of the leaders who guide the destiny of any particular
cooperative. When growers lose confidence the coopera-
tive is tied. Even though sound plans may thereafter be
offered to the growers, because of lack of confidence the
cooperative finds itself unable to obtain adequate support
for its plans.
"Cooperatives which sponsor antiquated policies and
selfish plans and which use grower's money to foster such
plans and policies do but undermine the confidence of
their grower-members. They are injuring cooperation
and jeopardizing its future.
"Cooperation must go on. Cooperatives may violate the
basic principles of cooperation, they may strive to use the
force of their membership to catch will-o-the-wisps but
we must not be deceived. We must realize that such un-
wise acts are not failings of cooperative principles but the
inability of some leaders to recognize and to abide by the
real, basic planks on which cooperation is builded.
"Do not judge cooperation by cooperatives alone.
"Cooperative principles are sound and will prove of
value in direct proportion to the wisdom and unselfishness
of those who seek to use them."-Citrus Leaves (Cali-

"Some people apparently believe that the average
American citizen cannot join hands with his fellow-man
unless all belong to the same organization. They seem
unable to realize that organized groups can work together
for their common good.
"How often we meet this situation: two organizations
are up against a grave problem. By uniting their efforts
they can solve it. But what happens? One group shakes
its head and refuses to cooperate unless the other group
is willing to abandon its individuality and merge with the
'hold-outer.' The idea seems to be that this one group
considers itself to be the self-appointed guide, counsellor,
and all-wise judge. Everyone else must come to it and
into it on bended knee, shorn of all form and personality.
"We need carry the thought but little distance to real-
ize how dangerous it is. Suppose the states of the United
States followed such a theory: California would refuse to
cooperate with Arizona in protecting agriculture against
the Mediterranean fly unless Arizona shed its state-form
and became a part of California; the state of New York
would not help solve pure food questions unless Iowa be-
came a part of New York.
"And carried to an international analogy: China might
well refuse to assist the United States in handling nar-

cotic problems unless we agreed to submerge our national
identity and become citizens of China."-Citrus Leaves

But-fortunately for the citrus industry of Florida the
growers know and have proved that they can work to-
gether for mutual benefit even though they do not use the
same marketing agency. In the Clearing House the citrus
growers and shippers can find a truly cooperative organ-
ization in which all can unite and work and profit.

In another part of this issue of the News there is a reso-
lution from the Committee of Fifty protesting the lifting
of the ban on California oranges. That the Committee is
logical in its protest is proven by the following paragraph
from the regulations under which fruit may be shipped:
"Care must be exercised in picking to see that
clippers, bags and field boxes are free of pos-
sible brown rot contamination."
The Plant Board and Mr. Newell have served the citrus
industry faithfully and well, but in this instance we be-
lieve that they have leaned so far back in their desire to
be kind to California that they have lost sight of the
danger to Florida.

The article on spraying for maturity that appeared on
this page in the last issue caused considerable comment
in the press and by letter and we wish to answer one
question asked.
"What is the federal tolerance of arsenic in fruits and
The federal tolerance is .0101 per pound. A number of
tests of the disputed fruit of last fall made by the Wood-
Thornton Laboratories, of Tampa, showed an arsenic con-
tent of .00018 to .00032-less arsenic in forty pounds of
the grapefruit than the government says may safely be
in one pound.
One editorial comment in a facetious mood says of the
article: "The voice is the voice of Jacob-but the words
sound uncommonly like the words of Esau." We listen to
Esau's voice as it comes to us from that realm where he
and the supplanter Jacob and the deceived father Isaac
now are: "Citrus growers of Florida, take heed lest ye
sell your birthright of opportunity for a mess of pottage
seasoned with unreasoning prejudice and cooked over
fires of jealous hatred." Let us give the subject open-
minded, sincere, consideration.
This Committee is open-mindedly seeking information.
We want to know-we refuse to guess.

Recently we heard a dear old gentleman express his
opinions on some of the vital citrus questions of the hour.
His remarks were definite, pointed, and logical. In his
short talk he frequently referred to work and accomplish-
ments of the Committee of Fifty and, whether by accident
or intent we know not, he called the Committee the "Fifty-
fifty." "Fifty-fifty" is a comparatively new phrase, part
of the long list of modern slang terms in daily use. Expres-
sive, it falls easily from the lips and makes a perfect slo-
gan with which to tersely state the spirit and purpose of
the Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House "Fifty-fifty;"
sharing equally the burdens and responsibilities of the

Page 2

June 15, 1932

June 15, 1932


industry and sharing equally in the benefits
that do come from united effort.
This coming season every grower will have
opportunity and be asked to become a "Fifty-
fifty," sharing with every other grower the
cost of an investment in an advertising effort
for every box of Florida citrus fruit, sharing
fifty-fifty in the cost because every box of
fruit will benefit fifty-fifty in the increased
Fifty-fifty-every shoulder to the wheel.
Fifty-fifty-joint effort equally shared for
joint profit equally shared.
Fifty-fifty-the slogan, the purpose, the
spirit, the motto, the ethics, the atmosphere of
the Clearing House program.

Entry of California Oranges

Opposed by Committee of 5o
(Continued from Page One)
growers of the state is deemed a pre-requisite
to the success of the plan and a systematic ef-
fort to obtain this support will be made during
the next few weeks, it was indicated.
In protesting the entry of California oranges
into Florida, Committee members pointed out
that the precautions thrown around the hand-
ling of the California fruit at its shipment
point does not appeal sufficient to protect the
citrus industry of Florida against the intro-
duction of brown rot, a destructive disease
prevalent in the Pacific Coast State.
Under the ruling made in the spring by the
Florida State Plant Board, California oranges
may be shipped into Florida from May to Oc-
tober. In that the brown rot rungus flourishes
in California' during the rainy season there
and under moist conditions, it was explained,
the danger of its introduction into Florida is
greatly enhanced because its admission into
Florida is permitted when Florida has its rainy
and moist season.
The resolutions covering the Committee's
attitude on both the national advertising cam-
paign and the admission of California oranges
"WHEREAS, the Committee of Fifty has
continuously advocated extensive advertising
of Florida citrus fruit; and
"WHEREAS, recent comprehensive surveys
in the territory consuming 98% of Florida's
citrus fruit show conclusively that "Florida"
is better known than any other name or brand
used; and
"WHEREAS, shipper members of the Flor-
ida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Associa-
tion have agreed to give unanimous support to
a program of advertising of Florida oranges,
grapefruit, and tangerines under the "Florida"
name, provided grower members of the Clear-
ing House and other growers will give their
support to the program; and
"WHEREAS, the Board of Directors of the
Florida Citrus Exchange have expressed their
approval of a joint advertising program and
have appointed a committee to work with the
Clearing House committee in the development


Chairman Again

of Babson Park, who was re-elected chairman
of the Committee of Fifty to serve during the
coming season.

and promotion of the state-wide co-operative
advertising plan; and
"WHEREAS, we are convinced that the fu-
ture prosperity of Florida citrus growers will
be measured by the success of this joint adver-
tising program, because the increasing com-
petition from California and Texas must be
met by widening "the markets and increasing
buyer preference for Florida citrus fruit,
"BE IT RESOLVED, that we, the Commit-
tee of Fifty, in pledging our support to it, urge
the unanimous endorsement of this great pro-
gressive effort which merits and must have
grower support to make its accomplishment
possible, and earnestly request all Florida
growers and shippers to join with us."

"WHEREAS, the production of citrus fruit
is Florida's basic industry and one of the main
sources of income to the state, and therefore
is entitled to every safeguard that can be
thrown around it; and
"WHEREAS, one of the large items of cost
in the production of citrus fruit is the control
of insect pests and diseases; and
"WHEREAS, there exists in California a
disease of citrus fruit called brown rot which
is very destructive during wet weather and is
a source of considerable loss and expense to
the producers of citrus fruits in California;
"WHEREAS, this disease is not yet known
to exist in. Florida and its introduction would
be a very serious and costly handicap to the
citrus growers of the state; and
"WHEREAS, this disease is a fungus and
flourishes in California during their rainy sea-
son under moist conditions similar to those

Page 3

that almost constantly exist in Florida, and
although the permission months, May to Oc-
tober, are California's dry season and the
period of maximum dormancy of brown rot,
they are the months of Florida's rainy season
and the period of maximum receptivity to
fungus growths; and
"WHEREAS, in the opinion of our Commit-
tee sterilization of the fruit itself is only a
partial protection, because in the transporta-
tion of California oranges all materials used
in picking, packing, and shipping are subject
to possible contact with the spores of citrus
brown rot and are potential carriers of this
disease, NOW, THEREFORE,
"BE IT RESOLVED, that for the protection
of the citrus industry of Florida and to pre-
vent by all possible means the introduction of
a new citrus disease into the state, and in order
that all possible precautions be used to pre-
vent the bringing of brown rot into the citrus
groves of Florida, we, the Committee of Fifty,
earnestly urge the State Plant Board to rescind
its recent ruling that permits the entry of Cal-
ifornia oranges into this state."

A Boarder's Revenge
"Oh, Mr. Jones," cried the landlady, in a
flutter. "I've seen a large rat in the pantry-
what shall I do?"
The boarder looked up from his paper.
"Shut the door," he returned, "and let it
starve to death!"

Results Count

The money you spend on your grove is
an investment made to produce a good
crop. The next important step is to get
that crop into the market in the best
possible condition to realize the most out
of it. Over a period of years the records
show that

carries fruit into the market in splendid
condition and holds it that way in the
hands of the dealer. Here is what Brog-
dex will do for you-
Grade out more No. 1 fruit
Save a large portion of the custom-
ary refrigeration expense
Deliver the fruit in sound condition
*Hold it that way in the hands of the
Give it better appearance
Control decay and shrinkage
Meet the market demand
Bring you more money
Before contracting this year's crop dis-
cuss these things with a Brogdex packer
or with any of the growers he serves.
There is a Brogdex house near you.

Florida Brogdex

Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida.

Page 4 FI




Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
L. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON .. Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON Auburndale
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
E. H. WILLIAMS recent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. O. VERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary

Railroads Help Selves When

They Help Us
One frequently hears this criticism
made: "If the railroads would get
down to the business of transportation
instead of busying themselves in tell-
ing each other and the world that 'we
can't do this and we can't do that be-
cause we are railroad folk,' the rail-
roads would be a lot better off and the
rest of the country likewise."
It is of no concern to the Clearing
House whether or not the railroads
hearken to the above complaint except
wherein inefficiency affects the wel-
fare of Florida's citrus industry.
Not being "railroad folk" and not
appreciating all of the problems con-
fronting railroads, it might be a trifle
presumptuous on our part to tell the
railroads how to run their business.
Where the welfare of an industry such
as our own is concerned we certainly
reserve the right to suggest changes of
policies that would, we believe, benefit
both the carriers and the Florida citrus
grower. These suggestions the Clear-
ing House has consistently offered dur-
ing its past four years of operation and
it will continue to do so as long as the
necessity exists.
Competition with California and
Texas continues to increase. Indi-
cations are that Texas has determined
to try to wrest the eastern grapefruit
markets from Florida. We can't blame
Texas for such an ideal, but we can
blame ourselves if we permit this to
occur. It is not too much to say that a
more equitable freight rate structure
for Florida would be of much assist-
ance to us, not only in widening our
distribution but in competing with
other citrus producing sections-Cal--


ifornia at least having a terrific ad-
vantage in freight rates over Florida.
J. Curtis Robinson, executive vice-
president of the Growers and Shippers
League of Florida, recently advocated
the creation of a blanket rate structure
for Florida's citrus distribution. Mr.
Robinson pointed out the advantage
California enjoys by being able to move
its cars from market to market in the
territory east of Denver without one
cent additional freight cost, while
Florida is compelled to pay an addi-
tional rate when moving from one mar-
ket to another. "California has blanket
rates on citrus," Mr. Robinson said,
"because the same rate of $1.55 per
one hundred pounds applies from all
California origins for citrus to a ll
points in the United States from Den-
ver east. The railroads recently, by
reducing the New York rate by 18%
and applying that rate as maximum to
all points intermediate between Rich-
mond, Va., and New York, are making
their own experiment in the applica-
tion of a temporary blanket rate to a re-
stricted number of destinations. This
does not mean that this blanket rate to
New York and points south as far as
Richmond is the same from all Florida
origins, because there is a lower rate
from Crescent City than from Orlando,
and a lower rate from Orlando than
from Lake Wales, and so on. The
further the origin is located south of
Jacksonville the greater is the charge
to New York.
"It is my opinion that one of the big-
gest problems yet to be solved by Flor-
ida is to work out with our initial
Florida railroads and through them
with their northern connections a basis
of blanket rates to the markets on cit-
rus fruit that will give us a more rea-
sonable rate to all markets and will,
in my judgment, materially increase
our Florida distribution.
"While our rates per 100 lbs. and per
box from the majority of origins to the
destinations to which the majority of
our traffic is distributed are at present
lower than from California, they still
have a big advantage over Florida in
the distribution of their citrus. That
advantage lies in the fact that Cali-
fornia can move its cars from market
to market east of Denver without one
cent of additional freight cost, while
every time Florida moves a car from
one market like Cincinnati to Indian-
apolis or from Indianapolis to Chicago
there is an addition or increase in the
rate to the farther market over the
nearer market.
"It seems to me it would be of tre-
mendous advantage in the marketing
of Florida citrus if we had a blanket
rate applying from Florida to all im-
portant markets. Perhaps the railroads
would not be averse to granting a
blanket rate, if we could agree upon
the proper rate to be applied. We
would of course not be in favor of tak-
ing the New York or Chicago rates and

SJune 15, 1932

applying them back as far as Savannah and
Atlanta. To do so would tend to drive the
citrus traffic entirely to the trucks for short
hauls and to the water lines for distribution
to the northern markets. Neither would we
expect to take the present rates to Atlanta
and Savannah and stretch them out to apply
to Chicago and New York.
"I believe there is a middle ground which,
if adopted, might prove to be of material ad-
vantage to the growers and shippers in the
distribution of Florida citrus and equally im-
portant to rail carriers by retaining to rail
lines much of the traffic which has strayed
far afield and is moving to the markets by
other means of transportation. The rail lines
have the tracks, motive power, and an abund-
ance of equipment. Rather than have it rust
out in uselessness it should be put to work.
If we can get together on rates that are
mutually satisfactory, much if not all of the
traffic now lost to the rail haul should be
returned to them."

The Grower's Voice
New London, Connecticut,
June 9, 1932.
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Since my article in the "News" I have re-
ceived a number of samples of the canned
grapefruit and also preserved juice of both
grapefruit and oranges from Dr. Phillips Com-
pany of Orlando. As I feared, their product
is good, in fact so good I am afraid the house-
wife will not care to go to the extra trouble
of preparing fresh fruit.
If some way can be arranged whereby this
fine product can be partially kept off the mar-
ket during the fresh fruit season we shall all
gain. I confess that I don't see how it can be
The product was so close to fresh fruit that
no one can find any fault with the product and
you of course know that my letter did not find
any thing to criticise in the product of the
factories, only that it will, I am afraid, com-
pete in the same market with fresh fruit to
the detriment of the -latter.
The product was good. Much too good for
my peace of mind, if I relied upon fruit for a
living. Very truly,
(Signed) J. C. Taylor, M. D.


The Temple Orange And Its Culture

Grove Supervisor, Lake Placid Land Company
Paper Given Before Florida State Horticultural Society
at Gainesville.
The Temple orange, as now propagated,
'came from an original tree growing on the
Temple property in Winter Park, and was
named after the late William Chase Temple.
Another version of the origin of this variety
is that the tree or variety is one of the old or-
anges of Jamaica, trees there bearing fruit al-
most identical with those which we grow under
the name of Temple, with the exception of a
weaker color.
With the introduction of the Temple orange
in 1917 through 1922 there were approximate-
ly one and a half million trees budded on rough
'lemon stock. To date there are about one hun-
Sdred and twenty-five thousand trees in grove
form of which only twenty percent are on the
rough lemon stock, the balance of the original
/plantings have been either destroyed or budded
to other varieties.
The major part of my observations and ac-
Ativities with the Temple orange have been with
trees budded on rough lemon stock. Many of
us are acquainted with the success of the Tem-
ple on sour orange root and some growers' suc-
Scess of those budded on Cleopatra Mandarin
stock. On the other hand it is estimated that
sixty-eight percent of the bearing Temple
,trees of the state are on rough lemon stock.
To growers like ourselves, who have 150 acres
of Temples in our planting on such stock,
these have been until recently a liability rather
than an asset. I had a persistent belief that it
is possible to produce as good quality fruit of
this variety on rough lemon as is grown on sour
orange stock. The results of the last two crops
seem to justify this belief. The primary unde-
sirable feature of the Temple on rough stock
is the tendency to dry at the stem end even
Long before maturity. My observation and ex-
perience with this condition has led me to the
belief this is to be handled through the posi-
tive control of the available nitrogen supply
throughout the year.
Let me explain more fully my experience
regarding what I call the positive control of the
available nitrogen supply which will entail
many methods of fertilization and culture con-
trary to most practices. The Temple tree is a
s vigorous grower and will grow the entire year
if sufficient plant food is available. The qual-
Sity and texture of the fruit is moulded in the
late summer and fall months. One trouble
found in using an organic, high in nitrogen,
during the heavy rains and maximum bac-
terial activities of summer are the uncontrol-
able effects of the nitrogen fed to the trees in
the period of quality determination of the fruit.
It has been my observation that the tree
should be given the maximum amount of nitro-
gen in the spring, pruning the tree and fruit as
rapidly as possible in order to produce the
large size preferable in the Temple. There is
no danger in making the fruit coarse with the
heavy application of nitrogen in the spring and,
generally speaking, the size of the fruit is de-
k termined by growth made during the spring
and until the latter part of May. Consequent-


ly, the largest percentage of nitrogen must be
applied in the spring. That is, about eighty-five
percent of the total nitrogen from a nitrate
source for the year should be applied between
the first to tenth of February and the remain-
ing fifteen percent in May from a nitrate and
sulphate source.
At the time of the May application phospho-
ric acid and potash are also applied, giving a
yearly 1-%-1% ratio. Acid phosphate and mu-
riate of potash are used at this time. This is all
the fertilizer the tree is given until the follow-
ing February.
All fertilizer applied to our plantings for the
last three years has been from an inorganic
source with the exception of 1,000 pounds per
acre of muck applied this past summer. It is
going to be necessary to supply some type of
very slowly available organic matter such as
grasses, hay, or any organic matter very low in
nitrogen where sufficient natural grasses or
over-crops cannot be grown.
Weather condition is another factor deter-
mining the quality of the fruit. Our last dry
summer produced a much better quality fruit
as a whole over the state than ever before seen.
In my opinion this condition to a large extent
was responsible for the inability of the tree to
take up nitrogen during the severe drouth of
the late summer and fall. In summarizing the
recommendations for fertilizer application on
an average 12-year-old tree the following pro-
gram can be followed:
Feb. 1-10th: 6 to 8 lbs. of nitrate fertilizer
such as nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash, cal-
cium nitrate.
May 1-10th: either inorganic mixed good or
materials bringing the plant food for the year
up to a 1--1 ratio.
The period of cultivation coincides with the
spring application of fertilizer. A disc harrow
is used to incorporate the fertilizer into the
soil, stimulating root activity and growth as
rapidly as possible as the trees are in a nitrogen
starved condition. After the growth and bloom
have started, further cultivation is not neces-
sary under average weather conditions. The
trees are usually hoed once in the fall of the
year, but this practice has been abandoned in
many cases.
Very little pruning is done in Temples. The
limbs and twigs are so small that within one
year they have fallen off and pruning is con-
sequently considered only a secondary opera-
tion with us.
In conclusion may I state that by following
the above practices we have produced good
crops of quality fruit. This year we shipped
18,070 boxes, of which sixty-four percent were
U. S. No. 1 from our 150 acres of Temples. I
believe that the Temple orange has possibili-
ties in being one of the few varieties to com-
pare or excel in prices paid for fancy fruit. In
a prime stage, I dare say no other fruit can
compare with a Temple in quality, individual
flavor, aroma, texture, and appearance.

A process has been- discovered by which
citrus fruit is now used in the manufacture of
syrup. This syrup is said to be of excellent
quality and delicate taste.

Page 5

Weak Citrus Trees Need

Their Summer Fertilizer
CitruS trees that have lost foliage due to the
drouth or that were not adequately fertilized
during the winter and early spring need a good
summer application of fertilizer, according to
E. F. DeBusk, citriculturist with the Florida
Agricultural Extension Service. He discredit-
ed the idea that weakened trees cannot use
Under scant moisture conditions which pre-
vailed this winter and spring the more quickly
available forms of nitrogen have brought the
trees through in better shape. Particularly
those trees which were fertilized with slowly
available forms need special attention now.
In many groves, he explained, the fruit is
unusually small for this time of the year. Since
nitrogen is the plant food element that gives
size to fruit a liberal supply should be applied
now. The danger of producing coarse fruit by
heavy summer fertilizing is lessened since the
fruit is still small. Of course, Valencias that
are carrying a light crop will likely produce
coarse fruit if the fertilizing is done primarily
to prepare the trees for a big crop next year.
On lemon stock this is especially true, while
there is less danger of over-fertilizing trees on
sour orange and grapefruit stocks. There is
still less danger of over-fertilizing tangerines
and Pineapple oranges on any stock.
When only nitrogen was applied in the
spring attention should be given to making up
the potash and phosphoric acid in the summer
application. In applying the fertilizer he sug-
gested that the cover crop not be destroyed by
cultivating the fertilizer in. "A cover crop of
some kind is needed in every grove. When the
organic matter, so important to the economical
production of quality fruit, cannot be grown
in the field it may be hauled in, but in most
cases it is far more practicable to grow it. The
crop that produces the greatest tonnage at the
lowest cost, whether it be grass, weeds, or some
planted crop like crotalaria is the most econom-
ical in the long run."

Random Notes
E. L. Lord of Gainesville, instructor in pom-
ology in the University of Florida, is organiz-
ing a class in citrus culture in Leesburg.
The course, which will run for 12 weeks,
embraces instruction in general information
on the citrus industry, soils, propagation, va-
rieties and stocks, plantings, cultivation and
cover crops, irrigation and drainage, frost pro-
tection and a control of diseases and insect

One of the most interesting plots of fruit
and vegetable plantings in South Florida is
being prepared on the Edwards property be-
tween Middle River and Wilton Manors on the
West Dixie Highway, near Fort Lauderdale.
The Fort Lauderdale Daily News says the 15-
acre tract is already planted to Summer
oranges of several varieties, Key limes, Haiti
limes, avocado and several types of pears, jas
well as the best varieties of mangoes.


Advertising Is Not A One Man Job

Florida Citrus Growers Have Two Courses --- Lose Our Markets To
California And Texas Or Hold Them And Regain Those We've Lost

Advertising Florida's oranges and grapefruit
so as to induce a better demand from the north-
ern consumer is not a one man job.

Realizing this, various groups and members
of both the Clearing House and the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange are planning to try to obtain uni-
versal support from Florida growers and ship-
pers so that an effective advertising campaign
can be put behind the coming year's marketing
effort. Unless the growers will support such a
campaign there can be no general advertising
of Florida citrus.
Past experience in Florida, however, indicates
that there is a wide-spread appreciation of the
value of advertising. Some advertising has been
done but obviously not enough has been done
and certainly the industry has not reached the
point where it can discontinue what little effort
has been made. There are times possibly when
a manufacturer or producer can, for a short
time, "rest on his oars" but the history of indus-
try indicates that such a resting period is quite
dangerous and in most instances has been fatal.
There are only two courses left to Florida: Re-
frain from advertising and hand over our mar-
kets to California and Texas or-adopt the more
offensive course and tell a willing nation that
we have the best product grown in the citrus
field. There can be no half way measure!
The experience of one of the largest and old-
est manufacturers of food products provides
an apt illustration of the value of advertising. A
few years ago this concern launched an adver-
tising program, the general plan of which was
worked out for a period of years. The sum set
aside for advertising was not particularly large
compared with the huge amounts which were
being spent at that time by producers of other
national products, but the program planned was

made as sound as was possible. Funds available
for advertising at the time the program was
planned appeared to be greater than was neces-
sary to do the job desired. A reserve fund was
created to be used if the concern ran into a
"rainy day" condition.
The "rainy day" came with a vengeance.
Sales dropped off and last year the company, in
order to remedy this situation, found it neces-
sary to draw upon the reserve which it had
created at the start of the program and increase
their advertising expenditures. What was the
result? Sales not only equalled those of 1930
but soared far ahead! As a result of the show-
ing, the company decided only a short time ago
to materially increase its 1932 advertising cam-
paign. Advertising was the only explanation of
the improved sales record.
The experience of this company whose pro-
duct is a household word throughout the United
States would have been much different had not
its officers decided upon an offensive strategy
instead of the easier line of economizing and
"waiting for conditions to change." Florida has
the same opportunity. We can either sit idly by
and permit California and Texas to win our es-
tablished markets away from us, or we can re-
tain our markets and win back some of the mar-
kets that have been lost to us. Advertising
Florida's fruit is not a one man job. It is up to
every grower of Florida oranges, grapefruit, and
tangerines to contribute his share. It is easy to
let George do it; it is hard to do it ourselves.
That is, it would be hard to "chip into the pot"
if it were not for the fact that advertising really
pays. Five cents, or four cents, or three cents,
or ten cents spent in advertising every box of
Florida oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines will
come back to the grower many times over.
But it is not a one man job!

Page 6

June 15, 1932

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