Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00086
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: April 25, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00086
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text


F AgryiL A ORIDA
u. ". Dtpt. Of A ri., i
Library-Per4iod Div .. I L




ashitoCLEARI, D. .
CLEARING .H


te presenting more than 10,000
growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
*Ieadquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA
j/


NEWS


U. S. Postage
It. Fi
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


HOUSE

Official Publication of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION


)$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31. Volume IV
10 Cents a Copy rus Growers Clearing House Association, APRIL 25,1932 1928. at the postofice at Winter Haven,
Sa opy DeWitt Taylor Bldg.. Winter Haven. Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3. 1879. Number 14


Boat Shipments Looming

As an Important Factor
There are trends in Florida today of an
underlying competitive nature that need to be
Recognized. To come right to the point, Flor-
ida has moved the equivalent of over 4000
cars of her citrus fruit by boat to the New
.York market alone, aside from the other mar-
kets that were fed by steamship companies.
Think what this means to the railroads and
think what it means in the adjustment of our
-distribution problem by rail. But let's think
in still bigger terms. What's back of this ten-
dency? The determination to effect every
.economy. Florida is sensing as never before
the necessity of making New York City, in
.particular, and other Atlantic cities her mar-
ket. Florida is close to these markets, very
close compared to California, but due to the
freight structure existing we have never had
anything like the comparatively low freight
,rate that California has had considering her
distance from the Atlantic Coast. California
"has the same freight rate to New York City
as to Denver, Kansas City, Chicago, etc., the
rate being popularly called the "postage
stamp rate." This rate was given California
many years ago when Florida's offerings were
light and California needed an outlet.
RAILROADS SEE COMPETITION
Until this year the railroads failed to recog-
lize the necessity of meeting water competi-
tion. Four thousand cars by water to one
market alone brought them to the realization
that they must recognize water competition
just as Florida must recognize its competition
with California for these important markets.
Most naturally, with this being a new develop-
Jinent, it has caused some confusion in the sup-
plies in New York. Certain weeks have shown
\excessive supplies due to boat shipments. The
prorating committee in New York met these
emergencies and worked closely with the
Clearing House and with other large shippers
not in the Clearing House and held back sup-
plies within reason. Some of our shippers, and
some of our growers have become irritated
and wished that there was no. such thing as. a
boat. Others have even wished that the rail-
roads had not reduced their rate. But the un-
derlying problem is that of Florida competing
with other citrus states for the most import-
ant markets in the United States, and it is
fundamental because of the freight structure
mentioned. Economic competition no longer
will permit ignoring the possibility of deliv-
(Coutinued on Page Six)


Florida Oranges Bring Better Price

Than California Even on Size Basis


The consumer's recognition of quality, which
probably means flavor as well as a greater
juice content, appears to be the reason that
Florida is beating California in the important
markets of the country this season. It has been
stated that the chief reason California navels
are selling for so much less than Florida or-
anges is because the westerners have an over-
supply of large sizes. Study of the size situa-
tion shows that this is not the reason for Flor-
ida's better orange market in that size for size
the Florida product is commanding and receiv-
ing a premium over the California orange of
from 50c per size to as much as $1.10 per size.
To arrive at an accurate comparison, how-
ever, all the sales of California navels in New
York and Philadelphia on April 13 were ex-
amined and compared with the price paid, size


for size, on Florida valencias (as well as Cali-
fornia valencias). The figures below show that
Florida outsold California from every compar-
ison that could be made.
In New York our car averages on Floridas
outsold California 85c a box. The Florida aver-
age is 71c per box more, size for size, than on
California navels, and 82c a box more, size for
size, than on California valencias. In Philadel-
phia it will be noted the general car average
was 70c for Florida valencias over the price
paid for California navels. Size for size the
average difference was 57c in favor of Florida
over California navels and 68c in favor of Flor-
ida over the California valencias. The table
below shows the price paid by sizes for the
Florida valencias and California navels and
valencias in both New York and Philadelphia:


FLORIDA VALENCIAS NEW YORK AUCTION


126s
Florida Vals....... $3.29
Cal. Navels 2.79


Gen.
150s 176s 200s 216s 250s 288s Avg.
$4.04 $4.03 $4.08 $3.95 $4.08 $3.87 $3.85
2.94 3.14 3.42 3.30 3.44 3.34 3.00


Difference........ $ .50 $1.10 $ .89 $ .66 $ .65 $ .64 $ .53 $ .71
Cal. Valencias..- ...- ...... 3.00 3.05 3.10 3.05 2.90
Difference ........ ...... .... 1.03 1.03 .85 1.03 .97 .82
FLORIDA VALENCIAS PHILADELPHIA AUCTION
Gen.
126s 150s 176s 200s 216s 250s 288s Avg.
Florida Vals....... $3.04 $3.38 $3.56 $3.70 $3.93 $3.90 $3.82 $3.70
Cal. Navels ........ 2.70 2.86 3.04 3.29 3.06 3.24 3.16 3.00


Difference--...... $ .34
Cal. Valencias... 2.58
Difference....... .46


$ .52 $ .52 $ .41
2.95 2.95 3.01
.43 .61 .69


One week later, or on April 20, the situation
was practically the same. In New York, size
for size, Florida averaged 69c a box more than
was paid for California navels and $1.15 more
than was paid for her valencias. In Philadel-
phia Floridas sold for 57c a box more than Cal-
ifornia navels and 80c a box more than Cali-
fornia valencias. For all grades and sizes on
this day Florida averaged in New York 86c
more than the California navels brought and
$1.15 more than the California valencias. For
all grades and sizes in Philadelphia Florida
averaged 65c over California navels and 85c
over California valencias. In all auction mar-
kets, during the week ending April 23, Florida
averaged 75c a box more than was paid for Cal-
ifornia navels and $1.05 a box more than was
paid for California valencias.
Incidentally, recent advice from Tulare
County, California, indicates that the new
crop valencias is running terrifically to small


$ .87
3.04
.89


$ .66
3.00
.90


$ .66
3.00
.82


$ .57
.68


sizes. Average sales show that these new val-
encias are running 83 percent 216s and smaller,
and only 12 percent 176s and 200s and 5 per-
cent 150s and larger. The average sizes in
their regular 462-box load run as follows:
No. of No. of
Boxes Sizes Boxes Sizes
7.------- -126s 82........-----........252s
12..-- --.. 150s 108................288s
25 --.--...... 176s 109....-----... 344s
34----...............200s 10................392s
75..............---216s
Of the 462 boxes in the car, the above figures
show that 309 are of sizes 252s and smaller.
It is reported that the valencias from Southern
California are even smaller.

She-"You pride yourself on being able to
judge a woman's character by her clothes.
What would be your verdict on my sister over
there?"
He-"Insufficient evidence."






FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS.


Committee of Fifty Department


April 25, 1932


(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the


thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)


Florida Fills the Glasses


When all the adverse circumstances of the
present marketing season are taken into consid-
eration, growers of Florida oranges have fared
well. Large, well organized, and efficiently con-
ducted manufacturing corporations, in many
instances have been balancing in the red and are
registering figures on the loss side of the ledger
sheets. Florida orange growers have received
cost of production and a definite balance on the
profit side. This pleasing result, attained under
the present international economic stress, is
gratifying and orange growers have cause for
self-congratulation.

Those of you who have been reading the daily
market reports must have noted with pride the
regularity with which Florida oranges outsold
California oranges day after day.

Does someone say, "This proves the folly of
spending money in advertising, because Cali-
fornia has spent large sums in extensive adver-
tising and yet we have had higher prices than
they?" On the contrary, it proves the value of
advertising, because the persistent and convinc-
ing presentations made by California of the
health-giving qualities of orange juice created
the demand that enabled us to sell our orange
crop at a profit. We owe a debt of gratitude to
our California friends whose splendid advertis-
ing kept our orange crop out of the red. It
sometimes would seem that this debt should be
paid in cold cash.

California pictured the tempting, enticing
glasses of orange juice on the pages of our na-
tional magazines,-pictures that intrigued the
palate, intrigued desire, and created demand.
California called out the nation's glasses and
Florida's juicier fruit was used to fill them.

Advertising "Sunkist" failed. Advertising
orange juice succeeded. The public knows lit-


tie and cares less about brands, but it knows and
cares about orange juice, and, given quality fruit,
will always be most insistent about having the
oranges that contain the most of this healthful,
delicious drink.

Florida growers are unconsciously sleeping
over a veritable gold mine. The nation, as never
before, is orange juice conscious and a united
effort in advertising, not brands, but the world's
juiciest oranges (Florida's), will produce amaz-
ing results, if (and this is a big if) we send only
quality fruit that proves the truthfulness of the
advertising.

We need bigger and better cull piles in
Florida!


The shipment of large quantities of fruit by
truck has made it possible to steal fruit from
groves with less chance of detection and capture
and better opportunities for disposing of the loot.

The inadequacy of the present laws makes
it extremely difficult for law enforcement officers
to secure conviction of culprits even in cases
where definite and complete knowledge of crime
exists. Our industry must secure protection from
this increasing menace and with this end in view
the Committee of Fifty at its last meeting in-
structed its Legislative Committee to give the
matter immediate and- thorough consideration.
The chairman of this committee, Mr. Max Wal-
dron, of Babson Park, would welcome letters
from growers, citing instances of fruit stealing
and details of difficulties encountered in having
offenders punished.

These letters will be a great aid to the com-
mittee in its work, giving evidence of the great
need of the law and showing loopholes in the
present laws that must be closed if thieves are
to be punished and the growers protected.


Page 2


4,


Pae





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Independent Operator Is Ever Ready

To Render Greater Service To Grower


The increasing tendency of many citrus
growers to demand-and receive-what might
be called extra service from their marketing
agencies, was described in a radio talk broad-
cast from WDAE, in Tampa, early this month
by Mr. C. M. Bly, sales manager for Gregg
Maxcy, Inc., one of the larger shipper-members
of the Clearing House. Mr. Bly's talk, while
devoted in the main to the service rendered the
grower by the conscientious independent mar-
keting operator, pointed out the necessity for
an industrial control if a satisfactory return
on the Florida grower's investment is obtained.
Mr. Bly told also of some of the efforts the
Clearing House has been making during the
past four years to bring about a closer working
relationship between the various marketing
agencies and growers who have supported it.
For the benefit of Clearing House members
and others who did not hear Mr. Bly's broad-
cast, the News is taking the occasion, herewith,
to reprint part of the talk. Excerpts from the
broadcast follow:
"Since the citrus industry is the biggest and
most important item of interest in all Florida,.
it presents a real problem as to how best to
manage and direct it for the utmost advantage
of the grower of citrus fruit. He is the man
who is really, sure-enough interested. He is
the man who thinks and works, day and night,
to produce a marketable crop of fruit.
CLOSE WORKING RELATIONS
"The independent shippers and marketing
agencies of Florida, who handle citrus, work
very closely indeed with the individual grower
personally, and the grower through many years
has come to feel and know that the conscienti-
ous independent operator is inclined to trade
with him fair and square. If the grower pre-
fers to sell his fruit outright, or if, on the ad-
vice of the independent operator, the grower
decides to take the market as it comes for his
fruit, he knows he can go into the office of the
independent operator any day and be shown
just what the market is doing all over the
country. He knows he will receive the best ad-
vice possible for the independent operator to
give him, just the same as though the operator
owned the fruit himself. This is because the
independent operator works to a great extent
with the same growers, year in and year out,
almost as one of the family, and in the expec-
tation of so doing through the future years he
gives him 'the best there is in the shop' in the
way of advice.
"Should an outside buyer come along and
offer the grower a price which is considered to
be above the real value of the fruit, the con-
scientious independent operator will advise the
grower to sell, rather than tell him he thinks
he can get for him that much, or more, by ship-
ping his fruit.
"With this fundamental working relation-
ship between the independent operator and
the grower, the industry has prospered and
the independent growers have gotten whatever
real money was obtainable for their fruit,
whether the market afforded much or little.
"Another item for which the independent
Operator must be given credit is the holding


down of all overhead, including the most im-
portant item of executives' salaries, to a point
where the expense of handling the .grower's
fruit is minimized, thus enabling him to secure
a better return for his fruit. At the same time
the independent operators have not curtailed
their service to the grower. Right here let me
mention one service performed by the progres-
sive independent operator which is of pre-emi-
nent importance from the standpoint of the
grower. This service is consultation and ad-
vice, first hand, regarding the grower's grove
problems in the matter of cultivation, spraying,
fertilizing, inspecting, etc. This feature is of
particular importance and value to the non-
resident grower, and costs him not one penny,
though it adds materially to the value of that
grower's fruit from a quality standpoint, mak-
ing it worth more money.
"A statement recently made by Jim Morton,
member of the Committee of Fifty, about keep-
ing the cull pile in Florida is a lot bigger than
it sounds. I wonder how many growers have
really given good, hard consideration to the
question of how much damage they are doing
themselves and their neighbor when they per-
mit their culls to be sold to trucks from either
the grove or the packing house where their
fruit is packed. This applies equally to every
operator in the State, whether independent
or cooperative. We must admit that thousands
of dollars which are being paid by consumers
for third grade and cull fruit (and especially
the culls) are being taken away from the prices
received for our first and second grades. Put
back into the groves as fertilizer our third
grade and our culls, as we used to do when we
didn't have so much fruit, and we will get as
much for the ones and twos we have left as
we could possibly get for the whole crop when
the third grade and culls are sold-and perhaps
more. As it is, every third grade or cull fruit
sold, whether in cans or fresh, is a direct com-
petitor to one of our first or second grade
fruits. Let's wake up!
"As to crop control, that has been a very
pretty rainbow chase. I must agree with the
opinion of Mr. Morton that control of the Flor-
ida citrus crop will never be cooperative; that
is, not in this generation. Surely, if cooperative
marketing were the panacea for our citrus
problems, twenty-one years and more is ample
time to have demonstrated the superiority of
that plan.
NO COMPULSORY CONTROL
"There has been some talk of compulsory co-
operation. If that were possible it might turn
the trick so that cooperative marketing would
control Florida citrus. But in my humble judg-


ment the American people, and especially the
farmers and growers who have been free lances
most of their lives, are not going to be 'corn-
pulsed' into any such program.
"At present there are three distinct groups
-the Clearing House group, the Exchange
group, and the group of independents outside
of either. And there is control nowhere. It
seems differences cannot be sufficiently har-
monized to permit mutual confidence to a suf-
ficient degree to formulate a workable plan by
all three groups. Unbelievable, but true. If it
could be accomplished, there would be control
and stabilization. The millennium in Florida
citrus would almost have arrived. It must be
accomplished. The various groups must make
a real, earnest endeavor and get together, lay
aside their small and medium sized differences,
keep their eyes on the beacon of the grower's
advancement, hew to the line and forget the
chips. It can be done.
"The Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House
Association was organized some three years
ago for the purpose of coordinating the efforts
of a sufficient percentage of the state's volume
of citrus fruit to insure a stable situation
throughout the season. It was composed of a
good portion of the independent operators and
growers, as well as the cooperative organiza-
tion of the state and its growers. Unfortunate-
ly, the cooperative organization as such later
withdrew, but many of the cooperative growers
and independent operators and growers, know-
ing the Clearing House to be of the greatest
value in the coordination of efforts in the citrus
industry, have stuck with it and continued to
support it; and today it is doing a wonderful
work for the stabilization of the industry. In
fact, it has increased its strength and influence
by the recent addition of many of the inde-
pendent operators who were not members for-
merly.
PROGRESS OF FOUR YEARS
"Up to date this season, the Clearing House
records show that its members have shipped
approximately 40 percent of the total citrus
shipments from Florida, exclusive of truck
shipments, showing that the growers are well
on their way toward controlling and stabilizing
their business. This has been accomplished in
approximately four years, whereas the cooper-
ative plan has not corraled as great a percent-
age of the state's tonnage in its 21 years of
operation.
"Yes, the grower is the final tribunal which
has in the past and will in the future determine
whether his fruit shall be marketed coopera-
tively or independently. The plan which proves
most satisfactory when measured by the
grower's gauge is the one which will prevail,
all discussion and arguments to the contrary
notwithstanding. 'By their deeds ye shall know
them.'
(Continued on Page Six)


IRRIGATION
Large stocks Pumps, Pipe, Fittings and other materials
for Water Supply
66 Years of Service
THE CAMERON & BARKLEY CO.
TAMPA, FLORIDA


April 25, 1932


Page 3






FLRIA LARNGHUS NW


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE

NEWS

CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
licity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation
services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.
DIRECTORS
E. C. AURIN . I. . ... .Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE . . . .. .Winter Park
O. F. GARDNER ....... Lake Placid
L. P. KIRKLAND ....... Auburndale
J. H. LETTON . . ........ .Valrico
E. C. McLEAN . . . . .. Palmetto
M. O. OVERSTREET . . . .. .Orlando
S. J. SLIGH . . . . .... Orlando
A. M. TILDEN . . ... Winter Haven
A. R. TRAFFORD. . . . ... Cocoa
E. H. WILLIAMS . . .. Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK . . ... Orlando

While We're Making

Resolutions
It is to be hoped that Florida is
through with the current practise of
thumbing noses at crop contracts, sup-
porting the fly-by-night fruit buyer,
and selling culls or third grade fruit
to truckers. These three evils, if laid
end to end-and they should be laid
in that manner-probably have done
more to lower prices paid for our
oranges and grapefruit this year than
all the depressions could have done in
a month of Sundays.
Blossom time among the citrus trees
usually marks the period with most of
us when we resolve that NEXT YEAR
we aren't going to "give away our
fruit; not by a darn sight!" That's fine,
if we all stick to it and, what is more
important, if we understand thorough-
ly what we mean by that declaration.
If we mean that we are going to jump
our crop agreement or contract again
next year; if we are going to sell to
some bird who hasn't a dime invested
in the state; or if we are going to sell
our drops or culls to the truckers, then
we'd better pull up for a minute or two
and rewrite our resolution.
Any one of these three evils just
mentioned can do us all, each one of
us, out of more cash than "forty-
'leven" states of California or Texas.
True it is that occasionally we may get
a better price from these fly-by-night
fruiters than from our old stand-by
operator or agency. However, we
don't paint our house with whitewash
instead of the more lasting paint. Why
then, should we flutter and flop
around in midstream from one agency
to another? Common sense should
tell us that consistent patronage will


enable our chosen agency to operate
more efficiently each succeeding year
and in the long run pay us more for
our fruit than our see-saw contract-:
jumping methods ever will produce.
Think it over!
Selling our fruit to the buyer who
doesn't care two toots whether we
have a grove three years hence is short-
sightedness closely akin to violating
contracts with established agencies.
Supporting the buyer whose sole in-
vestment in Florida is the price of a
night's lodging at the local hotel, may
get us more money occasionally for
our fruit (although this may be
doubted very, very often) but in the
long run it can have no other effect
than to hamper the operations of es-
tablished agencies and make it that
much harder for the latter to obtain
top returns for us when we again de-
cide to lean on them. Think that over,
too!
Catering to the truckers is a phase
of marketing that promises to give us
all plenty to think about even under
the most favorable conditions. To per-
mit these fellows, and many of them
are non-residents- of Florida, to take
our drops and cull fruit into the mar-
kets there to put it into competition
with our good grades of fruit is so sui-
cidal that it is almost beyond under-
standing! Much has been said and
printed on this subject but apparently
much yet remains to be said. And this
last can stand a lot of "thinking over."
It's a long time until our bloom ma-
tures into marketable fruit. At present,
opinions are divided as to the size of
the crop although it is generally
thought that the crop will be smaller
than the present one. If this proves to
be the fact, then prospects for a satis-
factory return are fairly bright, but it
behooves us the more to consider well
the marketing of our fruit. Stick with
your established agency, honor the
contract you sign and leave your drops
and cull fruit in the grove or cull pile.


Letting Texas Monopolize

Early Markets
In spite of the old saying, figures
sometimes do lie, but figures indicat-
ing relative volume of Florida and
Texas grapefruit in the markets dur-
ing the early part of the seasons show
that Florida is rapidly approaching a
real competitive battle with Texas.
Data compiled from governmental
records of grapefruit shipments from
both Florida and Texas during the
early months of each season, or up to
Dec. 1st, indicate quite clearly that
Florida is far behind Texas in moving
her proportion during this period.
During the past eight years figures
show that Florida has shipped, on an
average, 23% of her total carlot ship-
ments prior to Dec. 1st. Texas, on the


:other hand, during the past three years has
moved on an average about 34 per cent of
her total crop prior to Dec. 1st. The propor-
tion'moved by Porto Rico, Cuba, and the Isle
of Pines during this same period is even'
greater.
Whether or not it is worth while for Flor-
ida to go after the earlier market which Texas
appears to be on the verge of monopolizing
also can be answered by glancing at a few
figures. Looking at the auction averages fork
the past seven seasons there appears only one
year, that of 1927-28, when Florida averaged<'
at auction, up to the first week in December,
less than the average for the season. In other'
words, as a rule Florida's best grapefruit mar-
ket is during the first part of the season, the
average being from a few cents to as high as,
sixty cents a box in favor of the earlier ship-
ment period.
Florida's new juice content law for grape-
fruit should do much to help us compete with
our Texas rivals and regain for us a better
acceptance attitude from the trade. Boiling
down the question to its essentials, it is evi-c
dent that Florida is not holding its own with
Texas, Porto Rico and the Isle of Pines in*
the matter of moving her proportion of grape-
fruit during the high price period. Climate may
explain this in part. Also it has been argued
that Florida's more stringent state laws are
responsible for our failure to move as heavily,.
proportionately during the early part of the
season as our competitors. A,
Florida has approximately 80,000 acres of
grapefruit, most of which are in bearing.
Texas has something over 60,000 acres of
which only 20 per cent are in bearing. With
every indication that Texas will increase her-
volume by leaps and bounds, Florida is con-
fronted with the immediate question as to
what is the sensible move to make. Texas was
unusually late in maturing this past season,
but a year ago the Lone Star growers moved,
41 per cent of their entire crop prior to Dec.
1st whereas Florida moved only 19 per cent
of her grapefruit crop during the same period.
This situation truly merits some very sober
thinking on Florida's part.


Amos 'n' Andy Advertise

Grapefruit As A Reducer
Amos 'n' Andy have the right idea all right.
If you haven't heard them recently, they havl
cooked up a scheme to increase the sale of
grapefruit. They induce their friends to takd
a reducing treatment in Madam Queen's "hot
box," eat nothing but grapefruit and drink
nothing but water.
We don't know whether or not the idea
will prove financially successful for the twb
boys, but we have a sneaking suspicion that
not a few radio Isiteners have bought some
grapefruit on the strength of the free adver-
tising. Many thanks, boys!

Cheering Her Up
Young Wife: "Oh, I'm so miserable. My
husband has been out all the evening and I
haven't the faintest idea where he is." '
Experienced Friends: "My dear, you must
not worry. You'd probably be twice as miser-
able if you did know."


Page 4


April 25, 1932






April 25, 1932 FLO

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending April 23, 1932)

WEEKLY
CARLOT INDEX ANALYSIS
Week Week Week
Ending Ending Ending
Apr. 23,'32 Apr. 16,'32 Apr.23,'31
Fla. Org's Shpd..... 594 551 862
Total .........-----17582 16988 24816
Fla. Gft. Shpd....... 556 713 983
Total---....--....--15842 15286 20633
Fla. Tang. Shpd... -
Total.................... - 2752 2752 3087
Fla. Mixed Shpd... 144 162 240
Total ------- 8316 8172 8303
Texas Gft. Shpd.... -
Total................... --- 5333 5333 2235
Cal. Org's Shpd..... 1217 1660 1149
Fla. Org's Auc....... 343 391 428
Average.----- $3.80 $3.80 $3.75
Fla. Gft. Auc......... 247 343 367
Average-----............... $2.90 $2.60 $2.55
Texas Gft. Auc..... 3 5 -
Average----..... ... $3.05 $2.85 $ --..
Cal. Org's Auc.....-.. 534 595 494
Average...-----.. $3.05 $3.00 $3.19

FIRST FIVE DAYS' SHIPMENTS
AND SALES
VALENCIAS No. 1 VALENCIAS No. 2
Week End. Shpd. Sld. Avg. Shpd. Sld. Avg.
Apr 16.... 102 32 $3.16 96 30 $2.86
Apr. 23.... 113 25 $3.22 74 24 $2.88
Dif..... +11 -7 +.06 -22 -6 +.02
Mid-S.GFT.No.1 Mid-S. GFT.No.2
Week End. Shpd. Sld. Avg. Shpd. Sid. Avg.
Apr. 16.... 70 29 $2.26 77 27 $1.92
Apr. 23.... 61 26 $2.32 72 39 $2.07
Dif.........-9 -3 +.06 -5 +12 +.15
EARLY GFT. No. EARLY GFT. No. 2
Week End. Shpd. Sid. Avg. Shpd. Sid. Avg.
Apr. 16.... 20 7 $2.00 32 9 $1.69
Apr. 23.... 7. 5 $2.06 15 7 $1.76
Dif.......-13 -2 +.06 -17 -2 +.07

COMPARATIVE SHIPMENTS
Florida Oranges
Week Last 1929- 1928- 1927- 1926-
Ending Year 30 29 28 27
Apr. 16........ 742 44 684 230 455
Apr. 23........ 862 10 1247 221 322
Apr. 30........1147 7 1046 150 272
California Oranges
Week Last
Ending Year 1930 1929 1928 1927
Apr. 16 .......1378 1525 1683 1409 1950
Apr. 23........1149 1422- 1701 1176 1883
Apr. 30........1263 1175 1958 902 1816
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1929- 1928- 1927- 1926-
Ending Year 30 29 28 27
Apr. 16........ 725 110 734 415 518
Apr. 23...... 983 23 796 379 492
Apr. 30..... 893 24 717 404 455
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1929- 1928- 1927- 1926-
Ending Year 30 29 28 27
Apr. 16 ..... 226 82 204 105 153
Apr. 23........ 240 28 302 81 90
Apr. 30........ 257 8 257 67 101

NEW YORK STRIKE
About 66,000 boxes of Florida citrus fruit
have been involved in the longshoremen strike
in New York. Mr. C. R. Marshall, represent-
ing the Growers and Shippers' League, has
been in New York also in Washington doing
everything possible. The New York receivers
have been meeting daily to work things out
and today it looks as if most of this fruit
would find its way from the dock to cold stor-
age, with it still being somewhat uncertain as
to whether labor conditions would permit re-


RIDA CLEARING ( HOUSE NEWS

delivering this fruit in the customary way for
auction purposes. The discontinuance of boat
supplies moving to the Eastern markets to-
gether with the heavy movement that has
been taking place the last few days, particu-
larly of grapefruit to the West, indicates the
possibility of the Eastern auctions picking up
on grapefruit to a similar level to the West-
ern auctions.
Whether the steamship companies will be
liable for damage claims because of their hav-
ing failed to take into confidence their ship-
pers as to the proposed 10 percent decrease
in wages remains to be determined, as it
seems that the steamship companies claim
that union labor itself is the issue rather
than the 10 percent reduction. The Depart-
ments of Labor, Justice, Agriculture, and
Farm Board have all been approached, but,
on account of Senator Norris' bill that puts
a stop to injunctions on labor except under
extreme circumstances affecting the common
welfare of society, no authoritative step seems
to have been determined upon. The situation
at this time is still a bad mess and the New
York receivers will, we hope, meet the emer-
gency in the best manner possible as they
have all agreed to work together in whatever
way they can.
SHIPPERS' ESTIMATES OF WHAT'S LEFT
As another approach, we asked our shippers
to wire their estimates of what they individ-
ually had left to move commencing Monday,
April 25. This estimate is of necessity quite a
guess because a good number of those report-
ing included fruit that they still expect to buy.
Our shippers' estimates indicate they will ship
from April 25 on, 1108 cars of oranges and 970
cars of grapefruit. Assuming that those figures
represent 40 percent of the crop, it would mean
2770 of oranges remaining as compared with
2686 arrived at from the other approach. This
seems to check up pretty well. On grapefruit,
however, the shippers' estimate would indicate
2425 cars of grapefruit remaining, compared
with 1450 cars as estimated from our previous
approach.
Talking over this latter figure with several
of our larger shippers, we are inclined to think
that the Clearing House has at least 50 percent
of the remaining grapefruit, which would in-
dicate 1940 cars for the state. One of our ship-
pers, who has in the last few days covered
quite carefully the grapefruit situation, is con-
vinced there are not over 1500 cars of grape-
fruit in the state. At any rate, we know there is
not more than half as much grapefruit left in
the state as there was a year ago and possibly
only one-third as much. If I had to make a
guess I would say that the sensible figure to
work from would be an estimate of 2000 cars
from now on, with the probability of it being
less rather than more.
THE MARKET TREND
The valencia market has been steady at
about the same level of prices as a week ago,
the auction index being the same, namely,
$3.80 delivered as compared with $3.75 a year
ago. Grapefruit has shown an advance of 30c
from $2.60 delivered last week to $2.90 deliver-
ed at auction this week, compared to $2.55 de-
livered a year ago. The f.o.b. market has gen-
erally hung around $3.10 to $3.25 on No. 1
valencias and $2.25 to as high as $2.50 on No.
1 Marsh Seedless. F.O.B. sales on both oranges
and grapefruit still continue about 25c higher


Page 5

on an average than the equivalent on auction
returns.
AUCTIONS TRANSPOSED TO F.O.B.
Below we are giving the average auction re-
turns for the week after having deducted only
the present rail transportation rate, exclusive
of icing. To approximate the f.o.b. returns on
No. Is we have added 15c. As quite a number
of cars are now moving under initial icing or
full icing it is obvious we are giving the auction
returns the benefit of the doubt. The venti-
lated transportation rate to all auctions this
week on oranges is figured at 82c and grape-
fruit at 86c, the latter figure being higher on
account of the larger proportion of grapefruit
that moved into the western auctions where
transportation was higher. Viewed from this
angle, the auction averages would indicate
$2.98 f.o.b. on all grades and sizes on oranges





*I



Helps the Dealer


From the standpoint of increas-
ed profits, the dealer finds Brog-
dexed fruit very satisfactory. The
fact that they keep well enables
him to handle on a smaller mar-
gin of profit and still make more.
He does not find it necessary to fix
his selling price sufficiently high
to provide a sort of "sinking fund"
to take care of the usual shrinkage
losses.
An Indian River packer says he
uses Brogdex because it makes his
fruit stand up in the hands of the
dealer. He considers the dealer
the most important factor in the
present method of distribution.
Get the dealer sold on your brands
and your troubles are over.
Brogdex brands are keeping
brands. They have snap and life
and stay sound and fresh looking
long enough for the dealer to sell
out a display stock with little if
any replacements necessary.
Give the market this kind of
fruit and it will not be long before
you will be doing a bigger, better
and more profitable citrus busi-
ness.


Florida Brogdex

Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida.





Page 6 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


and $2.04 on all grades and sizes on grapefruit.
It should be remembered that New York con-
tains a very heavy proportion of Indian River
fruit which pulled up the average in both
cases. The Western auctions show readily the
increased demand that has come throughout
the West.
Although California is now icing a consid-


erable proportion of her crop, we deducted
from California's auction averages only the
cost of transportation under ventilation, indi-
cating an average net f.o.b. return on her or-
anges of $1.84 compared to Florida's $2.98, or
figured from an f.o.b. basis her auctions have
brought $1.14 a box less than Florida oranges
returned.


FLORIDA ORANGES
N.Y. Phil. Bost. Pitt. Clev. Chgo. St. L.
$3.07 $2.75 $2.82 $2.65 $2.93 $2.85 $2.95
No. Is 3.22 2.90 2.97 2.80 3.08 3.00 3.10
CALIFORNIA ORANGES
$1.81 $1.74 $1.86 $1.70 $1.88. $1.82 $1.62
FLORIDA GAPEFUIT
$2.15 $1.73 $1.88 $1.74 $2.10 $2.25- $2.14
No. Is 2.30 1.88 2.03 1.89 2.25 2.40 2.29


NEXT WEEK'S SHIPMENTS
Our members have estimated for next week
(ending April 30) 260 oranges and 250 grape-
fruit. We are estimating as a state movement
550 straight cars of oranges, 500 straight cars
of grapefruit and 150 mixed. We are estimat-
ing shipments for week ending April 23 at 600
cars compared to 551 straight cars of oranges
last week, 550 straight cars of grapefruit com-
pared to 713 last week and 150 mixed com-
pared to 162 last week.
California estimates that the state will ship
1600 cars, including 450 valencias, for the
week ending April 30.
WHAT'S REMAINING IN FLORIDA
Including proper proportion of mixed, Flor-
ida will have shipped through April 23, 21,914
cars of oranges and 18,050 cars of grapefruit.
Based on our previous estimates, this would
indicate 2686 cars of oranges remaining in the
state and 1450 cars of grapefruit, compared to
5554 cars of oranges a year ago and 4660 cars
of grapefruit. We have less than half as many
oranges and about one-third as many grape-
fruit to move from this time on.
CANTALOUPE COMPETITION
In a previous bulletin we gave you the early
cantaloupe shipments by weeks from Imperial
Valley, showing that it was the middle of May
before shipments amounted to much. The early
movement comes from the covered acreage and
the covered acreage is less than 20,000 acres
compared to 26,000 last season. An official
wire from Pheonix, Arizona, estimates the
first car moving by express May 1, compared
with the first car that moved by express April
18 last season. Generally speaking, the canta-
loupe movement can be figured as about two
weeks later than last year.
STRAWBERRY COMPETITION
Those in touch with the strawberry situation
are inclined to think the strawberry movement,
commencing next week, will be about the same
as a year ago.
PEACH COMPETITION
The United States Department of Agricul-
ture reports indicate the smallest volume of
peaches in the Southern States since 1924,
their April report for the ten Southern States
being 33.4 percent of normal compared with
the last five year average of 71.8 percent.
CALIFORNIA VALENCIAS
Due to the elimination by water separators
of frost damaged valencias and also to small
sizes, Central California valencias originally


Cinc. Det.
$2.84 $3.07
Q9 2 9.


Gen.
Avg.
$2.98


$1.60 $1.80 $1.84

$1.85 $2.20 $2.04
2.00 2.35


estimated at 4000 cars are now estimated as
less than 3000 cars which will be shipped. You
will notice Central California valencias have
been lighter this week than last instead of nor-
mally being heavier, indicating the difficulty
she is running into in salvaging her crop, and
the caution that is being exercised, with these
valencias selling at such low prices in the East.
By the first of May Southern California will
be more generally starting on her valencias,
and it is estimated only a small amount of
navels will be left for shipment the first week
in May. With California valencias running to
such small sizes, variously estimated from 75
percent to 90 percent 216s and smaller, this
will mean of necessity a relative drop of price
level on extremely small sizes, as California
valencias are reported as running quite heavily
288s to 292s. There is considerable doubt as
to what proportion of the extremely small sizes
will be shipped. One large operator in Califor-
nia estimates that for the first week in May
two-thirds of the shipments will be valencias
and thereafter solid shipments will be moved.
Southern California has more valencias to
move than a year ago, providing the market
will permit moving most of their small sizes.


Boat Shipments
(Continued from Page One)
ering citrus fruits from Tampa to New York
for 45c a box and from Jacksonville to New
York for 36c a box.
NEED FOR CLEARING HOUSE
Those most distant from Tampa or Jack-
sonville and therefore at the greatest disad-
vantage in reaping the benefit of this competi-
tive rate are naturally the most disturbed by
the trend of economic competition which is
developing. But, if as a whole Florida finally
adjusts itself to its general inter-state com-
petitive problem, the trend cannot be without
benefit. Highly disturbing because of its new-
ness, it requires from the start the necessity
of doing those things together from a stand-
point of distribution that will be wise as a
whole and in the end beneficial to every indi-
vidual. This, the same as every problem vital
to the Florida citrus industry, again calls for
the need of a Clearing House for Florida's cit-
rus industry. We can fuss and fume about
such disturbing things and include with them
a disturbance that has come from bulk ship-
ments and from truck shipments. It is all in a
flux and it all demands teamwork in making
available to all, the vital facts and interpret-


ing to all the wise steps that should be fol-
lowed in adjusting ourselves to these new
conditions.
2,684 CARS BY BOAT
New York has sold 4060 cars of grapefruit '
at public auction. The equivalent of 2684 cars
of this grapefruit arrived in New York by
boat. Nearly 17 percent of the entire grape-
fruit shipped from the state to all markets
arrived in New York by boat. This is a tre-
mendous change and is a force to be reckoned
with.
The necessity of meeting with due fore- a
sight the shift in distribution required from
those not economically as able to use boat
facilities, the necessity of recognizing the
powerful factor of organized buyers existing
in chain store groups, the effects of bulk ship-
ments, of truck shipments, all these thing call
for a scientific approach for getting the actual ,
facts, viewing the inevitable tendency and
then doing those things together that will ,
push forward and make stronger the Florida
citrus industry. We are not in times where
we can guess or jump to false conclusions.
Our distribution problem from a destination t
standpoint as well as a time standpoint must
be faced. If the facts are fully ascertained
and not guessed at, there is that intelligence .
in Florida, that vast amount of good horse
sense that would, from simply a standpoint
of self-protection, adjust itself to the facts
when accurately determined. But today we :
do not have all the known facts because we
are not working together. Through the Clear-
ing House the facts would be gathered and
made known and common sense would direct.
No Czar would be necessary even though in
the minds of some it might seem ideal.


Oil Paper Around Fruit

Reduces Storage Losses
Experiments conducted in Switzerland show
that the loss by evaporation of fruit in storage
is consequentially reduced when the fruit is
wrapped in oil paper or in shredded oil paper,
according to a report received from Trade
Commissioner G. E. Luebben, at Berlin.
Fruit, when not wrapped in such paper, loses
from 10 to 25 percent of its water content in
ordinary storage. This loss is reduced to 8 per-
cent when the fruit is wrapped in paraffin, and
to 6 percent when oil paper is used, experi-
menters state.


Independent Is Ever Ready
(Continued from Page Three)
"In the opinions of many competent judges,
the Clearing House organization is on the right
track to protect the life of the citrus industry
in Florida. The shipper and grower members
cooperate thoroughly for the benefit and to the
advantage of their industry. They are long-
headed and far-sighted, and sooner or later will
be the nucleus around which the solution of the
Florida citrus problem will shape itself."

A colored employee of an express company
approached his superior with the query: "Boss,
what we gwine do 'bout dat billy goat? He's
'done et up where he gwine."-Erie Magazine.


April 25, 1932





FLORIDA CLEARING i HOUSE NEWS


Summary of Grove Receipts and Costs


For 14 Citrus
By J. E. TURLINGTON
Information as to the costs and returns of
Florida citrus groves is desirable from the
standpoints of both present grove owners and
those who may contemplate going into the
grove business. Very little along that line has
been published.
During the summer of 1930 information
covering nearly 500 Florida citrus groves was
obtained in a cooperative study made by the
College of Agriculture and the Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics, U. S. D. A. The groves be-
longed to non-residents of Florida, who fur-
nished the information through a question-
naire. The questionnaire called for informa-
tion covering the six crop years 1924-25 to
1929-30, inclusive.
Since it is a well known fact that young
groves have costs out of proportion to returns,
it is believed best to have records on this sub-
ject cover older groves. Of the records obtain-
ed, only 14 of those which were complete for
all six years were for groves 10 or more years
old at the beginning of the first year and con-
sequently 15 or more years old at the begin-
ning of the sixth year covered by the study. It
will be noted in the table that in 1929 five of
the groves were just 15 years from planting;
five others were from 16 to 20 years old; and
the remaining four were over 20 years old.
A summary of the costs and receipts for
these 14 groves covering the crop years 1924-
25 to 1929-30, inclusive, is shown in the table
below. The figures given are correct to the
nearest dollar, as reported by the owner. Costs,
as used here, include all materials used, such as
fertilizer, insecticides and fungicides, trees for
replacement, labor, supervision, power, use of
equipment, and also taxes. They do not include
any interest on mortgages, nor interest on in-
vestment. Receipts refer to what the grower
received for his fruit net of picking, packing
and selling charges.
It is interesting to note that out of the 84


Properties in Florida
year records (6 times 14) there were 48, or ap-
proximately 57 percent, of the casesin which
the receipts exceeded costs. On the average,
receipts exceeded costs by approximately $59
per acre per year. This $59 represents the
amount available per acre for interest on in-
vestment. Only one grove out of 14 returned
receipts equal to or exceeding costs for each
of the six years; three did so five out of six;
three for four years; two for three years; four
for two years, and one had receipts which ex-
ceeded costs only one year out of six.
There were four of the groves whose total
costs for the six years exceeded receipts, two
of which were the highest cost groves for which
we have records, both costing on the average
in excess of $250 per acre per year. Another
was the lowest cost grove, and its receipts were
approximately the same as costs for the six
years. The other grove was a medium-cost
grove, and receipts were within about $3 of
costs per acre per year. These four groves
show a net loss on the capital. Four other
groves each had in excess of $100 per acre per
annum left as return on investment after pay-
ing all other costs. One of the four had an
average of $318 per acre per annum for re-
turn to capital.
Taking the 14 groves as a whole, there was
only one year when the total receipts were less
than the total costs. This was in 1925-26 when
the receipts lacked approximately $1.50 per
acre of equalling costs.
The three high-cost groves taken together
cost an average of $255 per acre per year, and
returned $302. The three low-cost groves were
cared for at a cost of $69 per acre per year,
and returned an average of $112. The other
eight medium-cost groves cost $123 and re-
turned $198 per acre per year. There are some
indications that too little was spent on the low-
cost groves, and too much on the high-cost
groves.


COSTS AND RECEIPTS FOR 14 ABSENTEE GROVES FOR SIX YEARS, 1924-1925 TO
1929-1930, INCLUSIVE
Acres Six-Year Totals Average Per Number of
Age Per Per Grove Net Acre Per Year Times Receipts
In 1929 Grove Costs Receipts Profit Costs Receipts Exceeded Costs
37 25 $32,119 $82,839 $ 47,720 $234 $552 5
16 20 18,666 35,990 17,324 156 300 5
17 30 16,478 28,581 12,103 92 159 5
15 18 7,879 13,682 5,803 73 127 4
22 10 9,230 13,437 4,207 154 224 3
15 10 7,005 11,062 4,057 117 184 2
19 5 3,508 7,214 3,706 117 240 4
21 5 2,664 5,317 2,653 89 177 6
20 2 1,573 2,859 1,286 131 238 4
15 8 4,321 5,043 722 90 105 3
15 10 3,166 3,157 -9 53 53 2
19 10 9,074 8,886 -188 151 148 2
15 10 15,312 12,716 -2,596 255 212 1
27 50 79,454 58,617 -20,837 265 195 2
Totals 213 $213,449 $289,400 $ 75,951 $167 $226 48


Citrus Exports

The following figures, furnished by the
United States Department of Commerce, show
the orange and fresh and canned grapefruit
exports from New York, Tampa, Jacksonville,
Los Angeles, Corpus Christi, Texas, and Porto
Rico, for the weeks ending March 5, 12, 19 and
26, April 2, 9 and 16:


Weeking Ending March 5
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London .-----------................................. 1,155
New York-Southampton ........................ 2,274
New York-Liverpool .........................----..... 1,129
Corpus Christi-Liverpool ..................------...... 289
Porto Rico-Liverpool .............................. 330

Total........................... ............ ........ 5,177


GRAPEFRUIT Cases
Tampa-London ........................................ 2,065
Tampa-Newcastle ....................----------............. 50
Tampa-London* ................----............... 65
Tampa-Toronto .... ...-....................... 110
Total**....----......... ...-- ------- 2,290
Week Ending March 12
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-Southampton ...... ------.............. 3,076
New York-Liverpool .............----................... 2,173
New York-Glasgow ........----.....-----. 1,047
New York-London ------............................ 475
New York-Hull --...................--------.............. 432
New York-Cardiff ..........................----------........ 100
New York-Bristol ......---------........................... 50
Porto Rico-Hamburg ..............-----............... 45
Total--------------.....------. 7,398
Week Ending March 19
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London .................................---------. 2,437
New York-Southampton ...........------. 1,607
New York-Liverpool ....---------......................... 1,035
Jacksonville-Liverpool ..-......................... 7,203
Tampa-Liverpool --.....-.......-----...... 6,716
Porto Rico-London ..........---.................---...... 195
Porto Rico-Hamburg .................-- ........... 80
Total ....................------------...19,273
GRAPEFRUIT Cases
Tampa-Liverpool --.............---........ 2,504
Tampa-Glasgow ..................----------.................. 2,190
Tampa-Manchester ................................ 1,100
Total**--............... --------------. 5,794
ORANGES Boxes
Tampa-Aruba, D. W. I............--------............... 50
Los Angeles-London ......... .............. ------ 1,200
Total.......-............-------------- 1,250
Week Ending March 26
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London .............----------................... 2,575
New York-Liverpool .-----------........................... 421
New York-Glasgow .................--------............ 932.
Jacksonville-London .------........-....-..-.12,407
Porto Rico-Hamburg ---..........----------...-----....... 25
Porto Rico-Liverpool ...............------............----713
Porto Rico-London ------------............................ 892
Total-----..... -----..........------.............17,965
GRAPEFRUIT Cases
Jacksonville-London ............................. 6,892
Jacksonville-Newcastle ..------... --.....- 100
Tampa-Winnipeg, Canada ..............-....... 1,000
Total**--- ---......... ----....................------------- 7,992
Week Ending April 2
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London ........................------ ..... 4,119
New York-Southampton ........-------............. 995
New York-Liverpool -------..............--.....--- 30
Jacksonville-Liverpool --...-....................------------ 8,927
Porto Rico-Hamburg ............-----............... 25
Porto Rico-London ........-----------....................... 937
Porto Rico-Liverpool ..-----........................... 317
Porto Rico-Havre -....--........ .... ------- 50
Total----......... ------..-------15,400
GRAPEFRUIT Cases
Jacksonville-Liverpool .........................------. 1,450
Jacksonville-Dublin ...---....... ----.... 70
Jacksonville-Avonmouth ....................-- 50
Total** .........-------- ------- 1,570
Week Ending April 9
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London ........................----------------- 2,284
New York-Southampton ..-.......---............... 1,440
New York-Liverpool .....................--------------- 425
New York-Glasgow .........---..--------- 430
Total.... ...--------------- ..... 4,579
GRAPEFRUIT Cases
Jacksonville-Bristol** ....-- ------..... ............. 675
Grapefruit Juice
** Canned Grapefruit

"Dad, what are ancestors?"
"Well, my boy, I'm one of your ancestors.
Your grandfather is another."
"Then why do people brag about them?"


April 25, 1932


Page 7





Page 8 FL

Variation in Maturity Is

Indicated By Queer Bloom
Guessing Florida's crop for next season ap-
pears to be anybody's game; anyone can
guess as accurately as anyone else.
Generally speaking, according to informa-
tion obtained by the Clearing House, a fairly
heavy crop for next year is indicated. This,
of course, is just as debatable a question as
stating that the crop is expected to be a light
one. Most authorities, however, seem agreed
that the trees are by no means through their
blooming. Reports from all parts of the state
show that bloom has been as eccentric as any
have seen it for many, many years. There
was bloom in both oranges and grapefruit as
early as December, and again in January,
February, and March. Indications are that we
will continue to have bloom during May and
June.
Generally speaking again, the heaviest
bloom appears to have put in its appearance
this month. Much of this bloom has been of
the "bouquet" or "cluster" type which, if it
runs true to form, will not set as heavy a crop
as does the lighter-appearing bloom.
The bloom does not seem to have picked
any favorites as far as the question of irriga-
tion is concerned, although groves that have
been irrigated do seem to have put on a more
consistent bloom than those which have not
been irrigated. But even this situation has its
contradictions.
Regardless, however, of how heavy the crop
-may be the most important phase of it lies in
the fact that next season we will have an ex-
traordinarily difficult maturity situation.
There will be fruit on trees differing in age
from fruit on the same trees as much as three
or four months. There will, of course, be
trees in the same groves with the same ma-
turity peculiarities. Efficient picking will be
imperative if this difference in maturity is
handled to best advantage. Some have even
predicted that the grading belt will have to be
moved out into the groves-unskilled pickers
likely will do more damage than the cost of
their wages could ever pay.


Keep Young Fruit Free

From Melanose Spores
The time to prevent melanose scars and blem-
ishes on citrus fruits and a likely heavy drop-
ping or later decaying from stem-end rot is
from the time the fruit is set until it is about
an inch in diameter, according to E. F. DeBusk,
extension citriculturist. The methods suggest-
ed were the prevention or removal of dead
wood, and covering the young fruit with a
good fungicide.
The melanose spores embed themselves in
the dead branches during the dormant season,
where they are protected from sprays. They
come out in spring and are washed onto the
fruit by rains and dew. Fruit that is over one
inch in diameter does not seem to be very sus-
ceptible to injury.
Under such conditions the most practical
control for melanose would be to prevent the
occurrence of dead wood. Severe root pruning
due to excessive deep cultivation, under or im-


ORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
proper fertilization, over pruning, and other
conditions unfavorable to the citrus tree should
be avoided. Preventing the formation of dead
wood is far better than removing it later,
though the removal of wood that died during
the winter and early spring is one of the control
measures. Mr. DeBusk did not wish to discour-
age pruning and spraying when they are need-
ed, but stated that it is more practical to ap-
proach the problem from the other angle and
prevent the underlying causes.
It may be necessary to spray the young fruit
to protect it from the spores. In such cases he
suggested spraying with bordeaux-oil made by
mixing 3 to 5 quarts of oil emulsion with 100
gallons of 3-3-50 bordeaux mixture. The pri-
mary aim of this spray should be to completely
cover the young fruits, and to do it after they
have set and before the spores have been wash-


April 25, 1932
ed onto them. Some prefer to use casein in-
stead of the oil as a spreader, as it is usually ,.
necessary to follow with an oil spray in May or
June to control scale. Many scale fungi will
be preserved if the bordeaux is not sprayed on
the trunk and large limbs.

A good customer was getting lax about the
payment of invoices, and Abe suggested that
Mawruss write him a strong but diplomatic
letter calling his attention to this laxity.
Mawruss worked for several hours over the
letter, then showed it to Abe for his approval.
After reading it over carefully, Abe said: "By
golly, dot's a wonderful letter. Strong and to
der point and not personal or insulting. But
you got a couple mistakes it in, Mawruss.
'Dirty' you should spell mit only one 'r' and
'cockroach' begins mit a 'c.' "


For Lasti




















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