Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00077
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: December 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00077
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

S. DeDt. of Agri.,
brary Priod Div-.
dkngton, D. C.


FLORIDA


U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


CLEARING


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA


C 1EV SE


N rS! & DOprtfamia ~hl *WA ication of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION


$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31, Volume IV
ents a C rus Growers Clearing House Association. DECEMBER 10, 1931 1928. at the postoffice at Winter Haven. N
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven. Fla. Florida. under the Act of March 3 1879.umer


Analysis of Truck Movement of Fruit

Indicates Study of It Is Imperative


Is the increasing movement by truck a me-
nace to Florida?
One ears this argued strongly on both
sides, sometimes with much feeling. It is true
that the immediate net returns to growers on
Struck shipments frequently are higher than
net returns that would be possible from pack-
ing and marketing in the usual way or even if
shipped in bulk. The real danger of the truck
business is the fact that first of all it is un-
organized. The tendency for each packing
unit is to be a law unto itself.
Sixteen percent of the oranges and 9 per-
cent of the grapefruit that has left the state
this season has moved by trucks. Translated
into cars, the trucks have moved to date the
equivalent of more than 1,300 cars.-
CONTACT SET UP
t The Clearing House recognized this danger
at the beginning of the season and has insist-
ed on all packing units connected with our
Shippers reporting daily the number of boxes
sold and the price realized with comment as
Sto grade sold and the kind of sizes. This in-
formation is immediately organized and in
turn sent to. all our shippers and packing units
the same day so that each person may be
fully acquainted with what everyone else is
doing in their truck sales. The information is
further segregated into Northern, Central and
-Southern districts and has proven of great
benefit to all operators connected with the
Clearing House in their effort to get every
cent possible by truck. Unfortunately, the
balance of the packing houses outside the
Clearing House do not seem to be so well
organized with the result that these trucksters
are playing one against the other and taking
advantage of this lack of information.
PRICE LEVEL DISRUPTED
To make bad matters worse, the regular
carlot buying trade through the Southern
markets and through some of the Central
markets are becoming more and more fearful
of purchasing a normal amount of fruit be-
cause of never knowing when additional truck
supplies will arrive and be sold direct to the
retailers and consumers at prices with which
they could not compete. Trucks coming into
a small town that might use a car, immedi-
ately throw the regular trade into confusion.
The lack of confidence resulting is being
shown more and more this year in Florida's
inability to reach any of these markets with


anything like a proper proportion of its total
carlot movement.
Bulk shipments are the only way most of
these markets can meet truck competition.
Even then most of the trade too frequently
figure they are meeting it at a loss to them-
selves. Some states are trying to put in li-
censing laws governing trucks that will tend
to eliminate this phase of competition. The
truck movement at present is a very disturb-
ing factor. It tends towards disintegration
not only at the various selling points in Flor-
ida but also at the many destinations where
truck sales are made.
CAN'T BE IGNORED
When regular channels of trade are dis-
turbed there necessarily exists lack of con-
fidence until time has worked out the proper
competitive adjustments and the elements
making up the situation become more stand-
ardized so that people know what to figure on.
This truck movement as a whole is something
that Florida cannot ignore, as we may be
drifting into a state where we are gaining a
few cents per box on truck sales at a loss of
many times the amount gained if Florida was
handling its fruit along more standard lines
through the regular channels of trade.
So far as truck competition tends to elimi-
nate too wide margins of profit on the part
(Continued on Page Four)


Demoralizing
Movement by truck is reaching demoral-
izing proportions.
In one day's movement alone, Nov. 24th,
no less than 13,000 boxes passed the road
inspectors enroute to the out-of-state mar-
kets. This is the equivalent of more than
35 cars.
Truck sales, it is reported, have gotten
out of hand largely in regard to price.
Sales of Clearing House shippers are held
in line by contact with each other through
the Clearing House office, an arrangement
made after the experience last season, the
first in which truck volume became a seri-
ous factor. But outside the Clearing House
the truckers are taking advantage of the
failure of plants to contact each other and
are playing one against the other.


Florida Taking Lead Away

From California in Markets
Will we later on be regretting that we did
not ship oranges heavier at this time?
For the first time in the history of Florida,
at least during the last eight years, it looks as
if the peak movement in oranges will not be
showing up on this week's shipments ending
Dec. 12. Heretofore there has always been a
grand rush at this particular time of the sea-
son to have the fruit picked and shipped for
the holiday market. Just why there is an ab-
sence'of this usual rush is interesting to ana-
lyze. F. O. B. prices are higher than a year
ago, and so are auction prices. Only a very
small proportion of the crop has been moved
to date. Florida is over 4,000 cars behind the
orange movement of last year.
Partly explaining this is the fact that the
orange crop this year probably is the latest in
maturing that we have had for many years,
possibly the latest in the history of Florida.
On top of this is the fact that California, until
recently, has been moving very heavily the
tremendous amount of late valencias held
over from her previous crop. Sizes in oranges
have been so small that this has severely re-
tarded the movement, especially as California
late valencias also ran extremely small and
made until recently very severe competition.
ABNORMALLY LIGHT MOVEMENT
Classifying proper proportion of the mixed
cars in with oranges, it is interesting to note
that for the week ending Dec. 5 Florida ship-
ped only 800 cars of oranges as compared
with the normal movement of this year's re-
duced estimated crop of 1,500 cars. The prior
week ending Nov. 28, likewise shows abnor-
mally light as only 600 cars left the state as
compared with a normal movement of 1,200
cars. This creates an extremely light supply
in the hands of the trade, yet there seems to
exist no excitement in the market. Doubtless
the trade are figuring on the usual heavy rush
of supplies this week and next, but, unless the
attitude of mind in Florida changes rapidly,
they will wake up and find a shortage that
they had not anticipated.
Based on the scheduled movement publish-
ed previously in the Clearing House News, or-
ange shipments should be about 1,700 cars
this week. It is very doubtful if this figure
will be reached, notwithstanding the fact that
the two previous weeks' shipments were away
below normal. Some growers are remember-
ing the decidedly higher prices that existed
last year from February on and prefer to
(Continued on Page Five)






FLORIDA CLEARING ( HOUSE NEWS


Committee of Fifty Department


The Committee of Fifty at a meeting in
Wauchula, December 9, called upon all mar-
keting agencies not now affiliated with the
Clearing House to confer with the committee
appointed by the Clearing House Board of
Directors to try to improve the present mar-
keting situation.
The resolution summarizing the committee's
request was in effect a renewal of the request
which they made at a meeting in Tampa some
two months ago. At the Tampa meeting the
Committee of Fifty called upon the Clearing
House, the Florida Citrus Exchange, and the
Fruitmen's Association to get together in a
joint effort to remedy the existing grapefruit
market. Almost simultaneously came the an-
nouncement from Orlando that members of
the Fruitmen's Club had decided to join the
Clearing House. The resolution passed at the
Wauchula meeting explained the change in the
situation but again called upon the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange, and named as well several other
marketing agencies, to lend their support to
the movement. The resolution reads as fol-
lows:
THE RESOLUTION
WHEREAS, the Committee of Fifty at its
last meeting, held in Tampa, October 29th,
did present to the Board of Directors of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation, the Board of Directors of the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange, and the chairman and
members of the Fruitmen's Club, the attach-
ed resolution, which was not a request that
they join the Clearing House but that they
take part in united effort to find and apply a
remedy for the present devastating market
situation; and
WHEREAS, one of the large groups ad-
dressed has sensed the great need of the pres-
ent situation and has not only signified their
approval of such united purpose but has join-
ed the Clearing House as the logical center
and medium of a co-operative effort in which
all could participate; and
WHEREAS, the conditions that prompted
the resolution have not changed and are still
a matter of grave concern to this Committee
of Fifty, whose purpose and intention is to
work for and vigilantly guard the interests
of all citrus growers; and
WHEREAS, the Florida Citrus Exchange
has not appointed a committee as requested;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED, that the
attached resolution be again presented to the
Florida Citrus Exchange and also presented
to Gentile Brothers, the West Coast Fruit
Company, the Umatilla Fruit Company, Dr.
Phillips, and all others who should be inter-
ested, appealing that they confer with the
committee appointed by the Board of Direc-
tors of the Clearing House in a joint effort to
improve the present marketing situation. So
urgent and important is the question that we
urge the organizations named to individually
accept this invitation to conference or state
their reasons for refusing to comply with the
requestion of the committee of growers.
TANGERINE MATURITY
Several other matters of current importance
also were gone into by the committee at the
Wauchula meeting. Following discussion of


the Tangerine market it was decided to ap-
point a new green fruit committee to study
the tangerine inspection period. No change
can be made until the Florida State Legisla-
ture meets in the spring of 1933, but ample
time is needed, it was pointed out, to give the
matter intelligent consideration. Chairman
N. H. Vissering, of the Committee of Fifty,
will name the members of a sub-committee in
the near future, the sub-committee to be rep-
resentative of all producing sections.
Dr. E. C. Aurin, Ft. Ogden, member of the
Clearing House Board of Directors, was asked
for a report upon the status of past-due retain
accounts. Dr. Aurin advised the committee
members that there are some outstanding re-
tains due the Clearing House. A motion was
then passed recommending to the Clearing
House Board that steps be taken immediately
to collect all retain payments due the Clearing
House from any shipper-members who have
withdrawn from the organization.
BAN LOW GRADE FRUIT
The problem of shipment of low grade fruit
then was brought up for discussion, it being
suggested that the green fruit committee,
which is to be appointed, give serious thought
to the desirability of Florida having a law sim-
ilar to the Oregon apple law. This apple law,
it was brought out, prohibits the shipment of
lower grades of fruit from out of the state
unless the fruit is processed in by-products
form.
Discussion as to the need for informing
growers of the state of the work the Clearing
House is doing and of general industry prob-
lems resulted in a movement to encourage at-
tendance at Committee of Fifty meetings by
growers in sections in which the monthly meet-
ings are held. A committee of five was selected
to arrange meeting places and dates for future
meetings so that advance notice could be given
the growers enabling them to attend the com-
mittee's sessions. The committee appointed
for this work outlined the following schedule
of meetings for the next five months: Vero
Beach, Mt. Dora, Clearwater, Sanford, and
Cocoa.
General discussion on other subjects in-
cluded the matter of truck and bulk ship-
ments, and the necessity for some centralized
information system being adopted so that out
of state truckers cannot play one packing
house against another and thus beat down
price quotations. Members of the committee
thought that if all marketing factors in the
state can work together in a joint marketing
effort that this problem likewise could be con-
sidered. A poll of members of the committee
in different sections of the state revealed that
the drought of the last two months has caused
a droppage of fruit varying from 10% to as
much as 33%.
EXCHANGE CONDITIONS
Reverting to the question of the Exchange
rejoining the Clearing House James C. Mor-
ton, Auburndale, took occasion to review
briefly and interpret the nine conditions set
forth by the Exchange as a pre-requisite to
their return as Clearing House members.
Morton described the nine points as "the most
indefensible and absurd suggestions that had


ever been officially presented to the industry.
"If," Morton said, "the authors of the nine
points intended to be funny, they succeeded.
But unfortunately, at this time the problems
of the industry are too great and the plight
of the grower too serious to enable him to
enjoy comedy masquerading in the guise of
constructive effort."
H. C. Case, of Ft. Myers, made an impres-
sive talk on the lack of any success on the
part of the growers, or even the Committee of
Fifty, to improve the conditions which pre-
vail in the handling of the state's citrus crop.
Case stated that growers generally had looked
to the largest marketing organization to fur-
nish the plan and leadership to bring about
some system of orderly marketing. At the
present time, as he pointed out, such leader-
ship seems to be lacking. Since members of
the Fruitmen's Club have become part of. the
Clearing House the picture has changed, Case
declaring that he feels that growers of the
state will and should expect the Clearing
House to furnish the plan and leadership.
"Since the Committee of Fifty," Case said,
"is the only grower body truly representing the
growers alone, this Committee of Fifty should
adopt a plan of education and publicity to in-
form all growers of developments and attempts
to improve conditions. It likewise should de-
termine and tell the growers how it is possible
or why it is impossible to better conditions."
A motion then made by Case and passed, was
followed by the appointment of an educational
and publicity committee. The members of the
committee are H. C. Case, chairman, Ft. Myers;
James C. Morton, Auburndale; Dr. James Har-
ris, Lakeland; T. C. Bottom, Valrico, and N. H.
Vissering, Babson Park.


Citrus Nurseries Show

Million Trees Decrease
There are a million less citrus trees and
over two million more tung oil trees in Flor-
ida nurseries than a year ago, according to in-
spection records recently announced by J. C.
Goodwin, nursery inspector with the State
Plant Board. There are 1,846 nurseries and
they have a total of 46,000,000 plants grow-
ing on 5,700 acres.
About 12,000,000 citrus trees are now in
nursery formation, compared with 13,000,000
last year. Grapefruit made an increase of
about 400,000 trees while oranges dropped
that much. The number of Satsumas dropped
a quarter million, and seedlings declined over
400,000 trees, while tangerines and hybrids
made lighter declines.
There were 3,000,000 tung oil trees in the
nurseries, compared with 900,000 a year ago.

Wedded At Dawn
Mistress-"You look a wreck today, Norah.
Have you been sitting up all night again read-
ing a novel?"
Norah-"Yes, mum. It was such a beauti-
ful story but they didn't get married till near-
ly four o'clock this morning."-Boston Tran-
script.


Page 2


December 10, 1931





The production of citrus fruit is being ex-
panded in several states and foreign coun-
tries, says a report issued early this month by
the University of Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, the State College for Women,
and the U. S. D. A. co-operating. Florida
growers may expect competition from these
other areas to increase rather than diminish,
according to present indications. This compe-
tition, coupled with restricted consumer buy-
ing power, does not make the present market-
ing season look any too bright.
Some of the factors favorable to Florida
are: (1) progress that has been made the last
few years in reducing production costs; (2)
some reductions in costs of packing citrus
fruit with possibilities of further reductions
in both the above named items; (3) the de-
velopment of truck transportation offers pos-
sibilities since Florida is nearest a large con-
suming territory, and (4) the development
taking place in the canning and freezing of
citrus fruits. This does not appear to be the
time for acreage expansion, but rather for the
careful and economical handling of the pres-
ent acreage.
BEARING BUT STILL YOUNG
The combined production of oranges and
grapefruit has increased ten-fold during the
last forty years and has been increasing at an
average rate of about 6% per year during the
last ten years. The total number of trees in
orange and grapefruit groves is now about
twice as large as it was in 1920. While about
69% of the trees reported by the 1930 census
were listed as of "bearing age," many are still
too small to produce fruit in paying quanti-
ties and only about a third are fifteen years
old or older and so have reached or are ap-
proaching full production. Both in Texas and
Florida plantings in the winter of 1930-31
showed some decrease from the heavy plant-
ings of 1928. Allowing for the continued
plantings in Arizona, the total area set has
apparently been somewhere around 20,000
acres in each of the past two years.
WATCH COMPETITION
A considerable part of these recent plant-
Sings is in relatively new areas where there is
little on which to base estimates of probable
production from present groves where these
young trees are fifteen or twenty years old,
but production from the groves already in
bearing has increased to a point where it ex-
Sceeds 70,000,000 boxes in a moderately fav-
orable season like 1930. As marketing prob-
lems have already become troublesome, it
would seem best for further plantings to be
Made cautiously with careful consideration of
competitive production and marketing costs.
With a record production in 1930 of about
52,000,000 boxes of oranges and 18,000,000
Boxes of grapefruit, the seasonal average
farm prices fell to an exceptionally low level.
ORANGES
In the country as a whole there are about
535,000 acres of orange groves. About four-
fifths of the trees are five years old or older
or are nominally of bearing age, but only two-
fifths are as much as fifteen years old.
The Florida statistics available are conflict-


ing, but judging from the records of orange,
tangerine, and satsuma trees in groves and on
urban properties as collected in connection
with the fruit fly eradication world, supple-
mented by allowances for recent plantings and
for the areas not surveyed, the present area in
orange trees in Florida is probably somewhere
around 265,000 acres. Roughly, one-fifth of
the Florida orange trees are less than five
years old, three-fifths are five to fifteen years
Sold and are, therefore, of bearing age but not
in full bearing, and one-fifth are at least fif-
teen years old and are approaching full pro-
duction. The proportion of young trees is ap-
parently sufficient to permit production to con-
tinue to increase at an average rate of about
4% per year.
Of the 21,500 acres of oranges in Texas,
only 30% are five years old and a negligible
proportion is in full bearing.
INCREASING VALENCIA ACREAGE
The California orange groves include about
230,000 acres, of which 26,000 acres, or 11%,
are classed as not yet of bearing age. The
greater part of the young trees in California
are Valencias which are shipped largely during
the months when few oranges are being picked
in Florida and Texas. The production of
Washington Navel oranges in California, the
variety that competes with southeastern or-
anges, has probably about reached its peak.
Arizona has about 6,500 acres of oranges
and about 20% are of bearing age and about
10% are approaching the age of full produc-
tion. Production is also increasing in Louisi-
ana, Alabama and Mississippi.
GRAPEFRUIT
Grapefruit production has been increasing
at an average of nearly 6% per year during
the last ten years and the proportion of young
trees is now much larger than it was ten
years ago. The present area in grapefruit
trees in the United States is close to 190,000
acres. Somewhere around 45% of the trees
were less than five years old in the summer
of 1931 and only about 17% are as much as
fifteen years old. Florida now has about 93,-
000 acres in grapefruit trees, of which per-
haps a third are as much as fifteen years old.
The California bearing acreage is reported
at 12,000 acres with 3,000 non-bearing.
Texas, with an acreage of 70,000, has only
20% of this acreage as much as five years
old. In Arizona also the bearing acreage is
increasing rapidly. That state now has about
14,000 acres of grapefruit and only about
25% of the trees are of bearing age. Porto
Rico reports 6,120 acres with trees over six
years old; 1,680 acres with tree two to five


Citrus Grove
Accountants and Income
Tax Specialists
Certified Public Accountant

A. Gilbert Lester & Co.
Taylor Building
WINTER HAVEN, FLA.


December 10, 1931 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Citrus Production Is Being Expanded,

Increasing About 6 Percent Annually


years old; 310 acres with trees one to two
years old; and 200 acres with trees one year
old. Porto Rico has now recovered from the
effects of the 1928 hurricane.

Half-Price
Telephone Operator: "It costs 75 cents to
talk to Flushing."
Salesman: "Can't you make a special rate
for just listening? I want to call my wife."

Nothing Unusual
A society woman was entertaining the small
son of a friend.
"Tommy, do you think you can cut your
meat?" she asked after watching the trouble
he was having using the knife.
"Oh, yessum," he replied, "we have meat
this tough at home, lots of times."




Brogdex Means..

Sound Delivery
Better Appearance
Less Refrigeration
Better for the Dealer

More Money



THE first thing a buyer looks for is a
high bulge pack-if the straps are loose
he suspects decay. Brogdex controls de-
cay and shrinkage and almost without
exception brings the fruit into the mar-
ket as sound as a dollar, with the high
bulge pack still standing and the straps
still tight. Market buyers recognize the
advantages of better keeping fruit and
have come to rely upon the keeping qual-
ities of Brogdexed fruit to build a big-
ger and more profitable retail trade and
a better satisfied consumer market.
Oranges and grapefruit are bought by
the eye-fruit must look attractive if it
is to move out of the dealer's hands.
Any visible evidence of decay, any ap-
parent aging or wilt, even a dullness of
the shine-will slow up sales. Brogdex-
ed fruit looks better because it carries
more wax, is double polished and is rare-
ly refrigerated. A car of Brogdexed
fruit uses 7 pounds of wax. It passes
through two polishers, which give it a
splendid shine. By shipping standard
vent-without either pre-cooling or icing
-this shine is retained clear through to
the consumer.
This is a specialized service no other
agent or concern is competent or quali-
fied to perform-a service worth the
thoughtful consideration of any grower
who has fruit to pack. If we were real-
izing high prices the economies of Brog-
dex might not seem so important-you
could get by and still have a profit; but
with prices low and little prospect of
much improvement, the savings possible
through Brogdex become of vital im-
portance.


Florida Brogdex

Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida.
J


Page 3





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE

NEWS
CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
licity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation
services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.
DIRECTORS
E. C. AURIN . .... . Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE ......... Winter Park
O. F. GARDNER . . ... .Lake Placid
W. J. HOWEY . . .. .Howey in the Hills
L. P. KIRKLAND . . . ... .Auburndale
J. H. LETTON . . . .... Valrico
E. C. McLEAN ......... Palmetto
M. O. OVERSTREET . . . .. .Orlando
S. J. SLIGH . . . . .... Orlando
A. M. TILDEN ....... .Winter Haven
A. R. TRAFFORD. . . . ... Cocoa
E. H. WILLIAMS. . . .. .Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK . . ... Orlando

Grapefruit Tickles Palates

In Foreign Lands
Grapefruit consumption in foreign
countries is increasing and since the
per capital consumption is very low in
most countries a steadily increasing
foreign demand for American grape-
fruit may be expected but not without
increased competition from foreign
producers, according to a recent agri-
cultural bureau report. At the present
time the United States and Porto Rico
supply most of the grapefruit consum-
ed abroad but production and exports
in South Africa the West Indies, Pal-
estine, Brazil, and Argentina are in-
creasing rapidly. In 1926 the United
Kingdom imported 93,000 boxes of
grapefruit from countries other than
the United States and Porto Rico. By
1928 these imports amounted to 164,-
000 boxes and in 1930 they exceeded
200,000 boxes.
Exports of grapefruit from the
United States during the four-year
period (October to September) 1926-
27 to 1929-30, have averaged 790,000
boxes or 7.8 percent of the total grape-
fruit crop. Exports during the 1930-31
season just closed were the largest on
record, amounting to about 1,370,000
boxes. Most of the exports of United
States grapefruit go to the United
Kingdom and Canada. During 1930-31
the United Kingdom took almost twice
the quantity imported in 1929-30.
Some of the United States grapefruit
imported into the United Kingdom is
re-exported but the bulk is consumed
in that country.
Direct exports of grapefruit from
Porto Rico to Europe, principally the
United Kingdom, in 1930-31 amount-
ed to 92,000 boxes. Porto Rican grow-
ers look to Europe as the big future


market for their product. This is ac-
counted for by their favorable ship-
ping rates, low production costs, abil-
ity to grow a large percentage of
small sized fruit which is in demand in
those markets, and their year around
production. Shipments of grapefruit
from Porto Rico averaged 672,000
boxes a year during the five-year
period, 1926-27 to 1930-31.
PALESTINE IS IN PICTURE
In the last four years exports of
grapefruit from Palestine have in-
creased from 2,000 boxes in 1927-28
to 57,000 boxes in 1930-31. Around
100,000 boxes are expected to move
out of Palestine during the 1931-32
season. Most of the grapefruit goes to
the United Kingdom but a wide distri-
bution is being secured on the bal-
ance. This is a high quality grapefruit
and is well liked in all markets. Ex-
ports from South Africa in the last
two seasons have amounted to around
100,000 boxes a year. No large expan-
sion in grapefruit production is ex-
pected in South Africa. Practically all
of the South African grapefruit is ex-
ported to the United Kingdom. Some
increase in production has occurred in
the British West Indies, especially Ja-
maica, but exports are not heavy as
yet. Exports from the Isle of Pines
are now well above 200,000 boxes a
year after a decline in 1927-28 and
1828-29, owing to the hurricane dam-
age. Exports from Brazil and Argen-
tina are not important at the present
time, but considerable competition
may be expected from these sources in
the future.
The smaller grapefruit crop fore-
casted for Florida in 1931-32, coupled
with the unfavorable financial condi-
tions in the United Kingdom, indicate
that exports to that country in the
coming season are not likely to be as
large as last year.
In recent years, with the increase in
the orange crops, there has been a de-
cided upward trend in exports, figures
show, which averaged slightly more
than 4,000,000 boxes per season from
1928-29 to 1930-31. Most of the in-
crease has gone to the United King-
dom. Exports have amounted to ap-
proximately 8.1 percent of the com-
mercial crop during the last eighteen
years, of which Canada has taken a
practically constant 7 percent.
In this connection attention should
be called to the duty which has been
placed on oranges entering Canada.
The duty amounts to 35c per cubic
foot. On a box basis the Canadian
Government has been assessing a duty
of 75c. Oranges imported from Em-
pire countries receiving the benefit of
the preferential rate are on the free
list. At present these include the pro-
ducts of South Africa, Australia and
Jamaica. Should oranges be exported
from these countries in any large
amount, the South African and Aus-
tralian oranges would compete mainly


with California Valencia, and Jamaica
oranges with late Valencias and Cali-
fornia and Florida winter oranges.
STIFF ORANGE COMPETITION
Oranges are exported to Canada the
year around, with December and
March the months of heaviest move-
ment. Exports to European countries
are mainly made during the summer
season since the large and growing
competition from countries in the
Mediterranean Basin practically pre-
cludes large exports of winter oranges
from the United States.


Weather and Estimates
There was great rejoicing over Florida
when' the unprecedented drought was finally
broken by the much welcomed and fairly gen-
eral rain early this month. In most places
rain was followed by cloudy weather and the
moisture was reported as generally well ab-
sorbed. The rain was not excessive at any
point so far reported.
Some were afraid that heavy soaking might
result in the trees throwing a lot of their
fruit. The amount of fruit that has dropped,
of course, is problematical. Drop usually is
over-estimated. Old seedlings are the ones
that are reported as showing the biggest per-
centage of drops. The drop in grapefruit
also is reported heavy in some cases. Grape-
fruit, however, it is thought, will tend to show
more growth in sizes, in response to the much
needed rain, than oranges. Even if the gen-
erally small grapefruit left on the trees grows
as usual, it is generally thought the grape-
fruit crop will be 10 percent less than origi-
nally estimated.
Because of small sizes and the drought that
has occurred, the orange crop is variously es-
timated as from 10 percent to 25 percent
short of the original estimates.

Analysis of Truck Movement
(Continued from Page One)
of the retail, wholesale and carlot trade, it is
beneficial; but where it becomes so disturbing
as to reduce the total amount of consumption
in any territory it unquestionably intereferes
with the problem of sensible distribution.
FURTHER ANALYSIS NEEDED
We believe most of our grower members
may be holding the truck sales idea in mind
as a means of salvation for the industry, and
possibly some of our shippers, but we are
passing the above thoughts on to you so that
we all may be giving this matter the serious
consideration it deserves. The Clearing House
has not as yet taken any definite position in
this matter but does recognize the need of
further analysis and investigation. Trucks
may prove to be gay deceivers. On the other
hand, with the good roads existing and the
nearness of Florida to its markets, it may be
that this is an evolutionary tendency along
other lines that we cannot foresee which may
be more beneficial than we realize. We should
at least keep our eyes open, do some tall
thinking and not be too complacent in as-
suming that we are making progress from an
industry standpoint because the truck distri-
bution is growing.


Page 4


December 10, 1931





December 10, 1931


Florida Takes Lead
(Continued from Page One)
wait and take their chances in the spring mar-
*ket. It is also true that Florida usually has
.tended to overship at this time of the year,
but this season we seem to be going to the
Other extreme.
GAIN ON CALIFORNIA
It must be borne in mind that, with gen-
eral business conditions existing as they are,
,growers and shippers cannot expect high
Prices in oranges. Everything is comparative.
For instance, we are doing exceptionally well
compared with California. On Monday, Dec.
.7, Florida sold in New York 45 cars of or-
anges at a general average of $3.35 delivered.
.California sold 36 cars of navels at a general
average of $3.15 delivered. We outsold Cali-
fornia by 20c a box. In Pittsburgh, Florida
outsold California 25c a box, while California
outsold us in some of the other markets.
Taking all auction markets on this Monday,
Florida averaged $3.15 delivered on 100 cars
>of oranges compared with California's aver-
,age of $3.15 on 115 cars. On the same Mon-
day a year ago, Florida averaged only $2.80
delivered on 159 cars of oranges and Califor-
nia averaged $3.75 delivered on 117 cars of
,oranges, or 95c more than Florida. Compared
with our big competitor, therefore, our price
-situation is decidedly encouraging, as we have
gained in relative position 95c per box.
It is to be hoped that Florida is not over-
playing her hand. Central California sizes are
running smaller than usual. If Southern Cal-


ifornia, when it starts shipping in January,
follows its usual custom it will be picking for
sizes with 200s and larger predominating,
holding its smaller sizes for March and April
shipments. This should give Florida a chance
to move in the spring the small sizes we will
have and also permit these small sizes to
grow.
Central California, on the other hand, is
lagging in its shipments. The crop is esti-
mated as 500 to 1,000 cars more than a year
ago. Yet it is 1,300 cars behind its shipments
of a year ago. On December 7 Central Cali-
fornia had just passed the 4,000-car mark and
the navel crop in Central California is esti-
mated at 8,000.
For the above reasons the Clearing House
in its recommendations on December 5 point-
ed out the very light shipments the past two
weeks and the desirability of this week's
movement being around 1,500 cars of oranges
from the state instead of 1,200 cars such as
was indicated after canvassing our members
and getting in touch with those outside the
Clearing House. It is a rare experience for
the Clearing House to find itself in the posi-
tion of suggesting heavier shipments rather
than continually trying to restrict them. On
the other hand, by the time this is read by our
grower members, it will be too late to start
picking heavily for the holiday demand. It is
possible too that the light shipments and the
lack of uneasiness at this time in moving the
crop is another strong bit of evidence that
the crop is very much shorter than was origi-
nally thought.


County Agent Helps Farmer

Apply Theories to Practise
About 845,000 farmers attended some 12,-
000 agricultural outlook meetings this year,
and probably more than a million will at-
tend outlook meetings in 1932, said C. W.
Warburton, Director of Extension Work, U.
S. D. A,. recently.
Farmers are getting an increasing quantity
of information on farm management, the ag-
ricultural outlook, and other phases of agri-
cultural economics. The county agent, per-
haps more than anyone else, helps to bring
this economic material to the attention of
farmers and to aid them in utilizing it on
their farms, Director Warburton believes. Be-
tween 2,400 and 2,500 of the agricultural
counties have extension agents, who bring
economic material to the attention of the
farmer in many ways.
In practically every county, the director
said, county agents co-operate with farmers in
keeping farm accounts and interpreting the .-
data so that they may adjust or eliminate un-
profitable enterprises. In some instances they
keep complete farm accounts and in others,
accounts on some major enterprise, he ex-
plained. By combining the figures of a large
number of farmers, it is possible to determine
production methods most likely to bring satis-
factory returns in the locality concerned.

"We sure appreciate the service from the
Clearing House." Bernard D. Cox, Lake
Wales.


Two Vitally Important Facts for


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FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Page 5





FLORIDA CLEARING I HOUSE NEWS


Packing Houses of Shipper Members

For the convenience of our grower-members we are listing below, alphabetically by cities,
packing houses of our present shipper members.


Alturas
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Southern Fruit Distrs., Inc.
Alva
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Arcadia
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
D. H. Browder & Son Co.
R. W. Burch, Inc.
DeSoto Packing Co., Inc.
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
Avon Park
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
G. & J. Maxcy.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
Auburndale
Adams Packing Co.
Babson Park
Babson Park C.G.A. (W. H. Mouser & Co.)
Beresford
Alexander & Baird Co.
Blanton
Blanton Citrus Growers, Inc.
Citra
SAmerican Fruit Growers, Inc.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
Clearwater
David Bilgore & Co.
Clearwater Citrus Co.
Oakhurst Fruit Co.
Clermont
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
Cocoa
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Nevins Fruit Co.
Crescent City
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
W. H. Mouser & Co.
Dade City
David Bilgore & Co.
Davenport
Holly Hill Fruit Products Co.
DeLand
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Alexander & Baird Co.
DeLeon Springs
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Dunedin
Chase & Company.
Elfers
J. M. Mitchell (David Bilgore & Co.)
Eustis
R. D. Keene & Co.
Fellsmere
Fellsmere Growers, Inc. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)
Frostproof
J. W. Keen & Son, Inc.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
Ft. Meade
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
Ft. Myers
Lee County Packing Co.
Ft. Pierce
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Goulds
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Haines City
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Highland City
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Howey-in-the-Hills
Vaughn-Griffin Pkg. Co.
Isleworth (Windermere)
Chase & Company
Kendal
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Lady Lake
S. A. Fields & Co.
Lake City
R. W. Burch, Inc.
Lake Jem
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Lake Placid
Lake Placid C. G. A. (Chase & Company).
Lakeland
Chandler-Davis Co.
L. E. Ellis
Lakeland Growers, Inc. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)


W. H. Mouser & Co.
Patterson Pkg. Co. (Chase & Company).
Lake Wales
Hills Bros. Co. of Florida.
Lake Wales Fruit Pkrs., Inc. (American
Fruit Growers, Inc.)
Tower City Pkg. Co. (J. W. Keen & Son,
Inc.)
Largo
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Leesburg
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
S. A. Fields & Co.
A. S. Herlong & Co.
Lake Weir Pkg. Co. (L. Maxcy, Inc.)
E. B. Peter.
Lisbon
S. J. Sligh & Co.
Maitland
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Manatee
Chase & Company.
Mascotte
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Mims
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
New Smyrna
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Nocatee
Chase & Company.
Nocatee Pkg. Co. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)
Ocoee
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
Odessa
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Orlando
Chester C. Fosgate Co.
C. A. Marsh, Inc.
W. H. Mouser & Co.
Richardson-Marsh Corp.
S. J. Sligh & Co.
Southern Fruit Distrs., Inc.
Oviedo
Nelson & Co., Inc.
Lake Charm Fruit Co.
Ozona
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
W. H. Mouser & Co.
Palmetto
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
D. M. Courtney.
Four Friends Pkg. Co. (C. A. Marsh, Inc.)
E. C. McLean.
Peerless Fruit Co.
Pierson
Alexander & Baird Co.
Plant City
R. W. Burch, Inc.
Florida Mixed Car Co.
Sanford
Chase & Company.
Sebring
Gregg Maxcy.
Seminole
David Bilgore & Co.
South Tampa
Moss Packing Company.
Sulphur Springs
Florida Mixed Car Co.
Summerfield
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Tampa
Hills Bros. Co. of Florida.
Moss Packing Company.
Terra Ceia
Terra Ceia C. G. A.
Terra Ceia Island
E. C. McLean.
Titusville
Nevins Fruit Co.
Valrico
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Vero Beach
Nevins Fruit Co.
Wabasso
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Walsingham
American Fruit Growers, Inc.


Wauchula
Alexander & Baird Co.
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
L. Maxcy, Inc.
Waverly
Waverly C. G .A.
Weirsdale
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
West Frostproof
West Frostproof Pkg. & Can. Co. (Ameri-
can Fruit Growers, Inc.)
Wildwood
Monarch Orange Co. (American Fruit
Growers, Inc.)
Winter Garden
R. D. Keene & Co.
B. H. Roper
S. J. Sligh & Co.
Southern Fruit Distrs., Inc.
Winter Haven
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Belle Ridge Fruit Co. (L. Maxcy, Inc.)
Chase & Company.
Wm. G. Roe & Co.
Winter Haven Imperial Fruit Co.
Winter Park
Winter Park Land Co.


Cold Hurt Californians

More Than Was Realized
An old timer in Florida, by the way, said that
Florida and California have never had damaging
frosts to citrus in the same year. We hope this
.will continue to be true.

That California damage by cold weather in
November amounts to more than some reports
indicate, is evidenced by some reports that are
leaking through. For instance, one of the
Clearing House growers who also has groves
near Lindsay in Central California, says that
all of her Navels were picked before the cold
weather and that the manager of the large
Lindsay house, through whom she ships, con-
gratulated her upon her good fortune. He ex-
plained that most of the Navels unpicked on
the three cold nights in Lindsay, were serious-
ly damaged, and that he would, therefore, be
shipping mostly under stock labels the small
amount that he felt safe in salvaging.
The Pacific Fruit World states: "While
there is no denying the fact that there has
been some damage and loss of Navels in sec-
tions of Tulare County and in unprotected,
low sections in Southern California, the ex-
tent of the damage cannot be determined as
yet."
For the Fruit World to admit this much
again is rather significant.
It is true that California growers and ship-
pers cannot determine this early the amount
of damage. It takes time for the fruit to dry
out, although the water-logged conditions in
the segments can now be seen on badly dam-
aged oranges. The cold weather hit Califor-
nia early and an early cold snap is always
more damaging than one in December or
January.

Built In
A pedestrian had fallen into a manhole and
called for help.
"Dear me," said a gentleman who happen-
ed along. "Have you fallen into that man-
hole?"
"Not at all," was the reply. "As you seem
interested I will say that I just happened to
be down here and they built the pavement
around me."


Page 6


Page 6


December 10, 1931





December 10, 1931 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Shipper-Members ofAssociation
The shippers named herewith are members of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association and
are the ONLY members of this organization. In fairness
to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House,
grower-members should urge their neighbors to join and
ship through one of these operators.
Adams Packing Co., Inc. -------- Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc .-------. Beresford
American Fruit Growers, Inc.-------- Orlando
Bilgore, David & Co._ .......---------Clearwater
Blanton Citrus Growers, Inc. ..-- ----- Blariton
Browder, D. H & Son Co.......------....... Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc._ __........ -Plant City
Chandler-Davis Co. --- ---- Lakeland
Chase Citrus Sub-Exchange..............----.--Sanford
Clearwater Citrus Co ....---- ------ Clearwater
Courtney, D. M .------- --------Palmetto
* DeSoto Packing Co., Inc -----------.------- Arcadia
Ellis, L. E...... .------...-- -------Lakeland
Fields, S. A. & Co. --------- Leesburg
Florida Mixed Car Co._-------------- Plant City
Fosgate, Chester C. Co. O----- rlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co.-- ------ Leesburg
Hills Brothers Co. of Florida, The -.---- Tampa
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.----- Davenport
Keen, J. W .------------------..Frostproof
'Keene, R. D. & Co .... ----_Eustis
Lake Charm Fruit Co.........--------------------- Oviedo
Lee County Packing Co. -----Fort Myers
Marsh, C. A., Inc -------.. Orlando
Maxcy, G. ----_--------------- Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc .------------- Frostproof
McLean, E. C ------- -- -----Palmetto
Moss Packing Co .---------.----- --_- Tampa
Mouser, W. H. & Co. --------Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc ..----------------- Oviedo
Nevins Fruit Co ........---------Titusville
Oakhurst Fruit Co., Inc.------- ---- Clearwater
Peerless Fruit Co., Inc.. __--- Palmetto
Peter, E. B.- ----Leesburg
Richardson-March Corp ....---.......--.....--Orlando
Roe, Wm. G. & Co., Inc. .----- Winter Haven
Roper, B. H -.--_ ------ Winter Garden
Sligh, S. J. & Co._ ---------Orlando
Southern Fruit Distributors, Inc. --- Orlando
Terra Ceia Citrus Growers Assn.-. Terra Ceia
Vaughn-Griffin Packing Company ---
----------------------.Howey-in-the-Hills
Waverly Citrus Growers Assn. ---in--- Waverly
Wells Fruit & Live Stock Co-....----... Arcadia
Winter Haven Imperial Fruit Co.---- -----
... -------------....----------- Winter Haven
Winter Park Land Co. --- Winter Park
Affiliated With Other Shipper Members
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn.--------
---------------.---------------- Babson Park
Belle Ridge Fruit Co., Inc._ --_ Winter Haven
Citrus Grove Development Company, The
.......-------....- -------. Babson Park
Fellsmere Growers, Inc........... --Fellsmere
Lakeland Co., Inc., The --- Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc. _Lake Wales
-Mitchell, J. M...--- -. -------------- --- Elfers
Nocatee Packing Co., Inc... ..---- ----- Nocatee
Valrico Growers, Inc .-------------Valrico
West Frostproof Packing & Canning Co. .-
------. -------West Frostproof

COMMISSION MEN TO MEET
The National League of Commission Mer-
chants will hold their fortieth annual conven-
tion next month at Miami. The dates for the
convention are from Jan. 12 to Jan. 15, in-
clusive. Headquarters will be at the Miami
Biltmore Hotel.
Details of the program have not been an-
nounced but will be published in the News as
soon as released. A considerable number of
Florida citrus growers as well as shippers are
expected to attend this convention for the
Problems to be discussed there will touch di-
rectly on Florida's own citrus marketing prob-
Slem.

Congress convenes. Maybe we'll hear some-
Sthing aboutTreimbursement now.


Calamity Predictions Fail

To Hold as Prices Advance
A few weeks ago publicity on the calamity
order was rather wide-spread in Florida. Dire
predictions were made that there would be
rapidly declining prices, and excessively heavy
shipments; yet, at the time we advised our
members that there was no reason for alarm
and the only damage that could be ahead of
us would be the damage resulting from such
uncalled-for publicity on the part of certain
marketing interests not connected with the
Clearing House.
ORANGES SHOW ADVANCE
Our own shippers went forward as usual
undisturbed. Prices on oranges instead of de-
clining have as a whole shown an advance,
and shipments have been very moderate. Our
relative position as compared with California
prices has never been so good this early in
the season. For instance, for the week ending
Nov. 5 Florida's general average at all auc-
tions, all grades and sizes, was $2.95 deliv-
ered; California's general average $3.10, or
15c higher than Florida's. For the same week
a year ago, California averaged $1.15 higher
instead of only 15c higher this year. A dol-
lar gain in our relative position with Califor-
nia should put confidence in growers and ship-
pers and is the kind of publicity that Florida
should have instead of the sort that creates
lack of confidence in Florida's product and in
her operations.
During the past four weeks California's
auction average as compared with Florida's
showed in only one week as high as 45c ad-
vance over us, the other weeks showing 5c,
25c and 15c. A year ago California was out-
selling us $1.15, $1.65, $2.00 and as high as
$3.50 for each of the four weeks.
OUTSELLING CALIFORNIA
This current week we not only are going
neck and neck, but are outselling California.
On Monday, Dec. 7, Florida sold at all auc-
tions 100 cars at a general delivered average
of $3.15. California sold on the same day 115
cars at the same price, namely $3.15. On the
same Monday a year ago, California outsold
Florida 95c a box.. On Tuesday, Dec. 8, Flor-
ida's general average on oranges at all auc-
tions was $3.35 compared with California's
general average of $3.20. On the same Tues-
day a year ago California outsold Florida 90c
a box. The following day, Wednesday, Dec. 9,
the story was repeated. A year ago, the same
day, 130 cars of Florida oranges averaged at
auction $2.55 against $3.55 for 99 cars of
Californias. This year, 53 cars of Floridas
averaged $3.35 against $3.20 for 70 cars of
Californias!
In our relative sales, especially compared
with the past, Florida is making a showing
that we can rightly be proud of, especially
when it is realized that California would have
to get 50c more per box at auction to equalize
the same net returns to the Florida grower
based on cost of production.

Dubious Luxury
Visitor-"Well, Joe, how do you like your
new little sister?"
Joe-"Oh, she's all right, I guess; but there
are lots of things we needed worse."-Path-
finder.


If


They're


Scattered


Get a binder for your
copies of the

Florida


back >


Clearing House

News



Keep every number of the
News. There isn't an issue
that doesn't contain some in-
formation you will want to
refer to, some of these days.


0


t~l




H3



tM


O









Just fill in the coupon below and mail
it in to the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association at Winter
Haven, together with dollar bill, check
or money order and the binder will be
forwarded to you.

(CUT ALONG THIS LINE)
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back
copies of the Florida Clearing House
News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out
of the U. S.) currency, check, money
order.

Name.. ------------- ------------------

Street -------------... ---- -- -----

Town ..-------------------------


Page 7





FLORIDA CLEARING 0 HOUSE NEWS


Termites and Ants Menace

Both Young and Old Trees
By J. R. WATSON, Entomologist,
State Experiment Station
(Broadcast over WRUF, December 1)
The time is here when citrus growers nor-
mally bank their young trees as a protection
against a possible freeze. This is a wise pre-
caution but is attended with some little risk,
chiefly from two insects, termites and ants.
Termites are often called white ants because
they live in their nest like ants and the work-
ers are a dirty white color, whereas the adults
have either black or brown wings. They are
not at all closely related to the true ants but
are more nearly related to grasshoppers and
cockroaches. They can be told from the true
ants not only from the color of the workers-
we have no true ants which are white in color
-but also by the absence of the slender
waist, is characteristic of ants. Termites are
often called "wood lice," a name which indi-
cates their chief article of diet, namely, wood,
nearly always rotting wood, i. e., seasoned
wood and timber, although if hard pressed by
hunger they will sometimes attack living
wood.
BANK WITH CLEAN DIRT
It is this possibility, of course, that makes
them dangerous to a banked citrus tree. Trou-
ble from termite on a citrus tree nearly al-
ways results from dead wood in the bank. In
banking the tree be sure to use only good,
clean, pure dirt, and see to it that no pieces
of rotting wood or dead wood is included. A
piece of dead wood in the bank will attract
termites, and when they have consumed this
they may, in the absence of nothing else to
eat, attack the bark of a tree and girdle it.
Sometimes a snag or dead branch on the tree
itself starts the attack of termites. All such
snags and dead branches should be pruned off
before the tree is banked, and if the scar is of
any considerable size it should be painted
with some creosote compound.
Young trees which are set too deep are
often attacked by termites, chiefly because
such trees are usually not growing vigorously
and are particularly subject to attack. The
young citrus tree should not be set deeper
than it grew in the nursery.
WHITEWASH IS OF HELP
In addition to the precautions about includ-
ing dead wood in the bank, sometimes white-
wash will give a tree an added protection, but
the whitewash should be quite liquid so that
it will adhere closely to the bark. If it cracks
away from the bark and leaves a space under-
neath, it will probably do more harm than
good, as it will give termites a hiding place.
Termites do not like light and for this reason
practically never attack that part of the tree
above ground. To make the whitewash stick
better to the bark, it is best to add to each
three gallons a handful of common table salt.
A better sticking whitewash, although more
trouble to make up, is the so-called Govern-
ment formula. To make this up slack one-half
bushel lime-good, quick, stone lime. Boil
three pounds of rice and a peck of common
salt in enough water to make a thick paste.
Mix this paste and the half-bushel of slacked
lime, and while the mixture is still hot, add
half a pound of plaster of paris and a pound


of glue dissolved in a little hot water. Then
add five gallons of water and a quart of car-
bolic acid and let it stand for a few days.
When ready to apply it, heat it and apply it
with a brush while still hot, but, of course,
not hot enough to burn the bark of the tree.
TRUE ANTS WORK INJURY
The true ants sometimes nest in the bank
of a tree and in such situations are very in-
jurious to a young tree, often killing it. Ants
frequently nest about the base of a young
tree, particularly a tree that is on a slight
mound on low land, as ants like to get nests
in a dry situation. In addition to their direct
injuries to a tree, ants injure a tree indirect-
ly by giving aid and comfort to enemies of a
citrus tree. In a banked tree these would be
chiefly cottony cushion scale or mealybugs.
These insects, like plant lice and many other
scales besides the cottony cushion scale, give
off a sweet substance called "honey dew," of
which the ants are particularly fond, so that
these insects, like aphids, can be spoken of as
the ant's cows. The ants carry them from
place to place and often drive off their ene-
mies. They will often carry them into the
bank of a banked tree where they protect
them. You thus see that the ants were the
original dairy maids. They also were the orig-
inal free-range girls, and it is in this connec-
tion that they get in bad with the citrus
grower. However, we will have to chalk up
one credit to the ants-they have never set
the woods afire to provide pasturage.
FIRST DRIVE OUT ANTS
If ants are nesting around a young tree
they should be driven out before the tree is
banked. To accomplished this, the following
formula first used on the Potter Palmer
estates has been found very effective and
safe. It is made by dissolving a pint of crude
carbolic acid and a pound of whale-oil soap in
three gallons of water. This is then emulsified
by forcing it through a hand spray pump two
or three times until one gets an even com-
plete emulsion. A shallow basin is then made
around the base of a tree and filled with this
emulsion. This results in driving the ants
away from the tree. This should be done sev-
eral days before the tree is banked. Instead
of the crude carbolic acid one can use a
pound of the crystals and can substitute any
alkaline laundry soap for the whale-oil soap.
At the time the trees are banked it would
be an excellent idea to kill out all ant nests in
the vicinity of the young trees. This can be
done with a solution of sodium cyanide in
water, or carbon bisulphide. Dissolve an
ounce of sodium cyanide in a gallon of water
and with a sharp stick punch a hole in the
middle of the nest and pour into it about half
a cupful of this solution, immediately stop-
ping up the hole by stepping on the moist
earth. Carbon bisulphide is used in the same
way, only you use about a tablespoonful to
the ordinary sized nest. If the nest is very
large the carbon bisulphide will work better
than the cyanide solution, as the gas will sink
to the bottom of the nest.
As soon as danger of frost is over in the
spring, pull down the banks. Since termites,
and particularly ants, are more active in
warm weather, the danger to the trees is
greater when the weather is warming up in
the spring. Therefore, pull the banks down as
soon as the weather is safe.


A

GUARANTEE

of

LONG LIFE



YOUR signed order for nur-
sery stock is a very important
document. The choice of young
trees and the source of supply
determines in almost every case
the success or failure of a cit-
rus grove.

THE trees are the most im-
portant consideration after all.
With everything else favor-
able-location, soil, drainage,
supervision-if the trees you
plant are not up to standard,
failure or at best mediocre suc-
cess, is inevitable.

PLANT GLEN GROWN trees
and enjoy that satisfied feeling
of confidence in the successful
outcome of your investment.

OUR prices this season have
been materially reduced in line
with lower production costs.







12en Saint QlWarj


Yurseries Co.

Write for a copy of our Special
Citrus Catalog.

WINTER HAVEN
American National Bank Bldg., in charge of
Mr. H. E. Cornell and Mr. A. G. Scott.
ORLANDO
Room 701, Orlando Bank & Trust Bldg.,
in charge of Mr. E. J: Parker.
TAMPUA
Room 312. First National Bank Bldg.,
in charge of Mr. L. L. Collins.


Page 8


December 10, 193




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