Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00074
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: October 25, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00074
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
U. S. Dept. of
Library Period
Wasington, D.


3-24 OR

FL0,R] D A

U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
Winter Haven, F a.
Permit No ,I

presenting more than 10,000
owers of Oranges and Grapefruit



Official r00I tioI of the



.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 8 Volume IV
.00 a ear rus Growers Clearing House Association, OCTOBER 25, 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven Vu
Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven. Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 187 Number 2

ideral Research Bureau For Florida Officially Opened

Lending Us A Hand

retary of Agriculture (center); H. W. von Loesecke (left) tory to Florida was so obvious, that the busy agricultural chief
r. N. Pulley (right), the two latter being the chemists at the gladly took a hand in the "house-warming" exercises and per-
itrus Products Laboratory, are giving Florida citrus growers sonally visited Florida to help make the event successful.
helping hand. The importance of the new research labora-

rd At the Dedication

Of Research Laboratory

ie following are excerpts from
formal talks made at the Citrus
lucts Laboratory dedication in
ter Haven, Oct. 23. Secretary of
culture Arthur M. Hyde, as the
,t of honor, made a somewhat
er address than the others, and
alk is -treated separately on the
nd page.
W. W. Skinner, Assistant Chief
nical and Technological Re-
ch, U. S. Department of Agricul-
,made a talk on the significance
value of research work, declar-
in reference to the Florida lab-
ory, that he and all other mem-
of the United States Depart-
t of Agriculture are tremendous-
eased at the establishment of the
a in Florida. He then pointed
that one of the problems in re-
ch work is that of translating the

results for the benefit of the industry
concerned. "One of the troubles with
our country's agriculture," he said,
"is that we are too prone to concern
ourselves with the 'cream'-over-
looking the potential value of the
'milk.' Serious attention should be
given in all lines of agriculture to
the possibilities in our products. Sci-
ence knows no limits, and for all we
know there exists at this moment,
possibly just around the corner, a
discovery that will revolutionize the
citrus industry. We, in the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, are quite op-
timistic that something fundamental
to the welfare of the Florida citrus
industry may come out of this lab-
California Aided
Dr. Skinner then told of the work
(Continued on Page Two)

Research Bureau
Opening Attracts
Industry Leaders

While attendance at the dedica-
tion of the Citrus Products labora-
tory at Winter Haven, Oct. 23, near-
ly taxed the capacity of the huge
hotel dining room in which the cere-
monies were held, it was not the
numbers of those attending but the
character of attendance that made
the event impressive. In fact, so rep-
resentative was the gathering, that
the list of the guests present, reads
rather like a Who's Who in the Flor-
ida Citrus Industry.
The presence of growers, shippers,
fertilizer and insecticide manufac-
turers, nurserymen, marketing
agency officials-and several officials
of the Clearing House-as well as
the small group of United States
Government officials and scientists,
(Continued on Page Five)

Citrus By-Products
Laboratory Building
Formally Dedicated
Secretary Hyde And Other
Government Officials At-
tend, Making Ceremony an
Impressive One.
Florida's citrus industry has taken
one of its most important forward
steps-establishment in the state of
a federal citrus by-products research
laboratory is this step for it marks a
very definite progressive move. The
establishment of this laboratory,
there being one like it in California,
and one to be established in Texas,
is regarded by the industry as of
probably more potential value than
any other accomplishment yet
recorded. Various individuals and
organizations, as well as the state
government, have done some re-
search work on citrus by-products,
but the entry of federal support and
assistance, it is felt, will develop this
phase of the industry much more
rapidly and effectively than limited
efforts and funds available in the
past have accomplished.
Event Is Celebrated
; Establishment in Winter.Haven-of
the Citrus Products Laboratory was
iharked on October 23 by a formal
dedication ceremony, attended by
Secretary of Agriculture Arthur M,
Hyde, a group of U. S. Department
of Agriculture scientists, members
of the Florida delegation in Con-
gress, and a representative gather-
ing of leaders in the Florida citrus
industry. The dedication ceremony,
inaugurated and sponsored by the
Winter Haven Chamber of Com-
imerce, was an impressive event, not
dnly because of the attendance of
men high in governmental affairs,
but because of the significance of
the thing itself; there is every reason
to believe that Florida will benefit in
time to come, even as California
growers have benefited through their
own by-product activities.
The building in which the research
work is to be done, the cost of which
was advanced by Florida interests so
(Continued on Page Two)



(Continued from Page One)
as to permit the government's mod-
erately small appropriation to be
used exclusively for research work,
was presented to and accepted by the
Federal Government as part of the
dedication ceremony. Brief talks by
Secretary Hyde and other govern-
mental officials, and an inspection of
the building by those attending the
ceremony made up the dedication
Hyde Pleases Audience
A luncheon at which the Secretary
and others made their addresses fur-
nished the principal feature of the
day. Secretary Hyde took occasion
in his talk to predict that one of the
greatest problems that Florida citrus
growers will meet will be found in
the:state's tremendous citrus plant-
ings not yet come into bearing. He
gently urged his hearers, too, to take
note of the competition our product
must meet, suggesting as a solution
to the marketing problem the crea-
tion of a national group that could
serve as a sort of national legislature
to help in the regulation of the in-
Secretary Hyde's talk (given in
full elsewhere in this issue of the
News) which while brief was listen-
ed to with marked attention. The sec-
retary spoke entertainingly as well
as convincingly, and was frequently
interrupted by applause, and with
hearty laughter at his humorous al-
lusions to various aspects of the
country's agricultural problems.
Representative Drane Presides
Judge Allen E. Walker, first presi-
dent of the Clearing House, who has
been active in the obtaining of the
laboratory for Florida, opened the
meeting by introducing Representa-
tive Herbert J. Drane, who presided
over the meeting. Mr. Drane first of
all read a telegram from Governor
Doyle E. Carlton in which the state's
Chief Executive expressed his regret
at being unable to be present, and as-
suring the Federal Government of
Florida's appreciation for the estab-
lishment of the laboratory.
L. B. Anderson, chairman of the
ways and means committee of the
Winter Haven Chamber of Com-
merce, then formally presented the
laboratory building to the Govern-
ment, outlining briefly the work
done to obtain the appropriation and
thanking Representative Drane and
others for their effective help. Dr.
Henry G. Knight, Chief of the Bu-
reau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. D.
A., accepted the building on behalf
of the Government. Following Dr.
Knight's talk, came the other speak-
ers. Excerpts from these talks are
given elsewhere in this issue of the
Mr. Drane closed the speaking pro-
gram by introducing Senator Tram-
mell, who declared he "would stand
on his prerogative as being merely
an invited guest and not a speaker,"
contenting himself with expressing
his pleasure at being present.

Off To A Good Start


The pictures above were snapped at the ceremony dedicating right, are: Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo, Dr. He:
the Federal Citrus Products laboratory at Winter Haven, Oct. 23, C. Knight, Secretary Hyde, Dr. W. W. Skinner, H. W. von Lc
ecke, Dr E. M. Chase (of California) and Dr. F. C. Blanck.
when Secretary of Agriculture Arthur M. Hyde and other gov- Chae, in a "close-up" is seen at the center. In the cer
ernmental officials visited the new bureau office. The group at the above is a glimpse of the laboratory buildings. The group at
left shows the visiting officials at the hotel where most of the right includes the governmental officials and a number of lead
dedication took place. Those in the group, reading from left to in the Florida citrus industry.

(Continued from Page One)
which has been done in citrus by-
products in California, citing an in-
stance of a bumper lemon crop year
in which 65 percent of the lemons
were used in the by-products plant-
a move that saved the growers that
year from disaster. He concluded
his talk with a word of caution
against expecting too much from the
research work. "This research," he
said, "is a work of prospecting, for
we are in fact prospecting for Flor-
ida citrus gold!"
Dr. F. C. Blanck,-Chief of Division
of Food Research, U. S. Department
of Agriculture, then told of the spe-
cific plans for the Winter Haven lab-
oratory, paying a tribute to the
Florida citrus interests by stating
that this is the first time in the his-
tory of the Department "that an in-
dustry has met part of the responsi-
bility in the Government's work of
developing the industry." Dr. Blanck
then told of the research work to be
done, some of the problems being the
finding of uses for certain by-prod-
ucts such as dried orange pulp, citrus
pectin, naringin (obtained from
grapefruit residue), hesperidin (ob-
Lained from orange residue); meth-
ods of preventing separation of or-
ange and grapefruit solids from their
respective juices; deterioration in
the flavor and color of orange juice;
commercial recovery and utilization
of grapefruit seed oil; deterioration
in the texture, flavor and color of
canned grapefruit; and the relation
of maturity and variety to these fac-

E. L. Wirt, chairman of the Ex-
change board, spoke next, stating
that the industry recognizes the need
for minimizing and eliminating
waste, and pledging the co-operation
of his organization in assisting in the
research work.
President Alfred M. Tilden, of the
Clearing House, prefaced his talk
with an interesting glimpse into the
"old days" when the coloring of cit-
rus fruit was discovered and put into
use. "The ramifications of the citrus
industry are yearly becoming more
extensive," he said. "Increasing crops
are demanding greater attention to
distribution and marketing. Lower
prices are requiring greater operat-
ing economies, the elimination of
waste and the utilization of the en-
tire" commodity. Producing districts
to be continuously prosperous must
engage in the manufacturing of cer-
tain portions of their output into re-
fined articles of commerce.
"Usually an agricultural industry
is not equipped for this purpose.
Manufacturing plants, capital and
experience are not available. Either
they come from the outside manu-
facturing world or the Federal Gov-
ernment lends the producers of the
commodity its assistance. Originally
the assistance comes in the research
field, later it comes in the commer.
cial field. In our case, there is now
established a research laboratory to
assist our newly born commercial ef-
fort in its immediate work and to
help it explore and develop new and
as yet undiscovered fields.
Lack Of Research Felt
"Such efforts result in longer and
more steady employment for local
labor, act as a buffer during com-
modity price spreads, permit an in-

dustrial earning and absorb to soA
degree seasonal surpluses. All thd
are commendable and useful. Durii
the past two decades, there have
curred continuous efforts on the pi
of some elements in our industry:
do those things. But the lack of i
search facilities has badly hamper
their well-meant effort. Too often
has resulted in throwing such effoi
into unwarranted disrepute. N
have reason now to expect other i
"I cannot close without taking c
portunity to pay my personal respe(
to the Secretary. My last conts
with him occurred shortly after t
Med fly was discovered in St. Augi
tine. We were much alarmed at t
effect the announcement of the d
cover might have on our econon
system. The Secretary promulgat
and announced publicly import
modifications of the quarantines a
then casually mentioned the disc(
ery of the fly. It was a stateman-li
handling of what might have been
unfortunate situation."

Water Transportatioi

Proves Helpf

With everybody making every i
fort possible towards economy, it
quite possible that citrus shipmel
via steamship will be increasing tl
year. Refrigerated service will
available out of Tampa to New Yc
every Tuesday, such shipments i
riving in New York 7 a. m. the f
lowing Monday. Similar refrigerate
service will be available from Jac
sonville every Friday, such shipmei
(Continued on Page Seven)


Pa t 2

October 25, 191


Secretary Hyde's Address
(Delivered at Dedication Ceremony Formally Opening Federal Citrus By-Products
Research Laboratory at Winter Haven, Oct. 23.)

At the beginning I want to thank
your chairman for what he has said
:with reference to the service of the
.Department of Agriculture. It is a
continual source of adventure and of
'delight to me to discover in the most
remote corners of human endeavor
some new manifestation of the serv-
ice of the Department. Not so very
long ago I made a fishing trip to the
,Dry Tortugas. As the boat drew up
to the pier we were met by the entire
"population of the island, consisting
Lofone one-armed man who was an
employee of the Department of Ag-
riculture, stationed there to guard
#the birds on this island on which tens
zof thousands of terns.were nesting.
V. -Not so long afterwards I happened
to be a guest at the White House in
honor of two fliers who had crossed
Ithe Atlantic and was seated next to
'Admiral Byrd. He, being a good
Democrat, immediately went to bat
lfor' higher salaries for some of his
friends. That, I believe, is a good
'Jeffersonian principle. He told me
that employees of the Department of
-Agriculture had accompanied him on
both of his trips to the North and
South Poles, and the Admiral was
,generous enough to say that except
for the studies of these Weather Bu-
Lreau people he would probably have
never reached either pole. So I am
Grateful that the Congressman has
said something about the Depart-
iment itself.
"The Good Old Days"
There were times when the Secre-
1tary of Agriculture could and did en-
joy the scientific relaxation which
*these other men enjoy. Unhappily
that time has passed. The Secretaries
pof Agriculture now depend more on
'their legs than they do on their
,heads. They are engaged from
pnerning until night leaping from
Uoe erupting volcano to another.
jse halcyon days have gone by!
.'Someone referred to some feeling
betweenn Florida and California. I
~ynt to tell you folks you are all
irong. No section of the country
ves you as California does, and as
an exhibition of this, I want to tell
rou that no sooner had the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly broken out in Flor-
la than I received a large delega-
ition from California that demanded
that Florida be relieved from that
terrible scourge.
o~eMost of you gentlemen seem to
think that this Citrus Research Lab-
oratory is the first manifestation of
the service of the Department of Ag-
riculture in the citrus industry. Far
e it from the fact. I took occasion
1b lbok up and I find that since 1888
iPe have written 159 bulletins on the
culturee and planting, and diseases
nd insects that infest, citrus fruit.
any of you have read them and
l retain your sanity you have
,lone well. I myself have written a
kw regulations which I gathered

were not entirely satisfactory, al-
though were final.
Problems Are Many
I am interested, particularly inter-
ested, here to notice that nearly
everyone has discussed solely the
production and marketing problems
of the citrus industry. There was a
time when production problems were
the real and practically the only
problems of American agriculture.
That time has long since passed. Suc-
cess in agriculture as success in
every other line of human endeavor
today is not only a production prob-
lem but a whole group of economic
problems that begin with the plant-
ing of the crop and end only after
the crop is in the hands of the con-
sumer. I wonder if any of you gen-
tlemen who look so hopefully to the
work of this laboratory in widening
the market for your product, in pro-
viding the ways and means of secur-
ing wider and better use of fruit
juices, have ever stopped to think
that probably (and I cast no reflec-
tion whatever on the laboratory
when I say this) the Eighteenth
Amendment has more to do with
your market for fruit juices than the
laboratory ever will have. And if you
look further down the gun barrel
you see what it is you are aiming at
or what object will probably receive
the benefit of the charge when you
pull the trigger.
Following To The Market
I am advised, and I do not vouch
for these figures, because I got them
from my own department, but I am
advised there are three and a half
million bearing grapefruit trees in
Florida, with another million com-
ing on, and nine million bearing or-
ange trees with three and a half mil-
lion coming on. In those figures, my
friends, I think you will find one of
the greatest problems that your in-
dustry must face. -But the problems
you are going to face are not produc-
tion problems, they are problems of
planting your crop and of following
that crop through to the last con-
sumer. That's true whether we speak
of citrus or wheat or cotton or what-
not. That's the fundamental problem
of American agriculture. In New
York City the other day I stated that
what agriculture in America most
needed was more forests, more game
reserves, more and longer golf
courses, more airports, and more
gentlemen farmers with larger acre-
age and smaller production. And, my
friends, I have a very lively feeling
that Florida would do well if they
would abolish the booster clubs, slam
shut the door of Main Street, and put
halters and blind bridles on their real
estate agents, if they expect the cit-
rus industry to go forward.
Balance And Expansion
We are attempting to answer this
problem in a large way in two direc-
tions; one is, if possible, to expand

the market, and in that field this lab-
oratory ought to be, and I hope will
be, of great service, to such an ex-
tent as to keep pace with the coun-
try's production which American in-
genuity and American initiating is
thrusting upon the market in every
single line in which agriculture is en-
gaged. Andc the other is by some
means to achieve a balance between
the volume of production and the de-
mands of the market. The time has
gone by, my friends, in any commod-
ity on which I have any information,
when American farmers can go
ahead, blindly expanding and ex-
panding their production. The time
has passed when any county in
America can produce agricultural
products without being mindful of
the competition that comes from
every other county in America. The
time has gone by when American ag-
riculture can exist unless it takes the
national viewpoint of the production
of these commodities.
And also in a great many crops-
and citrus is one-we must be mind-
ful of foreign competition. There has
been, as you know, a development of
citrus fruit in several foreign coun-
tries. Right now your exports, which
are considerable, must meet compe-
tition in Spain, Italy, Palestine and
South Africa. It is, therefore, of con-
siderable importance to the citrus
grower of Florida to know what the
posture of his production is going to
be when it meets the competition of
these other countries in the markets
of the world.
Standards in Competition
I talked not long ago with a wheat
grower who said he was not scared
of Russia or any other nation on
earth because he could produce
wheat in competition with any of
them. I admire his spunk but not his
judgment. Let us not forget that
when our crops must meet volume
competition in foreign markets,
while we may be able to do it, we can
only do it by measuring our stand-
ards of living against the standards
of living and the wage scales in for-
eign countries.
We may be right, or we may be
wrong, but I want to say to you that
the whole force of this administra-
tion is going to be put, not in the pro-
duction of a larger proportion of
wheat and cotton-we are not going
to try to measure prosperity in num-
ber of pounds or bushels or crates.
Prosperity is only going to be
achieved by profit over cost of pro-
duction being left on the farm. The
success or failure of the farm pro-
gram is going to be measured not in
a larger volume of production but in
a larger profit on the farm.
There are those who think it is
economically good to produce and
sell as cheaply as possible. There is
a school of economists who hold that
the cheapest producer should be al-
lowed to expand, that the marginal
value must either reduce his cost or
get out, and that there is no hope for
the sub-marginal man. I will tell you
as a matter of cold economics that
that is true and that is the way eco-
nomics will work unless something is
No profits mean cheap living stand-

done about it. Those who know best
know that low prices mean no profits.
ards on the farm. Cheap living stand-
ards mean cheap educational stand-
ards, and in the end cheap educa-
tional standards mean cheap people,
of the kind we do not want in
Voluntary Co-operation
Now the question is, how are we
going to achieve this balance be-
tween production and market de-
mand. Two methods are suggested.
One, for brevity's sake, I shall call
the Oklahoma and Texas plan. The
other, the voluntary plan. You know,
as having been connected with agri-
culture, I have been irked somewhat
by the continual criticisms that the
American farmer is so great an in-
dividualist and so big a fool that he
can't or won't regulate his product.
It has done me a lot of malicious
good to watch the oil people try to
regulate theirs. They are not fellows
in overalls and hickory shirts. Every
last one of these oil fellows has two
shirts, most of them have college ed-
ucations, and have millions. And yet
when they got in the same situation
agriculture is in they were so far
from controlling their own produc-
tion that they were making agree-
ments one day and bootlegging on
each other the next, and I got a lot
of fun out of it. Then came the Okla-
homa move to regulate the produc-
tion of oil with shot guns, followed
by Texas, and we hear a great many
people say that that is the proper an-
swer. I don't know whether it is or
not, but whenever the time comes in
this country when anybody except
the farmer himself can tell him how
many acres to plow and plant, we
must bid good-bye to a lot of our
ideas of human liberty, and I hope I
shall not live to see the farmers reg-
ulated by shotgun law.
Rights of the Individual
The only other way out is by the
voluntary action of the farmers
themselves, a method that is in en-
tire harmony with our political ideas,
in entire harmony with the rights of
the individual, in harmony with hu-
man rights such as liberty, and the
vast group of political rights "our
fathers have fought for these many
centuries. The only way I know is
through co-operation of the farmers
themselves. I know it is difficult. I
know there are farmers who will ride
rather than pull, the same as there
are horses that pull on the breech
rather than on the collar. The only
way I know it can be done and still
preserve the rights of the individual
which this country was set up to
guarantee, is through co-operation.
National Clearing House
You haven't been successful in or-
ganizing your own state one hundred
percent in your own industry. There
is little or no co-operation between
this and other states producing cit-
rus. Nevertheless, I maintain it is
possible to so organize Florida that
the co-operation of the farmer him-
self will control the marketing of his
product. The county organizations
can be federated into a regional or-
(Continued on Page Eight)


Page 3

Page 4


Growers' Grove Records

Are Being Standardized

By Extension Division

(By F. W. Brumley and W. R. Briggs)

A large percent of the citrus grow-
ers keep records of some type on
their groves. There are almost as
many types of records and methods
of keeping them as there are grow-
A grove record becomes of real
value when summarized and studied
at the end of the year. It will become
of greater value if kept in such a
manner that it will be possible to
compare it with the records of simi-
lar groves in the same county.
With this in mind record blanks
fof keeping a record on a bearing
citrus grove were prepared by the
Extension Service in the fall of 1930.
These were distributed in five coun-
ties by the county agents to growers
interested in having their groves in-
cluded in such a grove management

study. Each month a copy of the
record was sent to Gainesville,
through the county agent's office, for
tabulation. At the end of the year,
the grower was visited for comple-
tion and checking of the record.
At the present time the records for
76 bearing groves inLake and Orange
counties for the year 1930-31 have
been summarized and completed.
These 76 groves comprise a total of
1,239.5 acres, have a total value es-
timated by the owners of $1,170,275
and produced over $167,000 worth
of fruit in 1930-31. The average size
grove was 16.2 acres, producing an
average of 171 boxes of fruit per
acre. The costs and returns of pro-
ducing fruit on these groves is shown
in Table 1.

Table 1-Costs and Returns in Producing Fruit on Seventy-six Groves in
Lake and Orange Counties, 1930-31

Item 7
Labor, Power and Equipment__$
Fertilizer _---___.._ -_-........
Spray Materials ___ - -
Taxes --~----
Miscellaneous ... .. .......--_--
Total Expenses (except interest)
Returns for Fruit ___- ....-
Returns for Interest on Invest-
ment & Operator's Supervision_
Value of Groves.- ------- 1,
Percent Return on Investment__--

The average expense was $78.69
per acre for labor, materials, taxes
and miscellaneous expenses. This
does not include any charge for de-
preciation on trees, interest on the
investment, or supervision of the
grove work by the owner. It does in-
clude at going labor rates all work
done by the owner, his family, work
stock and equipment.
The average returns above the ex-
penses given in Table 1 of $50.34
per acre was what the owner re-

Totals Per
'6 Groves Acre
33,134.59 $ 26.73
45,670.35 36.85
2,707.07 2.18
13,004.57 10.49
3,019.37 2.44
97,535.95 78.69
167,363.72 135.03



% of

- - - _- -

ceived for interest on his investment,
and for whatever supervision he
gave the grove. This provided a 6
percent return on the average value
of $944.00 per acre.
The fruit on these 76 groves was
made up of about 2/3 oranges and
1/3 grapefruit and tangerines, and
sold for an average of $135.03 per
acre. The number of boxes of each
variety, the total value and price per
box net to the grower is given in
Table 2.

Table 2-Distribution of Fruit Sales on Seventy-six Groves, Lake and
Orange Counties, 1930-31 % of

Oranges _--....
Grapefruit ___.
Tangerines __...--
Total ___----.....



During the month of October the
summarized records for 1930-31 will
be returned to the growers in these
two counties in meetings and record
books for the new year will be dis-
tributed. Each grower will receive a
summarized copy of his record for
the grove as a whole, and on a per
acre and per box basis, compared
with the average of all groves. Meet-



Receipts Fruit
per Box Sold

$ .961

$ .788



ings will also be held and the ac-
counts summarized in the other
counties. A mimeographed summary
will be prepared on the results by
Growers having bearing groves
and wishing copies of the new record
book for 1931-32 should get in touch
with their county agents.


Much To Be Done On

Citrus By-Products,

Lab. Visitors Learn

Concrete examples of work done
and work to be done on citrus by-
products met the gaze of several
hundred visitors to the Citrus Prod-
ucts Research laboratory in Winter
Haven on the day the building was
formally opened. Not all of the equip-
ment, which is to be used by H. W.
von Loesecke, chemist in charge of
the Laboratory and his his assistant,
George N. Pulley, were in but there
were plenty "things to see" and the
visitors appeared highly impressed
and interested. The laboratory build-
ing is not a pretentious affair-in
fact it resembles a private home
more than a scientific headquarters.
About half of the building, and run-
ning its full length, is given over to
one large operating room in which
machinery for canning and preserv-
ing fruit will be installed. Two other
rooms are miniature chemical lab-
oratories, and it is here in which the
purely chemical phases of the prob-
lems to be undertaken will be stud-
ied. Two tiny offices occupy the rest
of the space in the building.
Displays of By-Products
In the two chemical laboratories
test tubes, beakers, microscopes and
other chemical paraphernalia form-
ed part of the "visitors' day" ex-
hibits. The most impressive exhibit,
however, was in the big room in
which was a display of charts, some
picturing the work and organization
of the U. S. Department of Agricul-
tur and others-more familiar to
Floridians-giving comparative fig-
ures on competitive citrus producing
areas. Three displays of by-products,
however, attracted the most atten-
tion. One was a display of several
different packs of Florida canned
grapefruit, grapefruit juice, and or-
ange juice. There were also samples
of crystalized kumquats, grapefruit
and orange peel; orange and grape-
fruit oil (cold pressed); grapefruit
seed oil (deodorized); even ferti-
lizer made from citrus residue.
At a second table was a display of
those things more popularly known
as citrus by-products. There were
jars of marmalade-orange, grape-
fruit, kumquat, and tangelo; candied
orange peel preserved in syrup; or-
ange juice, grapefruit juice, carbo-
nated grapefruit juice, spiced grape-
fruit peel, and distilled orange oil.
The third display showed a num-
ber of products that give much prom-
ise of future importance, although
uses for some'of them have as yet to
be determined. For instance, one
small jar contained a cup or so of a
malted-milk-colored powder. This
power is known as naringin and is
obtained from grapefruit skin and
pulp. There is no known use for it
as yet although, according to Dr. F.
C. Blanck, chief of Food Research
Division, it is possible that naringin
may have some medicinal value.
There was a jar also of citrus pectin,

October 25, 1931

but unlike naringin the problem wil
pectin is to find new uses for it, in
that there already is a surplus availj
able. Still another exhibit was a sani-
pie of dried orange pulp, which, a(<
cording to the chemists, has a vita,
min value and it is possible it may b
used in some manner as a food item..
It looks very much like some of th~
well known breakfast foods used
every morning in a great man)
Must Search For Uses
Hesperidin is obtained from the
orange residue and can be obtain
readily and in large quantities in thl
concentration of orange juice. Som
use of this is yet to be found. Tih
composition and uses of grapefru!
oil have not been studied but its coi"
mercial recovery and utilizatio*
seems to offer great possibilities, the
Department men explained. r
Last but not least in the line of eit
hibits were two large pans generoui
ly filled with cookies tempting to
both eye and palate. These cookieji
baked in the Government's bakery it
Washington, contained 8% drier
orange peel and pulp. That is, th&
cookies in one of the pans were ma
with the orange peel and pulp. The
other pan of cookies, which to o
sampler at least, and which were
merely flavored with orange 0
rated as second choice as a "goody.'
What is probably the major object
tive in the research work to be done
is the problem presented by deteni
ration in the flavor and the color of
canned orange juice. Another
portant problem which will probably
give the researchers considerab
work will be the finding and perfect
ing of a method preventing separa
tion of the solids from the juices in
both canned oranges and grapefruit.
Deterioration in texture, flavor an
color of canned grapefruit likewise
is a problem yet to be overcome, th
chemists say.
Briefly, the by-products wo
might to said to be the study od
methods of canning, dehydration
and cold storage preservation of
ange and grapefruit juices; of
preservation of the delicate o
flavor in orange products, the uti
zation of the juices and the p
from cull oranges and grapefri
and the utilization of dried pulp fo
cattle feed, fertilizer, and other p
poses. Production and utilization o
orange oil, of grapefruit oil, and
pectin and naringin obtained fr.
grapefruit rinds and pulp also will

"I have every confidence in y
organization, its interests and pur
poses"-George MacKay, Oklaw

"I think you have done some go
work"-J. A. West, M.D., Wint
Haven, Florida.

"I am with you in every effort
ward grower co-operation" r
Jesse N. Benson, Everett, Washin


Freight Rates Will

Get Ic a Box Hike

If Roads 0. K. Plan

I. C. C. Refuses Request For
15% Increase; Florida
Shares in Fight

Florida citrus growers will pay one
cent per hundred pounds-or prob-
ably slightly less than one cent per
box-increased freight charges, and
approximately $7.50 more per car for
refrigeration charges.
This, in substance, is the outcome
of the fight waged by the railroads
since early summer for a 15 percent
increase in their rates. The decision
of the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion, handed down Oct. 20, repre-
sents a decided victory over the rail-
roads even though, a concession
granted by the I. C. C. under certain
conditions does increase slightly ex-
isting freight rates. The increases
granted by the Commission are con-
ditioned upon certain arrangements
by the railroads for the pooling of
the revenue derived from the sug-
gested increases so as to enable the
railroads to meet their fixed interest
payments as they mature. The Com-
mission's suggestion represented a
bit of "high financing work" in that
the concession suggested will pro-
vide money for lifting railroad bonds
from their present difficulties. The
idea when first proposed by groups
of shippers was branded by railroad
men as unworkable, but the Commis-
sion regarded it as entirely feasible.
Clearing House Enters Fight
Florida has every reason to be
jubilant over the outcome of the
fight although Florida, represented
by both the Clearing House and the
Growers and Shippers League, as
well as the State Railroad Commis-
sion and other traffic organizations,
had to take off her coat and join
other interests of the country in op-
posing the railroads' aim. The Clear-
,, ing House, working hand in hand
with the Growers and Shippers
League of Florida, prepared and
presented during the summer volum-
inous briefs showing the disaster
that would befall the Florida citrus
industry if such a high freight rate
increase was granted.
The railroads of the country open-
ed their fight the middle of last June,
the first hearing being held before
the entire Commission in Washing-
ton beginning July 15. Further hear-
ings were taken at various points
throughout the United States, Flor-
ida being represented at the hearing
held in Atlanta during August. The
Commission's decision approved an
increase of one cent per hundred
pounds on oranges, grapefruit, limes
and other citrus fruits, and an in-
creased rate of $7.50 per car for re-
frigeration charges where the
freight rate increase is one cent per
hundred pounds. A ten dollar refrig-
eration charge increase where the
freight rate is increased two cents
per hundred pounds also was approv-

ed by the I. C. C. Switching charges
also may be increased 10 percent
(subject to an exception in the Chi-
cago district).
In commenting upon the decision,
Mr. J. Curtis Robinson of the Grow-
ers' and Shippers' League of Florida,
"The increase of 15 percent in all
freight and refrigeration charges
was vigorously opposed by the Grow-
ers' and Shippers' League of Florida
which represents about 85 percent of
the citrus tonnage and a substantial
portion of the vegetable tonnage of
the state. The increase was also vig-
orously opposed by the State Rail-
road Commission of Florida in be-
half of all industries. A number of
other traffic organizations of the
state also opposed the increase.
What Railroads Wanted
"Figures presented by us to the
Commission showed that an increase
of 15 percent in the freight rates on
an average movement of ctirus fruit
from Florida would approximate
considerably in excess of $2,059,000
and possibly as much as $2,844,000.
It was also shown that the proposed
increase in freight rates on vegeta-
bles would approximate $1,525,000.
The proposed increase in refrigera-
tion was estimated to amount to
about $391,000. In other words we
figured the proposed increase on the
citrus fruit and vegetable tonnage of
Florida would approximate a mini-
mum of $3,975,000 and as much as
"If the carriers comply with the
Commission's recommendations for
pooling to be obtained from the sug-
gested increases, which as I under-
stand it are a condition upon which
the proposed increases are granted,
then I estimate the increase in the
charges for transportation on our
perishables based on an average
movement will approximate $150,-
000 for citrus, $146,000 for vegeta-
bles and $247,000 for refrigera-
tion, or a total of $543,000.
"When the proposed increase was
estimated to approximate between
$3,975,000 and $4,760,000 it shows
that by the efforts of the League and
others the industry was saved be-
tween $3,000,000 and $4,000,000 in
this temporary emergency proposed

(Continued from Page One)
gave ample proof that the establish-
ment of the laboratory is regarded
as of vital importance to the Florida
citrus industry.
Just a Few of Them
There is not space here to print
the full list of guests attending the
dedication ceremony, but the names
of some, picked at random, will indi-
cate the interest taken in the event.
Here are the names of a few who
Frank K. Anderson, the Citrus In-
dustry magazine; G. B. Aycrigg,
Winter Haven C. G. A.; C. C. Com-
mander, F. C. E.; W. R. Hill, Flor-

ence C. G. A.; Frank L. Holland,
Polk County Agent; H. Harold
Hume, Experiment Station, Gaines-
ville; J. A. Jefferies, Lake Alfred Ex-
periment Station; J. W. Keen, Frost-
proof; C. W. "Joe" Lyons, Tampa;
C. T. Melvin, Tampa; Jim Morton,
Committee. of Fifty; O. C. Owens,
Eloise Growers, Inc.; W. L. Peder-
sen, Waverly C. G. A.; J. Curtis Rob-
inson, Florida Growers' & Shippers'
League; Lester Sisler, Bordo Prodr
ucts Company; John A. Snively, F:
C. E.; J. J. Taylor, State Chemist;
Norman H. Vissering, Chairman
Committee of Fifty; Marvin H. Wal-
ker, The Florida Grower magazine;
J. A. Watkins, Holly Hill Fruit
Products, Inc.
Clearing House Group
Representing the Clearing House
were President Alfred M. Tilden,
Directors Dr. E. C. Aurin, J. C.
Chase, O. F. Gardner, W. J. Howey,
L. P. Kirkland, J. H. Letton, A. R.
Trafford, R. B. Woolfolk and Man-
ager Archie M. Pratt.
From Washington in addition to
Secretary of Agriculture Arthur M.
Hyde, were the following: Senator
Park M. Trammell, Representative
Herbert J. Drane (who presided),
Dr. F. C. Blanck, Chief of Division
of Food Research; Dr. Henry C.
Knight, Chief of the Bureau of

Keep every issue of the
News. There isn't a num-
ber that doesn't contain
some information you will
want to refer to, some of
these days.

Chemistry and Soils, and Dr. W. W.
Skinner, Assistant Chief Chemical
and Technological Research. In ad-
dition Dr. E. M. Chase, Los Angeles
Senior Chemist in charge, Labora-
tory of Fruit and Vegetable Chem-
istry, Research Division, Bureau of
Chemistry and Soils in Los Angeles;
H. W. von Loesecke, in charge and
G. N. Pulley, chemists at the labora-
tory, also were present.

"Wishing the Clearing House
every success"-Frank J. Drybaugh,
Sandwich, Illinois.

"I firmly believe you are on the
right track"-A. B. Johnson, Orlan-
do, Florida.

". .. Please accept from a small
new-comer in the citrus industry my
assurance that I am heartily in favor
of the Clearing House"-R. C.-Duf-
fe, Bradenton, Florida.

"There is no reason why you cannot
grow into greater power as time goes
on"-J. W. Kyte, San Mateo, Fla.

". .. It does seem to me that the
Clearing House is very much need-
ed"-Nellie C. Snyder, Oelwein, Ia.

A New Volume

of the


Clearing House


Has Begun

Fill in the coupon below
and mail it to the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association at Win-
ter Haven, together with
dollar bill, check or money
order and the binder will
be forwarded to you post-

(Cut Along this Line)
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back copies of the Florida
Clearing House News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out of the
U. S.) currency, check, money order.

N am e ... ........ ........... .. .......... ........ ..........

Street............................... ......... .. ........ ........ ..........

Town .....- .... .... ....- ......-- .......--.............. ....

IC -

October 25 193 1

Page 5


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending October 24, 1931)

Florida has had two weeks of se-
verely heavy movement of grape
fruit, 672 cars having been shipped
this past week ending Oct. 24; 467
the week previous. We estimate 700
cars for this week ending Oct. 31.
The auction average of $3.00 deliv-
ered, all grades and sizes, this past
week is 20c less than a year ago
when a similar volume of fruit sold
at auction. F. O. B. prices are about
25c less than a year ago, yet we all
know that this drop in prices is not
the result of shipping poor fruit. The
juice content was established before
the season started and has been ad-
hered to strictly and never before
has the maturity enforcement law
been handled more severely and
The total movement through Sat-
urday was 1302 cars against 2505
cars a year ago, or 1200 cars less, or
a little over half as much as a year

ago. We see no other conclusion than
that the buying capacity of the pub-
lic, their timidity in taking hold of
grapefruit as a necessity in the home
under present economic conditions is
reflected in the above situation. One
possible encouraging phase, how-
ever, is the fact that prices dropped
early, and, if there is any virtue in
starting a new crop at low, reason-
able prices, we have done it this year
in grapefruit. If the retailers and
chain stores will make a rapid turn-
over on a close margin the consum-
ers will get the benefit and will not
get the idea that grapefruit is too
high for them to afford.
Picking For Sizes
Shippers are generally picking for
70s and larger. This has resulted in
bringing up our sizes this year to al-
most the identical sizes that we were
shipping a year ago at this time as
indicated in the following:

Average Sizes Week Ending October 24. (171 Cars)
36s 46s 54s 64s 70s 80s 96s 112s

6 23 72 81 76 78 24 -
Average Sizes Same Week Last Year. (235 Cars)
36s 46s 54s 64s 70s 80s 96s 112s

5 19 69 78 81 77 28

Because of increasing the propor-
tion of 70s and larger and decreas-
ing the proportion of 80s and smaller
the auction prices have shown a ten-
dency to even out, the drop on 80s
and smaller not being as great as
heretofore and the premium on 54s
and larger being less. With grape-
fruit prices being no higher than
they are, the tendency will be to con-
tinue picking mostly 70s and larger
so as to relieve the trees of the large
sizes that later might be off-size or
too coarse, with the result that we
will probably see prices become more
even this week as to all sizes with a
drola oin the 4lager sizes and prob-
ably a steady tendency on the medi-
um to small sizes.
Bulk Grapefruit
Bulk grapefruit shipments have
been very light so far, but with
prices getting down where they are



the tendency will be to increase the
bulk movement, particularly in an
effort to force a higher distribution
in the South and Mid-west in com-
petition with Texas.
Texas Shipments
Movement from Texas was light
this past week, only 68 cars having
been shipped. The disastrously low
prices Texas received on her very
small sizes put a stop to her free
movement of Duncan grapefruit.
Texas started moving Marsh Seed-
less, but the small sizes in Marsh
Seedless, as well as the maturity
standard, is interfering with the.free
movement of this variety. You will
notice in the following tabulated
figures that Texas sizes have been
very much smaller than a year ago,
averaging only 28 boxes 70s and
larger, 92 boxes 80s and 240 boxes
96s and smaller.

Texas Average Sizes Past Week. (62 Cars)
36s 46s 54s 64s 70s 80s 96s 112s 126s
4 10 14 92 152 68 20
Texas Average Sizes This Week Last Year. (27 Cars)
36s 46s 54s 64s 70s 80s 96s 112s 126s
5 21 28 32 113 105 15 36

Grade Analysis
The manifests received through
last week indicate that grapefruit
has graded out 55 percent No. Is,
38 percent No. 2s and 7 percent No.
3. This is a year where a No. 3 should
not go on the market. The Clearing
House is doing what it can to get an
agreement between packing units,
whether in the Clearing House or
not, to eliminate the shipment of any

cull grapefruit and any No. 3 grade.
Shippers would not pack No. 3 grade
if the growers would insist that this
fruit be taken from the market, but
the difficulty exists in the fact that a
grower expects his fruit to pack out
as many boxes as he delivers in field
boxes. If growers would only realize
the necessity of destroying in a year
like this low grade fruit, or low value
off-sizes, everybody would be better


off and the net returns to the indus-
try would be decidedly higher.
Orange Situation
Only 92 cars of oranges went for-
ward for the past week ending Oct.
24, as compared with 749 cars a
year ago. Week before last only 11
cars went forward as compared with
297 cars a year ago. Possibly not
over 250 cars of oranges will go for-
ward this week as compared with
860 cars last year. This is not due so
much to late maturity as it is to the
common sense realization on the part
of growers and shippers of the vast
quantity of California's late valen-
cia crop which is still arriving and
generally giving good satisfaction,
both as to color and eating quality,
though naturally it shows some
shrivel and age.
Our new crop oranges that have
sold in contrast with California's old
crop valencias show the strong pref-
erence still existing in the auction
markets. Such oranges as are picked
immediately should, if possible, be
sold in the private sale markets and
in selecting the oranges in picking,
color must be considered or results
will be disappointing. This again is
necessary on account of the full
color on California's old crop valen-
cias in contrast with the pale color
naturally existing on any new crop.
Sizes also must be selected as well
as color. The general feeling seems
to be that another week or two will
give growers a better betting chance
of realizing more money than at-
tempting to force our oranges on the
market before the trade is ready for
Wired Advice From California
A wire from the California Fruit
Growers Exchange estimates Cali-
fornia will be shipping about 900
cars of valencias this week, leaving
about 700 cars of valencias to move
after Nov. 1. They also advise a
probability of about 50 cars of nav-
els moving this week and 200 for the
week ending Nov. 7. The heavy
movement of California oranges, es-
timated at 900 cars for the week
ending Oct. 31, compares with 167 a
year ago, 281 the year before that,
with the previous years' heaviest
movement being 344 back in 1926.
In other words, Florida, if it at-
tempted to move oranges too heavily
right now, would be competing with
abnormally heavy shipments of Cal-
ifornia's last year's crop, that is still
getting a preference over new crop
oranges regardless of where from.
Looking Ahead
It would therefore seem the part
of wisdom that Florida is holding
back in her orange shipments as she
is, awaiting a chance to compete
more effectively with California's
new crop navels, which will not start
moving in any volume until the first
week in November. We know that
our oranges are better eating than
California's new crop oranges,
smoother skinned and more juicy. By
waiting we may also be able to com-
pete with California's new crop in
color. California's new crop navels

October 25. 1931

also will run naturally to fairly large
sizes which will give Florida a chance
to be moving her smaller sizes to bet-
ter advantage than against the very
heavy supplies of very small sizes ex-
isting in California's valencia ar-
Truck Prices
Already there have been quite a
number of sales by truck, recent
sales showing up about $2.00 on
good grade but small sized oranges,
with prices ranging from $1.50 to
$1.35 on low grades or off-sizes,
navels generally selling around
$1.50. We will be gathering regular-
ly, from now on, truck information
and passing it back as to grade, va-
riety and distribution to all of our
packing units so that they may be
advised in order to avoid any useless
cutting of price and to effectively
put a stop to misinformation from
Truck Shipments
Through Oct. 23 the total truck
movement as turned in by Commis-
sioner Mayo shows 14,145 boxes of
oranges, 35,799 boxes of grapefruit
and 41 tangerines. In carlot units
this would be 39 cars of oranges and
99 cars of grapefruit, or 7 percent of
the total grapefruit movement by
rail has moved by truck and half of
the orange movement by rail has
moved by truck, the total being in
both cases in addition to the total
government figures reported.
This high percentage of truck
movement in oranges of course is not
representative of a normal tendency
but it does show why the trade are
finding it difficult to buy oranges f.
o. b. in carload lots in the South.
The same is true of grapefruit. The
disproportionately heavy movement
of oranges by truck also, caused by
the predominance of small sizes and
the heavy volume of old crop valen-
cias from California on the market,
make it seem advisable to many to
sell to trucksters than chance getting
more through the usual channels.
Further Drop Grapefruit Prices
Today (Oct. 26) 119 cars of
grapefruit sold at the various auc-
tions at a general average of only
$2.60 delivered for Florida grape-
fruit, with six cars of Texas grape-
fruit averaging $2.00 delivered. If
Florida growers in general are fa-
miliar with such prices, it would
seem that they as well as the ship-
pers would voluntarily cut down
shipments. Later on when the fruit is
more delightful eating our shipments
can be speeded up. $2.60 delivered
is certainly not a price that should
encourage shipments, but if each in-
dividual thinks the other fellow is
going to stop he is mistaken.

"I am in sympathy with the princi-
ples and aims of the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Associa-
tion"-Geo. P. Raney, Tampa, Fla.

"I have been favorably impressed
with the results obtained through the
Clearing House"-H. P. Moulton,
M. D., Petersburg, Illinois.

Ocoe 2513

i ....


Fertilizer Problems

Aided by Uniformity

In Recommendations

Gainesville Authorities Give
Preference to Grove Prac-
tise In Group Advice

Uniform recommendations on fer-
tilization problems in Florida have
just been issued by a special com-
mittee representing the Florida State
College, the Experiment Station and
the Agricultural Extension Division.
The committee's recommendations
are guides for the growers of the
principal agricultural productions,
and the recommendations for citrus
are given herewith.
Practical Methods
A general demand for more uni-
form recommendations led the au-
thorities of the three departments
mentioned above to go thoroughly
into the subject some four or five
months ago. Study of actual grove
practices entered largely into the
committee's recommendations, and
for this reason should prove of prac-
ticable assistance to all growers. The
recommendations covering citrus
fertilization are as follows:

Local conditions, such as moisture,
soil type, cover crop, variety, root-
stocks, etc., play an important part
in the behavior of citrus trees to-
ward fertilizer treatments. There-
fore, the fertilizer recommendations
herein set forth are subject to local
Organic Matter
Most citrus soils in Florida are low
in organic matter. Moreover, it is
generally recognized that organic
matter increases the efficiency of the
fertilizer as well as improves the
quality of the soil. Therefore, the
committee recommends that at least
three tons (dry weight) of coarse or-
ganic matter, in the form of cover
crops (or hauled into the groves) be
applied to each acre of grove soil an-
Fertilizer Nutrients
Chemical analysis shows that the
average Florida citrus soil (virgin)
is low in the essential fertilizer nu-
trients- nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium. Citrus production has
been obtained by adding these ele-
ments to the soil from time to time.
Inorganic Sources of Nitrogen
Sulphate of ammonia and nitrate
of soda have been used most exten-
sively and have given satisfactory re-
Newer Sources of Nitrogen
The newer sources of chemical ni-
trogen have not been tested as ex-
tensively or for as long a period, but
indications are that the following
may be recommended for further
trial by the growers:-urea, nitrate
of lime, urea-nitrate of lime, nitrate
qf potash, nitrate of soda potash,

ammonium phosphate and ammon-
ium nitrate sulphate.
Organic Sources of Nitrogen
Under tests certain single sources
of organic nitrogen have not been as
efficient as sulphate of ammonia and
nitrate of soda. However, organic
sources in combination with inorgan-
ics have been extensively used, and
may be used where prices and condi-
tions justify.
Sources of Phosphoric Acid
Superphosphate has been the most
satisfactory source of phosphoric
acid under ordinary grove condi-
tions. Other sources of phosphates
may be used for trial by the grower
when the delivered unit price is in
keeping with economic practices.
Sources of Potash
High grade sulphate of potash has
been the most commonly used source
of potash under average conditions,
but muriate of potash seems practi-
cally as good so far as it has been
tested. The following sources of pot-
ash are recommended for further
trial by the grower-nitrate of pot-
ash, nitrate of soda potash, and sul-
phate of potash-magnesia.
Ratio of Fertilizer Nutrients
From an analysis of citrus fruit
and trees, a ratio of 4-1-5 would take
care of crop needs. But due to the
differences in availability and ab-
sorption of the nutrients by the soil,
especially phosphates, the above ra-
tio of fertilizer nutrients has not al-
ways been satisfactory. This is espec-
ially true with heavy soils with a
high phosphate fixing power. On the
other hand recent studies show that
the sandy soils of the citrus belt have
a low phosphate fixing power, but a
high retaining power for phosphate,
and it is not necessary to add a high
proportion of phosphate in the fer-
tilizer as is the case on the heavy
clay soils, or loams of other sections
of the country. In many instances
the results indicate that a ratio of
one-half phosphoric acid to one of
ammonia would supply all the phos-
phorus needs of old groves on the
sandy soils of the citrus section. With
all angels considered it appears safe
to add a ratio approximately 1-1-1 '
Time and Rate of Application
It is the usual practice to apply
fertilizer to citrus according to the
age and bearing capacity of the
trees. This practice, however, is sub-
ject to criticism, because of the ir-
regular bearing habits of trees, as
well as the differences in size of the
trees due to variations in soil, root-
stock, etc. Recent studies show that
under ordinary conditions the spread
of the tree or the tree size would be
a more correct index of tree needs
than age and bearing capacity. So
the recommendations suggested here-
in base the rate of application on the
actual tree spread (diameter of top).
This amounts to approximately .13
of a pound each of ammonia, phos-
phoric acid and potash per foot
spread of tree. Preliminary field
measurements show that this com-
pares favorably with grove practices.
For a large part of the citrus belt

experimental results and field obser-
vations indicate that the most re-
liable results can be obtained under
general conditions with three appli-
cations of nitrogen per year-spring,
summer, fall. But due to the retain-
ing power of the soil for phosphates
and potash, there is apparently little
to be gained by adding the phos-
phoric acig and potash three times
per year.
Method of Application
The fertilizer should be applied
evenly over the soil surface as far as
the roots extend.
Fertilizer Recommendations for
Bearing Citrus Groves*
(Each of the following programs
is complete within itself):
Time of application, kind and
amount of fertilizer materials and
mixtures to be applied per foot of
tree spread (or diameter of top) is
shown in each of the following three
One pound mixed fertilizer, 5-6-3,
or its equivalent.
One pound 4-6-8 or equivalent to
trees under 10 years old.
One pound 4-6-10 or equivalent to
trees over 10 years old.
Fall--October-December* *
One pound 4-6-5 or equivalent to
trees under 10 years old.
One pound 4-6-8 or equivalent to
trees over 10 years old.
One-fourth pound nitrate of soda
or one-fifth pound ammonium sul-
phate. Organic nitrogen may be used
when justified by prices and condi-
For further trial by growers-
One-fourth pound nitrate of soda-
potash or nitrate of lime, one-eighth
pound urea-nitrate of lime, or one-
twelfth pound urea, or equivalent
amounts of materials recommended
for trial.
(a) Repeat the spring application
of nitrogen, reducing the amount 10-
20 percent where spring cultivation
is practiced and 20-30 percent fol-
lowing a heavy legume cover crop.
(b) One pound superphosphate
(16 percent) or the equivalent. This
may be reduced 50 percent in groves
over 20 years old. Other sources of
phosphorus may be used when justi-
fied by delivered unit price condi-
(c) One-sixth pound sulphate or
muriate of potash to trees under 10
years of age. one-fifth pound to older
trees or trees believed to need more
potash. Other potash materials may
be used in equivalent amounts.
Fall-October-December* *
Repeat summer application (a)
and (c).
Use spring application in Material
Fertilizer Program.

One pound 4-8-8 or equivalent to
trees under 10 years old.
One pound 4-8-10 or equivalent to
trees over 10 years old.
Fall--October-December* *
Same as summer application.
For trees 1 to 6 years old reduce
the regular fertilizer from 30
percent to 5 percent respective-
ly. On heavy hammock the total
amount of plant food may be
somewhat reduced.
** For each program of fertilizer
practices, apply one-half to
three-fourths the spring appli-
cation of nitrogen in August or
September to non-bearing trees,
and to trees showing the need
of nitrogen, and where a heavy
non-legume cover crop has been
turned into the soil.
*** Fall application of fertilizer
may be reduced 'r eVen mYnttted
in northern part of citrus belt
or where conditions seem to jus-
tify the practice.


(Continued from Page Two)
arriving in New York 7 a. m. Mon-
The fruit shipped from Tampa to
New York costs 55c a box plus 15c
a box for precooling services before
being loaded on the boat. The refrig-
erated service of the Clyde-Mallory
Lines requires that the fruit be
brought down to a maximum temper-
ature of 40 degrees before being
loaded on their boat where refrige-
rated service is made available with-
out additional cost to the 55c per
box. During the time when it is nec-
essary to ship by rail under refrige-
ration the Tampa service means a
gross saving of about 45c, out of
which the expense of trucking the
fruit from the packing house to the.
terminal station in Tampa must be
paid. If the rate is compared with the
shipment of the same fruit by rail to
New York there would he a. grol.
saving of about 20c out of which the
trucking from the packing house to
the terminal would have to be paid.
From Jackosnville the steamship
company has made a combination
rail and steamship rate where from
any point in Florida to New York a
saving is made of 32.6c per box
where refrigeration is used by rail
and by water or 16.2c per box where
ventilation is used by rail and by
water. The boats leaving Jackson-
ville Tuesday and Sunday have ven-
tilation only, whereas, Friday's boat
makes refrigeration or ventilation
One of the greatest difficulties in
shipping a greater proportion of the
crop via steamer is the fact that it
throws such great quantities of fruit,
if it were used heavily, into one mar-
ket. The same fruit loaded in a car
can be diverted quite freely in ac-
cordance with the demands of the

October 25,193 1

Page 7





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.
E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
0. F. GARDNER Lake Placid
W. J. HOWEY Howey in the Hills
L. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
A. M. TILDEN Winter Haven
B. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando

Protect Yourself
Against Red Ink
What are you as a grower doing to protect
yourself against the possibility of red ink re-
turns? It is your fruit. You have a right to
take every precaution that seems wise, but do
you take such precautions?. Are you alertly
watching things? What are you doing about
Everyone of the grower-members of the
Clearing House has a right to know what is
going on and, through arrangements made
with the State Marketing News Service in
charge of Mr. Willson here in Winter Haven,
you are entitled to receive not only the actual
government figures from day today and com-
parisons with other years, but also the average
auction returns and the prices realized by
sizes on selected representative brands. This
auction information is furnished the Market
News Service through the courtesy of the
Clearing House and for the purpose of intel-
ligently informing the growers of Florida what
is happening in the various markets. Already
this auction advice which has been passed on
to you has shown danger signals and in some
cases red ink. In one case, a lot of No. 2 or-
anges showed selling for only $2.00 on 216s,
$1.70 on 250s and $1.50 on 288s, delivered at
destination. No. 2 grapefruit in 96s has re-
cently been shown as selling at $1.55 deliver-
ed, $2.20 on 80s and a sale the day before of
$1.75 on 96s and $2.10 on 80s in No. 2s with
only $1.60 on 126 grapefruit. :
The question comes up, why should your
shipper take the chance? One:reason is be-
cause the average grower does not yet realize
in a year like we are in the necessity of elimi-
nating dangerous sizes and grades. If the
grower does not get a proper p:ack-out there
is a tendency to suspect the shipper of either
inaccuracy or of deliberately crediting some
of his fruit to the shipper or some other
grower. In every tough year that comes along
there are vast quantities of off-sizes and off-
grades that never should have been shipped.
You have seen it year after year. Yet, what
are you as a grower doing about it? It is true
that you kick and protest-and blame the ship-

per. Is it true that you have cautioned your
shipper to take no chances on the off-sizes that
are in over-supply? Is it true that you have cau-
tioned your shipper to not ship any No. 3s and
that you will be satisfied with whatever the
pack turns out if he ships only that fruit which
he knows positively will bring a fair return?
Take this present season. It is a mighty hard
old deal to get mass action on the part of the
shippers.as a whole in Florida or on the part of
the growers in Florida en-masse, but, if you
and every individual grower would realize
that you had it in your own hands to bring
about decidedly better conditions here in Flor-
ida by giving strict instructions never to ship
by truck or by rail or boat any No. 3 or cull
fruit or to give instructions on sizes that you
could see were dangerously close to red ink,
you would have a very different picture at the
end of the season than you will have if you do
nothing about it.
Individually, you should exercise such judg-
ment even if the rest of the growers don't. We
don't mean to do so blindly or arbitrarily but
rather as a result of intelligently analyzing
the auction prices furnished you daily and
then handling the matter after consulting very
frankly with your shipper.
An attitude of this kind with your shipper
will not only put him on guard for your inter-
est but will show him that you are not of the
"penny wise, pound foolish" type, that you
would rather have a little less pack-out and
get more money even though it does make you
a little peeved to think that you went to the
expense of picking certain sizes or certain
grades and can probably get nothing back for
them. There is no use in paying the railroads
and everybody else but yourself for such
things when the chances are in favor of you
getting red ink.
Take your shipper into your confidence.
Study the market reports you are getting, the
increase or decrease in shipments, figure that
to break even, auction average must realize
from $2.10 to $2.30 a box, depending on your
distance from the market, your picking and
hauling expenses, etc. Realize, too, that the
averages reported by sizes are on representa-
tive brands and not on No. 3 fruit or fruit in
bad condition. If every grower in Florida
watched more alertly and studied more care-
fully the marketing problem that is available
in simply watching auction averages and daily
shipments and then talked these things over
with his packing house manager and thorough-
ly satisfied himself that he was taking no
chance of red ink returns, it would bring about
much better relations between grower and
shipper by friendly, open understanding and
certainly better results for Florida as a whole.
Time and again we have had shippers say that
unless they take a chance, if there is any
chance at all of realizing something for their
growers, their growers severely criticize them
for eliminating off-grades or off-sizes and in-
fer at times even crookedness because of the
low pack-out as compared with the total num-
ber- of boxes delivered.
A right attitude on the part of growers along
the line suggested would make it possible for
the different marketing organizations, ship-
pers and their packing units to be less fearful
about boldly taking hold of this whole prob-
lem this tough year and doing the common-
sense thing that would realize the most money

for the growers by removing from
the markets the surplus that has a
chance at present of realizing only a
dime or fifteen cents for the grower
with a possibility of showing a dime
or a quarter red ink. No matter
whether the grower is at fault or the
shipper at fault it is the grower's
fruit and the grower pays the bill,
and it is therefore his privilege and
his responsibility to decide whether
or not he is ready to take these
chances. It is also the shipper's duty
to honestly and frankly advise and
not be afraid of losing a grower or
antagonizing him because he is giv-
ing facts that may not be real com-
fortable to present.
We are beginning a new season. A
fearless facing of disappointing
facts together on the part of the
grower and his shipper is necessary.
There is no use of anyone kidding
himself or anyone else. It is no time
for prevention; it is time for econ-
omy, and nothing is more extrava-
gant than shipping the thousands of
boxes that will normally be shipped
in a year such as this that will bring
red ink, unless a closer, more alert
and more understanding relationship
is established between growers and
their packing units in intelligently
avoiding chances of red ink returns.
Watch low grades and off sizes.

(Continued from Page Three)
ganization. The same thing can be
done in California. The representa-
tives of the various states and larger
organizations can set up a larger or-
ganization of citrus growers who can
sit in Washington or some place else
and act as a national legislature of
citrus produce, which can pass back
to the states a regulation on produce
which shall be both equitable and
fair and that will bring back to the
citrus growers profits that are equit-
able and fair.
I didn't start out to say that, but I
do want to say that in the Federal
Farm Board and the Federal Mar-
keting Act American agriculture has
a machine which has been given to
the farmers of no other nation of the
world, to do just that thing. This
national legislature can plan to pro-
duce and balance its production
against the market and through that
same co-operative the American
farmer can follow his product into
the markets of the world and bring
back to the farm that life-giving
profit which is going to make an
American standard of living on an
American farm and a prosperity that
will make these states of ours bloom.

"I am with you"-H. W. Wilcox,
West Farmington, Ohio.

"Keep up the good work"-W. A.
McCausland, Mansfield, Pa.

"You are doing a good work for
the citrus growers; I am with you"-
Geo. P. Featherstone, Clermont, Fla.

"Good luck"-G. H; White, St.
Cloud, Florida.

October 25, 1931

Page 8

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