Bureau of Arig. Econ-,
U. S. Dept. of Arig..
Washington. D. C.
U. S. Postage
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1
Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA
Official Publication of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION
$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81,
$2.00 a Y r rus Growers Clearing House Association, SEPTEMBER 25 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven Volume III
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg.. Winter Haven. Fla. Florida. under the Act of March 8, 1879. Number 24
SBetter Handling Methods
To Be The Watchword Of
Clearing House Shippers
If a vote was taken, Clearing
House packing house managers un-
questionably would choose to fore-
go the comfort of rolled-up sleeves
and coatless existence for a few
chilly nights which at least would
bring down the sleeves. Warm
weather for the ripening of fruit
doesn't lessen the packing house
manager's problems one whit and
most of them feel they have enough
worries at best.
Last season due to favorable
weather conditions, the industry
got through with a minimum of de-
cay trouble. This year, as is well
recognized, may be another story
and hence it is that the vast major-
ity of growers, shippers and packing
house managers are laying plans to
see to it that the fruit in which they
individually are interested is hand-
led with care. There was a time,
not so long ago, when little or no
attention was paid to the matter of
handling fruit. The resultant decay
has gradually brought about a gen-
eral realization that it pays and pays
well to handle fruit carefully.
To Eliminate Decay
During the past year or two,
Clearing House shippers have been
giving considerable study and
thought to the matter of more care-
ful handling of fruit, for it is being
recognized that careless handling
methods invariably increase decay
and loss percentages. This .year
there appears to be a concerted ef-
fort all along the line among Clear-
ing House shippers to keep decay
trouble at a minimum. Volume, as
a sole objective, is being frowned
upon and in its place the shippers
are planning to use even more care
in the handling of the fruit than
they ever have before. Volume of
fruit means lowered operation costs
in any packing house but it is being
recognized too that the handling of
tremendous volumes might in turn
necessitate careless handling in the
interest of speed with the result that
damage to the fruit could more than
offset the gain in lowered packing
It is difficult to point out whether
most damage done to fruit occurs in
the picking of it or after it reaches
the packing house. The Clearing
House this month is going into the
handling problem for the benefit of
its grower and shipper-members and
is investigating ways and means of
reducing damage to the fruit. Flor-
ida has many advantages over Cali-
fornia in her oranges in that our
product has a greater juice content, a
superior flavor, a thinner and
smoother skin and the full packed
box is ordinarily neater and more at-
tractive. California growers, how-
ever, excel us somewhat in their
methods of handling fruit. Some of
their picking and packing house pre-
cautions are given herewith, and
those in Florida who have not been
practising these precautions, would
do well to do so:
Use only blunt nose and well-
sharpened Tuttle type clippers.
The picker's left hand and usu-
ally the right also, is gloved to pre-
vent nicking by the finger nails.
(Continued on Page Four)
The necessity for every citrus
grower in Florida working with the
others was forcibly illustrated this
month at several of the Clearing
House Citrus Conferences by Jim
Morton, former Committee of Fifty
chairman and speaker at a number of
the meetings. Morton, in opening his
talk, advised his listeners that he was
going "to play a little game of 'Sup-
pose.' He then drew a picture of
three growers (owners of the entire
Florida crop) who were compelled
to "get together" in marketing their
fruit. This is how he told the story:
"I want you to suppose that every
citrus grove in the state of Florida is
under the ownership of three indi-
viduals, that three men in Florida
own every grove that is in the state.
These three men are you,-and I
want each one of you to take 'you'
personally-you, John Smith of Eus-
tis, and Jim Morton of Auburndale,
own all the groves in the state of
Florida. We have never met each
other; we don't know each other.
We each are running our own busi-
ness in our own way, without inter-
ference from anybody. We have been
prosperous for a great many years,
so very prosperous that we have con-
tinued to add to our acreage and
every available acre that we own has
been planted out just as fast as was
"Day of Awakening"
"But finally there comes a day
when we are given serious thought.
We find that on that particular day,
New York, which, we shall say, would
readily take 100 carloads of our fruit
and pay a decent price for it, has had
(Continued on Page Four)
Speaking Of Our Opportunities
Restaurants in the United States ought to con- Of all money spent by consumers for food,
sume more citrus fruit. The total annual restau- over 22 percent is spent for meals in restaurants.
rant sales approximate $2,500,000.000. If the country's 23,000 leading restaurants
One out of every four persons in towns and could be encouraged to tempt the $2,500,000,000
cities, eats at least one meal a day in restaurants, palates of their customers with Florida citrus
and millions eat all their meals away from fruit, some of our problems would look like no
home. problems at all!
Men Given Picture
Of Clearing House
Story of "Orderly Competi-
tion" Told at Citrus Meet-
ings, Impresses State
At least one thousand of the busi-
ness and professional men of Florida
and some ten thousand citrus grow-
ers of Florida have been and are be-
ing given a more definite impression
of what the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association means to
the industry than they possibly have
ever received before.
Early this month the Clearing
House launched a series of twenty-
four meetings-called "Citrus Con-
ferences"-for the sole purpose of
pointing out to the state as a whole
the vital importance to the citrus in-
dustry which the work of the Clear-
ing House means. To these confer-
ences, held throughout the fruit belt,
were invited a number of the leading
business and professional men in
each community wherein the confer-
ences were held. Volunteer speakers,
some of whom have been prominent-
ly identified with the Clearing House
since its organization nearly four
years ago, spoke at the conferences,
telling briefly, plainly and without
exaggeration just what the Clearing
House has meant to the Florida cit-
rus industry. While some of the
speakers devoted their talk mainly
to conditions in and prospects facing
the industry generally, the others set
forth in as much detail as time would
permit the accomplishments and ob-
jectives of the Clearing House.
In none of the conferences was
there any note of controversy per-
mitted. It is recognized by the Clear-
ing House that in an industry as
large as the Florida citrus industry
there must be numerous conflicting
opinions. The essential needs of the
industry, however, are common ones
and, as the conference speakers
pointed out, the primary objective
of the Clearing House is to co-ordi-
nate the various competitive factors
so that efficient harmony can result.
As a result of this policy the confer-
ences held to date (September 25)
have proven of immense value, the
(Continued on Page Three)
Code of Ethics for the Citrus Industry of Florida
1. Confidence between the members of the industry and its public
is hard to build and easy to destroy. Without it, reasonable success is
2. The standards maintained by the Florida Citrus Industry as a
whole vitally affect the returns of the individual grower. Any organization
or individual who, for selfish or other reasons, fails to maintain those
standards does so at the expense of others.
3. Under existing conditions Packing House profits are largely de-
pendent on volume of boxed fruit handled. The temptation to pack and
ship inferior fruit is strong. Doing so is a dishonest practice which cannot
be too strongly condemned.
4. Generally speaking, the ultimate consumer considers the producing
state (Florida, California, Texas) rather than the individual brand in
buying citrus fruit. Maintaining a high standard on all State shipments,
well advertised and widely distributed, means an increasing demand, re-
turns for growers and satisfaction for all concerned. Below-standard
shipments, even on the part of a few, kill demand, create distrust, wreck
markets and bring disaster to the industry.
5. -Not all fruit raised is fit for market. Any shipments which will
harm the industry cannot be justified.
The Grower Should-
1. Maintain rigid adherence to marketing contracts made with mar-
keting organizations. Grower should properly study his contract and
know exactly what it contains before signing it.
2. Keep his property in such a sanitary condition as to prevent its
being a menace to his neighbors from fire, pests, noxious weeds, etc.
Call the immediate attention of the public authorities to any new and
apparently dangerous situation found by him developing on his own or
anyone else's property. This would cover new diseases, new insects, etc.
3. Turn out the best quality of fruit of which his trees and soil are
capable. By so doing he will increase demand and best serve himself and
4. Co-operate in every way possible, and certainly whenever re-
quested, with officials of the Expereiment Station, and such others who
are seeking always to raise the level of efficiency in the Industry.
Co-operate in any research work for the benefit of the Industry.
The Grower Should Not-
1. Bring any pressure to procure the moving of fruit until it comes
up to all State and Federal standards of maturity and edibility.
2. Use such sprays and fertilizers as to cause fruit to meet the Fed-
eral and State rules of maturity when at the same time the essential value
rand desirability of the fruit for the consumer is impaired.
Ship any fruit which has been damaged by insects, frost, freeze, storm,
flood or by any other natural cause, with the intent of passing on losses
The Shipper Should-
1. Refuse to ship any fruit which does not come up to State or Fed-
eral standards of maturity or to reasonable standards of edibility and
which will not be satisfactory to the consumer.
Exercise the same degree of care in not shipping damaged fruit as is
required, oTthe growers.
2. Honestly grade and pack honest fruit. The practice of severely
grading fruit when the market is low and loosely grading it when the
market is higher, regardless of recognized standards of gradings, is in-
excusable. Fruit should be graded and packed so that the trade knows
it is dependable, regardless of the condition of the market.
3. Rigidly adhere to legal requirements on field boxes.
4. Adhere strictly to the truth in solicitation, publicity and prop-
5. Give each grower, regardless of his influence or volume, a right
grade. The same standards of grade and pack should be applied to all
fruit passing through the house.
Preserve the identity of each grower's fruit very carefully.
Make no false statements with reference to size of fruit.
Show no favoritism by the shipment of any particular grower's fruit
on f. o. b. orders.
6. Diligently and honestly compete in an effort to get the most
money possible for his growers.
"Excel-rather than undersell."
7. Keep well informed as to market conditions that he may give
complete and intelligent service to his growers. Keep the growers in-
formed of actual market conditions.
8. Make an honest, clear and speedy accounting to his growers. Have
an accounting system which may be easily and clearly understood by
Render statements which give accurately all of the basic financial in-
formation concerning transactions. Give each grower a detailed account-
ing for all fruit from the time it comes in until the time it goes out of
the packing house.
9. Live up to the standards of conduct prescribed by the Perishable
Agricultural Commodity Act of 1930.
10. Enter into such relationships with other shippers as are for the
benefit of the Citrus Industry as a whole, becoming a part of those move-
ments which, in his judgment, are best fitted to promote the general
welfare of that Industry.
The Shipper Should Not-
1. Solicit growers to breach contracts already made with other ship-
pers. This would not interfere with solicitations for the following season's
crop, but only for the current year. It is understood that it is fair practice
for a grower to seek release where there appears to be unfair treatment.
2. Misrepresent facts to the grower in any manner-such as telling
him that certain f. o. b. orders have been received on which his fruit will
be shipped when there are no such orders; telling a grower that his fruit
is A-1 and will grade a certain way when he knows it will not grade so
high; or unjustly "knocking" a competitor in order to secure the account
of a grower.
Misrepresent facts to the growers by giving partial information on
3. Resort to coloring except when it is certain that the contents
of the fruit colored are mature and satisfactory and pleasing to the
The outside of the fruit should be made to conform with the interior,
rather than making an effort to conceal poor interior quality by making
the exterior attractive.
4. Give way to desire to ship early or covering a long period of time
or putting all grades of fruit in boxes, simply for the sake of profiting
through packing charges.
Ship low grade fruit when there is no possibility of its paying its way.
5. Cut prices to harm a competitor or to build up volume simply
for volume's sake.
Permit possible packing house profits to interfere with making best
possible return to a grower.
Your Committee is persuaded that the most serious of Florida's
citrus difficulties is the Human Problem-made so largely, perhaps,
because of the utter lack of clearly defined and generally accepted
standards for honest marketing, business practices and right rela-
tionships between individuals and between organizations.
We submit the above specific suggestions in the hope that their
voluntary acceptance will prove a step toward higher standards.
COMMITTEE ON CODE OF ETHICS
O. F. Gardner, Lake Placid
J. C. Morton, Auburndale
S. L. Holland, Bartow
A. M. Pratt, Winter Haven
Discussed and recommended to the Citrus Industry by the Board of
Directors of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association, Sep-
,tember 1, 1931.
FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
September 25, 1'931
-. Page 2
FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
The above group, newly-elected and appointed mem-
bers on the Clearing House Board of Directors, have
recently taken office and already are working shoulder
to shoulder with the other members in pushing ahead
the activities of the Clearing House.: The new mem-
Sbers, pictured above, are as follows:
MEN GIVEN PICTURE
S OF CLEARING HOUSE
(Continued from Page One)
entire time at each conference being
consumed in a business-like outlining
) and discussion of industry problems.
At the conclusion of the scheduled
) talks the speakers answered ques-
tions asked them by those attending
the meeting. In this way the indus-
try's problems were made much more
tangible to those whose interest in
it, if not direct, is indirectly vital.
I Letters, setting forth the aims and
accomplishments of the Clearing
House were sent out to some ten
thousand growers both members
S Volunteer Speakers
Included among the speakers at
[ the conferences have been Mrs. Edna
G. Fuller, Orlando, the only woman
Top row, from left to right:
J. H. Letton, Valrico, Dist. 2; L. P. Kirkland, Au-
burndale, State-at-Large; M. O. Overstreet, Orlando,
W. J. Howey, Howey-in-the-Hills, Dist. 3; E. H.
Williams, Crescent City, Dist. 4.
Representative in the Florida State
Legislature; J. C. Morton, Auburn-
dale, former chairman of the Com-
mittee of Fifty; Judge Allen E. Wal-
ker, Winter Haven, first president of
the Clearing House; Alfred M. Til-
den, Winter Haven, president of the
clearing House; Dr. E. C. Aurin, Ft.
Ogden, a director of the Clearing
House and member of the original
Committee of Fifty; Judge S. L. Hol-
land, Bartow, legal counsel for the
Clearing House; Judge C. O. An-
drews, Orlando, one of the incorpor-
4tors of the Clearing House and
director during its first year; and
Grosvenor Dawe of Lake Wales. The
meetings have been held in the fol-
lowing places: Winter Haven, Bar-
tow, Lakeland, Plant City, Valrico,
Lake Wales, Lake Placid, Leesburg,
Crescent City, DeLand, Orlando,
Sanford, Wauchula, Clearwater,
Cocoa, Vero Beach, Arcadia, Fort
Myers, Palmetto and Eustis. Four
other meetings are scheduled to be
held in Fort Pierce, Frostproof,
Haines City and Avon Park.
Main Points Brought Out
Excerpts from some of the talks
given at the conferences already
have been published in the News.
Briefly, a few of the outstanding
points made by the speakers were as
Mrs. Fuller pointed out the rela-
tion of the citrus industry to Florida
business and emphasized the advant-
age that belongs to the industry
throughout the present attitude of
doctors and dietitians in favoring
more constant use of citrus fruits in
some form or another. She coined
the slogan "An Orange a Day Will
Keep Rickets Away."
J. C. Morton pictured the prob-
lem that would be presented if just
three people owned all of the groves
New Members of the Clearing House Directorate
in Florida and showed that common
sense would lead them to exchange
market information, standardize
their grade and pack, and advertise
for increased consumer demand. He
then pointed out that if such methods
were good for three, they would be
good for thousands of growers. Ex-
cerpts from Jim Morton's "Just Sup-
posin' talk, which was received
with intense interest, is given in part
elsewhere in this issue of the News.
Judge Allen E. Walker, in Lake
Wales and Clearwater, told how the
chaotic condition of the industry
prior to 1928 led to consultations
with Federal and State authorities
and the creation of the Clearing
House so that marketing competition
could be made more orderly and ef-
Dr. E. C. Aurin explained that the
Clearing House was not a ready-
made copy of the efforts made by
other states but a tailor-made device
to fit Florida conditions exactly: He
declared also that if it was ever
right for all forces to pull together,
it is right now.
Judge Holland outlined forcibly
and in considerable detail the many
accomplishments of the Clearing
House. His connection with the Clear-
'ing House as legal counsel has kept
him in close contact with its affairs
land, as a result, he is well qualified
to speak authoritatively on the work
the organization is doing. In outlin-
ing the accomplishments and efforts
:of the Clearing House, Judge Hol-
land mentioned its distribution work,
the Federal By-products Research
Laboratory, the outfitting of four
This for citrus export trade, sup-
,port of the Growers and Shippers
League, the borax patent suit, and
President Tilden made a point in
his various speeches regarding the
unsatisfactory results with tange-
rines last year; explained that a
study of distribution had since been
made; and that an orderly marketing
of tangerines through the Clearing
House was in process of formation.
He showed that Buffalo consumed 86
boxes per 1,000 population while
cities in the same state consumed
three or less. He showed that the
twin cities of St. Paul in Minnesota
consumed less than four boxes per
1,000 population and that Baton
Rouge with one-sixth the population
bf New Orleans, consumed a greater
total of boxes. He stated that the ad-
vertising would be so arranged as to
bring the low consuming points up to
SJudge Andrews explained the legal
steps necessary to creating the Clear-
ing House with the full approval of
the Department of Agriculture in
Washington and the state authorities
Grosvenor Dawe dwelt on the de-
pendence of all business in Florida
upon the creation of new wealth by
the producers of Florida in minerals,
fruits and vegetables, forests and
animal products. He laid special em-
phasis on the fact that a dollar in
currency kept in motion equaled in
the course of a year, $20 worth of
"Good Days're Here"
Should Be Our Song
"There is a rift in the clouds of
pessimism which have hung over the
citrus industry of Florida this sum-
The statement was made by Nor-
man H. Vissering, Chairman of the
Committee of Fifty, shortly after
his election early this month to fill
the vacancy caused by the election
to the Board of Directors of Sena-
tor M. O. Overstreet, and incorpo-
rated an optimistic view of the in-
creasing favor which the Clearing
House is finding in the eyes of
growers generally and the entire
state. Chairman Vissering's state-
ment, given below, was in the na-
ture of a letter to all members of
the Committee of Fifty urging them
to do their individual bit in helping.
to make the Clearing House educa-
tional campaign a success. Chair-
man Vissering's letter reads as fol-
"Members of Committee of Fifty.
"I am very happy to say that I
believe there is a rift in the clouds
of pessimism which have hung over
the citrus industry of Florida this
"During the past few months
many of us were discouraged and
tempted to despair of ever organiz-
ing our industry into an orderly
whole. We have clung to our allegi-
ance with the Clearing House be-
cause we knew its principles were
right; and now after all the hectic
squabble we have been through, I
believe we are about to see our
hopes fulfilled and find the tide of
public opinion turning our way.
"'Where have you found this
new enthusiasm?' you ask. Last
night it was my priivlege to attend
the first of the series of luncheon
and dinner meetings, being put on
by Mr. Karl Lehmann. As you well
know there have been scores of cit-
rus meetings' this summer, all of
which- have failed to arouse any de-
(Continued from Page One)
120 carloads submitted there that
day; the market has dropped and
prices have fallen below the cost of
production. Moreover, the price re-
ceived in New York has been reflect-
ed throughout the markets of the
country, and.it looks as if our busi-
ness was going into a very serious
situation. You, with keen business
judgment, make an analysis of the
situation and you find that you and
John Smith have been largely re-
sponsible for the volume of fruit that
went into New York that day. So you
decide that you had better go up to
Eustis and have a talk with this man
Smith, to see what he is going to do
about it. So you get in your car and
go up to Eustis.
"Then after you have had quite a
talk with Smith, you come to this
conclusion, that it is going to be
FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
Sees Rift in Clouds running my own business and attend-
ing to my own affairs and leave other
people's affairs alone, and I abso-
lutely refuse to join you. You decide
that is poor business judgment on my
part-which it is-and you carry on
your own plan the best you can.
"One day John Smith comes down
to dinner with you and after a trip
to your grove you both go over to
S your packing house and John says to
you: 'What are you doing here?
S Look at the grade and pack that you
are putting up! Here in your first-
grade box you are putting fruit that
4 ) I would not put in my third-grade.
SDon't you realize that by doing that
you are injuring your own business
as well as damaging mine and lower-
ing the reputation of Florida fruit in
the market, making it more difficult
to sell it because the purchaser does
not know that he will receive exact-
ly what he has bought?' That leads
to an interchange of grade and pack
inspection between you and you de-
cide to raise your standards to U. S.
standards of pack and grade. And
you carry on that way very success-
Work With California Too
"But I, Jim Morton, am becoming
more and more a factor in produc-
N. H. VISSERING tion and you make another trip down
to Auburndale. This time I find I
gree of enthusiasm among the cannot work by myself and prosper,
growers, but these are different. and I join in with you and we get
They have a certain hit that the along splendidly for a while. Then we
others lack. They rekindle the old find that in our markets California
flame that put the Clearing House gums up things sometimes. We three
across when it was organized. Gone discuss that situation and conclude
are all traces of bitterness, but the that we will get in touch with Cali-
clear indisputable facts are put fornia and see if California and Flor-
across in a delightful new way. ida as producing states can inter-
"Don't fail to attend the meetings change information between states
in your vicinity and do all you can as we are doing between individuals.
to get your grower neighbors out. That plan is worked out and we send
"There is no better way that you California such information as we
can serve e e industrytay todatan may have regarding the size of our
by helping Mr. Lehmann make these crop, its quality, its time of market-
meetings a success, ing, and they in turn give us that in-
"Counting on your splendid co- formation; and that daily inter-
opeCotiong remain your sp d change of information between the
"Yours faithfully, two states is helpful to California
u(Signed) N. VISSERING, and to us and helps greatly in the
"Chairman Committee of Fifty." distribution of our product.
"We go along very successfully for
a time again, until one day we wake
profitable for you two fellows to in- up to the fact that we are producing
terchange marketing information, more fruit in Florida than the United
that each of you will advise the other States is consuming readily and pay-
of the amount of fruit that you plan ing a fair price for. We have another
to ship during the days and the weeks little round-table conference in Or-
that lie ahead. You will also inform lando. You are a keen business man
each other just what markets you and you have been giving the matter
plan to ship to and you will also ex- very serious thought and you have
change price information in regard reached some definite conclusions.
to what you have received for fruit And at that little group conference
in the days that lie in the past. This as we meet in Orlando again, you say
plan works out very well for both of that the thing we have got to do is to
you, and you carry on this plan of carry to the housewives in the United
mutual interchange, to great advant- States the story of the high quality,
age to both. the healthfulness, the palatability
One Refuses to Help and the place on the diet of the Flor-
"But finally you begin to realize ida fruit. Your idea for doing that
that this fellow Morton down at Au- is to start on a real advertising pro-
burndale is becoming more and more gram behind the fruit of the State of
a producer of fruit and sometimes he Florida. As a Scotchman I say that it
comes into the market with a heavy is a good thing, you go ahead and do
volume and gums up the works. So it! But you come back with the state-
you run down to Auburndale to see ment that you cannot afford to do it
if you can do something with him. alone, because if you go ahead and
But you find me just a hard-headed, create the demand, I will share in the
stubborn Scotchman. I tell you I am demand you have created and you
September 25, 193\
don't want me to be a slacker, and I'
agree. So the three of us join in an
advertising program for the Florida
fruit, and again success perches on
Tires of Co-operating
"But that stubborn Scotchman
down there in Auburndale decides in
a year or two that he will run his own
business again and he pulls out-a
very unethical thihg for him to do.
You two fellows regret it but you
carry on, to your mutual advantage
:n the hope that some day he will
turn to sound business judgment
again and realize that he cannot live
to himself, that the industry must be
united to prosper and come back, and
you work along that line in hope that.
it will come back.
"Any one of you will admit that
that is good, sound business judg-
ment for any three men who own the
State of Florida. When you: admit
that, you are talking Clearing House,
because the Clearing House was
created to do the very things those
men are doing: to arrange for order-
ly distribution, standard grade and
pack, and advertising to create the
demand. If it is good for three mlen
who own the State of Florida, cer-
tainly it is good for the ten thousand
growers who own the groves scatter-
ed over the state."
BETTER METHODS OF
HANDLING TO BE AIM
OF CLEARING HOUSE
(Continued from Page One)
The picker is requested to place
the fruit in his bag-not "shoot" it
into the bag at a distance as some
so-called expert pickers in Florida
The mouth of the bag rests on the
box as the fruit is poured slowly
into the picking box,
Every picking or field box is ex-
amined for nails, splinters or gravel
before being sent to the grove.
Insist upon careful handling from
truck into packing house.
Gloves are required on
(a) Both hands of those grading the
(b) Both hands of the man who pulls
down the bins.
(c) The right hand that reaches into
the bin and places it in the un-
gloved left hand containing the
(d) Hands of anyone else touching
the fruit as all experiments proved
a vast amount of microscopical in-
jury done from finger nails.
Packing machinery cleaned en-
tirely to eliminate "bumps" or
"knobs" developing in the run-ways
or any other contacts by the oranges
with machinery as the result of bo-
rax, oil and dust accumulation, etc.
Loose stems, twigs or trash of any
kind kept out of the bins.
Constant vigilance by feeling with
the hand as well as watching for any
loose tacks, nails or other mechan-
ical obstacles that could scratch or
bruise the skin.
Working down the oranges-in the
box before bringing down the press.
eptemiber 25, 1931
(Tear Out this Page and Mail it to the Clearing House at Winter Haven)
Confidential Crop Estimate 1931-1932
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION,
Winter Haven, Florida.
In accordance with your request, I am glad to fill in the following figures in hopes that Florida may have a more ac-
Curate crop estimate than in the past.
In the left hand column I have shown the number of boxes picked, by varieties, from my property this past season.
rIn the right hand column I am showing the estimated number of boxes that I believe these same trees will produce this
Oranges-Early and Mid-Season
LAST SEASON'S RECORD
--- -...----------------------.-_ .Boxes
ESTIMATE THIS YEAR
~~~-~~~~~~-~ ~ ~ _____ BB x,
The above information is furnished you in strict confidence for the purpose of arriving at crop conditions as a whole.
AIt is my understanding that supplying this information does not obligate me in any way-I merely am helping by fellow-
growers in an industry matter.
I am herewith mailing this estimate in your self-addressed, stamped envelope.
Signed -------------------------------------- Grower
Signed .. .. . .. .. . ... .. . .. .. ..___________. ...__________ Grow er
Grove Location-Vicinity of ----- ----.----- .--------------------Town
f ---------------------- .... County.
Readily in Sending
) In Crop Estimates
An encouraging response has met
the effort of the Clearing House to
'obtain an accurate crop estimate for
the coming season. Less than two
weeks ago, the Clearing House mail-
ed printed forms (in duplicate) to
tome ten thousand growers, both
members and non-members of the or-
ganization, with the request that the
forms be filled out so as to show what
the individual grower shipped last
kason by varieties and what he ex-
ects to ship this season. The dupli-
te form was for the grower's own
les. Stamped and addressed en-
elopes accompanied the forms so as
facilitate the return of the esti-
rate. As this issue of the News went
o press, close to one thousand grow-
Prs, both members and non-members,
had sent in their individual crop es-
All Asked To Help
) Printed at the top of this page
will be found a blank form sim-
lar to the one referred to above,
bhich may be used in case the form
ailed out has been lost. Complying
with the request for the crop esti-
bate does not obligate any grower
even though he may have resigned
from the Clearing House. Every
-rower in the state, whether a mem-
ber or not of the Clearing House, is
urged to fill out the form sent him
and mail it in to the Clearing House
so as to help himself and the indus-
try in this task. An accurate crop
estimate is vital to the industry and
an estimate direct from the individ-
ual growers is expected to give the
industry the most accurate picture
obtainable of what we all have to
ship this year.
Shorter Crop Seen
With the Sizes
The average condition of Florida
crops changed but slightly during
August, the U. S. D. A. report says.
Staple crops had been affected by
the drought earlier in the season
and while yields will not differ much
from last year, in most cases they
will be under the average. Citrus
still promises a fair crop but under
that of a year ago.
Reported condition of citrus has
not changed since August 1. Or-
anges are reported at 74 percent of
normal compared with 74 percent
on August 1, and 84 percent on
September 1 of last year. Grape-
fruit is reported at 66 percent com-
pared with 66 percent on August 1,
and 80 percent on September 1,
Opens Strong With
A Light Movement
Florida's early grapefruit growers
are enjoying a gratifying market
opening this season. Shipments have
been extremely light-in fact for the
two weeks ending September 26 less
than one-eighth as much grapefruit
had been moved as was moved a year
ago. The surprisingly good quality of
the fruit moved to date, plus the
lightness of supplies doubtless ac-
counts for the fact that prices have
been a shade better than they were a
year ago. For the week ending Sep-
tember 13, last season, 20 cars of
grapefruit averaged $4.35 delivered.
1930. Tangerines are reported at
69 percent compared with 69 per-
cent on August 1, and 79 percent on
September 1 a year ago. More than
the usual amount of insect damage
is reported from some sections and
there is some splitting of fruit but
not to any great extent. The crop
is considerably later than that of
last year and present indications
are that sizes will not average as
large as a year ago. There was a
heavy dropping of Satsumas earlier
in the season, due to the prolonged
drought but the crop will be better
than that of last year.
The average for the week ending
September 26, this season,-was $4.56
delivered for seven cars.
Auction averages this season to
date have been quite pleasing, gen-
erally ranging higher than their
equivalent in f.o.b. prices. Florida
shippers, wisely, have made a good
start by selling conservatively f.o.b.
and placing only a few cars at auc-
The following is a glimpse at last
season's auction start, showing by
weeks the number of cars of grape-
fruit sold and the auction average:
Week Number Average
Ending of Cars Price
Sept. 13.......... 20 $4.35
Sept. 20......... 104 3.75
Sept. 27.......... 125 3.66
Oct. 4............ 187 3.36
Oct. 11............ 180 3.60
Grapefruit samples submitted to
the State Inspection Bureau in Win-
ter Haven indicate an exceptionally
good quality of fruit. The flavor is
pleasing and the fruit is quite juicy.
In short, the quality is considerably
ahead of that of last season's open-
ing. Sizes are running somewhat
smaller than this time a year ago ac-
cording to manifests received at the
Clearing House on shipments to date.
Dade County seems to be the
heaviest in shipments so far. Lee,
Manatee, Polk, Highlands and Pinel-
las are getting into the movement,
although not as heavy as the East
FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
September 25, 193
CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
Howey in the Hills
What "Should Be" Done
Can't Be Done
(From Suggestions Received)
1. Sell every box for cash before it leaves
2. Ship nothing before December First.
3. Hav-every box marketed by one growers'
4. Have all the growers get together on a
price, where shippers and buyers will
"take it or leave it" on the trees.
5. Have every box leaving Florida sold daily
through a Florida auction to the highest
6. Cutat all auctions.
S7. Cut out rolling anything unsold.
8. Cut out the middlemen.
What "Can Be" Done
Should Be Done
1. Look at the facts just as they are and do
those things that can be done. Cut out
2. Recognize that competition always has ex-
isted and always will. Competition can be
controlled by intelligent insight, but can-
not be eliminated.
3. Know that the elimination of the unfit and
the survival of the fittest is a law that
works although sometimes slowly but al-
4. Take ourselves as we are with our limita-
tions and poiipetitions and make the best
of them. Stop protesting. Apply the
5. Find those simple elemental things good
for the industry that the great majority
can agree upon and do them-then pro-
gress from that simple start towards more
ideal relations so far as they prove prac-
6. Have competitors work together in such
agreed-upon matters in one organization
that will be an impartial holding company
for joint benefit to all including the respec-
tive groups of growers affiliated with such
7. Have the Clearing House adjust its plans
and policies to meet such common needs
as may be agreed upon by such joint
8. Recognize that it pays to give and take,
that we are mutually dependent, that it
actually pays to work together and that
the attitude of good-will is a financial as
well as moral asset.
By Judge John W. Dodge
There is no wealth of life without health.
Think it over. What doth it profit a man if he
gain the whole world and lose his health?
John D. Rockefeller, Sr., realized this years
ago, and began coming to Florida, staying
months every year, and eating fresh citrus
fruit, grapefruit, oranges, lemon juices, raised
in Florida. He is in his 90's now.
Our own people, and millions of others else-
where, do not fully appreciate what fresh cit-
rus fruits will do to prolong their lives, and to
make them even healthy, wealthy and wise if
they eat Florida citrus fruits daily.
Read this, then tell others, spread the good
news, advertise your state, sell its products,
consume its products, buy at home, keep your
money circulating here, and you will get a
chance to get some of it back.
One of the finest ways of preventing colds,
influenza or pneumonia is to see that your
blood stream is well alkalinized at frequent
occasions with plenty of grapefruit, orange
and lemon juice. These three fruit juices
should be a part of every one's daily diet. They
are especially rich in alkaline mineral matter
which the white blood cells of your body re-
quire in abundance.
Grapefruit juice is richest in alkalinity. A
glass of grapefruit juice taken between meals
is virtually an assurance of disease prevention.
Orange juice is a second best disease preven-
tive. It is rich in citric acid which the diges-
tive juices readily turn into a rich alkalinity.
Lemon juice should also be a part of every
one's daily diet. It can be used in many ways.
Use it freely on your salads in place of salad
dressings. It is a splendid substitute for vine-
gar in making mayonnaise and it gives all
steamed vegetables an unusual flavor when a
small amount is sprinkled over them before
serving. As blood purifiers these three fruit
juices will save you many hundreds of dollars
each year in doctor's bills.
There will be no over-production of citrus
fruits in Florida when we ourselves consume,
and advise others to consume, our own fresh,
canned and preserved citrus fruits. We will
live long and prosper when we Boost Florida!
Porto Rico Town
Christening one of their towns or
villages "Florida," Porto Rico grape
fruit growers have perfected a brand
of competition for Florida to first)
that is regarded as one of the most
unethical practices ever indulged in
Briefly the stunt is this: immature
Porto Rico grapefruit has been ships
ped into the north during the pasi
several weeks, the boxes and. wrap,
pers carrying the word "Florida"
prominently imprinted. Obviously
the idea was to capitalize upon Flor-
ida's reputation and from Po0L
Rico's viewpoint, the idea wJa-gH
The effect the green fruit as' W
on Florida's reputation was of course
Investigation by Judge S. L. Hol-
land, legal counsel for the Clearing
House, revealed the fact that the
Porto Ricans had named one of their
communities "Florida" and hence
were stamping their boxes and wrap-
pers as containing fruit ostensibly
from the town of "Florida" with Por.
to Rico showing inconspicuously.
Tudge Holland exhibited one of the
wrappers which is thus being used by
the Porto Ricans at several of the
Clearing House.Educational meet-
ings being held throughout the fruit
belt. Considerable indignation was
expressed by growers and others at-
tending the meetings and the Clear-
ing House urged to continue its ef-
forts to halt such unfair competition(
to the entire industry.
Bill Never Passed
Opening of the state maturity
section offices for the inspection
citrus fruit this fall, is a reminder
to the News that the State Legisla.
ture failed to pass the bill, spon-
sored to a large extent by the Clear-
ing House, providing funds for ma-
turity research work. So confident
was the Clearing House in July4that
the bill would be passed-bothfith
Senate and House committees had
approved the proposal-that the
News commented editorially upon
the effect of the new law.
The Senate passed the measure,
but the Lower House, virtually
snowed under an avalanche of small
appropriation bills, failed to include
the maturity research bill in tha
work. Final adjournment ofI
Legislature hence, saw the bill"
and with it went Florida's chances
to give citrus maturity problems
scientific study so that more prac-
ticable maturity standards could be
"I am in sympathy with your ef-
forts."-J. L. Dishong, Arcadia.
FLORIDA CLEARING (*HOUSE NEW