Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00071
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: September 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00071
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
C tLr E moaics,

~*1 FLO RI


U. S. Postage
SI3 i- 1t. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
r, Permit No. 1


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication- of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31, V e
rus Growers Clearing House Association, SEPTEMBER 10, 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven, Volu
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg.. Winter Haven, Fla. Florida. under the Act of March 3. 1879. Number 23

-Normann Vissering Half A Billion Dollars
Is New Chairman of Did you realize that there is $500,000,000 capital invested
Committee of Fifty in groves, packing plants, crate mills, canning plants and ma-
___chinery used in the citrus industry in Florida?
Babson Park Grower Elected Did you know-that the annual production is $70,000,000?
At Orlando Meeting; Over-
At Orlando Meeting; Over- Did you know that there are employed in this industry
street Resigns Because of 20,000 in the summer and 60,000 in the winter months?
Election to Board
Did you know that the greatest problem in the citrus in-
Norman H. Vissering, Babson dustry in Florida is the orderly competition in and distribution
Park, was elected chairman of the
Committee of Fifty of the Clearing of this crop ?
House, at the meeting held in Or- Did yoridCitri
lando, Tuesday, September 8. Mr. Did yo know that the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
Vissering will succeed Senator M. O. House Association offers us the only channel through which
Overstreet, Orlando, who resigned we can secure this orderly competition and distribution?
from the Committee of Fifty by vir-
tue of his election to the Board of
Directors of the Association. Mr.
t Vissering has been a member of the ets ind O ut
Committee of Fifty for the past two
years and during that time has been We need to know these and many other important facts
active in the affairs of the Clearing in connection with this great major Florida industry.
House. The Committee also accepted
the resignation of Mr. E. H. Wil- During the next few weeks the Florida Citrus Growers
liams, Crescent City, who was like- Clearing House Association will invite a group of representa-
wise elected to the Clearing House tive growers, merchants, bankers, public officials and civic
The Committee was privileged to leaders in some thirty communities in the citrus belt of Florida
hear Mrs. Ruth Bryan Owen, Florida to sit down around a luncheon or evening meal table as our
Congresswoman, who addressed the guests to discuss "The Importance of the Citrus Industry to all
Orlando Chamber of Commerce at guests to discuss "The Importance of the Citrus Industry to all
their noonday luncheon and later Forms of Business in Florida" in an informal and constructive
spoke particularly to the Committee way.
of Fifty, dwelling especially on re-
imbursement possibilities to growers These discussions will result in a clearer understanding of
on account of damage by spraying this great major industry and the orderly distribution of our
'required under quarantine regula-
tions. citrus fruits.
Considering the budget for the Karl Lehmann, of Sanford, Secretary of the Seminole
-coming year was one of the important
discussions of the meeting. The County Chamber of Commerce, has been
necessity of curtailing expenses this invited by citrus and business leaders in
season was stressed and a proposed Florida to arrange this series of meetings,
,budget was submitted for the ap-
proval of the Committee. Mr. Pratt and associated with him will be a list of
reported that the proposed budget speakers who have volunteered their
cut in half the total salaries of last services to briefly open the discussions
The importance of a more accu- in these meetings; they include: Hon.
rate estimate of the coming crop Edna G. Fuller, Orlando; Dr. E. C. Aurin,
was discussed at length and plans Ft. Ogden; A. M. Tilden, Winter Haven;
for a thorough canvass of the citrus
belt to determine the exact amount E. H. Williams, Crescent City; James C.
of fruit to be moved this season were Morton, Auburndale; O. F. Gardner,
proposed, including a questionnaire Lake Placid; Grosvenor Dawe, Lake
that each grower-member should fill KARL LEHMANN
out on his own crop. Wales; Hon. Allen E. Walker, Winter
The Executive Committee of the Haven; Hon. C. O. Andrews, Orlando; Hon. Spessard L. Hol-
Committee of Fifty met preceding land, Bartow; L. E. Eigle, Auburndale; Hon. M. O. Overstreet,
the regular Committee meeting and
(Continued on Page Four) Orlando,

Crop Estimates By
Growers Will Be Re-
quested This Season
Clearing House To Ask Mem-
bers To Fill Out Forms
Showing Size of Crop
The citrus growers of Florida will
have an opportunity to play an im-
portant part in determining the crop
estimate for the coming season just
starting. Each grower-member of the
Clearing House will be asked to fill
out a form showing by varieties what
he shipped the past season and his
confidential estimate of what will be
produced by him in the season just
opening. Every grower is more famil-
iar with his own trees, as well as
past records and normal crop condi-
tions, than any other person. There-
fore, each grower will be asked to
furnish this confidential information.
A form will be enclosed and a re-
turn stamped envelope. These esti-
mates will then be grouped by coun-
ties, the percentage of increase or
decrease by varieties noted as an im-
portant factor in determining the
probable county situation.
Each packing house unit has also
been asked to turn in similar data.
Their local managers having arrived
at the county percentage of decrease
or increase by varieties, and knowing
the totals from each county the phst
season, it will be possible to arrive
at an estimate for the state.
Total crop estimates from the
state are also being compiled by mar-
keting and shipping organizations. It
is believed the entire industry,
whether they are in the Clearing
House or not, will be glad to co-oper-
ate in arriving at the final figures in
the sincere hope that a much closer
estimate can be made of the crop
than was made last season.
The official estimate of the crop,
issued last October 3 by H.A. Marks,
Agricultural Statistician, proved to
be 16.1% under estimate on oranges
and 18.9% under estimate on grape-
fruit. In the citrus summary of Octo-
ber 18, which was also shown in the
Clearing House News of October 25,
the Clearing House assumed a total
carlot movement from the state of
33,000 cars of oranges and 27,000
cars of grapefruit. Florida actually
(Continued on Page Four)

Page 2

Clearing House Inaugu

Educational Prograi

Needs of the C

Thirty Meetings Planned During the
ings Already Held Show Keen Inte
Leaders of State in Part Cl
Plays In Industr

The Board of Directors has ar-
ranged with Mr. Karl Lehmann, soon
to assume his duties as Secretary of
the Seminole County Chamber of
Commerce, to direct a series of meet-
ings throughout citrus Florida and to
emphasize the importance of the cit-
rus industry to the business fabric of
the state. Up to the time of going to
press meetings have been held in
Winter Haven, Bartow, Lakeland,
Plant City and Valrico.
At the Winter Haven meeting the
formal speeches were delivered by
Mrs. Edna G. Fuller, of Orlando; Dr.
E. C. Aurin, of Ft. Ogden, and J. C.
Morton, of Auburndale. Informal
addresses were delivered by A. M.
Tilden, R. B. Woolfolk, N. H. Vis-
sering, and Archie M. Pratt.
At the Bartow meeting Mrs. Ful-
ler and A. M. Tilden were the speak-
ers. At the Lakeland meetings Mrs.
Fuller, A. M. Tilden, J. C. Morton
and Congressman Drane; at the
Plant City and Valrico meetings Mrs.
Fuller and Mr. Morton spoke.
Fine Spirit Shown
Returning from one of these meet-
ings an official of the Clearing House
stated: "It is impossible to describe
in words the spirit that these meet-
ings show. The friendly, kindly atti-
tude of Mrs. Fuller towards the in-
dustry, as affecting human beings,
lifted up the audience above statis-
tics of boxes and marketing into the
realm of courage, faith, vision, hon-
esty, and love. The speeches of J. C.
Morton furnished the background of
effort that made the Clearing House
possible in 1928 and demonstrated
that if the Clearing House were to be
destroyed tomorrow the common
sense of the business men of Florida
would demand the creation of some-
thing similar before five more years
have rolled around.
"The remarks by Mr. Tilden in re-
lation to foreign shipping, the ana-
lytical studies of distribution, and
the technical aspects of the Clearing
House work, are invaluable.
The Method Followed
"The method being followed by
Mr. Lehmann is to secure the co-
operation of a small local committee
and in the name of that committee is-
sue invitations either to a noon day
lunch or an evening meal, limiting
the invitations to about forty people
so that the group assembled may be
truly representative of the banking,
professional and business interests
of a town and its vicinity. In addi-
tion a few of the leading growers
and shippers are invited. The pur-
pose of the meetings is not so much


and selling but if he and his neighbor
rates were both equally ignorant of the
market conditions both were in dan-
ow n g ger. Thereupon Mr. Morton, who did
i ll owing yeoman service in organizing the
Clearing House, showed how the
itrus Industry Clearing House served both him and
Itrus I ustry his neighbor if they had good sense
enough to take advantage of the in-
amai ; Fi Met formation gathered by the Clearing
Campaign; Five Meet- House and rendered available to all
rest of Growers and members. He pointed out that the
hearing House Clearing House gathers the follow-
ing information daily:


to reiterate to growers and shippers
the remarkable services which the
Clearing House has rendered under
great difficulties in the last three
years, but to help the business ele-
ments understand that the citrus in-
dustry is basic as affecting the pros-
perity of each business in the state.
The meetings, therefore, take on an
entirely different character from
anything hitherto held in the citrus
history of Florida, and judging by
the five meetings that have been held
so far will show a new trend of con-
fidence and of intelligent interest in
bringing about a more united indus-
try in the course of this effort which
will last about six weeks and a new
enthusiasm for organized work will
be aroused so as to bring back to the
citrus industry, for the sake of it-
self and the sake of the state, the
correct principles of orderly compe-
Mrs. Fuller's Slogans
Mrs. Edna G. Fuller, of Orlando,
the only woman representative in
the Florida Legislature, has in her
speeches used some sentences that
will live. Here is one for mothers,
"An Orange a day will keep rickets
away." Here are two others, "Citrus
Juices will keep arteries young."
"For flu and pneumonia the doctors
prescribe grapefruit juice."
Mrs. Fuller has also pointed out
that every doctor and dietitian is
placing additional emphasis on fruits
and vegetables in the modern die-
tary and that such advocacy of the
use of citrus fruits by the profession
is a valuable form of publicity and
propaganda on behalf of the indus-
try, costing the industry nothing at
all but simply making it the more
necessary that the industry must
render its products more available
through proper distribution. In each
speech Mrs. Fuller has made clear
that the citrus industry is a founda-
tion or basic industry in the state
and must be understood by the busi-
ness forces as affecting the outlook
of all.
Morton's Neighborliness
One of the striking statements
made by James C. (Jim) Morton was
in answering the question, "Who is
my neighbor?" He showed that in
the citrus industry every person
growing fruit for sale was his neigh-
bor and in a sense his rival and that
to him personally it was a matter of
immense importance as to how his
neighbor chose to market his fruit.
He furthermore showed that he
might choose one organization and
his neighbor another for shipping

Cars sold and price range.
Cars shipped.
Cars at diversion points.
Cars rolling unsold.
Cars rolling to all auctions.
Cars available at all auctions.
Cars diverted east, west, south.
Cars rolling and offered to all
main cities other than auctions.
Tilden and Tangerines
Mr. Tilden in his Winter Haven
speech explained the arrangements
that had been completed for export-
ing a largely increased quantity of
citrus out through Tampa, particu-
lar emphasis being placed on grape-
fruit. In his Lakeland speech he
pointed out the very poor distribu-
tion of tangerines that had taken
place in past seasons. He made pub-
lic facts of distribution which had
been carefully gathered this sum-
mer and showed that the consump-
tion per thousand of population in
two towns varied as extremely as
from eighty-six straps down to one-
tenth box. He pointed out that in
the tangerine effort of this year lit-
tle stress would be laid on those
points where consumption was high
and effort made where consumption
was low so as to bring that consump-
tion up to a moderate height. Two
very startling statements were made
by him to the effect that in the state
of Connecticut there were towns
using as high as seventy-six straps
per thousand of population and
others using as small an amount as
twelve. The greatest single disparity
he pointed out was Baton Rouge with
a population of less than one-sixth
of New Orleans using 2,800 straps
during the past year as compared
with 2,500 in New Orleans.
Last Year's Crop
Mr. Pratt, in response to a ques-
tion at the Winter Haven meeting
announced that the past season's
crop amounted to thirty-five million
boxes if all had been boxed. He di-
vided this into twenty-seven million
shipped by boat, rail and express,
2,645,000 moved by truck, 3,000,000
sold to canneries, and 1,500,000
never moved. He believes the amount
represented by culls and drops
amount to about 1,000,000 more
Invaluable Service
Dr. Aurin praised the work that
the Clearing House has done in fac-
ing some of the original problems
presented by the industry. He drew
particular attention to the import-
ance of commodity advertising and
expressed pleasure that seventy-five
percent of the fruit of Florida was
now going under a uniform grade

September 10, 1931

and pack. He had nothing but praise
for the market information which
the Clearing House gathers from all
points during the late evening and (
night and makes available to growers
and shippers in all parts of Florida
the next morning. He particularly,
praised the conscientious work of the
statistical department with whom
the public never come into contact
Patent Fights and Suits
Mr. Woolfolk in his informal re-
marks at Winter Haven, pointed out i
the tremendous service that the'
Clearing House had rendered to the
industry in fighting the Borax Pat-
ents case up to and through the Su-
preme Court. In this connection Mro
Tilden in the course of his speeches
haspointed outthe necessityof indus-
try solidarity in meeting and fighting
out a patent case involving the use
of paraffin in preparing fruit for the
market. He stated that no individual
could fight the case through to a con-
clusion without too heavy expense,'
but that the Clearing House, acting j
for all and working for all, could and
should see that justice was done.
those who for many years may have
used paraffin in some form or an-

Isle of Pines Shows

Good Grapefruit

Crop Ready to Ship

For the third consecutive season'
Isle of Pines groves have a heavy set
of early bloom grapefruit which'
promises well over 200,000 boxes for.
August and September shipment,
says the Isle of Pines Post. A duty of
87c a box into the United States is
in effect and the Canadian tariff is
even higher.
The entire movement for last year
was just under 240,000 boxes of
which 206,000 was shipped before
October 1. Practically all of the rest
went to Europe, whose markets were "
kept heavily loaded by Florida.
In the previous year exports to-
taled 205,000 boxes with 135,000
boxes shipped to October 1, and the,
rest shipped abroad during the late
winter and spring owing to the Flor-,..
ida short crop which brought good i
prices in the states and slowed dowrie'
European sales effort by Florida.
Groves have been well cared for '
this past season and generally show
fine crops of large fruit which is al
ready showing enough juice to assure
good quality at an unusually early,
date. Rainfall has been unusually
abundant this year and growing con-'
ditions have been excellent but for a
veritable plague of aphis which
caused the growers much more than
the usual amount of pest control
work and expense. New York

"I have always been a firm be-'
liever in the Clearing House, and can
see no reason at the present time,
.... why there is not a future for)
the Clearing House .. ."-Isaac
Van Horn, Polk City.


September 10, 1931

Results of Fertilizer
By R. W. RUPRECHT, Chemist, Florida Agricul
(Talk Given at Farmers' and Fruit Growers' Week, G

The following is a rather brief
summary of the results we have ob-
tained in some of our fertilizer ex-
periments up to this time. This is not
a final report by any means and is
simply given to keep the growers ac-
quainted with the experiments and
the results we are getting.
Potash Sources
Until this year we have had two
experiments with citrus where we
were comparing three sources of pot-
&sh, one at Vero Beach on the East
Coast, and the second at our Citrus
Experiment Station at Lake Alfred.
*Unfortunately, the one at Vero
Beach had to be discontinued this
Year as the co-operator was unwill-
ing to continue it. The sources of
potash compared are the high grade
sulfate of potash containing 48%-
.49% potash (K20), the high grade
muriate of potash containing 50%
potash (K20), and the low grade
sulfate of potash, also known as pot-
,ash magnesium sulfate containing
25% of potash (K20). This last
-source also contains magnesium sul-
fate about 34%. These three sources
,were tried separately and in combi-
nation, thus at Vero we had seven
'plots as follows:
Plot 1, H. G. sulfate of potash,
;three applications.
Plot 2, muriate of potash, three
Plot 3, potash magnesium sul-
fate, three applications.
Plot 4, muriate of potash, Feb-
1ruary, and sulfate June and Novem-
Plot 5, muriate of potash, Feb-
ruary, and potash, magnesium, sul-
fate June and November.
Plot 6, muriate of potash, Feb-
gruary and June, sulfate November.
Plot 7, muriate of potash, Feb-
ruary and June, potash magnesium
,sulfate November.
Each plot received the same
amount and source of nitrogen and
phosphoric acid.
This experiment was begun in Oc-
tober, 1923. Each plot contains
Dancy tangerines, pineapple and
Valencia oranges and Marsh seedless
grapefruit. Growth measurements
were taken for several years but no
.striking differences due to the differ-
ent potash sources were found. The
first crop was harvested in 1925 and
vas rather light.
In studying the yield data of the
various varieties we note some pecu-
diar differences. In the case of the
pineapples orange, Table 1, you will
note in comparing the first three
plots that in five out of the six years
the muriate plot has had the highest
yields. True, in only one year, 1929,
has the difference in yield been large
enough to be significant. In all, the
yields of the first three plots have
been about equal.
Let us now turn to the last four
plots where muriate and the two sul-
ifates were used. Here we find that in
four years the plots where muriate
was used twice a year had a higher

yield tha
Let us
ferent r
which w
has giver
the pine
Ihe last
.as usec
and a si
falling o
:iate is u
not as g
Let us
yields, T
jition si
trade su
irom the
there is
tween wl
year or t'
the yield
chan Plot
past sea
good a y
from No.
No res
?irst, th
6rees in
che crop
cially fr
nearest t
what sho
we say tl
anges res
have the
the case,
indeed cc
to conde
suits of
cially in
other c:
source is
in some
grade su
that this
the weak
ments on
of on ou
at Lake l
ing age s
Next v
ash expe
ing the a
this expe
with tree
of the plo
and kind
trogen. '
from nit
the phosj


,* x phate. Plots 1 and 3 receive 3% pot-
x er ents ash in the fertilizer at each applica-
S t tion. Plots 2 and 4-10% at each
Itural Experiment Station application, while Plot 5 receives 5 %
and Plot 6, 3% in the spring, 5% in
.n when it was used once. the summer, and 10% in the fall. All
s now turn to the Valencia of the potash is high grade sulfate.
Table 2. Here we find a dif- There has been a very noticeable dif-
esult. In the five years for ference in the appearance of these
e have a record the sulfate trees from time to time. The plots re-
n the larger yields than the ceiving the 10% potash have not had
each year, and with two ex- as dark green foliage as the balance
larger than the low grade of the plots. Many time the foliage
The differences are also on these trees had a bronze color.
.t greater than in the case of In studying the yield data of the
apple oranges. Considering Duncans, Table 4, we find there is no
four plots where muriate very consistent differences. During
1 with the two sulfates, we the nine years Plots 5 and 6 have
similar tendency, namely, a most often been the heaviest yield-
ff in yield where more mu- ers. The 10% plots have only had the
sed, also the differences are highest yield once, and second high-
reat. est once.
look at the Tardiff orange Turning to the grapefruit yields,
able 3. Here we find a con- Table 4, we find no outstanding dif-
nilar to that found with the ference in yields. Even the 9-year av-
s, larger yields with the high erage shows no marked difference.
ilfate. Studying the yields Certainly we cannot say that the
last four plots we find that 10 % plots were superior. From the
no consistent difference be- general appearance we could find no
here muriate is used once a marked difference in the quality of
wice a year. Except for 1930 the fruit either oranges or grape-
s from these plots are lower fruit from the different plots. The
No. 1, the sulfate plot. This packing house manager, however,
son we obtained about as stated that he could pick out the
field from Plots 5 and 6 as grapefruit from the 3 % plots as they
1. were of poorer quality than the bal-
sults are given for the tan- ance of the fruit. We made some
for the following reasons: cold storage tests but the results
ere were only six tangerine were rather inconclusive. Tests
each plot and secondly, the should be made on the shipping qual-
e trees bordered a public ity of the fruit but this is rather an
and a good proportion of expensive experiment and we have
was lost every year, espe- never had sufficient funds to under-
om Plot No. 1 which was take it. I believe that we are safe in
he gate. assuming from the above results that
the three tables together 5% of the potash three times a year
uld our conclusions be? Can or a total of 15-18% during the year
iat different varieties of or- will be sufficient for this type of soil,
pond differently to the same unless we can show that the higher
despite the fact that they amounts of potash improve the keep-
same root stock. If this is ing quality or eating quality of the
our citrus fertilization is fruit.
complicated. It is hardly fair Let us now take up the source of
mn the muriate on the re- nitrogen experiment. This too, as
this one experiment, espe- many of you know, is located at Lake
view of the fact that on Alfred at the Citrus Experiment Sta-
rops where a prejudice tion. This experiment has also been
muriate had existed, this running since 1921. The trees at that
proving to be as good, and time were one year old. The ten acres
cases better than the high are divided into ten plots. Plots 1-5,
fate. It is to be regretted inclusive, contain tangerines, or-
experiment had to be dis- anges and grapefruit, while Plots
d at this time. This is one of 6-10, inclusive, contain only oranges.
points in conducting experi- All of these plots received the same
a co-operative basis instead amount and source of potash. Plots
r own property. Our grove 1-5, inclusive, received the phospho-
Alfred duplicating these ex- ric acid from superphosphate, while
s has just reached the bear- Plots 6-10, inclusive, received steam-
o no conclusions can yet be ed bone meal as a source of phospho-
ric acid. The sources of nitrogen va-
re will take up another pot- ried as follows:
riment. This time instead of Plots 1 and 6-Nitrate of Soda.
g sources we are compar- Plots 2 and 7-Sulfate of Ammonia.
mounts of potash. This ex- Plots 3 and 8-Dried Blood.
is located at our Citrus Ex- Plots 4 and 9-Combination of 1, 2
Station at Lake Alfred, and and 3.
many of you have seen it. Plots 5 and 10-Manure.
eriment was begun in 1921 In the case of Plots 5 and 10 the
s about five years old. All source of nitrogen was changed in
ts receive the same amount 1929 to half nitrate of soda and half
of phosphoric acid and ni- sulfate of ammonia as the trees were
]he nitrogen being derived in very poor condition. Incidentally,
rate of soda and tankage, I may say that seldom, if ever, have I
phoric acid from superphos- seen trees recover so rapidly as did

Page 3

these trees. Today they are about the
best in the experiment.
The yield of pineapple oranges are
shown in Table 5. Considering the
first five plots which have had super-
phosphate as a source of phosphoric
acid, it is quite apparent that Plots
1 and 2 are producing the heaviest
crops, with little difference between
3 and 4. Plot 5 as was mentioned
above evidently was not getting
enough nitrogen as the trees grew
poorly, had a poor color and did not
bear to amount to anything.
Turning now to Plots 6-10 which
received the steamed bone meal as
a source of phosphoric acid, we find
that there is no outstanding differ-
ence between the different sources
of nitrogen with the exception of
manure. This is more apparent when
we consider the average yields for
the seven years. You will note that
the average yield for these plots is
the same for Plot No. 1 or the nitrate
of soda plot. The steamed bone meal
was apparently responsible for the
increased yield of the dried blood
and combination plots. Whether this
is due to the nitrogen in the bone
meal or to the form of phosphoric
acid or to the organic matter is hard
to state. It is quite possible that had
we grown a heavy cover crop of le-
gumes in this grove the difference
might have been greater. The rea-
son no legume was grown was be-
cause we did not want to add another
source of nitrogen which would com-
plicate interpreting results.
You will note that these results
cover a 10-year period. During the
ten years there has been no apparent
difference between the growth and
general appearance of the trees
growing on the plots with steamed
bone meal and superphosphate. This
year for the first time a difference is
noticeable. The trees in Plots 6 and 7
have a better appearance than those
in Plots 1 and 2 which have received
the same source of nitrogen.
Whether or not this difference is go-
ing to continue we cannot predict.
It does show the danger of drawing
conclusions too soon.
Let us now look at Table 6 giving
yields of Marsh seedless grapefruit.
Here we find a more pronounced dif-
ference between Plots 1 and 2 than
in the case of the oranges. While the
orange yields showed an increased
yield with sulfate of ammonia, the
grapefruit shows an increased yield
with nitrate of soda. The dried blood
evidently is not furnishing enough
soluble nitrogen when the trees need
it. The combination of sources gives
a yield almost as good as the sulfate
of ammonia.
From a study of these two tables
I do not believe any one can deny
that the two inorganic sources of ni-
trogen, nitrate of soda and sulfate of
ammonia, are good sources of nitro-
gen for citrus. As I stated previous-
ly, I believe they will work even bet-
ter if used in connection with a good
heavy cover crop, or with hay hauled
into the grove. To any one who has
seen the above grove there can be no
question as to the influence of these
inorganic sources on tree growth.
The trees on Plots 1 and 2 are by far

aPae 3


why the yields have not been larger
may be because we have used insuf-
ficient amounts of nitrogen. So far
we have given the larger trees just
as the smaller. While this may have
been enough for the smaller trees I
believe the larger trees can use more
to advantage.
There has been considerable criti-
cism about all of our fertilizer ex-
perimental work. Some of this criti-
cism is justified unless all of the
facts are known. The chief criticism
has been that we are drawing con-
clusions from a too limited number
of experiments. We have been very
careful in the past, and will continue
to be so in the future, to call atten-
tion to the fact that any recommen-
dations we may make are based on
experiments on one type of soil and
are strictly applicable to that type
only. We have stated, and I state
now that similar results can probably
be expected on other types of soil,
and we urge growers to try out our
recommendations, though we will
not guarantee that they will get the
same results if used on different soil
types and root stocks.
Let me assure you and all others
who are interested in our work that
we fully realize that our experiments
are not as comprehensive as they
should be. No one is more anxious to
conduct these experiments as they
should be than I am. However, it
costs money to conduct experiments
and few people seem to realize how
much it costs or how little we have
available with which to conduct
these experiments.
The past year we had $1,200 avail-
able for the purchase of fertilizers.
The fertilizer for the three experi-
ments at the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion alone last year cost $743.36 or
more than half of the total amount
we had available. Our experiment in
Lake County, where we are compar-
ing some of the newer sources of ni-
trogen and determining whether or
not it is possible or best to apply all
the phosphoric acid and potash in one
application a year, cost us $240.00
for the fertilizer. This left us only
$317.00 for fertilizer for the balance
of our experiments. These experi-
ments were as follows:
Source of nitrogen test, an en-
largement of the experiment under
way at Lake Alfred, and amount of
phosphoric acid test, five experi-
ments located at the following
places: Leesburg, Avon Park, Port
Mayaca, Homestead and Ft. Pierce.
Satsuma fertilizer experiments at
Marianna and Penney Farms.
Citrus fertilizer experiments on
muck soils at Davie.
Potato experiments at Hastings.
Tomato experiments at Braden-
You may very well ask the ques-
tion how could we buy enough fer-
tilizer with the money we had for all
of these experiments. The answer is
that most of the groves are young
trees, one co-operator paid for all of
his fertilizer, and we obtained most
of the nitrogen materials free of
charge through the generosity of the
Barrett Co., Nitrate of Soda Educa-

the largest in the grove. One reason
tional Bureau and the Synthetic Ni-
trogen Co-operation. I take this op-
portunity to express our gratitude to
these companies for their aid which
made it possible for us to conduct as
many experiments as we did. This
year we may have to ask some of our
co-operators to buy some of the fer-
tilizer or discontinue the experi-
You can readily see that the citrus
growers are getting considerably
more than their share of the funds
available for fertilizer work, yet we
are not at all satisfied that we are
doing as much as ought to be done,

but we do feel that we are doing as
much as is possible with the limited
funds at our disposal.
One of our greatest needs at the
present time is a citrus grading ma-
chine at our Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion. We feel that in order to get a
true picture of our fertilizer results
we should know the effect of the dif-
ferent fertilizers on the size and
quality of the fruit. Without a grad-
ing machine this is impossible. With
our curtailed funds it will be impos-
sible to purchase a grader but we
would gratefully accept one as a gift
if any one had one they wished to
dispose of in this manner.

Yields in Pounds Per Tree

Plot Treatment 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930

1 H. G. Sulfate of Potash .__.. ....__. 9 156 98 147 169 346
2 H. G. Muriate of Potash ._.._ ___. 12 131 106 155 233 349
3 L. G. Sulfate of Potash ....-...........-- .. 3 119 91 140 178 311
4 Same as 2, 1 x, Same as 1, 2 x-.......__. 12 164 94 146 154 325
5 Same as 2, 1 x, Same as 3, 2 x ---- 11 148 88 137 140 300
6 Same as 2, 2 x, Same as 1, 1 x .. _- 25 133 167 158 214 301
7 Same as 2, 2 x, Same as 3, 1 x --......--.... 21 127 109 119 190 276
Yields in Pounds Per Tree



1925 1926 1927 1929 1930

H. G. Sulfate of Potash---- --
H. G. Muriate of Potash -.---
L. G. Sulfate of Potash--...----
Same as 2, 1 x, Same as 1, 2 x -
Same as 2, 1 x, Same as 3, 2 x_
Same as 2, 2 x, Same as 1, 1 x
Same as 2, 2 x, Same as 3, 1 x


293 267
234 217
190 184
233.9 225
205 201
233.6 196
210.3 154

Yields in Pounds Per Tree

Potash 1 1922 11923 11924 11925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 9Yrs.
Plot 1-3% ----------... 4 45 23 47 75 153 130 169
Plot 2-10% --.--. 2.8 37 59 67 80 104 163 146 253 103
Plot 3-3% -....... 7 44 75 71 90 130 145 140 280 109
Plot 4-10% --------------- 18 65 117 7 1 104 143 156 153 256 125
Plot 5-5% -....___- 24 63 132 110 144 109 162 187 297 136
*Plot 6-3-5-10 ........... 44 77 128 97 172 126 171 225 284 147
3% Potash in spring, 5% in summer, 10% in fall.
Yields in Pounds Per Tree
Potash 1 1922 1923 11924 11925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 9Yrs.
Plot 1-3% .._ 231 171 I 394 120 772 126 277 228 833 350
Plot 2-10% ..--.... 220 28 379 48 631 50 220 133 300 247
Plot 3-3% .-...--...- 205 101 415 145 618 141 217 216 614 297
Plot 4-10% .... -. 290 50 322 157 583 139 245 275 479 282
Plot 5-5%--...-....- 296 93 356 64 730 74 208 176 623 291
*Plot 6-3-5-10 -.. 440 3 429 4 664 12 282 251 548 293
*3% Potash in spring, 5% in summer, 10% in fall.
Yields in Pounds Per Tree

Plot Treatment 1924 1925 I 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 Avg.

1 Nitrate of Soda.....--.......--------- 82 95 110 113 168 100 260 132
2 Sulfate of Ammonia -- 123 129 184 94 160 113 293 157
3 Blood ..--..-------------- -.....- 123 123 132 80 65 122 131 111
4 Combination 1, 2 and 3 ....- 61 86 81 170 78 107 132 102
5 *Manure -------------------...... 113 104 95 29 28 29 69 67
6 +Same as 1------------...... ----.. 100 112 99 118 127 84 275 131
7 Same as 2 -----.............-----. 88 116 84 124 103 122 292 133
8 Same as 3 ...-----.---- 118 123 99 133 90 149 208 131
9 Same as 4 ...........----- ..- 103 105 69 187 95 147 198 127
10 Same as 5 ----..----- -- ....... 113 114 145 1 37 53 71 128 94
Source of nitrogen changed 1929 to half nitrate of soda and half sulfate of ammonia.
+ Source of phosphoric acid-steamed bone meal.
Yields in Pounds Per Tree




1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 Avg.

Nitrate of Soda--..._..- 169 276 375
Sulfate of Ammonia..........._ 251 160 333
Dried Blood ....... ~........ -- 1 8 74 220
Combination of 1, 2 and 3... 94 265 179

173 285 574 283
90 126 496 218
50 20 282 124
57 97 428 190

$280,000.00 To Be

Spent Advertising

Pineapple Industry

Hawaii with her pineapples is fac-
ing the biggest crop yet produced
and has gotten together on a general
advertising campaign for pineapples
with the three big packers and others
joining. It is interesting to note that
these three leading packing com-
panies are joining in this general
program as well as continuing spend-
ing a considerable amount in adver-
tising of their own brands. The re-
port indicates that the total crop will
be somewhat in excess of 14,000,000
cases as compared with 12,640,000
cases this past season. Libby, McNeill
& Libby, the California Packing Co.
and the Hawaiian Pineapple Co. are
the three big packers of pineapples..
They will continue as usual advertis-
ing their own brands but have joined
with each other and the rest of the
pineapple industry in an advertising
campaign that will be put on in the
United States for which $280,000
have been allotted.
Regardless of the well known'-
brands of the larger companies men-
tioned, the industry sees the need of
advertising pineapples as a commod-
ity in order to extend the market in
view of the heavier crop production.
This step on the part of Hawaii is
directly competitive with our own
canned grapefruit and also indicates I
that Hawaii is doing something
through their organized industry
that the Clearing House could do for
the citrus industry if the opportunity
were given.


(Continued from Page One)
shipped, including proper proportion,
of the mixed cars, 38,840 cars of or-
anges and 30,402 cars of grapefruit.
This estimate on oranges was one
percent better than the official state
estimate, while on grapefruit it was'
7.7 percent better.
Actual figures on his last year's
crop with an accurate estimate from
each grower on his own crop for the
season can and certainly should help
the industry in reaching a more ac-
curate estimate.


(Continued from Page One)
recommended the appointment of a
Budget Committee to meet with the
Board when the budget is considered.

"The Clearing House was hailed as
the solution of the growers' difficul-
ties and I am still of the opinion that
it is the right move. I am for the
Clearing House; I believe it has done
remarkably well"-Dr. Will J. Mar-
tin, Kokomo, Indiana.




, I I

I ___


Page 4

September 10, 1931


Canned Grapefruit Problem

Will Be Serious One For The

Industry Without Cooperation

Whether the canning of grapefruit
will be beneficial or damaging to
growers producing grapefruit is de-
i pendent on whether Florida growers
and shippers are sufficiently broad-
minded to find a common meeting
ground in working out this phase of
our industry. The canners them-
selves are too disorganized to solve
this problem for the industry if the
growers and shippers will not do
their part.
With the amount of grapefruit
Florida will again be producing this
coming season, certainly it will be a
,part of wisdom if something could
be worked out that would put a stop
to delivering drops or culls to the
canneries. Practically every grower
in the state would be willing to do
this if he knew the rest of the grow-
ers would; because Florida growers
do realize by this time, as also do
' most of the shippers, that culls and
drops should be eliminated from
competing with the balance of the
crop, especially during the coming
season when prices look none too
favorable for even the better grades.
On top of this, canned grapefruit
would not be competing with fresh
grapefruit if the canneries took num-
ber two fruit only. This would also
take off of our fresh fruit market
two and a half to four million boxes
of number two grade, thereby ma-
terially lifting the general price level
on the balance of the grapefruit.
Again in this as in all other vital
industry matters, the Clearing House
stands ready and eager to bring
about a sensible agreement. We urge
the necessity of an agreement be-

tween all marketing agencies and
their shipping units that they will
sell to the canneries nothing below
number two grade, in the belief that
the canneries will be, thereby, great-
ly benefitted by having a uniform
product without any damage of
tainting the batch because of a bad
cull or drop. This will tend toward
decidedly more uniform prices on
the part of the canneries, stabilizing
all their merchandizing effort.
We were talking this over with a
leading canning plant man today and
he is confident that practically every
cannery in the state would gladly
agree on such a program. To make
the agreement more practical and
binding, they would agree that they
would not take any grapefruit that
was not number two grade or better
and to make this more binding, he
thought it might be necessary for the
canneries to agree to accept all their
supplies only from the packing
houses. This would do away with the
temptation of evasion and accept-
ing a lower grade. It would tend to
bring about a more uniform price
and a better general control by co-
operation between the packers of
fresh grapefruit and the packers of
canned grapefruit. It would net de-
cidedly higher returns to the grow-
ers for both products.
The canneries would like to have
the balance of the industry help
them in stabilizing their business
and the Clearing House would like to
be of assistance to both the canners
and the growers in eliminating the
short-sighted practices of the past
connected with the canning business.


At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Clearing House in Win-
ter Haven, August 31st, the following formal statement was made:
"Florida is facing for this coming season the following facts:
"Another year of business depression with its resultant reduced buy-
ing capacity in the markets we depend upon.
"Prices on all food commodities have been low and each food product
competes with the other for its proportion of the consumer's scanty pocket-
"The apple crop is estimated at 15,000 cars more than last year.
"Crop conditions over the United States offer no special relief. The
increase in the Texas grapefruit will partially off-set the decrease in our
Florida grapefruit crop to the extent of about 4000 cars. Our question-
naire indicated that about 4000 cars, mostly grapefruit, were never picked
in Florida. This would make a total of 8000 cars as an off-set. The de-
crease in our grapefruit crop is estimated at nine to ten thousand cars.
The tangerine crop is not decreased enough to insure decidedly higher
prices. Possibly 20 percent decrease in the orange crop may bring about
higher price levels.
"In view of the above facts, a get-together program is demanded from
the Florida citrus industry. In the absence of any other organization that
can meet the situation, the Clearing House has a definite duty to perform,
in bringing about orderly competition. Industry conditions demand that
the shippers of Florida get together through the Clearing House. The
Board, therefore, directs that conferences be held with various shippers
and leaders in the industry to determine upon what simple elementary
points the industry shall find it possible to pull itself together."

Getting Together On

Tangerines Important

Plan of Association

Disappointment In Last Sea-
son's Returns Reason For
Get-Together to Aid Distri-

Because of the serious disappoint-
ment of the past season's effort on
tangerines and the generally disas-
trous returns to growers, practically
every shipper who handled tange-
rines in volume this past season laid
his cards on the table, determined to
see if something could not be done
in the way of a general get-together
control for tangerines this coming
season. Every operator turned in his
destination records for the past sea-
son, resulting in convincing every
one that heroic measures must be
undertaken for such faulty distribu-
tion. This pooled information show-
ed that there were many important
towns that get no tangerines and
some towns that get as little as one-
tenth box to a thousand population.
Other towns, like Buffalo, consume
86 boxes per thousand population.
The ten auction markets averaged 40
boxes per thousand.
Twenty-five boxes per thousand
population covering those cities that
Florida could naturally look upon as
a reasonable marketing outlet for
tangerines would have distributed
the entire crop of 1,800,000 boxes of
tangerines last year.
The Clearing House is determined
to correct this situation and stands
ready to have a special tangerine de-
partment and make separate assess-
ment on tangerines so that not only
future distribution may be correct-
ed in handling diversions, but also
that demand may be built up in many
markets unacquainted with tange-
rines by local advertising, publicity
and dealers service.
The tangerine plan contemplates
obviously a proper control of sup-
plies from week to week as well as
control of destination by giving all
shippers an intelligent insight into
the problem as it exists from day to
day. The pooling of destination in-
formation, price information, and
shipping plans and policies through
the Clearing House would show up
clearly to every shipper the practi-
cal steps that he must fellow under
the advice and interpretation of the
Clearing House in this a get-together

Dana C. King, who has held the
position of Orange Sales Manager of
the California Fruit Growers Ex-
change for the past twenty years,
has resigned, effective Sept. 1. Mr.
King has been connected with the
Exchange for twenty-eight years,
having started at Covina with the
Covina Exchange, after which he
went with the A. C. G. Exchange as
manager, then with the parent or-

Interest In Lime

Growing In State


Interest in growing limes in Flor-
ida, particularly limes of the Persian
or Tahiti type, is increasing, says Dr.
A. F. Camp, horticulturist of the
Florida Experiment Station. The
Tahiti lime is as large as a lemon,
while the key or Mexican lime, grown
on the Florida keys, is small. In an-
swer to a recent inquiry, Dr. Camp
had the following to say about lime
growing in Florida:
"The key lime is very susceptible
to cold damage and probably cannot
be raised outside of the keys of Flor-
ida, for this reason. The Tahiti lime
is more hardy but is less hardy than
the orange or grapefruit and should
not be planted in any location where
there is likely to be cold damage.
The trees, besides being susceptible
to cold conditions, are susceptible to
a number of diseases, particularly
wither-tip, so that the growing of
them calls for more skill and exertion
than does the growing of oranges or
grapefruit. Where a well protected
location is available, however, they
can be grown and, from present indi-
cations, can be marketed satisfac-
torily providing the grower is a good
salesman and knows how to go about
developing a market for them. They
do not take well in sweet shops, ow-
ing to the fact that they are too
large. For this sort of thing the key
lime is desired because one lime
makes a drink and no cut limes are
left lying around. The Persian lime,
however, will make two or more
drinks and cut halves are likely to be
left on the counter. The oil in the
rind of the key lime is quite fragrant
and is desired in a drink, but the oil
in the rind of the Tahiti is not quite
so desirable and this has militated
against it somewhat.
"I believe, however, that there is a
considerable future for the Persian
lime in this State as a substitute for
lemons and, gradually, as a substi-
tute for key limes in sweet shops and
all the indications point in that direc-
tion. However, the marketing of
them is not a fixed proposition as it
is with citrus and the grower will
have to use considerable ingenuity
and resource in developing this phase
of the work. I believe it is this lime
that you will have to depend on in
your development, as I very much
doubt the possibility of growing key
limes outside the Florida keys, unless
you have a peculiarly well protected

ganization where he held the position
of orange sales manager for twenty
years. Mr. King has extensive citrus
interests that he will devote his time

"I am sure that the co-operative
working of the Clearing House must
be of much benefit to the growers. I
am one of the Clearing House's well
wishers and best boosters"-J. H.
Lancaster, Bartow, Florida.

September 10, 1931

Page 5


I suppose you all know what we
mean by pumpkin bug. Although
there is some lack of uniformity in
the use of the term usually we mean
by pumpkin bug the "Southern
Green Stink Bug"-that big green
stink bug we in Florida are all too
familiar with. I will not make any
effort to show you any specimens this
morning, but we will, however, have
some on display tomorrow morning
at the laboratory. Some people use
the words "pumpkin bug" to include
practically all stink bugs. There are
three or four brown and gray ones
that usually attack citrus, as well as
the green one.
In order that we may understand
better the control of the pumpkin
bug, we had better first consider its
life history. Like all insect they come
from eggs which are laid in bunches
on the underside of the leaves by the
adult females. These eggs are hardly
noticed as you go through the grove.
If you will lie down on your back
under a cover crop you can easily
see them on the underside of the
leaves. Sometimes these pumpkin
bugs are highly parasited.
These eggs on the undersides of
the leaves hatch out in three or four
days in the summer time. It requires
a little longer time in the fall and
spring. The young bugs that hatch
out have a very different appearance
from the old pumpkin bug; they are
bluish in color with yellow markings.
They require about a month for their
complete development. They grad-
ually change to a lighter color until
they emerge as adults with wings. In
the neighborhood of Gainesville we
find very few young from the latter
part of November until the first of
April. During winter about half of
the adult hibernate under logs barks,
etc. These are pink rather than
white. The other half do not hiber-
nate, but are found on truck crops,
such as petsai, collards, turnips, let-
tuce, radishes, etc. In the spring
when the big headed thistles come
up, they are a favorite host plant of
the pumpkin bugs. Later beans, to-
matoes, potatoes, etc., are attacked.
Along in June and July when the
cowpeas and the beggarweed get
large enough they migrate to those
crops. They raise about half a dozen
generations during the summer,
spring, and fall, and the last genera-
tion eggs are mostly laid in early
September. Sometimes with a warm
November we will have another par-
tial generation but the eggs of the
last generation are ordinarily laid
about the first of September. This is
an important matter to consider in
the management of the cover crop.
Of course, these generations more or
less overlap, and you will find them
all sizes at this time of the year. But
on the whole the majority of them
will be at a certain stage at a certain
I have outlined the seasonal his-
tory to emphasize this fact, don't

have a continual food crop in the
grove. I don't need to describe what
the bugs do to citrus, of course. They
puncture the fruit. Of course, such
fruit will not carry to market as
these punctures form avenues of en-
try for fungus diseases. Also the or-
anges will dry out. The different va-
rieties are attacked in direct propor-
tion to the thinness of the rind. Tan-
gerines, then satsumas first, includ-
ing pineapples and valencias, and
last of all grapefruit, which are not
ordinarily much attacked by pump-
kin bugs. The stink bugs do not care
for the fruit until it approaches ma-
turity, and are seldom ever found on
green fruit. In the summer time they
are raised in citrus groves entirely
on the cover crop. Of the cover crops
ordinarily used in citrus groves, cow-
peas are their first choice, followed
by beggarweed, velvet beans, Crotal-
aria striata, and Crotalaria specta-
bilis. We have heard a great deal
about the Crotalarias and pumpkin
bugs for the last few years. The Cro-
talarias are not any more apt to raise
pumpkin bugs than any of our com-
mon cover crops-not as much, in
fact-but there is this difference.
The Crotalarias will bring the pump-
kin bugs up through the fall until the
citrus is attractive. On the other
hand the cowpeas and beggarweed
die down in the fall and are not so
attractive. The bugs don't care for
Crotalaria much until it begins to
form pods. A few pumpkin bugs are
;here on the leaves and tender stems,
but very few on Crotalaria until it
begins to form pods. That is the rea-
son why we find differences in the
different species of Crotalaria.
Crotalaria striata will begin to
bloom some time in May or June, and
at this time of the year you will find
considerable bloom on striata, and
pumpkin bugs will be there too.
Spectabilis is different, it does not
bloom until late in the season, ordi-
narily about September (we used to
call it sericia by the way). When it
does bloom it sets a heavy bloom and
has an immense number of pods, and
the pods ripen shortly. Altogether
the season during which spectabilis is
attractive to the bugs is very brief.
Most of the cover crops are attrac-
tive over a much longer time. For
that reason, of all the cover crops
that we have in a citrus grove, a pure
strain of spectabilis is the safest.
In such a grove at Marianna, Mr.
Bratley and I spent half a day last
fall and we found half a dozen pump-
kin bugs, and those were on cow-
One grove down near Lake Wales
last year was particularly interest-
ing. The owner had half of the grove
planted to spectabilis alone. The
other part of the grove was planted
to a mixture of Crotalaria striata
and Crotalaria spectabilis. Where he
had the spectabilis alone, there were
no pumpkin bugs, but where the two
were mixed, they were abundant

Pumpkin Bug Control
By J. R. WATSON, Entomologist, State Experiment Station, Gainesville, Fla.
(Talk Given at Farmers & Fruit Growers Week at Gainesville, Aug. 10-14)

enough to be alarming. They like the
pods of spectabilis just as well as
those of striata, but spectabilis has
pods such a brief time that it don't
give the bugs time to raise a genera-
Control: We have outlined briefly
the life history of the insect. The
eggs are largely laid by the last of
September, and the young are in
their first stage by the first half of
September. So we have always rec-
ommended that the cover crop be cut
by the first half of September. Cut
the cover crop around the trees first.
Where the cover crop was cut around
the trees first we have never seen
any case of infestation of the fruit
where it was cut by the 15th of Sep-
tember and cut carefully. In mowing
a grove, go in there with a scythe
first and cut under the trees first,
and leave the middles until last. The
idea is to drive the pumpkin bugs
from under the trees to the middles,
so when you do mow the middles the
young pumpkin bugs with no wings
will have trouble getting to the trees.
If you do it the other way, mow the
middles first, you are just driving the
bugs toward the trees, and some of
them may reach the trees. This may
be a serious matter if you have early
fruit at that time of the year. Which-
ever cover crop you have in your
grove, don't mix them if you can
help it, because when you mix them
you make conditions just right for
pumpkin bugs. Two years ago I was
over in a satsuma grove in West
Florida. I saw there how a cover crop
should not be handled. The owner
planted a third of his grove to cow-
peas then he had three or four rows
of Crotalaria striata, and the rest to
beggarweed. This was just right for
the pumpkin bugs. They started in on
his cowpeas in June, and they went
over to his beggarweed by hun-
dreds about July; when they had
finished these they then went over to
the Crotalarias by thousands and the
pumpkin bugs were so numerous that
they took the pods all off and then
went on over to the satsumas. What-
ever you do, don't mix these cover
crops in your grove, as they will pro-
long the breeding season of the
pumpkin bugs. Cowpeas alone are
much better to use than cowpeas and
Crotalaria mixed. Beggarweed will
come up sometimes in your Crotala-
ria and it is not as simple to keep out
as it seems.
Crotalaria, if it has plenty of pods
on, is more attractive than is citrus
fruit. I have seen in groves, over on
Merritt's Island, where Crotalaria
was first used as a cover crop, per-
haps a dozen pumpkin bugs on a
single pod of Crotalaria, but not a
one on a tangerine two inches away.
As long as the pods are there the
bugs wil not leave them for the fruit.
Unless something happens to the
green pods, such as an early frost, a
hurricane-which did some damage
two years-or a drought, there will
be plenty of pods there. Perhaps the
most common cause of trouble is an
extremely heavy infestation of
pumpkin bugs. After the pods have
been attacked by the pumpkin bugs,
they will drop, after which the bugs

may migrate to the fruit. As long as
there are green pods there, you need
not worry about pumpkin bugs. A
sure way to get along with Crotala-
ria, particularly Crotalaria striata, is
to mow it in September, or perhaps
as soon as it begins to bloom, before
it becomes attractive, and you won't
have any trouble with pumpkin bugs.
Of course, you will lose your seed,
and at the present price of Crotalaria
spectabilis seed it is rather a valuable
crop, but striata seed is not so valu-
Now pumpkin bugs have their ene-
mies as well as anything else-espe-
cially a large fly much like a deer fly
but with short hairs on the legs so
that they look like feathers. We have
called it the "feather-legged fly." It
lays its eggs on the back of the pump-
kin bugs and the young grubs hatch-
ing out from them bore directly into
the pumpkin bugs. They feed at first
on the fatty bodies of the pumpkin
bug, but finally kill it, although some-
times the parasited bug can lay a few
eggs, ordinarily not. This is the most
important parasite of the pumpkin
bug. We will show you specimens of
this parasite tomorrow morning at
the laboratory. The grub that has
lived in the interior of the pumpkin
bug completes its development there,
and then crawls out and pupates in
the ground and comes out as another
fly. It feeds on nectar of flowers, and
when Crotalaria is in bloom they
feed on the nectar in the blooms of
Crotalaria, so we have in Crotalaria
a rather happy combination-both a
cafeteria and a nursery for the
feather-legged fly--here is its dinner,
and here is a place to lay its eggs.
There is another little parasite that
'lays eggs in the eggs of the pumpkin
bugs. The eggs of the pumpkin bug
is a pale yellow, turning an orange as
they get ready to hatch, but the para-
sited eggs will turn black, so you can
readily recognize them. This parasite
is especially effective in the fall of
the year.
A crop of beggarweed and Crotal-
aria does not always mean pumpkin
bugs. My advice would be this: If you
have a good crop of Crotalaria spec-
tabilis but mixed with beggarweed
or other host, you had better watch
it at this time of the year. If you find
very many pumpkin bugs there you
had better mow it. You had better
raise your Crotalaria seed some-
where else and reseed your grove
every year rather than run too much
risk of pumpkin bugs. If you don't
find very many and you have a good
crop of pods there, probably you are
pretty safe in letting your cover crop
go awhile. If they appear in any
great numbers there later in August
or September, you had better mow
your striata. This also applies to spec-
tabilis, if it is mixed with wild le-
gumes, cowpeas, or beggarweed. But
if you find practically no pumpkin
bugs there, and because of the pres-
ent price of spectabilis seed, you
want to save it, you can fairly safely
do so. But watch it all the time.
Now if you make a mistake in your
judgment and allow your cover crop
to stay there in your grove too late,
(Continued on Page Seven)

Page 6

September 10, 1931


Rots of Florida Citrus Fruits
The following article on "Rots of Florida Citrus Fruits" is taken from the address
on the subject made by H. E. Stevens, U.S.D.A., at the annual meeting last spring of
the State Horticultural Society at Miami. Mr. Stevens' talk will be printed in the
News, the following being the concluding installment:

(Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture)

Stem-end Rots
The stem-end rots present a more
difficult problem to handle. They are
caused by either of two fungi, Pho-
mopsis or Diplodia, very different or-
ganisms from those of the blue mold
group. Both types of stem-end rot
are similar in general appearance,
and it is not possible to distinguish
one from the other through the ex-
amination of the outer surface.
There are some differences, however,
in seasonal occurrence, reactions to
temperature and rapidity of develop-
Stem-end rot begins with a soft
spot at the stem end of the fruit,
hardly noticeable at first. It is at this
point that the fungus enters, either
through the woody stem or append-
ages of the button. Beginning stages
may show no discoloration, but as
the rot progresses the affected area
of the fruit becomes brown or coffee
Colored. There is no surface growth
of the fungus on the fruits until
after they have shrivelled and mum-
mified. Spore production does not
occur, or rarely so, on affected fruits.
Produced In Dead Wood
The fungi causing both of these
rots grow and produce their spores in
the dead bark of citrus twigs and
branches. The spores are borne in
globular receptacles buried deep in
the bark. When the spores are ma-
ture, if the bark becomes wet, these
receptacles swell, protude (and be-
yond) the bark and exude the spore
masses often in thread-like tendrils.
The wind and rains scatter the spore
through the trees and those coming
in contact with the fruit, under fav-
orable conditions start on their work
of decay.
The dead wood in citrus trees is
the immediate source of stem-end
rot, but the development and pro-
gress of the decay is largely in-
fluenced by moisture and tempera-
ture conditions. Warm, rainy
weather is a favorable condition
for initial infection, much of which
occurs before the fruit has ma-
The Diplodia stem-end rot usually
occurs in the early shipping season
and it will often develop very quick-
ly during periods of warm weather.
At temperatures between 90 and 95
degrees F. the fungus is most active,
causing complete decay of fruit in
two or three days after the first indi-
cation of rot. Diplodia stem-end rot
has given considerable trouble in the
coloring rooms during the past few
seasons, especially where tempera-
tures were allowed to run high and
the ventilation was poor and exces-
sive dosages of gas were given. Ex-
cessive rot under such conditions
often occurs and it may run from
10% to 40 % following a seventy-two
hour coloring period. As the weather
becomes cooler the Diplodia rot

shows a tendency to decrease; how-
ever, a certain percent continues
throughout the season.
The Phomopsis stem-end rot de-
velops at a somewhat lower range of
temperature than Diplodia, and may
be expected to show up during
periods intermediate between the
warmer and cooler parts of the ship-
ping season. It, too, is increased by
improper coloring room methods.
The control of citrus stem-end rots
will require the co-operation of all
parties concerned in handling the
fruit. The grower has his responsibil-
ity. Since dead twigs and branches
are a source for infectious material
the citrus tree should be kept reason-
ably free from dead wood and all
agencies that tend to cause dead
(1) Removal of dead wood. A cer-
tain amount of pruning out of dead
wood should be done from time to
time. This reduces Diplodia stem-end
rot considerably, but can not be re-
lied upon for complete control. Scale
and other insects are responsible for
large amounts of dead wood, also
lack of plant food, drought and flood
conditions, and these should be taken
care of at proper seasons. Any prac-
tice that has a tendency to weaken
the trees should be avoided, for
weakened trees generally accumu-
late the largest amounts of dead
wood. The older bearing groves will
be more subject to stem-end rot than
younger groves owing to the accum-
ulation of dead wood.
Spraying Rather Costly
(2) Special spraying for the con-
trol of stem-end rot alone will hard-
ly warrant the effort or expense. It
has been found, however, that an ap-
plication of 3-3-50 Bordeaux mix-
ture applied for melanose control in
late April or early May has given a
considerable degree of protection
against Phomopsis stem-end rot.
(3) Care in coloring. Use fruit
on which the color has broken so as
not to require prolonged coloring-
room treatment. This is especially
important for fruit from trees with
considerable dead wood, or for other
reason suspected of being subject to
stem-end rot. Do not let coloring
room temperatures go much above
85 degrees F. Provide for adequate
ventilation. Avoid excessive dosages
of ethylene or stove gas.
(4) Chemical treatment. The so-
lution of borax and boric acid used
for blue mold control will reduce
stem-end rot.
(5) Refrigeration. Since the tem-
perature range is relatively high for
both forms of stem-end rot, lower-
ing of the temperature below 55 de-
grees F. is a very effective means of
control. This should be promptly
done, especially with fruit that has
been through warm coloring rooms.

September 10, 1931


Fruit Inspection Is

Ready But No Fruit

Offered, Says Mayo

Proof that the growers of Florida
have no desire to send green fruit to
market, is established in the fact
that although the state inspection
service is ready, no fruit has been of-
fered, Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of
Agriculture, who has established
headquarters in Winter Haven,
where for the past two years the
green fruit inspection work has been
carried on, stated that shipments for
the first half of September would be
very light.
Mr. Mayo stated that the same pol-
icy of co-operating with the Federal
Government for the past two years
would be followed. About twenty-
five of the total number of inspectors
employed are licensed by the Fed-
eral Government to inspect for qual-
ity grade and condition and issue
Federal certificates for grade. The
total number employed last season
was 155, it was stated, and the same
number will probably be employed
this year. Of this total, including the
Federal inspectors, all but six are
Florida residents, Mr. Mayo said.
O. G. Strauss, supervising inspec-
tor, who has charge of the headquar-
ters in Winter Haven, has been a
Florida resident for several years.

Pre-cooling is very desirable in such
case. Dealers and consumers should
keep the fruit in cool places.
(6) Prompt handling. During
warm weather, when stem-end rote
prevail, it is important to move the
fruit as promptly as possible to mar-
ket and through distributing chan-
nels to final consumption. Both stem-
end rots are rather slow in develop-
ing their full effect at average daily
temperatures at northern markets
during even the warmer portions of
the Florida shipping season. If not
subjected to coloring room incuba-
tion or to the sometimes tardy hand-
ling at the start of the packing sea-
son, much of the loss from stem-end
rot will be avoided simply by hasten-
ing consumption of the fruit.
The End


(Continued from Page Six)
and you find that about the first week
in November that the bugs are mi-
grating to the citrus fruit in large
numbers, don't hold your hands and
say, "it is too bad." The bugs can be
collected from those trees at a very
trifling expense, as compared with
the cost of the fruit. At Eagle Lake
we collected the pumpkin bugs at
about $2.00 an acre. We made some
large nets by stretching unbleached
muslin across a piece of wood with a
wire around the outside. We had a
shallow net about three feet in diam-
eter. When held under a twig with
fruit, the bugs will fall into the net
when jarred. We had in the net some

Page 7

Laboratory Equipment

For Citrus By-Products

Arrives Winter Haven

The first consignment of equip-
ment for the Federal citrus by-pro-
ducts laboratory to be established in
Winter Haven, was received here re-
cently, it was announced by H. W.
von Loesecke, chemist in charge of
the establishment. Other laboratory
fixtures are expected within a short
time, and installation will begin
shortly, according to Mr. von
It was also announced that a junior
chemist would be sent here about
September 15 by the Federal De-
partment of Agriculture to assist Mr.
von Loesecke in the work of getting
the laboratory in readiness for the
1931-32 season. The laboratory will
assist the citrus authorities in mak-
ing experiments looking toward com-
mercial utilization of various pro-
ducts that may be made from citrus
peel and other parts of the fruit.
A formal opening of the labora-
tory, which is located on Third Street
and Avenue "E" Southwest, in Win-
ter Haven, will be held some time in
October. Several representatives of
the Federal Government will be here
for the opening, it was announced,
among whom is expected Dr. E. M.
Chace, senior chemist in charge of
a similar laboratory in Los Angeles,
California, the only other laboratory
of its kind in the country. A third
laboratory is to be established in

cotton waste soaked in kerosene.
After we got through with each tree
we dipped the cotton and the net into
a bucket of kerosene and used it over
again. This should be done in the
early morning when the bugs are
sluggish or they will crawl or fly
away after they get in the net. Most
of this work was done at night. On a
moonlight night you can very easily
see those white bugs against a yellow
Now we have no spray that is safe
to use on citrus against pumpkin
bugs. I have seen pure kerosene used,
spraying it on in a very fine mist, but
I don't care to recommend it. You
may get by nine times out of ten, but
the tenth time you may hurt your
fruit. The young ones can be killed
by the pyrethrum compounds, and
they very young ones by the nicotine
compounds. Even if we had a safe
spray we could collect them in nets
cheaper than we could spray. There
is no necessity in letting the bugs
take your crop if you have made a
mistake and allowed them to breed.

"We are satisfied with the work
the Clearing House has been able to
accomplish" Alcoma Corp., Lake
Wales, Florida.

"We believe the Association has
been of service to the industry and
is capable of much greater service"
-S. Y. Hartt & Son, Avon Park, Fla.





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.
E. C. AURIN Ft.Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
O. F. GARDNER Lake Placid
W. J. HOWEY Howey in the Hills
L. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
A. M. TILDEN Winter Haven
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando

Florida, A United State
There is one simple thing that could be done
that would unite Florida in a more construc-
tive program guiding the marketing and dis-
tribution of the citrus crop during the season
just starting. At present, conditions appear
disconcerting. Instead of working together
there is a tendency to pull apart. Florida has
caught the contagion affecting.most of the bus-
iness world in feeling frustrated and discour-
aged. Florida growers and shippers do not
need to hold this attitude. All that is neces-
sary is to take ourselves as we are and along
simple lines unite on those things that can be
agreed upon as fundamental in controlling the
essentials of marketing and distribution.
Does anyone doubt the advisability and, in
fact, the necessity of Florida growers and ship-
pers, as a whole, uniting on some means of in-
telligently controlling the supply sent forward
from week to week? Without control on the
part of Florida, certainly we cannot expect
confidence from the trade nor can we even ex-
pect confidence on the part of our own Sales
Managers in determining prices, because they
would be continually dealing with the "un-
known" and the fear of "unknown" grapples
at a man's heart greater than known facts that
may be disagreeable. Can there be any doubt
in anyone's mind of the necessity of pooling
our interests where our Sales Managers will
have daily before them the destination of all
cars, as well as their own, including the total
shipments by destination to date as flashed
against an ideal distribution based on popula-
Instead of being actuated unconsciously by
distrust and indecision, doesn't every one think
that every salesman could command generally
higher prices if he knew not only what he was
doing but what the rest of the operators are

doing in the way of price, distribution and
probable supplies?
Is there anyone that thinks that Florida
growers and shippers, as a whole, would not
be better off in seeing that its packed product
is as uniform in grade as is possible?
No amount of wishing or protesting will
eliminate competition, but there can be an
orderly control of competition. There can be
a co-ordination of distribution effort that is
imperative to successful marketing.
With marketing so split up among the many,
there must be one impartial agency to unite all
in the marketing problem. This one impartial
medium would, of necessity, be non-competi-
tive. Therefore, that medium should not itself
be a marketing agent or one involved in ac-
tually handling sales. It would, however, be a
means by which all information of vital im-
portance to all growers and shippers could be
collected. The confidential information so fur-
nished could be interpreted and passed back
to all in a manner that would, by giving daily
to the entire industry the actual price situa-
tion, the number of cars rolling, the destina-
tions, and other vital facts, indicate clearly the
tendency that must be guarded against and
opportunities that must be taken advantage of.
Unless steps are immediately taken, the ten-
dency toward increased haphazard competi-
tion will be seen in the lack of organized con-
trol and intelligent interchange of information
on the vast volume of fruit that will probably
move by truck this season. Is there anyone
who would not agree that it certainly would be
wise for every packing house unit to report in
confidence to one central agency the number
of boxes sold from the platform by truck, the
prices, and the grade, so that every packing
house manager could have the benefit of
knowing the truck market, thereby getting
every cent possible for his growers?
The growers of Florida, under the approval
of the Department of Agriculture, set up an
organization to meet the very situation that is
confronting Florida growers and shippers to-
day. There is no other means by which the
industry can approach a scientific handling of
the actual facts that are disturbing it today
except through the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association, which was
created to make it possible for Florida to be a
united state in its marketing and distribution
efforts. The Clearing House stands ready to-,
day to meet open-mindedly with all the com-
peting forces that exist in a sincere desire to
adjust ourselves to carrying out a program
that may do the greatest possible good for the
industry. It is time when all past prejudices
or preconceived ideas should be laid aside and
a fresh united front be presented vigorously
by Florida in wisely competing for its proper
proportion of the national food dollar.

Six Million Citrus

Trees Planted In

Rio Grande Valley

According to the annual United
States Department of Agriculture
citrus census, the lower Rio Grande
Valley now has a total of 6,634,051
citrus trees planted in the groves.
This is an increase of 632,950 trees
over the 6,001,101 trees in the Val-
ley at the same time last year.
During the last year a total of
869,389 trees were planted in the
Valley. But there was a mortality of
approximately 200,000 trees--young;
trees which died after the cold of the
spring of 1930-and this cut down
the total increase considerably.
Plantings the previous season were
Hidalgo County maintained its
lead in the citrus industry with a to-
tal of 4,361,557 trees, of which 594,-
549 were planted during the past
Cameron County has a total of 2,-
167,692 trees, of which 249,604 were
planted during the last year. Willacy
County shows 104,802 trees and had
plantings of 25,236 last year.
Grapefruit gained a still larger
proportion of the total, as 4,898,934
of the Valley trees are grapefruit,
1,508,394 oranges and the remaining
226,723 miscellaneous citrus. During
the last year 763,371 grapefruit
trees were planted, as against only
100,833 oranges and 5,185 of other
citrus fruit.
The trees four years old afid over
will bear commercially this season
which means that 2,194,118 trees
will bear this season. Next year more
than a million additional trees will
bear and the following year the rec-
ord 1,569,079, trees planted two
years ago will bear commercially.
The increase in the Valley total is
slightly under estimates, because of
the large loss in trees. However, the
plantings last year are a little more
than expected, in view of the short-
age of nursery stock and light plant-
ings last fall. The heaviest planting
was in the spring of this year.
The citrus census is the work of
thirty Federal inspectors in the Val-
ley who spend two months each year
counting the trees in the orchards.
"... I believe the Clearing
House to be 100% O.K."-W. L. Al-
mand, Gardner, Florida.

"I am in sympathy with the Clear-
ing House and feel that it has done a
lot of good for the growers and ship-
pers of Florida"-G. J. Moore, Ft.
Myers, Florida.

"With appreciation of the good
work you have accomplished and
best wishes or your continued suc-
cess" Geo. A. Miller, Weirsdale,

"To my belief the Association has
been operated with the interest of
the grower exclusively"-Paul E.
Mathews, Williamsport, Pa.

September 10, 1931

Page 8

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