Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00069
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: August 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00069
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
LibrdXY 0V'"uv
Burea'. Of Arig* EcOfl'
U. S. Dept. of Arig-.
fasbhringofl D- G-


FLORIDA


U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


CLEARING


HOUSE


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA


NEWS


Official Publication of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION


$2.00 a Year
10 Cents a Copy


Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla.


AUGUST 10, 1931


Entered as second-class matter August 31,
1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,
Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879.


Clearing House Fighting Proposed Freight Rates


-Data Is Compiled

jfwttCC. Hearing

f On Increase Plea

Will Show Industry's Inability
To Shoulder Any Further
Marketing Costs
All the railroads in the United
States have joined in a concerted
movementt to immediately increase
their freight and refrigeration
~charges 15%. This applies horizon-
tally to all commodities. This at-
tempt to advance freight rates at a
time when the farmer in practically
all lines of agriculture has been pass-
ing through such extreme distress
ivas generally regarded at first as an
impossible thing because of its un-
fairness and its unreasonableness.
Should the railroads be successful in
applying this advance to our Florida
citrus industry, it will cost the Flor-
ida growers around three or four mil-
lion dollars a year in reduced net
,returns.
SClearing House In Fight
The Clearing House is doing every-
thing possible to show the Interstate


Commerce- Commlssiomi--naT wrlnav
ever financial problems exist on the
part of the railroads, cannot possibly
be borne by our citrus industry as-
suming its proportion of the increas-
.d earnings that the railroads claim
are necessary. However, the rail-
joads are being supported by power-
ful groups of leading life insurance
companies, mutual savings banks,
many national banks, trust compan-
Jes, some universities and other
Financial institutions that normally
Oiivest freely in railroad stocks and
bonds. The railroads claim that dur-
ing 1930, the return to their stock-
holders averaged only 3 2 % and
that this proposed increase on
freight will then increase their net
return on their property to only 4 %
per year.
-4 From the time the Clearing House
was organized it has spent many
thousands of dollars every year in
maintaining a most active effort
0 (Continued on Page Three)


Rots of Florida Citrus Fruits
The following article on ots" of Florida Citrus Fruits" is taken from the address
on the subject made by H. E. Stevens, U.S.D.A., at the annual meeting last spring of
the State Horticultural Society at Miami. Mr. Stevens' talk will be printed in the
News, the following being the first of three installments.

By H. E. STEVENS and H. R. FULTON
(Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture)


There are two general classes of
decay in Florida citrus fruits that may
impose a heavy tax on the season's
crop. These are the Penicillium rots
and the stem-end decays. Under the
Penicillium rots we have the blue-
Treen and olive-green molds, com-
monly termed blue molds, familiar
and long known troubles in all coun-
tries where citrus is produced or of-
fered for sale.
Stem-End Rot Deceptive
The stem-end rots are a very dif-
ferent type and much more difficult
to handle. They attack and break
down the inner tissue, causing a rot-
ted fruit that is evident only after a
period of time. Apparently sound,
healthy fruits are packed, and sent
an their way to distribution only to
arrive in a state of decay, or perhaps
later develop decay on the fruit
stand and in the household of the
consumer. Decay of any kind in
fruit is a poor advertisement all
along the Tlinfe, froi -the shipper,
wholesaler, retailer to the ultimate
consumer, and it is on the consumer
that the success of the industry de-
pends. If he is unfavorably impress-
?d by decay, inferior quality, or poor
appearance, this is reflected in the
sale volume and price of the product
-as citrus growers are well aware.
The grower, the packer, the ship-
per and the buyer are all equally
concerned in the problem of decay
ind each may do his part in keeping
't down to the lowest point consistent
.vith economical practices.
Causes of Decay
The rots or decays are caused by
small organisms known as fungi.
These are microscopic plants that in-
vade and grow in the tissue of ma-
ture fruits. Some can attack and des-
troy apparently sound, healthy
fruits. The stem-end rots of citrus
fruits are typical examples. Others
are wound parasites and require a


break in the outer surface of the
fruit in order to enter and cause de-
cay. This happens in the case of blue
mold rots. Fruits affected byeitherof
these types of decay are not fit for
consumption and become a total loss.
The consumer will not buy decayed
oranges or grapefruit at any price,
and he hesitates to purchase fruits
that might be susceptible to decay
or that have a reputation for poor
keeping quality.
The fungi that cause these decays
are widely distributed in Florida cit-
rus groves. They will remain as long
as our citrus trees continue to grow
and must be accepted as something
to be reckoned with in the produc-
tion of each season's crop. These
small plants grow and reproduce
just as truly as do our large visible
plants. Their minute reproductive
bodies or spores are carried about in
the air, and in suitable lodging places
find congenial conditions for growth
and foigw.tprh
The cycle is thus continued, prob-
ably many times during the season,
and an abundance of infectious ma-
terial is usually present to cause
trouble if favorable conditions arise,
whether it be in the grove, packing
house, storage or anywhere that fruit
is handled.
Control Methods Sought
During the past twenty-five or
thirty years a large amount of atten-
tion and study has been given to cit-
rus rots and their control by workers
in the United States Department of
Agriculture and State Experiment
Stations, with a view to finding weak
points in the cycles of development
of these fungi, and practical methods
of rot control. Sufficient information
is available in publications of these
institutions to materially reduce the
decay that occurs each season. Con-
ditions that favor or induce rots
(Continued on Page Seven)


Board Vacancies

Being Filled-By -->

Election AUg

Nominations Made and Ballots
Mailed Out; Reorganization
Practically Completed

The special election to be held to
fill vacancies on the Clearing House
Board caused by the resignations of
directors in Districts Two, Three,
Four and Five will be held August
17. Nominations for directors in
these districts were completed the
latter part of July and ballots al-
ready have been mailed out to the
growers in the above mentioned dis-
tricts. In that the election is for dis-
trict directors, only growers residing
in the districts concerned are eligi-
ble to participate in this special elec-
tion. The directors who are resign-
ing are Messrs. J. T. Swann (District
Two); E. E. Truskett (District .
Three); W. F. Glynn (District Four) .
and Phil C. Peters (District Five).
The nominations for the director
in each of the four districts made..
the Committee of Fifty me l1
-thfi..jasnlct:t ilri~liaisteL~ts ^iS


District Two
Arthur Gunn, J. H. Letton, I. W.
Watt, all of Valrico.
District Three
Joseph Eichelberger, Eustis (with-
drew); W. J. Howey, Howey-in-the-
Hills, and W. A. Rhea, Umatilla.
District Four
F. J. Alexander, DeLand (with-
drew); J. K. Christian, McIntosh,
and E. H. Williams, Crescent City.
District Five
Carey Hand, M. O. Overstreet and
W. E. Tuttle, all of Orlando.
Several appointments of Commit-
tee of Fifty members in districts
where there had been resignations
among the Committee members
have been made and the others will
be completed immediately by the in-
coming directors in their respective
districts.


Volume III
Number 21


'~-~----~------------


T


I


I


i;





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


August 10, 19311


Clearing House Had

And Has Uncle Sam's

Official Approval

Board Always Vested With
Control, It Is Shown In
Reply To Queries

The advertisement appearing on
pages 4 and 5 of this issue of the
News and which appears also in the
August issue of "The Citrus Indus-
try" brings out the point that the
Clearing House is the same today as
it was three years ago.
Supplementing and confirming this
statement is the letter from the then
Secretary of Agriculture, W. M. Jar-
dine, to Allen E. Walker, first presi-
dent of the Clearing House, which
sets forth Mr. Jardine's attitude to-
ward the Clearing House. It will be
noted in the letter from Mr. Jardine
that he stresses the necessity for
having control vested in the growers
and the Board of Directors. This, of
course, is exactly the situation; the
Charter and By-Laws of the Clear-
ing House give the Board of Direc-
tors absolute authority just as Mr.
Jardine demanded. Officials of the
Clearing House have repeatedly em-
phasized this point, for it has been
intimated by some that the Directors
do not have sufficient authority.
Policies Outlined
The responsibility for directing
the details of marketing falls on the
shoulders of the Operating Commit-
tee, but the work of the Operating
Committee is governed by the pro-
visions set forth in the Charter and
By-Laws of the Association.
It is true that, when the Clearing
House was being set up, certain pro-
posals were made which it was later
learned would not have met with the
approval of the United States Gov-
ernment. These proposals, however,
were never put into effect. Hence it
is that the Clearing House today, as
well as during the past three years,
is being and has been operated with-
in the provisions of the co-operative
laws of the state and country and
the Clearing House is thoroughly-
and in fact-a genuine co-operative
organization.

California Exchange
Loses General Manager
Earl G. Dezell, for the past nine
years-general manager of the Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange, and
one of the best known figures in the
citrus industry of the country, pass-
ed away early this month, it has been
learned from press dispatches.
Mr. Dezell went with the Califor-
nia Exchange as an office boy in
1897 and his advancement with that
organization was rapid. He had
worked in practically every depart-
ment of the Exchange and as a re-
sult was regarded as having a bet-
ter-grasp of the intricacies of the in-
dustry than any other man in the
organization. When he went with the
Exchange as:a boy, the organization
was shipping about 2,000 cars a year


Uncle Sam's O.K.




THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE
WASHINGTON

July 16, 1928.


Dear Mr. Walker:
I have given careful consideration to the proposed
amendment to. Section 2 of Article 7 of the by-laws of your
association and the representations made by you and other
representatives of prominent grower and shipper interests
in Florida in n7 office today. The proposed amendment
creating an operating committee of grower shippers or
shippers' representatives gives that committee broad
powers in carrying out the purposes of the association.
This method of procedure does not appear to me to be as
effective as having grower shippers represented on the
board of directors of the association. I am in favor
of the shippers having a voice in the operations of the
clearing house subject always to control being vested in
the growers as contemplated by the Oapper-Volstead Act.
Inasmuch as the proposed amendment appears to be
unanimously supported by grower end shipper interests,
I will offer no objection to its adoption with the under-
standing that the work of the operating comittes and the
marketing plans and policies determined by that committee
will be subject to veto by-the board of directors of the
Florida citrus Growers Clearing House Association and that
the operating committee may at any time be discharged by the
board of directors of that association.
very sincerely yours,





Mr. Allen E. WAlker, President,
Fla. Citrus Growers Clearing House Ass'n,
Winter Haven, Florida.


The following is the letter (repro-
duced above) which W. M. Jardine,
while Secretary of Agriculture,
wrote to Judge Walker while the lat-
ter was president of the Clearing
House. This letter, it will be seen,
shows that the federal government
demanded that the Clearing House
Board be vested with absolute au-
thority-which is actually the case.
"The Secretary of Agriculture
Washington
July 16, 1928
"Dear Mr. Walker:
"I have given careful considera-
tion to the proposed amendment to
Section 2 or Article 7 of the by-laws
of your association, and the repre-
:entations made by you and other
representatives of prominent grower
and shipper interests in Florida in
my office today. The proposed
amendment creating an operating
committee of grower shippers or
shippers' representatives gives that
committee broad powers in carrying
out the purposes of the association.
This method of procedure does not


appear to me to be as effective as
having grower shipper represented
on the Board of Directors of the as-
sociation. I am in favor of the ship-
pers having a voice in the operations
of the Clearing House subject always
to control being vested in the grow-
ers as contemplated by the Capper-
Volstead Act. Inasmuch as the pro-
posed amendment appears to be
unanimously supported by grower
and shipper interests, I will offer no
objection to its adoption with the
understanding that the work of the
operating committee and the market-
ing plans and policies determined by
that committee will be subject to
veto by the Board of Directors of the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association and that the oper-
ating committee may at any time be
discharged by the Board of Directors
of that association.
"Very sincerely yours,
(Signed) "W. M. JARDINE.
"Mr. Allen E. Walker, President
"Florida Citrus Growers'
Clearing House Association,
"Winter Haven, Florida."


and Dezell is given a large measure Compromise
of the credit in advancing this vol- Girl's Father: "My daughter will
ume to about 50,000 cars as a nor- get $100,000 on her wedding day, so
mal yearly volume, of course I must make inquiries re-
garding your prospects."
The latest citrus industry infor- Suitor: "Don't make any inquiries
nation is in the News. and I'll take her for $50,000."


Page 2


Man's 7 Mistakes

A well-known writer advises that
there are seven mistakes Man is
prone to make:
1-That individual advancement-
can be made by crushing others.
2.-Worrying about things whice
cannot be changed or corrected. .,
3-Insisting that a thing is impos-
sible because we.. ourselves are. ui
able to accomplish it.
4.-Refusing to set aside trivial
personal preferences in order that
important co-operative benefits may
be achieved.
5-Neglecting to develop mental
refinement by the habit of cultural
reading.
6-Attempting to compel other
persons to believe and live as we dd.
7-Failing to establish the habit,
of saving money.


Movieland
A colored man was hired as an ex-
tra in a picture studio and was told
to go into a cage with a lion.
"No, sah!" he objected. "Ah ain't
gwine in no cage wif no lion nohow.'
"But," said the assistant director,
"that lion's a pet. He was raised on4
bottle."
"Yes, sah, ah know. Ah was raise&
on a bottle, too. But ah still eats
meat." ,


Changed Inspection \

Certificate Brings

U. S. Prosecution

The U. S. Department of Agriclil-
ture has discovered a few instances
in which shippers or dealers have
changed statements on the inspec-
tion certificates issued by the Food
Products Inspection Service of the
Bureau of Agricultural Economict.
The department wishes to emphasiei
that the Federal Penal Code forbids
the alteration of such documents and
warns shippers and others that ft
will take action against offenders
whenever it can obtain evidence of
tampering with inspection certift
cates.
Some shippers have changed cezr-
tificates, intending to use them as
evidence of compliance with contract-
specifications when the products, in
,act, did not correspond to the speci-
.cations. In one instance a certificate
covering an inspection of apples wgj
changed to make it appear that the
apples met export requirements
when, in fact, the inspector original-
ly certified that they did not meet
export requirements. The Depart-
ment of Agriculture presented the
evidence to the United States Attor-
ney in the district and the individual-
who altered the certificate was pros-
ecuted, was found guilty, and w's-
fined. The department announces
that it proposes to prosecute when-
ever it can obtain evidence of similar
violations.





August 10, 1931


Reminder Of Value

Of Organic Matter

Is Given Growers

By E. F. DeBUSK
(Pathologist-Entomologist)
Economic conditions affecting the
Citrus industry in Florida are forcing
growers to take advantage of certain
opportunities to reduce production
C recent developments in the fertilizer
j~dustry. Along with the rapid trend
a more general use of soluble or in-
organic nitrogen-carrying material,
rpmes the adoption of higher analyses
- nd the use of more concentrated
fertilizers. A recent survey in two of
.the leading counties in the central
part of the state brings out the fact
Mhat 66% of the growers were using
high analyses or concentrated ferti-
lizers, -that is, fertilizers containing
25 or more units of plant food to the
,tpn. Twelve percent were using fer-
tilizers containing more than fifty
4~nits of plant food to the ton. With
this growing use of concentrates
aomes an increased need of organic
matter in the form of cover-crops
and manures.
While only a limited amount of
'vork has been done in Florida show-
ing the need of organic matter in the
citrus fertilizing program consider-
able work has been done with citrus
11 California and Arizona and in
other states with deciduous fruits.
fn summarizing the work done in
California it seems evident that tree
ihjury is likely to occur in connec-
$ion with the use of many of the
chemical concentrates in the absence
of coarse organic matter in the soil.
While California citrus soils are dif-
'erent from those in Florida, at the
same time we have reason to expect
similar results from certain ferti-
lizer treatments, especially those re-
lating to the use of chemical concen-
trates in connection with organic
p.atter.
Word of Warning
f Attention is called to this matter
at the present time as a mild warning
to growers who are inclined to be-
come over enthusiastic about the re-
kilts from certain changes in their
fertilizer practices and overlook cer-
tain fundamentals. It is needless at
this time to go into a discussion of
some of the results of research
studies of the ratio of nitrogen to
&ganic carbon in the soil and its ef-
fect on the efficiency of fertilizers
applied and tree responses. The need
f more organic matter in our Flor-
ida citrus soils should by this time be
quite generally recognized.
If plans have not already been
made for the production of a good
cover-crop in the grove attention
shouldd be given to this important
matter at once. The cover-crop that
will yield the greatest tonnage will
probably prove the most profitable.
i some cases this will be a natural
cover-crop of grasses and weeds. In
father cases, it will be some cover-
crop that is carefully planted. Grow-


ers should not make the mistake that
a certain grower was making recent-
ly when he was ploughing up a crop
of grass that would have produced
about a ton and a half dry material
to the acre and planting cowpeas
that do not promise to yield more
than % of a ton to the acre and the
chances are very much less. It has
been clearly demonstrated in the ex-
periments at Lake Alfred that even
Natal grass is a very valuable cover-
crop on the light Norfolk soils. In
fact, it stood far ahead of cowpeas
in yield and its affect on tree growth.
Crotalaria proves to be our leading
cover-crop for most soil types where
crop is planted. By all means pro-
duce some kind of a crop. In many
instances growers have been destroy-
ing a good natural cover-crop by cul-
tivating after the crop begins to
grow. It will be noted that beggar-
weed and many other grasses begin
to come up quite generally just be-
fore the beginning of the rainy sea-
son. That last cultivation often'ruins
the cover-crop.
Cover Crop Material Wasted
It does not seem practicable to
produce a sufficient amount of or-
ganic matter through the growing of
cover-crops on some of our light cit-
rus soils. For such conditions the
economy and practicability of haul-
ing in organic matter from outside
the grove has been clearly demon-
strated. Too much valuable cover-
crop material is wasted in Florida.
It is a shame to burn over fields of
grass and weeds when the material
is needed so badly in our citrus
groves. This is the time of the year
to give some attention to producing
some of this organic matter on some
of these unused lands in the state. A
little time and money used in this
way not only will show profitable re-
sults in the grove but incidentally
will give a few more days of employ-
ment to some of our surplus labor
during the off-season of the year.
The maximum amount of organic
matter that can be used to an advan-
tage in an orange grove is not known.
It is significant to note that in indi-
vidual groves and sections of the
state in which the best quality of
fruit is produced that the greatest
amount of cover-crop material is re-
turned to the soil.
Conserve Organic Matter
The conservation and proper use
of organic matter in the grove should
receive more attention. It is evident
that our virgin Norfolk soils are too
low in organic matter to meet the
needs of citrus trees. This original
organic content should be increased
where it is practicable and economi-
cal to do so. This brings in the ques-
tion of proper grove management in
relation to the conservation of or-
ganic matter. In the cover-crop ex-
periment at Lake Alfred the virgin
soil contained about one percent of
organic matter when the grove was
planted. After producing five crops
of Crotalaria averaging about 2 Y
tons each and leaving all of the ma-
terial to decompose in the soil, it
was found that the organic content
of the soil had increased 19%. This


CLEARING HOUSE
FIGHTING PROPOSED
FREIGHT RATES
(Continued from Page One)
against the railroads advancing rates
and doing everything possible to get
transportation costs reduced. These
efforts are made through the Grow-
ers and Shippers League, the Clear-
ing House having contributed yearly
80% to 90% of the total funds re-
ceived by the League for handling
this most important part of industry
protection.
Hold Hearing August 17
J. Curtis Robinson, Secretary and
Manager of the Growers and Ship-
pers League, together with C. R.
Marshall, legal counsel, has been or-
ganizing the protest which will be
formally presented in the way of
depositions to be taken in Orlando,
Aug. 12 and in a final and formal
hearing in Atlanta commencing
Monday, Aug. 17.
Aside from the financial assist-
ance given the League by the Clear-
ing House, we have furnished the
League a vast amount of statistical
data year after year and recently
have been compiling further data
that immediately bears upon this ex-
tremely important matter. The
League will be furnished among
other matters carefully compiled sta-
tistics showing the amount of citrus
fruit that moved by truck this year,
a condition already being forced
upon the industry because of high
railroad rates. It will show the in-
creased proportion of fruit that
moved in bulk in a necessary effort
on the part of the industry to cut
down what heretofore was thought
of as most necessary expenses in
properly packing the fruit for the
trade.
Fruit Left On Trees
The Clearing House also is asking
for information from every packing
house, endeavoring to show in each
district the amount of grapefruit
and tangerines which could not be
moved on account of market condi-
tions, even under our present freight
rates. These written statements will
be furnished the Interstate Com-
merce Commission in the forms of
exhibits, including also exhibits
showing bearing and non-bearing cit-
rus trees in Florida and statements
of seasons' shipments in the past, all
showing the continually increasing
revenue that has been made possible
to the railroads by the citrus industry
and likewise showing that the point
has been reached where even under
present transportation costs, a vast
amount of fruit has not been moved.

block was cultivated in the usual
manner for trees of that age. There-
fore, it seems evident that it will be
necessary to either reduce cultiva-
tion in the conservation of organic
matter or supply a much larger
amount than we have been accus-
tomed to returning to the soil, as it
has been found that cultivation in-
creases nitrification and hastens the
decomposition of organic matter in
our citrus soils generally.


Citrus Exports

The following figures, furnished by
the United States Department of
Commerce, show the grapefruit and
orange exports from New York, Los
Angeles, Tampa and Jacksonville for
the weeks ending June 6, June 13,
June 20, June 27, July 4, July 11.
Week Ending June 6
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London .................. 7,939
New York-Liverpool .............. 4,676
New York-Southampton ........ 1,069
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 400
Los Angeles-London .............. 200
Jacksonville-Newcastle* ........ 250
Tampa-Southampton ............ 2,160
Tampa-Havre, France --......... 360
Tampa-London* .................... 250
Tampa-Montreal* .................. 50

Total.................................-..... 7,354
ORANGES Boxes
New York-Glasgow ................ 361
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........18,500
(Continued on Page Seven)

It will also be shown that the indus-
try is not in position to protect itself
against such an unforeseen burden
as the railroads are attempting to
place upon it because the growers
have as a permanent investment
their acreage and trees and cannot
reduce supplies to meet the reduced
demand resulting from increased
costs to the consumer. Tree fruit are
in a much different category in this
regard than potatoes and other pro-
ducts planted and raised annually.
In this connection it is interesting
to note that in this year of so-called
big production the average number
of boxes shipped from the total num-
ber of trees in bearing is only 1.074
boxes per orange tree, 1,976 boxes
per grapefruit tree, 1,151 per tange-
rine tree, the average for all three
varieties being less than 1 1/3 boxes
to the tree, namely 1.326.
To Picture State's Troubles
What the Florida industry has had
to go through in the way of storms,
bank failures following the boom,
Mediterranean fly experience, to-
gether with cost of production fig-
ures, seasonal net returns and the
general facts covering the marketing
struggle and the many difficulties
existing will be furnished the Inter-
state Commerce Commission in
hopes that Florida may avoid assum-
:ng this additional expense.
Uncle Sam is in a predicament
where he is trying through the Farm
Board and otherwise to bring relief
to farmers over the United States
and now is asked by railroad inter-
ests (that expend annually over two
billion dollars) to increase freight
rates so that according to big finan-
cial interests our national economic
structure may be strengthened. Cap-
ital may invest more safely and
profitably temporarily by such a
step, but the farmers and producers
in general of articles transported
also have to live and feed the rail-
roads with their supplies.


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Pairs 3


Page 3






SF


Statement of Approval
By Merton L. Corey Af-
ter The Completion Of
His Work In Assisting
To Organize The Clear-
ing House 3 Years Ago:
"With the Clearing House as-
sured, the time has come to
let bygonesbebygones. There
are no old scores to settle.
The changes asked by the
shippers at the conclusion of
the campaignwere proper and
the management and the
growers were wise, indeed, to
assure a high percentage of
the control of the crop by
making concessions which
leave Clearing House funda-
mentals unimpaired."


Every Important Grower



The Clearing House A






THE Clearing House is the same today as it was three.
years ago.


THREE years ago, the Clearing House method of oper-
ation was given an official O. K. by the then Secretary
of Agriculture, William M. Jardine. Secretary Jardine'
recognized the absolute power vested in the Clearing
House Board of Directors. That power still exists-none
of it has been surrendered.


THE Clearing House has done a job that has been of
real benefit to eyery grower in .the, state... And it has
functioned along the lines approved by every leading
grower and shipper in Florida as being the most prac-
tical under existing conditions.


THE Clearing House will continue to improve condi-
tions in Florida's citrus industry. Every grower in the
state owes it to himself and the industry to help the


I


Page 4 FLORIDA CLEARING( HOUSE NEWS


August 10, 1931





August 10, 1931 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS Page 5
I


nd Shipper Has Approved


It Is Operating Today!!

0 0


Clearing House do those things that are as necessary
today as they were three years ago!

IF your Marketing Agency does not belong to the
Clearing House, ask the Agency to tell you WHY. If
your Agency's explanation ignores the welfare of the
Industry, then you will know the attitude is a selfish one
and not inspired by a sincere desire to help ALL
growers.

THE Clearing House has nothing to be ashamed of and
Nothing to hide. You owe it to yourself to acquaint
Yourself with FACTS; if theke is any question in your
mind as to how the Clearing House can help you, we
will be glad to tell you. The Clearing House is on the
SSQUARE; it plays no favorites, but IT WILL ENABLE
YOUR MARKETING AGENCY TO GET YOU
MORE FOR YOUR FRUIT THAN IS POSSIBLE IF
YOUR AGENCY REFUSES TO BECOME ONE
OF US.


You Can

Help The

Industry

Help You

By Joining

Now


August 10, 1931


FLORIDA CLEARING_ HOUSE NEWS


I


Page 5






Page 6

Fungus Parasites

Of Whiteflies And

Scale Are Big Aid

Friendly Fungi Save Growers
Hundreds of Thousands of
Dollars Each Year

By E. W. BERGER
(Entomologist, State Plant Board)
Without entering into any lengthy
introductory remarks, I will simply
introduce my talk with this state-
ment: That insects, like humans, the
higher animals, and probably like all
animals, are subject to diseases that
periodically destroy them in count-
less numbers. When a disease or sev-
eral diseases destroy insects that are
useful to us, such as bees and silk-
worms, we say that is bad; when a
disease, or several diseases, destroy
iisects, such as whiteflies and scale-
insects, that are injurious, we regard
that as good and even speak of the
disease, if a fungus, as a friendly
fungus.
My subject today calls for a brief
discussion of three groups of friend-
ly fungi: those that destroy white-
flies, those that destroy scale-insects
of the armored group of scales, and
those that destroy soft scales. I more
frequently speak of them as fungus
parasites, and such they are, living
upon and destroying live insects. We
also speak of them as entomogenous
fungi, meaning that they live upon
insects.
Friendly Fungi
I will take up first the fungi that
parasites whiteflies and principally
those on the Common Whitefly and
the Cloudy-Winged Whitefly, both
frequently found infesting citrus in
Florida. There are five of these fun-
gi. They are the Brown Whitefly-
Fungus, the Red Aschersonia, the
Yellow Aschersonia, the Cinnamon
Fungus and the White-Fringe Fun-
gus.
Brown Whitefly-Fungus is prob-
ablythe most effective of these. When
once established it sends out minute
threads that ramify over the under-
side of whitefly-infested leaves in-
fecting and killing every whitefly
larva there. (I nearly omitted stat-
ing that during the greater part of
their existence, whiteflies are scale-
like and live attached like scales to
the under surface of the leaves of
infested plants). After this fungus
has become well established on a leaf
it sends out another lot of minute
threads that grow over the edge of
the leaf and ramify over the entire
upper surface, forming a delicate
thin tissue upon which the fruiting
bodies, by means of which the fun-
gus is spread from tree to tree, are
formed. At first whitish, but later
brown, the writer has seen these
fruiting bodies so abundant on citrus
trees as to give them a decidedly
brown appearance.
Brown Fungus Easily Applied
This fungus is easiest propagated
from tree to tree by mixing fungus


FLORIDAI CLEARING~I HOUSE NEWSV


material, especially of the fruiting
bodies described, in water and apply-
ing the mixture obtained against the
undersides of the leaves of whitefly
infested trees by means of a spray-
ing machine, a whisk-broom or dip-
ping the ends of infested twigs in a
bucket of the mixture. This fungus
destroys both the Common and the
Cloudy-Winged Whiteflies of citrus
trees. It is less susceptible to dry
weather and continues effective
longer into fall. Methods for grow-
ing it in the laboratory have never
been discovered, hence cultures of it
can not be supplied from Gainesville.
But some of it is generally present
in the older groves of the state.
The Red Aschersonia, or Red
Whitefly-Fungus, is at times equally
as effective in destroying the larvae
of the two species of whiteflies pre-
viously mentioned as the Brown
Whitefly-Fungus just discussed. As
its name implies, it is red, when ma-
tured, and may cover the undersides
of whitefly-infested leaves with red
spots or pustules, each one repre-
senting a dead whitefly larva. It is
this fungus that has been so success-
fully grown in the laboratory by the
Entomological Department of the
Plant Board. Approximately 2,000
cultures are now being produced an-
nually. A culture consists of the
amount of fungus that can be grown
in a pint wide-mouth bottle and is
sufficient for treating an acre of
trees. The charges are one dollar per
culture, this charge being made to
cover cost of production and distri-
bution. Remittance should accom-
pany requests for fungus, while
checks and money orders should be
made in favor of the State Plant
Board. Directions are always sup-
plied.. Otherwise, this fungus can be
spread or propagated from tree to
tree as described for the Brown
Whitefly-Fungus. A fresh supply of
the Red Aschersonia is now ready
for distribution.
Yellow Fungus Limited
The Yellow Aschersonia, or Yel-
low Whitefly-Fungus, is not unlike
the Red Aschersonia except that it is
of a beautiful lemon color when in
full fruit, i. e., when it has matured
its crop of spores. (Spores in fungi
are the minute microscopic bodies
that take the place of seeds in higher
plants). It can be grown artificially
but, as it is a parasite only of the
Cloudy-Winged Whitefly, against
which the Red Aschersonia is equally
effective, we do not grow it for gen-
eral distribution, but only a few
dozen cultures for experimental pur-
poses. It can be spread from tree to
tree by the methods previously indi-
cated.
The White-Fringe Fungus pro-
duces a very delicate growth or
fringe, from which its name, about
the whitefly larvae that it kills. Meth-
ods for growing it have not been de-
veloped as it appears to be widely
distributed and always present when
ever favorable weather conditions
prevail. At times, it is very effective.
The Cinnamon Fungus, as its
name implies, is cinnamon-like in
color and appearance. It is the only


entomogenous fungus that destroys
both scale-insects and whiteflies and
is often abundantly present, but it
has not been deemed worth-while to
undertake the artificial propagation
of it.
Fungi For Scale
A second group of entomogenous
fungi consists of those that destroy
such scale-insects as the Purple
Scale, Long Scale, Florida Red-
Scale, San Jose Scale and others,
known as the armored scales, be-
cause they are protected by a wax-
like covering, or scale, secreted by
the insect. There are five of these at
present known in Florida; namely,
the Red-Headed Scale-Fungus, the
White-Headed Scale Fungus, the
Pink Scale-Fungus, the Black Scale-
Fungus, and the Cinnamon Fungus
already named under the group that
destroys whiteflies. As I will not have
time to go into particulars about
these fungi, I can only state that
they are frequently very effective in
checking the ravages of scale-insects
infesting citrus and other trees.
Practical methods of growing them
in the laboratory have not been dis-
covered, but growers can generally
find some such fungus material in
some of their own trees and this can
be used for propagating them in
other trees. For particulars as to the
kinds of scale-insects each of these
fungi destroys, Bulletin 183 of the
Florida Experiment Station, at
Gainesville, may be consulted.
Copies of this bulletin may be ob-
tained by addressing the Experiment
Station.
A third group of three entomogen-
ous fungi is very useful in reducing
the ravages of several soft scale-in-
sects such as the Soft Brown Scale,
the Pyriform Scale, Soft Long-Scale,
Florida Wax-Scale, and others.
These are the Cuban Aschersonia,
the Turbinate Aschersonia and the
Cephalosporium Fungus. Again I will
have to refer you to Bulletin 183 for
details. Each one of these fungi,
however, has been grown in the lab-
oratory, but only a few dozen cultures
are produced each year for experi-
mental purposes. Their usefulness
undoubtedly could be extended, but
as they dier'iy insects not generally
abundant on citrus trees there is sel-
dom any call for them.
Since, in order to thrive best, these
fungi require an abundance of mois-
ture and warmth, they thrive best
during the period of summer rains,
and it is largely lost effort to under-
take to spread or introduce them
during either the dry or colder
periods of the year.
Value of the Friendly Fungi
The value of the friendly fungi to
the state may be gathered from the
fact that they save the citrus grower
at least one oil spraying annually. In
some instances undoubtedly two.
This elimination of one oil spray an-
nually takes place, furthermore, at a
time when effective spraying with oil
sprays is difficult and expensive,
namely, during the period of sum-
mer rains. It is then that the friendly
fungi are most active and effective.
Allowing that there are 300,000
acres of citrus in Florida that are


Gleaned From

The Press

Efforts To Get Together
Mr. Pratt, Manager of the Citrus
Growers Clearing House Associa-
tion, reviews in a letter to us the sev-
eral steps taken by the Clearing
House, in the effort to adjust differ-
ences with the Citrus Exchange, so
that it might be possible for the Ex-
change to remain affiliated with the
Clearing House. These steps went so
far as to offer a plan whereby the
Exchange would be given such power
of control as to make it impossible
for the Operating Committee of the
Clearing House to take any action
that would not be favorable to the
Exchange. Following this, the Clear-
ing House submitted a memorandum
which would "make all activities of
common interest not now deemed in
lull control of the Board subject to
mutual agreement." These proposals
were rejected by the Exchange. Mr.
Pratt says the Clearing House has
made every effort and throughout it
all, has "endeavored to be open-
minded." It would "appreciate from
any one any suggestion as to what
further efforts could be made that
would do any good."
Mr. Pratt adds: "The Clearing
House is compelled to go ahead with-
out the co-operation of the Exchange
as an active member. The Clearing
House however is going to work
along such industry lines with such
sincerity (even though limited as it
will be by volume) as to make it the
duty of every grower and shipper
not connected with the Exchange to
back up the Clearing House. The in-
dustry will then have two organiza-
tions, the Exchange and the Clearing
House, and public sentiment should
compel those two organizations to
look at industry matters first and
competitive ambitions second and
work out the industry problems as
worthy rivals if they cannot work
them out as was originally intended
through the Clearing House."
The view which we have taken of
the unfortunate break between the
Clearing House and the Exchange is
well stated by the Miami Herald,
which says it speaks "from an en-
tirely impartial viewpoint." After
sketching the history of the Ex-
change and the Clearing House, the
Herald thinks "the break is most re-
grettable and would seem to portend
serious consequences to growers in-
(Continued on Page Seven)

saved one spraying annually by these
fungi, we have the handsome sum of
$900,000 saved to the state each year,
allowing that it costs only three dol-
lars per acre to spray. I am advised
by a grove expert, however, that five
or six dollars per acre would be a
better average for the cost of spray-
ing groves. Allowing, therefore, five
dollars per acre we have the still
more handsome sum of $1,500,000
that the friendly fungi save to the
growers of the state.


August 10, 1931





FLORIDA CLEARING (* HOUSE NEWS


GLEANED FROM THE
PRESS
(Continued from Page Six)
dividually and the industry as well.
In spite of the fact that officials of
each of these organizations assert
that they will continue to operate
separately as before merging more
than two years ago, it is quite appar-
ent that much of the progress made
through their co-operative effort up
to this time will have been lost as a
result of their present division. It is
also quite apparent that the citrus
industry is again confronted by the
same unethical, uneconomical and
vicious competitive marketing condi-
tions with which the growers have
been contending for the past dozen
years. It is easy to see that the grow-
ers and the state must suffer the loss
of many thousands of dollars and
Sour outstanding industry a serious
setback pending the final solution of
this age-old problem of marketing
the crop each year. It's a regrettable
condition." Tampa Morning Tri-
bune.

(Highlands County News)
Chester, N. Y., July 26, 1931.
Editor, Highlands County News.
Dear Sirs:
The reading of the article in your
columns explaining the action of the
Waverly Exchange Association in
standing by the Clearing House, was
to me one bright spot for citrus
growers, of whom I am one at
Sebring. I read of the withdrawal of
the Exchange from the Clearing
House with much discouragement.
No organization has had so large a
control of co-operative distribution,
and has come so near holding up the
price level as the Clearing House.
Why try to destroy it? Why not give
it a chance to live, and go on and im-
prove? It looks like cutting off your
nose to spite your face. Farmers and
growers are the hardest people to
get to work together for their own
interest. The Clearing House, grow-
er controlled, has come the nearest
to working together of any organi-
zation we have had. I was formerly
in the Exchange and am in sympathy
with its aim for the growers' wel-
fare. But I cannot see how the Ex-
change is to increase its control by
forcing growers into membership
and working to destroy the Clearing
House, distinctly a growers organi-
V zation. Why try to divide the forces
that are aiming for co-operative ac-
tion for the benefit of our citrus
growers, and especially at a time
when united action is so necessary
for our benefit. I am hoping that
many other Exchange Associations
will see the light, and follow the ac-
0 tion of the Waverly Exchange.
Yours truly,
ALFRED T. VAIL.

Little Chance For
Lone Wolf In Pack Times
South Florida citrus growers may
derive new light anent the Clearing
House-Citrus Exchange withdrawal
controversy by reading a few ex-
tracts taken from papers in the cen-
ter of the industry.
"We have serious doubts as to the


wisdom of the proposal. . The lone
wolf has little chance in these days
of the pack. . and that goes for or-
ganizations as well as individuals."
"We have been saying for eight
years-and we repeat-one co-oper-
ative cannot retain the support of
enough of the crop to make it such
a dominating factor in the industry
as is necessary.
"There must be two or more co-
operatives, or the Clearing House or
its successor."
The above is from the Scenic
Highlands Sun.
The Highlander believes that Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange makes a mis-
take in trying to kill the Clearing
House. If the Citrus Exchange had
80 percent of the fruit in the state
there would be no need for a Clear-
ing House, of course. It has no such
figure and this paper does not believe
that putting the Clearing House out
of business, especially on the rea-
sons assigned, will help the Exchange
to get that much fruit. In fact we
are told that the Exchange has to
date handled 34 percent of the fruit
this year.
The Clearing House seeks to ad-
vertise Florida fruit, seeks to pro-
rate shipments, seeks to standardize
pick and pack. And it is because of
these things that the Exchange
wishes to draw out, we are told!
Those are the three big things that
the grower wants done for his fruit.


ROTS OF FLORIDA
CITRUS FRUITS

(Continued from Page One)
should be given the same considera-
;ion and study that is given to the
:are of the citrus grove and the use
.f various measures to produce the
crop.
The grower or shipper with a car-
.oad of'citrus fruit, in any of our
leading markets, showing 10% to
15% decay can do nothing to rem-
2dy the immediate situation. He will
be forced to take his loss. The time
:o prevent such a condition is per-
aps before the fruit is matured or
when it is picked or at least at the
time of packing. It is well to bear
:n mind that a certain amount of de-
cay, small or large, is likely to oc-
cur each season but this amount may
be reduced if timely precautions and
effort are put forth to avoid it.
It is too late to attempt to save
a fruit after decay has started. Pre-
ventive or precautionary measures
must be taken well in advance of the
trouble.
Condition On Arrival In Markets
A summary is given in Table 1 of


It seems to The Highlander the
height of folly to draw out because
these things are planned.
We hope the management of the
Exchange will decide to stay in the
Clearing House. It can be made to
serve a useful purpose for the next
few years though its maintenance is,
for the present, a form of double
taxation. When the Exchange has
grown to the point where the Clear-
ing House is no longer needed, then
dispense with it.-Lake Wales High-
lander.
An excerpt from the Waverly As-
sociation Manager's annual report
says:
"In time, the Exchange could do
all the things the Clearing House has
accomplished, but they have not
reached that goal. I believe that
through organized effort of the
Clearing House the Florida citrus in-
dustry has gained more prominence
and better standing in the northern
markets than ever before. It must be
a surprise to our California competi-
tors to see what stiff competition the
standardization of grade and pack of
Florida fruit has made for them.
"The Clearing House has made
mistakes and I believe the worst mis-
take was the failure to estimate the
crop more correctly. Even at as late
a date as March, its estimate on
grapefruit to be shipped was almost
1,000,000 boxes too low."-Miami
Daily News.


Federal inspections by the Food Pro-
ducts Inspection Service of the
United States Department of Agri-
culture on all Florida citrus ship-
ments arriving at the Cleveland mar-
ket through April (data for March
and April compiled after presenta-
tion of paper) of the current season.
Over 90% of the arrivals were in
time for auction on the morning of
the fifth day after leaving the pack-
ing house. It is assumed that this tab-
ulation gives a fair indication of the
average condition of the bulk of the
Florida crop for the 1930-31 season
It will be noted that grapefruit ar-
rived in best condition, tangerines in
worst, with oranges intermediate. If
2% is taken as a reasonable toler-
ance for rot on arrival, grapefruit
shows 89%, oranges 83%, tange-
rines 80%, and all citrus 85% arriv-
ing in satisfactory condition, leaving
11%, 17%, 20% and 15%, respec-
tively in the unsatisfactory class
For a tolerance of 3 % it may be esti-
mated from the table that about 6 %
of grapefruit, 11% of orange, 14%
of tangerine and 10% of all citrus
shipments would fall short of re-
quirement.


TABLE 1.-Condition of citrus fruit on arrival at Cleveland, Ohio.
Number of cars per 100 showing various amounts of decay. Based on
Federal inspections, September, 1930-April, 1931:


Total Records
No rot
% to 1% rot
1 / to 2%rot
3 to 4% rot
5 to 8% rot
9 to 16% rot
17 to 32% rot
33% and up


Grape-
fruit
630
56.1
22.2
10.6
5.7
4.1
1.0
0.3
0


Orange
468
26.7
38.7
17.1
9.6
5.5
1.1
0.9
0.4


Tange-
rine
199
10.0
47.3
22.2
10.5
7.0
1.5
1.5
0


All
Citrus
1297
38.4
32.0
14.7
7.8
5.1
1.1
0.7
0.2


CITRUS EXPORTS
(Continued from Page Three)
Los Angeles-London .............. 1,900
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 1,500
Tampa-Havre, France ............ 400

Total.-.....-............................. 22,661
Week Ending June 13
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London ...........-...... 7,294
New York-Southampton ........ 3,347
New York-Liverpool .............. 7,570
New York-Glasgow ................ 2,008
Los Angeles-London .............. 6,600
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 8,618

Total..............................-----------35,437
ORANGES Boxes
Los Angeles-London ..............31,750
Los Angeles-Liverpool .........- 500
Los Angeles-Glasgow ............ 1,000
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 2

Total...................................---- 33,252
Week Ending June 20
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London ............... 9,819
New York-Liverpool .............. 4,654
New York-Southampton ........ 2,367
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 1,300
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 500
Los Angeles-London .............. 200

Total--.......................-------...........---18,840
ORANGES Boxes
Los Angeles-London ..............21,000
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........11,600
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 1,500

Total...................................--------34,100
Week Ending June 27
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London ..................11,150
New York-Liverpool .............. 5,299
New York-Southampton ........ 1,219
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,570
New York-Bristol .................. 191
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 1,000
Los Angeles-London .............. 900
Los Angeles-Glasgow ............ 500
Jacksonville-London ..............10,498
Jacksonville-London* ............ 1,950
Jacksonville-Liverpool* ........ 158
Jacksonville-Newcastle* ........ 235
Jacksonville-Copenhagen* .... 25
Tampa-London ...-...-.............. 5,256
Tampa-Newcastle .................. 300
Tampa-West Hartlepool ........ 150
Tampa-Hamburg, Germany** 100

Total......................................--- 40,501
ORANGES Boxes
Los Angeles-London ..............27,000
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 1,600
Los Angeles-Glasgow ............ 1,500

Total...........------.............--------- 30,100
Week Ending July 4
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes'
New York-London ..................21,338
New York-Liverpool .............. 3,082
New York-Glasgow ............--.. 1,894
New York-Southampton ........ 247
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 7,200
Los Angeles-London .............. 1,100
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 1,000

Total-..........----- -----------. 35,861
ORANGES Boxes
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........28,000
Los Angeles-London .............18,100
Los Angeles-Hull .................11,200
Los Angeles-Manchester ...--.. 1,500
(Continued on Page Eight)


August 10, 1931


Page 7





Page 8


FLORIDA CLEARING ( HOUSE NEWS


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE

NEWS

CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
bution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.
DIRECTORS
E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
0. F. GARDNER Lake Placid
W. F. GLYNN Crescent City
PHIL C. PETERS . Winter Garden
JOHN A. SNIVELY Winter Haven
JAMES T. SWANN Tampa
A. M. TILDEN. Winter Haven
A. R. TRAFFORD Cocoa
E. E. TRUSKETT Mt. Dora
R. B. WOOLFOLK. Orlando

Controlling the Truck
As Freight Carrier
Declaring that the automobile truck has be-
come a factor in agricultural transportation.
the Service Department of Mississippi ad-
vances the thought that measures of control
must be approached with caution. A state-
ment recently issued by the department has
this to say about the auto truck business:
"The rapidly increasing volume of all kinds
of farm products transported by truck-not
only in making deliveries but in merchandising
-is proving a factor in trade with so many
angles that it is difficult to analyze or deter-
mine its good or bad effect. It ranges from
small traffic to the nearest trading point in the
all-purpose family car to heavy traffic in the
many-ton-truck traveling hundreds of miles.
Some are operated by the growers themselves;
but the larger part by dealers, hucksters and
peddlers.
"Summarizing its good points, we find that t
it is, within certain limitations, a cheaper
transportation; it distributes from and to more t
inaccessible areas, thus increasing consump- .
tion; it furnishes employment to vast numbers
and makes direct connection between produc-
ers and consumers.
"On the other hand, it upsets the calcula- T
tions of wholesale and retail merchants, makes f
them timid in their purchases, and often re- -
sults in congested markets and price-cutting t
by farmers competing with each other, which r
might be avoided by better distribution. In
rail transportation an almost complete record
of daily movement of produce can be had, but I
there is no sort of practical way yet devised to 1
determine this highway movement. i
"This motor traffic must be.reckoned with, c
for it is here to stay and will increase as high-
ways are constructed and improved. It is t
nothing short of a commercial revolution such
as has occurred in the past in the march of c
progress and new inventions. It will take time l
and patience, and requires the best thought of
practical men in the trade, supplemented in
all probability, by constructive laws and regu-


August 10, 1931


lations. Idealistic theorists can do little. The
human elements of individualism, independ-
ence and selfishness must be reckoned with.
"Any radical measures of control, Federal,
State or Municipal, must be approached with
caution. Restrictions of trade within our own
borders are regarded with disfavor by the
average American citizen. The mass of farm-
ers would likely rebel against any measures
that would interfere with disposing of his pro-
ducts anywhere at any time at any price that
he might choose. In case of hucksters, ped-
dlers, and other truck handlers who buy and
resell, some measure of control might be in-
troduced. Many of them pay little or no
license or taxes. Some co-operation might be
had between states in interstate traffic, and
nearly all states have some measures along
this line. They should be as nearly uniform as
possible to prevent the various states from re-
taliating on each other.
"The Agricultural Service Department is
giving this problem study and at present has
no specific measures to advocate. Co-operat-
ing with the farmers themselves, the mer-
chants, State and Municipal authorities and
those in adjoining states may work out some-
thing practical. It is hurting the producers
most-the consumers are being fed often at
prices that do not approach a living wage to
.he farmers."

Agriculture Becoming
More Scientific
Agriculture of the future will be more sci-
entific says "Spuds Johnson"in a recent Florida
Agricultural News Service bulletin. "Some-
times changes take place around us," the bul-
letin says, "and we do not see them. New
practices may be adopted gradually, and at-
tract very little attention. However, I believe
that most of us are acquainted more or less
with the fact that changes, and important
ones, have occurred and are taking place in
agriculture.
"Part of a letter from Mr. J. C. Penney, Sr.,
head of the Penney-Gwinn Corporation and
)ne of the best known merchants in the coun-
;ry, shows Mr. Penney's keen insight into pres-
ent agricultural conditions and puts into words
;he thought about agriculture becoming more
scientific Here is the quotation from Mr.
?enney:
'We who are interested in the future of
agriculture are asking ourselves the question:
s agriculture to be industrialized? Will the
'arms of the future be operated on a huge
;cale, or not? Whatever the answer, this one
;hing is certain: Farming, like business, is
rapidly being reduced to a highly scientific
)asis. The future farmer, as the future busi-
iess man, is going to have to be more efficient.
He who can produce more and better crops at
ess cost is the man who will succeed; and who,
f in sufficiently large numbers, will lift agri--
;ulture out of its present situation.'
"What Mr. Penney says is true. We must
;ake advantage of every opportunity to keep
ourselvess up-to-date in farming, and we must
certainly give our children every chance to
earn the kinks of the business in the best way.
We must keep up with the procession, or we
will find ourselves continually losing money,
ind eventually getting out of farming." i


The Conqueror

'Tis easy to laugh when the skies are
blue
And the sun is shining bright;
Yes, easy to laugh when your friends
are true
And there's happiness in sight.
But when hope has fled and the skies
are grey,
And the friends of the past have
turned away,
Ah then indeed, 'tis a hero's feat
To conjure a smile in the face of '
defeat.
'Tis easy to laugh when the storm is
o'er
-I
And your ship is safe in port;
Yes, easy to laugh when you're on
the shore
Secure from the tempest's sport.
But when wild waves wash o'er the
storm-swept deck
And your gallant ship is a battered
wreck,
Ah, that is the time when it's well
worth-while
To look in the face of defeat with a
smile.
'Tis easy to laugh when the battle's
fought
And you know that the victory's
won;
Yes, easy to laugh when the prize
you sought
Is yours when the race is run.
But here's to the man who can laugh
when the blast
Of adversity blows. He will conquer
at last.
For the hardest man on earth to beat
Is the man who can laugh in the face
of defeat.
-By E. C. Aurin, Ft. Ogden,
(Director, 7th District).

CITRUS EXPORTS
(Continued from Page Seven)
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 1,000

Total....-................................59,800
Week Ending July 11
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New-York-London .................. 5,800
New York-Liverpool .............. 4,363
New York-Glasgow ................ 479
Los Angeles-Liverpool -...-..... 2,600
Los Angeles-London .............. ----------400
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 200
Jacksonville-Newcastle* ........ 300
Jacksonville-Bristol* ............ 50
Jacksonville-Hull* ................ 25

Total-.....................................14,217
ORANGES Boxes
Los Angeles-Liverpool .-.........77,500
Los-Angeles-London ....---... 1,500

Total.................... ..........79,000

Canned grapefruit.
** Canned grapefruit juice.

Census Taker: "What's your hus-
)and's name?"
Mrs. Murphy: "Pat."
Census Taker: "I want his full
lame."
Mrs. Murphy: "Well, when he's.
ull, he thinks he's Gene Tunney."




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