Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00068
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: July 25, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00068
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
Mr. U. V. winaiin,
Bureau of Agri. Economics,
Washington., D. C. L R ID A



Represent ng more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit

U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


N E C P u b O icalt Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 1 Volume III
rus Growers Clearing House Association, JULY 25 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven Volume
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Number 20

Annual Meeting Attracts Large Grower Gathering

Maintaining the Clearing House
SEditorial, Tampa Morning Tribune
(Sunday, July 19, 1931)

An important statement was made
at the annual meeting of the Citrus
Clearing House by J. S. Crutchfield,
President of the American Fruit
Growers, Inc. It deals directly with
the attitude of the Federal Farm
Board toward the' Clearing House.
.LMr. Crutchfield, in the discussion re-
1 garding the withdrawal of the Citrus
Exchange from the Clearing House
I recognize that each organiza-
Stion has its internal problems and
I have heard the statement made
that withdrawal was made because
the Farm Board was opposed to
Sthe Clearing House idea. I talked
to the Chairman of the Federal
Farm Board 60 days ago on that
subject-Mr. Stone. He told me
he was the author of the Clearing
House plan in the agricultural
marketing act and that he was
strongly in favor of the Clearing
i- House feature as being one prac-
tical method whereby the existing
marketing factors could get to-
gether for the common good of the
The statement quoted from Chair-
man Stone is of timely interest in
the existing situation involving the
maintenance of the Clearing House
as a necessary instrument for the
welfare of the citrus grower.
SIn this connection, we read a state-
ment issued to its members by the
4 Waverly Citrus Growers Association,
which has retained its membership in
both the Clearing House and the Ex-
change "in the hope that something
may come to pass to bring these or-
ganizations together again to work
Sin harmony for the well-being of the
growers." The statement from the
Waverly Association declares that it
"has refused to be stampeded into
,the present Exchange program of
destroying the Clearing House." At
the same time it commends the "new
Exchange program over the signa-

ture of Mr. Snively, our new Ex-
change President, for in it are found
most of the reasons why we believe
the Clearing House must be main-
tained and why the Exchange must
not only rejoin as a shipper member
but should do so with unselfish deter-
mination that the three great Clear-
ing House fundamentals be carried
into effective operation, i. e., stand-
ardization, control of distribution,
and advertising."
The Waverly statement goes on
to say that the Clearing House now
has power under the law and the pro-
tection of the Capper-Volstead act
in doing all the things Mr. Snively
proposes, that it has the necessary
75 percent control to make that pro-
gram effective, but that "we are be-
ing asked to believe that the only
way to accomplish these things is to
start in by destroying existing medi-
ums, clearing the field and go
through another campaign of trying
to build a 75 percent control in the
Exchange which has only about one-
half that at present."
"We have chosen," continued the
Waverly statement, "to be loyal to
the industry rather than to a tem-
porary misguided organization pol-
icy. We have chosen to be loyal to
ourselves as growers and to our own
best interests as growers rather than
to the selfish desires on the part of
individuals who for the moment have
forgotten that their first duty is to
the growers and the industry's wel-
fare. We have chosen to be loyal to
the desire of having the big job done
rather than quarreling over who is
to do it. We have chosen to be loyal
to the doctrine of practicing co-oper-
ation rather than a policy of simply
preaching it. We have chosen to be
loyal to the principles of truth, hon-
esty and fair dealings, taking more
satisfaction in being right than being
momentarily popular."
This statement sounds a clear note

Work Clearing House Did in

Serving Industry, Outlined

Enthusiastic Applause Greets
Announcement That Chase
Sub-Exchange Will Remain
In Association

More than five hundred interested
growers and shippers, most of whom
are affiliated with the Clearing
House, who attended the third an-
nual meeting held in Winter Haven,
July 14, were gratified to hear that
the industry effort of the Clearing
House will be continued. Assurances
of this fact were given, in no uncer-
tain terms, by the various officers
and others who were speakers on the
Chase Support Assured
Two of the most important fea-
tures of the day were the announce-
ments that the Chase Sub-Exchange,
affiliated with the Florida Citrus
Exchange, would retain its shipper
affiliation with the Clearing House
and that the Federal Farm Board-
contrary to current impression-
feels that the Clearing House, in co-
ordinating competitive interests, is
a valuable factor in the citrus indus-
try. The announcement from Chase
& Company, given in the form of a
letter from Mr. Randall Chase, was
read by Manager Archie M. Pratt,
and brought forth an enthusiastic
round of applause that lasted for
several minutes. Chase & Company,
operating more than a dozen large
houses throughout the citrus belt,
shipped more than a million boxes
of fruit during the season just closed
and the importance of this tonnage,
together with the encouragement
given the Clearing House by the

of loyalty to the grower and his in-
terests which should have a good ef-
fect in strengthening the Clearing
House for future service.

moral support of this pioneer mar-
keting organization, was appreciated
by the attending growers. Reference
to the Farm Board's approval of the
Clearing House was made by Mr. J.
S. Crutchfield, president, American
Fruit Growers, Inc., now the largest
shipper member of the Clearing
House, who told of a conversation he
had had two months ago with Chair-
man Stone of the Farm Board who
said he was author of the Clearing
House clause in the federal market-
ing act.
Speakers On Program
The speakers on this program in-
cluded President A. M. Tilden, who
presided at the meeting; Manager A.
M. Pratt, Treasurer A. R. Trafford,
J. S. Crutchfield, Pittsburgh; Direc-
tors O. F. Gardner of Lake Placid,
and Dr. E.'C. Aurin of Ft. Ogden,
W. H. Mouser, Chairman of Clearing
House Operating Committee and
Judge S. L. Holland of Bartow, legal
councilor for the Clearing House.
Each of the brief talks made by
the speakers was given remarkably
close attention and the most import-
ant statements of past efforts and
accomplishments and announce-
ments of future endeavors were
greeted by enthusiastic applause
from the growers. Several of the
speakers expressed their regret at
the withdrawal of the Florida Citrus
Exchange from the Clearing House,
but there was a predominant note in
the comments on this development
that indicated a hope that the of-
ficials of the Exchange may yet
change their mind and continue to
work with the Clearing House in its
industry effort.
Genuine Interest Shown
It was clearly evident at the meet-
ing that the growers attending the.
affair were keenly interested, for the
(Continued on Page Four)



Page 2


Clearing House Offers All

Best Machinery Available

To Solve Marketing Problem

By ALFRED M. TILDEN, President
(At Annual Meeting)
I come before you, at this third for not clearly stating its objections
annual meeting, with my head and stating them to the other agen-
bloody but unbowed, to say that the cies who, from their experience in
ideals and purposes of that sincere the business, should have a keen ap-
group of men, who, three years ago, preciation of the conditions objected
formed our Clearing House, thereby to and who, I am confident, would
establishing machinery for serving take the honest and proper attitude.
the entire industry, still exist. The After all, you know, it is not the
power and strength of the machinery agencies that suffer, because all of
have been sorely tried and tested but the fruit of the state will eventually
still the machinery exists. Bad as the be sold by all of the agencies. It is
situation is, it could be worse be- you and I as growers who must suf-
cause we still have the machinery fer and suffer needlessly.
which can be used if and when the Must Use Machinery
industry desires. It would be most unique to have at
Always, we have recurring the un- once created an industrial associa-
expected emergency. Each time that tion composed of many competing
it has been sufficiently grave, the elements that would immediately
better elements of the industry have function sufficiently and in a way
united to meet it. Such an emergency satisfactory to its affiliates. I say
will again occur some time and it is again that it is a tragedy to think
important and proper that there be 'hat machinery so well designed will
maintained some association having not be used more generally.
the proper moral and legal machin- What we should now do is to make
ery which these better elements can he association so useful and attrac-
again use for the common good. tive that every grower and shipper
Much Praise Earned will wish to become a member, feel-
Your retiring directorate has at- ing that he can do so without any
tempted to carry out the purposes detriment whatsoever to his own
for which this association was form- business. From that point, we should
ed and to which many shipping agen- make a fresh start, using the best
cies and many thousands of growers brains and talent in the industry to
subscribed. No Criticism has been so direct the machinery that only
offered but on the contrary much -seful purposes will be served so
praise has been given to our public that each participating agency will
relations activities. It is certain be entirely convinced that it is bet-
phases of our marketing activities ter able to serve its growers because
that are condemned and which seem if its membership. In this way, the
to furnish the basis for the with- industry can stand united on all
drawal of some important members. those things of common interest.
These marketing activities have been I had thought that we were suffici-
directed by our operating committee ently sensible and reasonable to
of eleven men. These eleven men ac- have used the experience of the past
tually sell more than one-half of the three years to have done this. Appar-
fruit of the state. They are the tech- ently, that has not been the case. But
nical men, trained in that sort of it can be done and it should be done.
work-work of which we common I begin to think that we are deal-
ordinary growers have but small ing not with individual growers but
'-nowledge. with groups of growers. These
The tragedy of it is that all of groups employ certain agencies,
these men did not find a common either co-operative or independent;
ground on which they could do things they place great trust in these agen-
for the common good-they did not cies, as is evidenced by the fact that
continuously work for the elimina- they employ them to sell their fruit.
tion of those things found obnoxious Evidently, they trust them sufficient-
and for the addition and improve- ly to accept their opinions on such
ment of those things found good for matters as participation in this as-
all. It is not important that your sociation.
views or my views shall prevail. The Should Explain Reasons
important thing is that there should Perhaps this clarifies the situation
be a place where the common view because it ought to be easier to deal
can prevail, with a hundred groups rather than
I do not blame any shipping ten thousand individuals. It seems to
agency for withdrawing from an as- me that the growers composing these
sociation which imposed conditions, groups have the moral right to insist
deemed intolerable by said agency, that their agencies sincerely and con-
because it is the first duty of any tinuously strive through some asso-
agency to properly serve its affiliated ciation to find the common meeting
growers. But, I do blame any agency ground for the good of the common


July 25, 1931

grower. These groups of growers
should not blame their agencies for
refusing to further participate in an
association whose method, in the
opinion of the agency, hampers it in
giving a satisfactory service to its
growers. However, these growers
should insist that an agency take the
pains to carefully explain wherein
and how these rules and regulations
are intolerably harmful so that they
may be eliminated and such changes
made as will permit the agency to
serve its group of growers better.
This is perfectly reasonable and
sound-not hard to do-as it only
requires a willingness and sincerity
of purpose.
I say to you, without fear of
successful contradiction, that dur-
ing the past three years, this in-
dustry has been better off with the
Clearing House and every ship-
ping agency in the state has been
better off because of the Clearing
House than it would have been
without it.
Every farm product has been sold
at a distinct loss to the producer this
past year. Bad as the Florida deal
has been, it is the only bright spot
in the whole perishable commodity
industry. Much as it has suffered, it
has suffered less than the others.
Potatoes were left in the ground;
wheat was burned in the stove; cab-
bages were disced under but all the
Florida oranges were shipped, were
eaten and gainful employ was given
to thousands of people. The extraor-
dinary distribution had this season
was not entirely an accident; the
persuading of the United States ship-
ping board to give us semi-monthly
sailings from Tampa to England and
the continent for next season's busi-
ness was not an accident. The de-
fense of our industry against unfair
and unreasonable patents was not an
accident; the elimination of the fruit
fly quarantines came about through
an earnest, concerted effort backed
by the strength of the unified indus-
try. These things, in my opinion, are
meritorious achievements.
Increased Distribution
Before I say much more I want to
call your attention to the fact that
this past season, in the middle-west
states, Florida rolled cars of fruit
in 84 more cities than it did two
years ago, and in those same cities,
sold 3000 cars more than we sold
two years ago. We picked up over
80 new cities and sold them about
6700 cars as against 3700, and I
maintain that that distribution was
not accidental.
Going back to the fundamental
principles those principles were
right originally. They are right to-
day. Sensible men, with an apprecia-
tion of Florida conditions, can make
them work in a continuously useful
way. They ought to do it. You can
kill a thing but you cannot kill a
right principle. Believing it right,
we should continue courageously
and steadfastly, confident that in the
end, truth and right must prevail.

This industry owned by us growers
ought to and must be eventually con-
trolled by us.
When I speak of distribution, I do
not claim any great credit for the
association as such. What credit I do'
take comes from the fact that
through the efforts of the associa-
tion, this multitude of sales man-
agers were made more keenly aware
of the situation they were facing
than they would have been other-
wise; and because of their continu-
ous meetings whereby they more'
keenly sensed the industrial situa-
tion they were enabled to go back
to their own desks and perform a
better service for their groups of
growers. This was good-so good
that it ought to be kept-kept be-"
cause it was honest and sincere and
useful. I want to keep it. I want to
make it possible for any and every
shipper and grower to get from this
association a so much better under-
standing of the constantly changing
marketing situation that must be
daily faced that he can work more
Intelligently. I want him to stay with
this association, giving it honest en-
deavor, appreciating the other man's
difficulties, wanting to help him out
-wanting to do those things that,
are mutually agreeable, mutually
helpful but never harmful. For after
all, each of us will probably get the
average market level and it is that.
level we wish to raise. It will not
benefit me to get 10c more than you
when we both get 50c less than we
ought to have with a knowledge of
conditions and an intelligent appre-
ciation of economic conditions.
Agreed-Upon Policies
We have, at the beginning of each''
season, held a caucus at which the
main principles of the marketing ac-
tivities were discussed and agreed
upon. Your directors have kept faith
-they have insisted that these
agreed-upon principles should be
maintained subject only to change
by mutual consent. They have no
apologies to make for having stood
by those principles, so I say to you
again, that they, too, stand bloody
but unbowed.
Speaking for your Board of Direc-,
tors, I am here to pledge to you our
unswerving allegiance to the three
fundamental principles upon which
the Clearing House is founded,,
Standardization of grade and
So long as we are backed by our.
grower members, we shall continue
fearlessly and courageously in the,
effort to observe those principles and
to the end that the citrus industry of
the State of Florida may receive the
maximum profits of the operations
of the Clearing House.

Teacher: "Johnny, can you tell me
what a waffle is?"
Johnny: "Yes'm, it's a pancake
with a non-skid tread."-Capper's



Good Showing Made Despite

Season's Disappointments,

Manager's Report Reveals

By A. M. PRATT, Manager
(At Annual Meeting)

First of all let's go back in our
-4thought as to what the Clearing
House has done. Has it been worth-
while? What has been gained? At
the end of last yaer when we got
throughh we found, due to the quar-
antine, that we were compelled to
-put into those Northeastern markets
-I am talking about a year ago-
-more grapefruit than the previous
season, or the first year of the Clear-
ing House, and as many oranges as
the previous season. In other words,
the quarantine forced us to go into
a certain limited territory with z
"fairly light crop but in as heavy pro-
portion as if we had a big crop. Re-
gardless of that fact, based on auc-
tion averages, we find for a year age
73c gain over the first year of the
,Clearing House, on grapefruit-73c
gain on grapefruit and 97c gain on
oranges. That gain applied to the
number of cars that went into those
Northeastern markets, figures up
, ver two and a half million dollars,
or 64c return for every 4c spent in
supplying the Northeast.
S Better Than We Thought
Now we come into the present
year. There has been a lot of disap-
pointment. Our nerves have been on
edge. Can we say fairly and honestly
that we have anything we can be
proud of in dollars and cents? We
have done better than we knew here
in Florida. You will be surprised tc
know that, based on auction aver-
ages for the season, Florida has real-
ized, delivered at destination mar-
kets,-(how much would you guess)
$84,000,000. $84,000,000 has
been paid for Florida's citrus crop
this year at the car-doors delivered
over the United States and Canada.
Now that sum of money came out of
a mighty lean pocketbook that Uncle
SSam and the rest of the world has
today. But at that, $84,000,000,
Based on auction results,-and that
is the most accurate public measure-
ment we can get,-has been paid foi
Florida's citrus crop delivered at the
-destination markets.
That is nearly 33 1/3% more than
what was paid for Florida's crop a
year ago, based on the same meas-
urement. $64,000,000 was paid on
the delivered value basis for Flor-
ida's citrus crop last year, or $30,-
000,000 short of this year. Two years
ago you will remember we had the
nearest volume to the present crop
and two years ago on a similar meas-
urement, $75,000,000 was paid. And
r to go back one more year, $70,000,-
000 was realized then. $84,000,000
this year, $64,000,000 last year,
S$75,000,000 year before last and


$70,000,000 four years ago. That is
a picture that should make us realize
that Florida has dipped into the
pocket of Uncle Sam in a pretty big
Surpassed California
Now, let us measure this thing
from another standpoint. You know
here in Florida-and having come
from California I can talk rather
frankly-it rather amuses me the
false respect that we sometimes have
for our California rival. We don't
seem to realize down here in Florida
that we are nearly as good as we
are. We sometimes seem to like to
enjoy our trouble. I don't believe
that most of us realize the mighty
good job that Florida has done this
year in her citrus crop, in her orange
crop as compared with California.
California has been organized for 40
years and for many years the Cali-
fornia Fruit Growers Exchange has
controlled about 73% of the crop.
Florida has been organized in a com-
prehensive manner for only three
years. It was only three years ago
that the Clearing House was organ-
ized, yet, we find at the end of this
year, commencing with January 1
up to July 3, that Florida oranges
nave outsold California oranges dur-
ing the last six months an average
of lle a box. That llc means some-
ihing more than lle because we
nave to come back to the cost of pro-
duction and the California Citrus
...eague figures indicate that to get a
profit based upon cost of production
,n California as compared with cost
of production in Florida the analysis
shows that California must get 50c
a box more at auction than Florida
to realize a profit over the cost of
production. It therefore means that
f'lorida this year, based on cost of
production-and you all know we
can't forget that fact-Florida this
year has received 60c a box more
chan California!
Our Margin Is 76c
Now let's take another compari-
son. Compare this year with two
years ago in the same auction mar-
kets. This year Florida has averaged
in all the auction markets from Jan.
1 on, 37c per box more on her or-
anges than two years ago, and we
have had a much bigger crop, as well
as business depression. What has
California done? It is rather a coin-
cidence that California, measuring
her returns for this year as compar-
ed with two years ago, finds herself
from Jan. 1 on, 39c a box less than
two years ago. 39c less for Califor-
nia; 37c more for Florida this year
over two years ago, or, in other

words, a differential in favor of Flor-
ida of 76c. That again is something
we have a right in Florida to take
some pride in. It is an important
As to grapefruit, we cannot say so
much. We know that the returns
were disappointing. The average
auction for all the season was $2.59
delivered. That is pretty low. And
yet it may interest you to know that,
based on that auction average, Uncle
Sam paid for our grapefruit $29,-
812,000. That is a big chunk of
money. Last year it was only $25,-
800,000, and the most that we evel
received was two years ago, the
gross amount being $29,900,000. So
chen again realizing what we are up
against in this year of depression,
knowing that we had a tremendous
crop of grapefruit to be marketed-
30,278 cars of grapefruit-I think
that we have come through pretty
well. We should do better and we
About tangerines. We all know
the terrific disappointment in tange-
rines and yet, based on the auction
averages in tangerines, it may sur-
prise you to know that the tange-
rines,-the 5241 cars of tangerines
-would figure $5,800,000 delivered
that was paid for those tangerines.
that is two million dollars more
than a year ago and one million dol-
lars more than has ever been re-
ceived in the delivered market. But
again, because of the volume, be-
cause of the freight rates, because
of the expenses that come back and
must come out of the tangerine re-
turns-our average on tangerines
for the season was low, the average
being $3.07 delivered in the auction.
Have Been Big Factor
These things are mentioned in the
belief that we could see that there
has been some good come out of
Florida. There has been teamwork.
There has been an organized effort.
I can tell you frankly, we could not
have done as well as we have if there
had not been a standardization, an
honest effort to give the trade what
they expected. In the second place,
we could not have done what we
have if it had not been for the con-
trol of our supplies that Florida has
been able to exercise through the
medium of the Clearing House. Most
of all there could not have been the
confidence that existed this year if
our marketing agencies had not been
working together, if there had not
been that interchange of price in-
formation, that confidential infor-
mation that is on desk of every ship-
per every morning, showing just
where he stands, showing what the
rest of the shippers have done as a
whole in the private sales markets,
and also the market information
coming in completely a few hours
after auction sales to all shippers by
wire. The information showed how
many cars were rolling unsold, East,
West and South, and that again seg-
regated by varieties. Our shippers
have had an intelligent insight that

Government Expert

Is Ready To Begin

By-Product Research

Federal chemists expect to start
work in the new citrus by-products
laboratory at Winter Haven, Fla., as
soon as the building is completed,
probably early in August, says Dr.
W. W. Skinner, assistant chief of the
chemical and technological unit of the
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S.
Department of Agriculture. The im-
mediate program includes work on
some of the most important prob-
lems affecting the Florida citrus in-
II. H. von Loesecke, senior chem-
ist of the unit, and formerly research
chemist in charge of by-products and
biochemical research for the United
Fruit Company, at Boston, Mass.,
will be in charge of the new labora-
tory. Mr. von Loesecke recently left
Washington for his new duties in
Florida and plans an immediate
study of methods of preserving or-
ange and grapefruit juice, of devel-
oping orange and grapefruit by-pro-
ducts, and of utilizing orange and
grapefruit wastes as stock and poul-
try feed.
Citrus growers of Florida and the
Gulf States have long desired the
same benefits which the California
citrus industry has enjoyed from the
work of the department's scientists
at its laboratory in that state, and
with this object, the quarters were
made available at Winter Haven
which is the geographical center of
the Gulf citrus fruit belt.

there is no way of getting except
through a Clearing House.
Yet it seems that because we don't
appreciate the good job that Florida
has done, we have looked at our
faults with a microscope. There has
been a self-depreciation, and a cer-
Stain lack of confidence. We have al-
lowed feeling and disappointment to
guide us with the result that today,
unfortunately, we find that nearly
one-half the membership of the
Clearing House has been withdrawn.
That is not the result of sound judg-
ment. It -is a step backward, but I
want to say this: It is a step back-
ward only that we may run forward
more determinedly when we see as
we must the necessity of working out
our problem together.

"My heart is with the ocean,"
cried the poet, rapturously.
"You've gone me one better," said
his seasick friend, as he took a firm
grip on the rail.

Spelled With an "H"
Black: "What do they mean by the
'witching hour'?"
White: "Don't you know? That's
the hour when the wife greets you
with, 'Which story is it this time?' "


July 25, 1931

Page 3


July 25, 1931

Men on Operating Committee

Have Constantly Endeavored

To Better Citrus Industry

By W. H. MOUSER, Chairman, Operating Committee
(At Annual Meeting)

I have no prepared speech to make
to you this morning. Mr. Pratt has
pretty fully outlined the conditions
that have existed. Last night I was
looking over Forbes Magazine and I
noticed a graphic chart of business
conditions of the past 54 years and
during the period that we were mov-
ing our crop this year, general busi-
ness conditions in the United States
were the poorest they have been dur-
ing the 54 years. We faced the prob-
lem this year of moving a crop aggre-
gating about 35 million boxes, Cali-
fornia having a bumper crop, busi-
ness and labor conditions were the
poorest they have ever been, anc
conditions demoralized all over the
country. It was a stupendous job.
High prices were not realized bul
I have more confidence in the Florids
citrus industry today than I had
prior to this year. I don't believe
there is a product that has come
through this hard period in as good
shape as the Florida citrus crop and
that will not except our friends in
the California citrus industry.
Co-ordination of Effort
Three years ago a group of grow-
ers met in this room in an endeavor
to co-ordinate a large percentage oi
the Florida citrus crop, realizing that
apparently, or at least up to thai
time in the state, no one organiza-
tion had been able to get together
much over 35 or 40 percent. The
movement, after a lot of work and
worry, proved successful and about
75 % of the crop was co-ordinated ir
one effort. An organization was de-
veloped which permitted every ship-
per, marketing organization and
packer in the state to belong to it
and work for the good of the indus-
try. This organization was so set up
that every grower in the state could
belong to it from an industry stand-
point, forgetting any preference as
to marketing. It had not been possi-
ble to get a large majority of the
growers together in a marketing or-
ganization but it did prove possible
to get them into an organization de-
voted to the good of the industry
with shipper and marketing organi-
zations representing 75% of the
crop co-ordinating their efforts for
the good of all.
I can see no objection to such an
organization from the standpoint of
any grower. Nothing but good could
come from it. True, in an organiza-
tion of that kind, personal jealousy
would have to be guarded against. I
feel that the Clearing House has
made a splendid record that has jus-
tified its existence.
I happen to be Chairman of the

Operating Committee. The first year
Mr. Commander was chairman of
the committee; when Mr. Comman-
der resigned he nominated me and I
have served and tried to serve to the
best of my ability. The records of
the Operating Committee are open
to any grower member. The records
of the Operating Committee have
been checked by the Board of Direc-
tors, nine of whom were large Ex-
change growers. The president of
the Clearing House sat in practically
every meeting of the Operating Com-
mittee, that gentleman an Exchange
grower. The Chairman of the Com-
mittee of Fifty, also an Exchange
grower, attended practically every
meeting of the Operating Commit-
tee. The records of the Clearing
House show that on only two occa-
sions the independent members of
the Operating Committee out-voted
the Exchange members on the Com-
mittee. One of these cases was when
there were 1400 cars rolling and we
voted that we would not ship any
fruit the coming week unless the
trade in the north was willing to
place definite f.o.b. orders for such
fruit, with the exception of such
cars as moved direct to auction.
Established Methods Protected
Those were two occasions when
the independent shippers out-voted
the Exchange members. Appeals
were taken to the Board of Directors
and the Board of Directors over-
ruled the Operating Committee in
both instances, because of the tech-
nicality in the setup that no action
could be taken in any instance that
would change any shipper's method
of selling.
Now I say that in good faith and
not criticizing any one. I am justified
in saying those few words in de-
fense of the Operating Committee
for apparently the Operating Com-
mittee has been the subject of at-
tack and no member of it has joined
in any arguments of any kind but
has continued to work for the Clear-
ing House.
I am going to say a few words
about the future of the Clearing
House: The remarks up to this time
have been about the past. I don't
see how any one can argue that the
Clearing House should not be con-
tinued. I don't see how any one can
take the position that the industry
as a whole is not better off with 35
or 40 percent of the crop co-ordi-
nated through the Clearing House
and 35 or 40 percent working
through the Exchange. Certainly the
industry will be better off for every
one for growers whose shippers be-

long to the Clearing House and for
growers who ship through the Ex-
change. The entire industry will be
better off and in better position to
move the crop with the two organi-
,ations. I would rather see. the Ex-
change back in the Clearing House
with 75 percent or possibly an in-
crease in that percentage. We could
do more good for the industry but
certainly there can be no argument
that the Clearing House should not
be continued. It should be apparent
to any one that the situation is cer-
tainly more promising with one or-
ganizationof 35to 40 percent and an-
other organization of 35 and 40 per-
cent, both endeavoring to work for
the good of the industry in all indus-
try matters, and co-ordinating their
efforts as two industry organizations.
That is a prettier picture than to
have the Clearing House discontin-
ued and to have the thirty or forty
shippers operating independently
without having knowledge every day
of what they are doing.
I want to leave this thought in
your mind. My opinion is that every
grower in the state, whether in a
position to go along with the Clear-
ing House or not, should advocate
the continuance of the Clearing
House. I am not advising any grower
to draw out of the other organiza-
tions to join the Clearing House. We
have no desire to tell them anything,
but any grower who is not in any
other organization and who is in po-
sition to be in the Clearing House
should be in the Clearing House. If
we could not all be in one, it is cer-
tainly better if there are two, oper-
ating and co-ordinating their efforts
and working for the industry, than
it would be otherwise.


(Continued from Page One)
Williamson theatre, where the meet-
ing was held, was well filled some
moments before the program started
at 11 o'clock in the morning. Unlike
many meetings wherein the program
is devoted only to a series of
speeches, there was no restlessness
manifested; for a full two hours, the
growers comprising the audience re-
mained quietly in their seats, ob-
viously giving the closest attention
to the remarks of every one of the
speakers. They were amply rewarded
for the close attention they gave in
that each of the speakers presented
considerable information about the
Clearing House and the industry sit-
uation that gave every one present
considerable food for thought and
considerable reason for feeling grat-
ified that the industry effort is to be
In brief, the topics discussed by
the various speakers-excerpts from
the respective talks being printed
elsewhere in this issue of the News-
were as follows:
President Tilden reviewed the sit-

nation confronting the Clearing
House and told of the invaluable
help rendered in obtaining an in-
creased distribution for the past sea-
son's crop.
Treasurer A. R. Trafford confined
his talk to a brief resume of the
financial status of the Clearing
House, mentioning the items of ex-
pense inccurred and showing where-
in the Clearing House has been of
genuine service to the industry.
Manager A. M. Pratt pointed out
that Florida did a much better job
during the past season than is com-
monly recognized, quoting figures
which showed that this state received
a much better price on oranges than
did the growers of California.
Mr. Crutchfield spoke of the part
the Clearing House plays in serving
as a protector for the citrus indus-
try, making it possible for the va-
rious factors involved to stand
shoulder to shoulder in working out
problems of common interest.
Senator M. O. Overstreet dwelt at
some length upon the inherent
strength given the Clearing House
by the growers who created it three
and a half years ago. He took occa-
sion also to declare that the indi-
viduals in the citrus industry can
prosper only as the industry itself
W. H. Mouser, chairman of the
Operating Committee, told how the
Clearing House helped the market-
ing agencies in the handling of their
individual crops. He spoke briefly of
the manner in which the Operating
Committee handles its weekly work
so that every member of the Clear-
ing House is treated fairly and with-
out discrimination.
Director O. F. Gardner declared
that the growers must forget their
petty differences, if they have any,
and work together for the welfare
of the industry.
Judge S. L. Holland gave a stir-
ring talk in which he pointed out
some of the major services rendered
the industry by the Clearing House.
Dr.E. C. Aurin told of the deter-
mination shown by the growers who
set up the Clearing House three
years ago, pointing out that it is up
to the growers themselves to see to
it that the industry prospers.

Growers, nurserymen, and others
who propagate citrus will be inter-
ested in a new bulletin on citrus
propagation, just published by the
Florida Experiment Station. It illus-
trates and describes each step in cit-
rus propagation. The author is Dr.
A. F. Camp, head of the horticulture
department. Copies may be obtained
by addressing the Station at Gaines-

Virtue Rewarded
"I see Goldbaum had a fire last
"Vell, he's a nice feller; he de-
serves it."-Tit Bits.



Pa-e 4

Pnae A


July 25, 1931

Growers Who Set Up Clearing

House Are As Right Today As

They Were Three Years Ago

DR. E. C. AURIN, Director, Seventh District
(At Annual Meeting)

If you will permit me I will pull
off my coat; over three years ago I
pulled off my coat to get back of this
Clearing House and I have had it off
ever since. Mr. Tilden was very
thoughtful in keeping me on to the
last so you can get out any time you
want to and not miss anything.
Some years ago before I really be-
came interested in the best state in
the Union and moved to Florida, I
had quite the habit of speaking be-
fore the old soldiers' and sailors' re-
unions. On one of these occasions,
following a talk made by Congress-
man Deacon of Michigan, a very in-
tellectual man, a couple of old boys
in the back got up and said-"Bill
Deacon made us a fine speech but
Doc Aurin can talk longer and louder
than he can."
No Distinction Drawn
All these other elegant speakers
took all my thunder away from me
so I have got to go back into past
-history for just a minute. I remem-
ber sitting right over there when this
Clearing House was organized-that
is when the Committee of Fifty was
first organized. As soon as the de-
bate was open to the public I rose to
my feet and made a motion to this
effect-that if we expected to get
anywhere we must not discuss the
relative merits of co-operative and
independents because we could all
believe that our own organization
had snowy white wings and the other
fellow had hoofs and horns and we
could never form a grower's organi-
I think we have come to the point
where the growers have got to take
the bit in their teeth, and say that
we will do so and so. I can't believe
and I won't believe that all the thous-
ands of growers that once acknowl-
edged this Clearing House was right
are now wrong. As Mr. Overstreet
has said in effect, the voice of the
people is the voice of God and I don't
believe that all the growers in Flor-
ida are all darn fools. I still believe
that if they put the bit in their teeth
they will put over the thing that they
said was right three years ago. If I
did not think they were right I would
have long since given up this job,
which pays nothing, for the sake of
spending two or three days a week
in Winter Haven and neglecting my
Fighting For the Industry
A patient came into my office this
morning and I told him to come back
tomorrow as I was going to Winter
Haven to a citrus meeting. He asked
me if I was still fighting for the
Clearing House. I said, "No, no,

no; I am fighting for the citrus in-
dustry-just as I was fighting three
years ago."
The Clearing House is something
that is necessary. Show me some-
thing better and I will agree to dis-
card the Clearing House, but show
me something better first-it is the
only thing we have got to fight the
problems of the industry. If you were
fighting a bear and had a club you
would not throw away the club just
because you preferred a high pow-
ered rifle. I know I would hang on to
the club until I got the bear or the
bear got me.
The first thing a doctor does for
the patient is to pull out his prescrip-
tion pad and I really don't know of
any industry that needs a little med-
ical attention more than does the cit-
rus industry, for every one knows
that it is mighty sick. It was sick

three years ago and it is getting bet-
ter not very fast. Tangerines just
about breathed their last and the
grape fruit just about the same way;
we saved the oranges. Which reminds
me of the story of a young doctor
who was called in to assist the stork
-he lost the mother and the baby.
Somebody criticized the doctor and
he said, "Say, don't you give me any
credit for saving the father"? That
is about all we did save this year-
that was the father .
No shipping agency controlling
less than one-half of the fruit can
possibly solve those problems, resus-
citating the tangerine, for instance,
when it has one foot in the grave
and the other sliding in.
My grapefruit is still hanging on
the trees-never a box picked. Don't
you believe that the citrus industry
needs a right organization and sin-
cere men to assist us growers?
Will Continue To Fight
We made the shippers toe the
mark three years ago-they did not
want to come in. We had to sell them
the proposition and by honest ef-
fort, particularly all the Polk Coun-
ty group; we did sell the idea to them
and today they are standing back of
us shoulder to shoulder to keep this
thing going. I believe that these same
men who fought so earnestly to

Comparative Returns For

Past 4 Years in Auctions

The table below, showing public
auction returns, figured upon the
basis of delivered at destination -
price, will be of interest in that com-
parative results for the past four
seasons are included. The table may
be studied in connection with Mana-
ger Pratt's statement made at the
Clearing House Annual Meeting,

which is printed elsewhere in the
The table shows for each year on
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines,
the number of cars shipped, the num-
ber of cars translated into boxes, the
average of all auction prices and the
total gross selling price:

Boxes Avg. Auction Total Gross
Car Lot Shipped Price Selling Price
Shipments (365 to Car) All Auctions $

Oranges ........
Grapefruit ....

Oranges ........
Grapefruit ....
Tangerines ....

Oranges ........
Grapefruit ....
Tangerines -....

Oranges ........
Grapefruit ....



















create this Clearing House tree
years ago will fight just as earnestly
today to keep it going. We had no
opposition in setting up the machin-
ery of this Clearing House. You
growers in this hall, some 300 of you,
passed on to us, the Commitee of
Fifty, a mandate, stating these are
the things that must be done. The
details were worked out by hundreds
of growers and dozens and dozens of
business men, shippers, Exchange
officials. All these groups, aided by
the representatives of the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, set up this ma-
There is nothing sacred about it-
the constitution of the United States
has been amended time and time
again and probably will again. If we
have anything in it that is wrong, we
can make it right. When I say we, I
am talking simply of you growers,
and no one else has the right to alter
fundamental principles in that Char-
ter and By-Laws. The directors can't
do it; all they can do is to submit any
changes back to the growers. So, if
this thing is not right, it is up to you
to make it right. And remember an-
other thing, this machinery was not
simply a copy of some other machin-
ery; this is not a hand-me-down suit
-it is tailor-made. We did not try to
fit something to our condition but
we went to work and we built this
around conditions that existed in
Florida-an organization that we
felt would meet Florida conditions.
The result was that the Department
of Agriculture told us that there had
never been anything like it-just
like it-and I want to see Florida
have something a little different. If
I had thought there was any danger
of the Clearing House breaking up,
I would have long since resigned-I
don't like to be on a sinking ship. I
can't swim but I know one thing-we
are going to swim or drown until we
climb on the ship. It is up to you to
see whether this citrus industry shall
prosper or whether selfish interests,
be they what they may, sink the ship
-the only possible ship that can
carry us on to prosperity.

All of the 17 demonstration citrus
groves in Highlands County, except
one young grove, have made a good
profit above operating costs during
the past year, County Agent Louis
H. Alsmeyer reports. All of the
groves would just about have broken
even if they had not greatly reduced
production costs by the use of cover
crops, inorganic fertilizers, and less
cultivation, he said. One of the dem-
onstrations, a 120-acre grove, cut
costs from October to May $3,320
below the same period last.season.

Customer: "Why do you wear rub-
ber gloves when cutting hair?"
Barber: "For the purpose of keep-
ing our celebrated hair restorer from
causing hair to grow on my hands."
He sold a bottle.






l aiz 5

Parne 5

Page 6


Founders of Clearing House

Determined To Continue It,

Committee of 50 Head Says

By M. O. OVERSTREET, Chairman, Committee of Fifty
(At Annual Meeting)

Mr. Tilden, who was present at the
time I was elected Chairman of the
Committee of Fifty, has been asked
often, no doubt, why I was elected
Chairman of the Committee of Fifty.
Many have been asked why I was
elected-possibly there were only a
few who would have answered, but
I can answer it without embarrass-
ment. There were so many going out
of the Committee of Fifty that I was
about the only independent left and
they almost had to elect me and I
almost had to accept. My whole
heart is in the work of the Clearing
House Association and it has been
ever since it was organized. I was not
among those who organized it but I
saw the names at the time that it
was organized, about three and a
half years ago in Winter Haven and
I believe it was during the Orange
Festival and it was started by good
honest-to-God grower producers of
Better Protection Sought
They realized at that time that
there was something lacking-that
the existing methods were disastrous
to the producers. The great majority
of these people were members of
other co-operative organizations.
They saw that the organization to
which they belonged would not and
could not function to the extent that
it was necessary to protect the grow-
ers so they set about with many con-
ferences and finally decided upon
the organization with which we are
meeting today, the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Associa-
tion. Those people believed then that
they were right. They were men of
brains, they were men of integrity.
They organized the Clearing House
and they have stood with it, and I
say that the greater majority of
those people who have been elected
as members of the Committee of
Fifty, the directors and all and the
people who joined in with them in
order to make it possible for it to go
on and function, believed with them
that it was right and believe today
chat they are right.
They set up in their organization
the principles of which the organi-
zation stands for. In their preamble
with which you are all familiar, and
into which I am not going into de-
tail, there was set up the fundamen-
tal principles of the organization. In
the first section of the charter it
gives you one of the most practical
set-ups that I know of in any or-
ganization in the state of Florida.
Each one of these different items was
carefully thought out. They all were
carefully gone over to see wether or

not they met with the general prin-
ciples of what should be set up for
the protection of the state. They set
up the section and went on with
other articles which were just as
practical in the set-up as those in
Article Two. Some amendments were
made afterwards and in my opinion
today it is a perfect set-up.
Control Is Necessary
I realized way back in the begin-
ning at the time and before the Cit-
rus Exchange was organized that
something was absolutely necessary.
The Citrus Exchange came on and it
was right and well that it did come
on at that time for then I would say
we were in the hands of the Phillis-
tines. The Citrus Exchange has done
a wonderful work but it has not been
possible for them-why I do not
know-to build up a tonnage where
they could have control of the situa-
tion whereby the producers could be
protected. Therefore, three and one-
half years ago, it was seen that there
was something necessary to bring
together the independents and the
co-operative organizations whereby
there could be a mutual understand-
ing, mutual knowledge of marketing
and distribution of the fruits. That
was absolutely necessary then and it
is just as necessary today. To be
sure, there have been members in-
cluding members on the Committee
of Fifty which I represent whose
hearts never were with the Clearing
House. Their thoughts and actions
in the Committee of Fifty and their
thoughts and actions outside among
the growers were detrimental to it.
They were able to see only that
which they were particularly con-
nected with. Shortsighted. They
should have, in justice to themselves
and in justice to the people they were
connected with, resigned from the
position which they held, for no man
who is not broad enough to see and
feel that he cannot give and take,
cannot act honestly and conscienti-
ously for the industry with which he
is connected, and should resign from
it and let some one else take his
place who is working for the indus-
try and not working for any particu-
lar interest.
"We Are Going On"
The Clearing House is going on. It
was right three and one-half years
ago when these people started it-
and it is right now. You can down
right once, the second time you may
attempt it but the third time you
will never down a right. We are
crippled now in a way but we are not
going to stay crippled. We are going


est-to-God way, feeling in our hearts
on in a fair-minded way, a real hon-
the only right way to do toward our
fellow men and we are going to do it.
We are going to have to replace
some of the good men we are losing
-not because they wanted to get
out but because they were forced
into it. But I say to you that we will
keep this organization going. If it is
right, it is bound to grow and grow
faster than you expect. The propa-
ganda that is put out against it, un-
less it is founded on facts, cannot
hurt. Facts are facts and you have
to stand by them and you have to
face them whether you want to or
not but I say to you that people in
this industry are the people who are
facing facts honestly for their own
pocketbooks and for those who are
interested in the industry. I ask you
to be men and women of courage-
stand on your own convictions and
speak those convictions whenever
there comes an opportunity to speak.

Vacancies on Board

And Committee of

50 Will Be Filled

Special Elections To Be Held
Next Month in Districts
Of Resigning Members

Reorganization of the Clearing
House Board of Directors and Com-
mittee of Fifty, made necessary by
the withdrawal of the Florida Citrus
Exchange, got well under way dur-
ing this month.
Due to the fact that some of the
members in both of these groups
have, for reasons of their own, elect-
ed to continue with the Exchange, it
has been necessary to fill their places
on both the Board and Committee
of Fifty. On the Board of Directors
vacancies must be filled in districts
2, 3, 4 and 5. Directors J. T. Swann,
Tampa; E. E. Truskett, Mount Dora;
W. F. Glynn, Crescent City, and Phil
C. Peters, Winter Garden, are the
four directors in these respective
districts who are resigning from the
To Hold Special Election
SThe Charter and By-Laws make it
necessary that an election be held
in iny district wherein the director
representing that district resigns
from the Board. Hence, special elec-
tions will be held in these four dis-
tricts. Nominations to fill the four
vacancies, as provided for in the
Charter and By-Laws, will be made
by the Committee of Fifty members
in the districts concerned. Some of
these nominations already have been
made and the machinery for the hold-
ing of the elections is now being set
up. The election will be held prob-
ably about the middle of August.
Nominations for Districts 2, 4 and
5 were completed at the time the

July 25, 1931

News went to press and are as fol-
District 2-Arthur Gunn, J. H.
Letton and I. W. Watt, all of Val-
District 4-F. J. Alexander, De-
Land; J. K. Christian, McIntosh, and
E. H. Williams, Crescent City.
District 5-Carey Hand, M. O.
Overstreet and W. E. Tuttle, all of
Committee of Fifty Meets
Nominees in District 3 were being
selected at the time the News went
to press, it having been necessary in
that district to first appoint mem-
bers of the Committee of Fifty, in -
that the former members were all
affiliated with the Exchange and
have withdrawn from the Clearing
House. The nominations were made
at the meeting of the Committee of
Fifty held in Winter Haven, July 14,
following the growers' annual meet-
ing held in the morning. An election
committee will be appointed from
both the Board and the Committee
of Fifty to handle the special elec-
tion and indications are that the
Clearing House will be a "going con-
cern" again within the next two or
three weeks.
Vacancies caused by the resigning
members of the Committee of Fifty
already have been filled by appoint-
ments in some instances. These ap-
pointments, as provided for in the
Charter and By-Laws, are made by
the directors in the district of the
Committee of Fifty member con-
cerned. The following appointments
have been made:
District Three
Arthur D. Fisk, Leesburg.
T. B. Gautier, Eustis.
O. H. Keene, Clermont.
District Four
J. B. Bradshaw, Pierson.
District Six
Frank P. Beaty, Cocoa.


The early introduction of friend-
ly fungi into citrus groves to help
control whiteflies and scale-insects is
being urged by Dr. E. W. Berger, en-
tomologist of the State Plant Board.
Dr. Berger says that the fungi will
thrive, now that the period of sum-
mer rains has arrived, and the earlier
they are introduced into the grove,
the longer they will have to grow and
spread, and the more efficient will
be their work in controlling the
Certain of these whitefly fungi are
raised and distributed by the State
Plant Board, and the entomology de-
partment now has a nice supply of
red aschersonia, or red whitefly fun-
gus, available for distribution. A
culture, sufficient for treating an
acre of trees, can be obtained for
one dollar, the cost of production.
Directions for distributing the fungi
will accompany each culture.



Essential Industry Service

Rendered By Clearing House,

As Seen From the "Sidelines"

S. L. HOLLAND, Legal Counsel, Clearing House
(At Annual Meeting)

Judge Holland, in opening his
`,talk, forcefully called attention to
the statement which had been made
earlier on the program by Mr. Crutch-
field, head of the American Fruit
Growers, to the effect that his organ-
ization realized that co-operation of
the various factors in the citrus in-
dustry through a medium such as the
-Clearing House and in the various
ways provided under the Clearing
House set-up was not only advisable,
but absolutely necessary to permit
the industry to properly prosper.
"Such an attitude," Judge Holland
said, "shows conclusively the tre-
mendous strides which have been
made in co-operating in agriculture
through the medium of grower-con-
trolled co-operative associations.
.;Some of these associations take the
product from the time it is produced
-through the time that it is marketed.
Others, such as the Clearing House,
stormm a more limited function under
set-up designed to meet particular
and more limited needs.
To Perform Essential Services
"This Clearing House was created
to perform services which are essen-
itial under actual conditions in the
Florida citrus industry. The govern-
ment stood by with advice, service,
and protection during the founding
of the Clearing House and still offers
it its full sanction and support. It is
most noteworthy and a vast contrast
to conditions existing four or five
years ago that the head of a great
independent marketing organization
should consider it imperative for the
,.welfare of the industry for its or-
ganization to continue to co-operate
through the machinery afforded by
the Clearing House."
Judge Holland next called atten-
tion to several of the accomplish-
Sments of the Clearing House not
directly pertaining to the field of
Marketing. "I think first, in this con-
nection," he said, "of the Growers
Sand Shippers League. The Clearing
House makes that organization pos-
sible and we should in no way cripple
that progress now when the carriers
Share asking for a 15 percent increase
in rates. Out of the annual budget
Some $26,000 has been going to that
organization, which is protecting
Florida producers in traffic matters.
"Next, I mention the bait spray
campaign of last summer. It was
realized at that time that, if we were
ever to be released from the quaran-
tine, that another and thorough bait
spraying be done. The Clearing
House went ahead, worked up public
sentiment and support, advanced the
funds necessary to purchase spray

materials and, in short, made possi-
ble the success of the campaign and
the speedy release which followed."
Help On Coloring Work
Judge Holland mentioned also the
matter of experimentation and in-
vestigation in coloring work carried
on throughout the last season with
Clearing House funds. He explained
that the United States Department
of Agriculture had no funds avail-
able for this purpose, but was will-
ing to furnish the supervision
through Dr. Winston. The Clearing
House put up the money and the
whole industry profited from the
work which was done.
"I think, too, that the By-products
Laboratory, now being established
right here in Winter Haven, and an
appropriation of $10,000 for the
year, secured by our delegation in
Congress at the direct request of the
Clearing House, is in itself of tre-
mendous value. Due to the fact that
the people of Winter Haven are fur-
nishing the laboratory, the whole ap-
propriation will be available to serve
the citrus industry by pointing the
way to progress in the great field of
citrus by-products.
"The next thing I want to tell you
about is the movement of refrige-
rated cargoes of fruit from Tampa
to Europe. The Clearing House cer-
tainly is responsible for securing au-
thorization from the U. S. Shipping
Board to equip four ships for the
handling of export citrus from Tam-
pa to Europe. These ships, now being
equipped at a cost of $360,000, are
only the forerunners, in that the
Shipping Board has promised that
four more will be similarly equipped
just as soon as they are needed. That
$360,000 practically equals the
funds of this Clearing House for the
past year."
Seeking Better Maturity Data
Judge Holland next called atten-
tion to the appropriation of $15,000
per year for two years, requested
by the Clearing House, which will be
used by the State in determining
more facts in connection with the
maturity of citrus fruit, the pro-
longation of the shipping season and
the drafting of a more perfect green
fruit law two years from now. This
appropriation has already been ap-
'proved by both committees of the
State Legislature, he explained.
Paying a warm tribute to the un-
selfishness displayed by the Ameri-
can Fruit Growers, Inc., in carrying
the brunt of the fight, Judge Holland
then mentioned the Brogdex suit, in
which he said the intervention of
Florida and six other citrus produc-

ing states (secured by the Clearing
House) was of utmost importance,
not only in obtaining the review of
the case by the United States Su-
preme Court, but also in the ultimate
outcome. He declared that because
of that decision, agricultural produc-
ers of the nation are now finally pro-
tected from charges of patent in-
fringement because of the tremen-
dous processes in the various ways
found advantageous under modern
marketing conditions, none of which,
however, change the essential qual-
ity of the agricultural product.
In closing this phase of his ad-
dress, Judge Holland stated that he
thought it was proper to mention
this particular list of actual accom-
plishments of the Clearing House so
that its members would realize the
tremendous service which it is doing
for them and for the industry.
Property Right Settlement
He next spoke briefly on the ques-
tion of property rights in the prop-
erty of the Association, explaining
that the Charter and By-Laws of the
Association require that the proper-
ty right of a withdrawing member
shall be equitably fixed by the direc-
tors upon a patronage basis, and
that such interest should be paid to
the withdrawing member within one
year after his withdrawal, this
period being allowed to prevent a
crippling of the Association by
breaking too greatly into its funds
on hand, which would be required
for the approaching season. He
stated that the directors had pro-
ceeded diligently to require their
proper officers to make the neces-
sary computations. "This will in-
volve a tremendous amount of de-
tail," he said, "in that each shipper
who has shipped through the Clear-
ing House during the three years of
its existence will have to furnish a
list showing the volume of shipments
handled by it in each season for each
grower-member of the Clearing
House, and on which the box assess-
ments were paid."
In closing, Judge Holland express-
ed his strong hope and belief that the
Florida Citrus Exchange will find it
possible to return to full membership
in the Clearing House. "I believe,"
he said, "that the Exchange will, on
more mature reflection, decide that
by returning to the Clearing House
it can assure maximum profit to its
members and render a greater serv-
ice to the industry as a whole. I can-
not, to save my life, come to the con-
clusion that the Florida Citrus Ex-
change, in announcing its withdraw-
al from the Clearing House, has said
the last word. I do not believe that
the organization which has always
stood in the forefront, in showing its
interest in industry problems, will
long linger out of harness in the or-
ganization which alone has allowed
it a chance to co-operate with the
industry as a whole."
Board Has Final Control
Commenting on the fact that the
Exchange can come back into the
Clearing House without the slightest

Citrus Topics Are

Given Big Place

At Farmers' Week

Annual Session in Gainesville
August 10-14 Promises To
Draw Big Crowd

Opening with a tour of the Col-
lege of Agriculture and Experiment
Station farms on Monday afternoon,
August 10, and closing with a labora-
tory study of citrus insects and dis-
eases on Friday morning, August 14,
the citrus program for Farmers'
Week this year is one of unusual in-
terest. All Farmers' Week programs
will be held at the College of Agri-
culture in Gainesville during the
period of August 10-14, and all Flor-
ida citrus growers, farmers, and
their families are invited to attend.
Tuesday's program will be given.
over almost entirely to insects and
their control. The following subjects
have been scheduled: Pumpkin bug
control;the Cryptolaemus ladybeetle
as a control for mealybugs; natural
and artificial control of scale-insects
and whitefly; rust mite and six-spot-
ted mite control; airways develop-
ment and plant quarantine; negative
results in Medfly search; effect of
bait spray on fruits, trees, entomoge-
nous fungi, and insects. One talk on
(Continued on Page Nine)

fear of being subjected to imposi-
tion, Judge Holland called attention
to the fact that the great majority
of the Committee of Fifty have been
Exchange growers and that nine of
the eleven directors elected at the
last general election are Exchange
growers. He mentioned also the re-
cent proposal, with reference to the
Operating Committee on which the
Exchange should have three of the
eleven members, and that 75 percent
of the entire membership would have
to concur to take mandatory action
of any kind, thus giving the Ex-
change the fullest of protection from
that body.
"I would also like to call atten-
tion," he said, "to the fact that the
ultimate control in the Clearing
House always has been and is now
solely in the Board of Directors. The
Exchange is further safe-guarded by
the fact that its contract, as a ship-
per member, always has given it the
veto power in connection with pro-
posed amendments to the Charter
and By-Laws-power given to no
other shipper-members or group.
Considering all of these factors and
particularly in view of the interest
of the Exchange through all the
years of its existence in industry
matters, Judge Holland closed with
a strong reiteration of his hope and
belief that the Exchange soon will
be back in the Clearing House co-
operating actively in the bringing of
better and more prosperous condi-
tions to the citrus growers of Florida.



July 25, 1931

PaLre 7

Page 7


Public Opinion Recognizes

That Clearing House Stands

As A Protector To Industry

J. S. CRUTCHFIELD, President, American Fruit Growers, Inc.
(At Annual Meeting)

A great deal has been said about
what the Clearing House does on cur-
rent matters but in addition to that
and of equal importance, if not more
so, is the necessity of looking ahead
and planning ahead, anticipating the
problems that will arrive and meet-
ing those problems with a commor
front. That is one of the important
functions of the Clearing House anc
has been one of the things this Clear-
ing House has faithfully performed
Another point that might be men-
tioned is the fact that the enemies ol
the industry, if there be such, wil
not attempt to do things when the
industry is organized that they wil.
feel perfectly ready and able to dc
if it is unorganized. Now, obviously.
a business amounting to a hundred
million dollars a year, wholesale
value of a perishable product having
now an international market, cannot
function or exist in a happy-to-lucky:
unorganized fashion.
Easy To Destroy
It is really a wonder that the in-
dustry has reached the tremendous
volume and success that it has in,
spite of the unorganized condition
in which it was prior to three years
ago. It shows great vitality. It shows
great possibilities. On the other
hand, it is not peculiar to Florida or
to the Clearing House here that they
are unable to accomplish satisfactory
results. What organization in this
country or in the world today is ac.
complishing satisfactory results? A
great many of the strongest and
most successful organizations have
had hard work surviving.
It is not a strange thing that F
destructive movement comes upon us
in a great rush. It requires but little
time and effort to destroy any organ-
ization or anything, but constructive
effort must of necessity be slow and
tedious and at time, discouraging.
So, I am very happy to know the
spirit that prevails here in Florida
with reference to this Clearing
House-not expecting the impossible
in being too easily discouraged be-
cause of the great loss that has taken
place in the withdrawal of the Ex-
change and some other members.
That is very unfortunate. The Clear-
ing House should represent every
factor in the state. No question about
that to accomplish its greatest good,
and it has been a question in our
minds, I say sincerely, as to whether
or not it was possible to carry on
successfully under the circum-
stances. That depends greatly upon
the public opinion that is back of the
Clearing House or back of the effort
to do away with it. I have not been


in Florida long enough to know ex-
actly what that public opinion is but
from what I see and hear today, it
seems to me there is a strong public
opinion back of the movement to
maintain the Clearing House even
ander great difficulties. If that is
true, the Clearing House will have
and should have no difficulty in sur-
viving and working with more or less
State Was Behind Move
I know what the public opinion
vas three years ago when it was or-
ganized. Every newspaper, every
ioanker, every business man and
-very grower in the state was strong
for the Clearing House as the only
move-the only practical move for
the salvation of the industry. Now if
there is any reason why that should
be changed, I do not know. Obvious-
ly, the Clearing House was expected
to do things that it could not do in a
short length of time.
I have been sufficiently familiar
with this industry having started in
Orange county 30 years ago packing
oranges for Nelson Bros. I know the
.ips and downs including the big
freeze of '94. I was on the ground
nd I also know of the intimate de-
tails and efforts that have been put
forth through the Clearing House
these last three years and I sincere-
y believe that a reasonable amount
'f constructive effort and success
has been accomplished. That success
compares favorably with other or-
ganizations of a similar nature,
therefore it would be a shame to de-
stroy an organization which was
built with the best brains and experi-
ence of the citrus industry, backed
by the United States government ad-
vice and counsel. It would be a shame
to destroy that valuable piece of ma-
chinery which is ideal in its concep-
tion and by-laws even though it may
not have been ideal in all its opera-
Another point that impresses me
is the fact that because members
have withdrawn is no sign that they
will stay out. Necessity is the mother
of invention and adversity is a very
good school master. Now, we do not
have a very smooth road to travel
this coming season. If you need any
information confidentially along that
line from the north, I can tell you
that it is the private opinion of the
best authorities in the north that we
have a real rocky road to travel for
the next six months or a year unless
Providence comes in and helps us
out, which she frequently does. I am
not pessimistic but I am practical
enough to face facts and recognize

Treasurer's Report

By A. R. TRAFFORD, Treasurer
As Treasurer of your Association I take pleasure in submitting here-
with my report covering the financial operations of the Association for the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1931, and the financial condition of the Associa-
tion at that date.
During the past year the income of the Association was as follows:
Assessments........-- ..-- ........-----....-.....-......... ----............. $384,531.89
Subscriptions for Clearing House News..----................... ........ 41.60
Dividends from defunct banks...---------............................... 2,556.90
Interest Received (Net) ...........................--------- .. 3,869.49
Total Income-........................--- .. ......--...---..--- ...$390,999.88
The expenses of the year were as follows:
Advertising--.....---- ---.. ------ ------........-.- $126,396.18
Inspection--..........---- ..-------... .............. 80,562.00
General Operations:
Office and Administration............----........... $79,962.60
Bulletins and Wires to Shippers-------......................... 37,534.03
Membership Campaign ................----------................ 17,507.09
Clearing House News--......... -----.........................--- 9,676.08
Crop Estimate .........................------------.--- 6,186.54
Committee of Fifty-.................................... 4,378.65
Street Sales Promotion.............-....... ............... 4,022.25
Census of Grove Properties-....--------.......---- 3,949.19
Coloring Work.......-----------............ --...--- 2,222.81
Bulletins to Growers---.......-.............................. 1,933.72
Misc. expense and adjustments prior years........ 1,683.63
Elections ------... -------------.....---. 1,659.05
Depreciation on Furniture, Equipment and
Automobile...............------------............. 1,516.87
Total of General Operations-------........................ $172,232.51
Industry Activities:
Growers and Shippers League of Florida..........$26,337.80
Mediterranean Fruit Fly.....................----- ----.......... 8,925.38
Borax Patent Suit........----------.............. .......... 5,991.14

Total of Industry Activities.... ----................ 41,254.32
Expense of the year exceeded the income by the amount of....$ 29,445.13

Based on the number of boxes and bushels assessed the expense per
package is as follows:
Advertising-- ----- ....---------. ...----.--- $.0066
Inspection --- --------............ .................----- .0042
General Operations ---..............................-------. .0088
Industry Activities---------......-..-...------....- .0022
Total expense per package....................-- ......... 0218
You will be interested to know that the items of expense enumerated
above closely approximate the budget prepared and approved by the Board
of Directors which reflects due care on the part of the management in the
operations of the Association.
The excess of expense over income for the year, amounting to $29,-
445.13, has decreased our surplus to this extent and was. caused by the
assessment for the past year having been reduced to 2c per box as com-
pared with 4c per box for the previous year. As of June 30, 1931, all the
expenses of the Association has been paid and there remained a surplus
of $147,903.65, represented by the following assets:
Cash on Hand and in Banks------..........................$50,475.53
Liberty Bonds --- ---------------- 15,505.75
Assessment Accounts and Notes.--......---- .. 72,980.16
Furniture, Equipment and Automobile........ 8,090.44
Prepaid and accrued items-................--.--. 851.77
Total assets --.. .-------.. ....--- $147,903.65
As required by the Board of Directors the funds of the Association
are amply secured by approved Depository bonds, which at the present
time aggregate $70,000.00.
The books and records of the Association have been audited by A.
Gilbert Lester, Certified Public Accountant, of A. Gilbert Lester & Com-
pany, Auditors and Accountants, of Winter Haven. This audit report con-
tains a certified schedule of the receipts and disbursements of the Associa-
Copies of the audit are in the hands of the Management and Directors
and may be reviewed at any time by members of the Association.

the absurdity of destroying the only I have considerable confidence that
machinery that we have available to wise men change their minds and
make the best of a difficult situation. (Continued on Page Ten)


Page 8



- "' --

July 25, 1931

Page 8


Forget Petty Differences

And Work For The Industry,

Director Gardner Advises

0 F. GARDNER, Director-at-Large
(At Annual Meeting)

I am a member of the Chase Sub-
4 Exchange and that is the reason why
1 am still alive in the Clearing House.
I expect that the reason that our
President asked me to say a few
words here today was because I have
just been in the north breathing
some of that northern air around the
universities where philosophers and
psycho-analysts are.
Among those people breathing
that air I saw Lindbergh, Kellogg
and Baker. While hanging around
there I got quite intellectual while I
was away. Then coming back here
With all this brain-speeding-up, try-
ing to find something to do with it
so I wouldn't go "boom," I turned
my attention again to the citrus
problem down here and in some way
Sthe psycho-analysts and the Florida
citrus growers got all mixed up to-
gether. You know those psycho-
analysts are the people we go to
when we are a bit crazy and they
tell us why we are a bit crazy and
tell us how to get over being a bit
crazy. I don't know how they got
mixed up together, but some how
they did. And I began to try to ap-
ply some of their principles that I
had breathed in, you know. And one
of the first ones was to this effect:
That if you will clearly under-
stand and state your problem you
are a long way toward solving it.
Now, that is what I am going to do
with the citrus problem today, Mr.
President, so we are almost there.
I have come to the conclusion that
our biggest problem down here is not
the problem of marketing; it is not
the problem of distribution, though
I realize that is a serious one; it is
not the problem of advertising,
though I agree entirely with Mr.
Crutchfield that during the past year
we have been doing the best adver-
tising that has ever been done here;
our chief problem is not a problem
of grade and pack, but our chief
problem is just the problem of com-
mon ordinary human cussedness and
that is what we have got to overcome
if we are going to get anywhere.
We human beings work along cer-
tain lines and here in this citrus in-
dustry we are seeing human beings
working along their respective lines.
We are seeing people who are abso-
lutely conscientious, who are abso-
lutely loyal to their own organiza-
tion, and who are wrapped up in
those organizations and who, when
working for that organization and if
for that organization for the imme-
diate future, and working along
right lines. But I say those same in-
dividuals, in my judgment, are so

short-sighted that they not merely
are doing harm to their own organi-
zation but to the citrus industry as
a whole.
Cut-Throat Competition
Let me illustrate. I want no better
competition as an individual pro-
ducer than dishonest competition. I
want no better competition than in-
efficient competition. I want no bet-
ter competition than the kind of dis-
organized competition from the
standpoint of my individual business
for a short time. Now, as a Florida
grower, if I have got a particular
brand that I want to put over in the
northern market, I don't want you
to do anything for me than to put up
a lot of fruit under brands that are
not up to standard, a lot of poor
fruit that is not up to standard and
let me go out with my good brand
and build that up. The fallacy of that
policy was pointed out by our presi-
dent when he said that while under
that kind of scheme, I might get 15c
or 25c per box more than you would
,et with that inferior competition
but if we were both getting 50c to
$1.00 less than we ought to be get-
ting, then after all, we are both
crazy and in need of the pyscho-
inalyst operator. That is really what
is happening here in Florida.
We are so concerned over the
building up of our own organization
-we are so concerned over serving
our own selfish interest, that we fail
to catch sight of the fact that the
industry has to prosper if we as in-
dividuals are going to prosper. We
may prosper as individuals compared
with the industry but we will not
have real prosperity until the indus-
try prospers and the industry will
not prosper until we are in some way
able to join hands and to lend every
effort that we have in making the
standards of the industry all the way
through, keeping them up where they
should be.
"Work For Industry"
Take that question of grade and
pack. Standardization of grade
which the Clearing House has been
asked to surrender-to give up.
Don't you realize that as I said a
moment ago that if I put up a good
grade and pack of citrus and if you
don't put one up that unless we are
putting up, shipping out on the mar-
ket a grade that is good, a fruit that
is up to standard, it is going to hurt
the industry? I wish I could believe
that under the present situation that
these two groups that have been
spoken of here today might go side
by side-might co-operate to the
fullest extent-might work out these

(Continued from Page Seven)
a disease, the mushroom root rot, is
The session will be a real instruc-
tive vacation and will cost even less
than living expenses at home, Dr.
Wilmon Newell, dean of the Agri-
cultural College declared. Charges
this year have actually been reduced
below costs in order that rural Flor-
idians may have an economical, in-
structive, and entertaining vacation.
"There will be no registration fees,
no admission charges, no charges for
entertainment, and no one will be
asked to buy anything. The only
charges will be meals at the Univer-
sity cafeteria and lodging in the dor-
mitories. The total costs will be $1.15
per day; divided as follows: Break-
fast 25 cents, dinner 35 cents, supper
30 cents, and lodging 25 cents," he
The first feature of the week will
be a complete tour of the College and
Experiment Station farms, Monday
afternoon, August 10. Tours, enter-
tainments, and talks by leading
farmers and specialists from over the
Southeast are all included in the
week's program. Special programs
have been planned for citrus and
small fruit growers, truck crop grow-
ers, general farmers, dairymen, live-
stock raisers, poultrymen, beekeep-
ers, pecan growers, foresters, orna-
mental lovers, and rural women.
Those who wish to stay in the dor-
mitories should bring bed linens, pil-
lows, and towels. Free and up-to-date
camping facilities will be furnished,
and a day nursery will be maintained
to care for the smaller children.
Room reservations should be made
to the Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice, Gainesville, Fla.
The complete program, as just an-
nounced by the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, follows:
Growth and Yield of Grapefruit
as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilizers
-R. S. Edsall, graduate assistant,
College of Agriculture.
Fertilizer Practices Found in Cit-
rus Cost Studies-W. R. Briggs, as-
sistant extension economist.
Accumulation and Availability of
Phosphates in Grove Soils-Dr. O. C.

more insignificant problems which
confront the industry.
I wish I could believe-I want to
believe-I have a lot of faith in hu-
man nature, but I am afraid that we,
as growers, are not going to be per-
sistent or angry enough to say to
these two groups-"now you work
together"-"now you do co-oper-
ate." We are not interested in dog
fights, we are not interested in war,
we are not interested in personal an-
tagonisms with which we are all
familiar, and we are not interested
in seeing human nature destroy the
business on which we are all depen-

Bryan, professor of agronomy, Col-
lege of Agriculture.
Present Fertilizer Recommenda-
tions-Dr. R. W. Ruprecht, chemist,
Experiment Station.
Research in Relation to Citrus
Culture-H. Harold Hume, assistant
director of research, Experiment
General discussion of grove ferti-
lization, cultivation and cover crops
by N. E. Dale, Indian River section;
E. H. Hurlebaus, West Coast sec-
tion, and speakers from Highlands,
Orange and Polk counties.
Citrus Disease Problems-Dr. W.
B. Tisdale, plant pathologist, Experi-
ment Station.
Tree Trunk and Root Diseases-
Dr. A. S. Rhoads, associate plant
pathologist, Experiment Station.
Increasing the Size of Tangerines
by Thinning-Louis H. Alsmeyer,
county agent, Highlands County,
and E. F. DeBusk, extension citricul-
Seasonal Price Changes of Tange-
rines by Sizes and Grades-D. E.
Timmons, extension agricultural
Practical Grove Irrigation-E. H.
Hurlebaus, Clearwater grower.
Rootstocks and Propagation of
Citrus-J. H. Jeffries, superinten-
dant, Citrus Experiment Station.
The Status of Co-operative Mar-
keting in Florida-M. A. Brooker,
assistant agricultural economist,
Florida Experiment Station, and Dr.
H. G. Hamilton, associate professor
of agricultural economics, College of
Roundtable discussion on methods
of financing the grower with Dr. C.
V. Noble, agricultural economist
with the Experiment Station, and
representatives of leading co-opera-
tive associations speaking.
Pumpkin Bug Control-J. R. Wat-
son, entomologist, Experiment Sta-
The "Cryp" Lady Beetle as a Con-
trol for Mealy Bugs-L. W. Zeigler,
assistant entomologist, Experiment
Scale Insects and Whitefly-Dr.
E. W. Berger, entomologist, State
Plant Board.
Six Spotted Mite Control-J. R.
Watson and Frank Holland, county
agent, Polk County.
Rust Mite Control-W. W. Yoth-
ers, entomologist, U. S. Department
Agriculture, Orlando laboratory.
The Relation of Airplane Develop-
ment to Plant Quarantine-Dr. J. H.
Montgomery, quarantine inspector,
State Plant Board.
Present Status of the Frozen Fruit
Industry-Dr. A. F. Camp, horticul-
turist, Experiment Station.
Status of the Tung-Oil Industry-
Harold Mowry, associate horticultur-
ist, Experiment Station.
Laboratory Studies of Insects and



July 25, 1931

Page 9

Paee 10





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.
E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
0. F. GARDNER Lake Placid
W. F. GLYNN Crescent City
PHIL C. PETERS Winter Garden
JOHN A. SNIVELY Winter Haven
A. M. TILDEN. Winter Haven
R. B. WOOLFOLK . Orlando

Maturity Research Work
Bitter denunciation has been indulged in
every year-especially this past season, of
"green fruiters." Sometimes it was a case of
the "pot calling the kettle black." But where
a grower or shipper realized that others were
getting into the deal ahead of him and reap-
ing a high return at the expense of those who
held their fruit "until it was fit to ship,"-
naturally there was soreness and indignation.
There is no question but what there will
always exist the temptation to ship too early.
There is no practical way of holding back such
shipments except by law, unless competitive
fruits are in the markets in such quantity as
to make it likely that the early shipper will
get no advantage in general price level. The
greater amount of valencias that California
holds back to market during September and
October the less will be the economic tempta-
tion for Florida to ship her new crop in com-
petition, and California will probably have
plenty of valencias held for the late Fall mar-
kets this year.
Florida will always suffer by comparison
with California whenever our early new crop
oranges, pale in color, and sour or flat in flavor,
are immediately compared by consumers with
California's old crop fully ripe valencias that
are still available. It is the immediate com-
parison of a new-crop less ripe fruit with the
old crop fully ripe fruit that makes much of
the complaint at the beginning of our orange
season. The oranges that Florida ships then
are doubtless equally or more mature and
good-eating than what California may be ship-
ping four to six weeks later without complaint.
But we have to take the brunt of getting the
consumer used to the new season's less mature
fruit. There is no way of avoiding this ob-
stacle unless we raise our maturity standards
to a higher level than California, in which case
we lose what most people consider our natural
climatic advantage of earlier maturity fruit
over California. The years when California


July 25, 1931

has a short valencia crop would be the ones
when Florida would lose most in money and
suffer the least by comparison with the old
crop eating quality, should we materially ad-
vance our orange standard.
These considerations, and the fact that
Florida cannot hold her crop so well as Cali-
fornia due to climate and possibly irrigation,
all enter into our green fruit problem. We
greatly need as long a marketing period as
possible. But if it is elongated at the begin-
ning at the expense of the rest of the season
because we injure the consumer reaction to-
wards Florida, we have lost more than we
gained. So we find much yet to be learned
and probably many adjustments yet to be
made before we meet this problem wisely.
We need real research work, disinterested
scientific and extensive enough to apply intel-
ligently to our practical problem. Passed by
unnoticed probably by most growers has been
the fact that Florida will be doing important
research work as to maturity standards on cit-
rus fruits, an appropriation having been ap-
proved recently by both committees of our
State Legislature.
The Clearing House was thoroughly arous-
ed to this necessity and recognized how im-
perative research is in determining correct
maturity standards because of the frank dis-
cussions taking place within as well as outside
the ranks of the Clearing House, such discus-
sions showing a wide divergence of opinions.
It was because of the obvious need for more
accurate and scientific knowledge as to ma-
turity standards that the Clearing House,
through the Committee of Fifty, and through
its Board and officials, urged that our State
Legislature make a sufficient appropriation to
do this research work, and we are glad to re-
port we were successful in this request. This
department will study each aspect, particular-
ly that of satisfying the consumer over as long
a marketing season as may be possible and in
connection with our competitive problem with
California and Texas.
Nearly every one admitted that we were
floundering in the dark on what actually con-
stituted maturity in grapefruit. Experience
has shown that previous standards were
wrong because at certain stages of immaturity
obvious to any experienced person, grapefruit
complied with the so-called maturity stand-
ards better than they did later after the cells
had become more naturally mature, the grape-
fruit more juicy and in every way more accept-
able to the palate. It is for this reason that last
season the juice standard was thrown into the
picture. There were those who showed that
the specific gravity test of peeled grapefruit
was probably a more accurate means of regu-
lating the required juice content than the
cubic centimeter test per size.
What constitutes an acceptable, palatable
standard that would be practicable on tange-
rines proved a mooted question. Many claimed
that the pungency of tangerines real early
when they are full of juice, even though some-
what acid, is far more acceptable to the aver-
age consumer than the disappointing type of
tangerine which appears on the market later
and is more or less dry or woody, particularly
among the larger sizes.

(Continued from Page Eight)
that reconsideration may yet be
brought about of necessity if not
from other reasons, so therefore I
am convinced that the sentiment ex-
pressed so far in favor of continuing
this organization and trying to get,
even greater support of public opin-
ion is a wise move and not only so i
but any other move would be very
Farm Board Head Friendly
Now, I recognize that each organ-
ization has its internal problems and
I don't question for a minute the sin-
cerity of those members who have
withdrawn but I have heard some
reasons expressed that don't appeal
to me as being altogether feasible or
correct. I have heard the statement
made that withdrawal was made be-
cause the Farm Board was opposed
to the Clearing House idea. I talked
to the Chairman of the Federal Farm ,
Board about sixty days ago on that
subject-Mr. Stone. He told me he
was the author of the Clearing House
plan in the agricultural marketing '.
act and that he was strongly in favor
of the Clearing House feature as be-
ing one practical method whereby
the existing marketing factors and.
the co-operatives could get together
for the common good of the industry.
Now, any factor, whether co-oper-
ative or private enterprise that ex- -
pects to exist must realize that the
industry as a whole must have pre-
ferred attention or else their own in-
terests cannot prosper. I think that '
it is a mere matter of intelligence,
gradually bringing that fact to bear
not only upon the co-operative but
private factors that they themselves
cannot prosper with the industry in
a demoralized condition. I think
among other things the Clearing
House has given sufficient stability
to the industry as a whole to make
it an inviting field for all factors to
operate in so they can operate with
more security than they could under
other conditions.
I know you are hungry and I have
taken more time than I should have
but I want to say this-we are in
favor of advertising. We believe in
it. One of the very best methods of
advertising is to give the consumer a
good product in fresh condition even
at a reasonable price. Invariably a
season of good quality and low price
is followed by another receiving the
benefit of a large increased demand
as a direct result of the preceding
year. We have at least that encour-
agement ahead of us. "Life" had an
article some years ago during the
Wilson administration commenting
on Wilson's Mexican policy. Most of
you remember how much discussion
there was about Wilson's Mexican
policy. "Life" said it was rotten, any-
thing else would have been worse-
so you can say at least that much for
our industry and the Clearing House.


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs