Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00067
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: July 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00067
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
Bureau of Arig-
U. S. Dept. of ArLg,
Vashing-ton, D. G*


U. S. Postage
S I c. Paid
, Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1



SRepresenting more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

r Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31, Volume III
$2.00 a Yea rus Growers Clearing House Association, JULY 10 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,um
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Number 19

Clearing House Will Carry On As Usual Next Year

Efforts To Induce Exchange To Continue Membership Fails De-

spite Opposition in Their Own Ranks To Withdrawal-

Waverly Association Shows Loyalty To And Faith in Work

Clearing House Is Doing By Becoming Shipper Member----

Machinery Set in Motion To Fill Vacancies on The Clearing

House Board of Directors And Committee of 50----Retain of

2c Per Box Decided Upon for Coming Season.


After a delay of some six weeks during which officials of
"the Clearing House have done everything in their power in an
*unsuccessful effort to induce the Florida Citrus Exchange to
,remain as a shipper member, growers and shippers still affil-
iated with the Clearing House have set in motion the machin-
try for carrying on industry work for the coming season.
Plans for the coming year's work, together with brief re-
ports on the past season's activities, will be given to the grow-
ers attending the third annual meeting of the Clearing House
which will be held in the Williamson Theatre in Winter Ha-
ven, Tuesday, July 14, beginning at 11 a. m. Indications are
that this meeting will attract a large number of growers who
naturallyy have been eager to see definite indications that the
Clearing House will continue its efforts to do those things
~rhich it was set up to do.
Industry Most Important
It is a well known fact that withdrawal of the Exchange
as been anything but satisfactory to a large number of Ex-
change growers. These growers have been broad-visioned
enough to see that improvement of industry conditions is of
far more importance than the doubtful advantage which
might accrue to an organization that insists upon "going it
alone." These same Exchange growers have voiced their dis-
Sqpproval of the Exchange withdrawal in no uncertain terms;
iany of them have withdrawn from the Exchange and have

publicly announced their intentions of continuing their sup-
port to the Clearing House. The grower members of the
Waverly Citrus Growers Association (affiliated with the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange) have even gone so far as to show their
faith in the Clearing House by having their association join the
Clearing House as a shipper member although remaining at
the same time with their own parent organization. The annual
meeting on July 14 unquestionably will be attended by many
of these growers, for interest in the Clearing House is almost
universal and is quite genuine among thousands of Florida citi-
zens who are endeavoring to make their investment in citrus
more profitable.
Elect New Officials
Withdrawal of the Exchange from the Clearing House
will necessitate some reorganization of the Clearing House
Board of Directors and the Committee of Fifty in that some
of the members in both these groups have, for reasons of their
own, decided to remain with the Exchange. These members
will, of course, be resigning from the Clearing House although
most of them are remaining in office temporarily so as to be
able to carry on routine affairs of the Clearing House until
their posts can be filled. In the case of resignations of any
Directors from the state-at-large the Board as a whole will
appoint a new Director or Directors to succeed any resigning
member. Replacement of any (Continued on Page Two)-


Withdrawal of The

Exchange Accepted

By Clearing House

Shippers Urge Board To Con-
tinue Efforts To Induce Co-
op To Come Back In

Withdrawal of the Florida Citrus
Exchange from the Clearing House
was accepted as final by the Board
of Directors at their meeting July 7.
At this meeting a recommendation
originating with the Committee of
Fifty and concurred in by shipper
members of the Clearing House urg-
ing the Clearing House Board to ac-
cept the Exchange withdrawal and
"formulate such plans as may be nec-
essary to carry on the Clearing
House," was accepted and approved
by the Board. This recommendation
reads as follows:
"WHEREAS, the Committee of
Fifty, in an effort to bridge the gap
between the Florida Citrus Ex-
change and the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House Asosciation, of-
fered recommendations to the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange which in the
opinion of the Committee met every
honest objection expressed by the
Exchange in its criticism of the
Clearing House, and
"WHEREAS, the reply of the
Florida Citrus Exchange to the Com-
mittee of Fifty refuses all opportuni-
ty for negotiations and clearly indi-
cates that the Exchange withdrawal
is final, and
"WHEREAS, the Executive Com-
mittee of the Committee of Fifty be-
lieves that the Clearing House has
been and can continue to be of great
value and service to the citrus indus-
try of Florida, and
"WHEREAS, we believe as grow-
ers that the work of the Clearing
House cannot be discontinued with-
out monetary loss to the producers
of Florida citrus fruit,
SOLVED, that, as the Executive
Committee of the Advisory Commit-
tee of the growers and for the grow-
ers, we earnestly urge the Board of
Directors of the Clearing House to
accept the Exchange withdrawal and
take such action and formulate such
plans as may be necessary to carry
on the Clearing House with the loyal
grower and shipper members, in the
interest of the industry as a whole."
Although official recognition has
been given to the withdrawal of the
Exchange, shipper members of the
Clearing House have formally indi-
cated a desire to continue efforts to
induce the Exchange to come back
into the ranks of the Clearing House.
With this in mind a resolution was
passed by the shippers at a meeting
held July 1, the resolution being ac-
cepted and approved by the Board
at~t' most recent meeting. This reso-
luo6n in part reads As follows:
'4While the shippers consider that
it is necessary to immediately pro-
ceed with reorganization of the
Clearing House in order not to en-

(Continued from Page One)
district Director who resigns, will be
made by a special election held in
the district of the Director concern-
ed-the members of the Committee
of Fifty in the district nominating
three growers, one of whom will be
elected by the grower members to
represent the district on the Board.
Replacement of the members of
the Committee of Fifty who resign
from the Clearing House, as pro-
vided for in the Charter and By-
Laws, will be made by appointment
by the district Director.
Special Election Necessary
Indications are that there will be
at least four district Directors to be
elected, Messrs. J. T. Swann, District
2; E. E. Truskett, District 3; W. F.
Glynn, District 4; Phil C. Peters, Dis-
trict 5, having signified their inten-
tion to remain with the Exchange.
The Committee of Fifty members in
each of these four districts are al-
ready making plans for nominating
and electing the Director for their
district. Provisions of the Charter
and By-Laws make it necessary to
give notice of at least thirty days
for the holding of special elections,
hence the work of filling the district
Director vacancies is expected to be
finished some time next month.
Further detailed plans of opera-
tion were taken at a meeting of the
Board held July 7 at which various
recommendations annually made by
the Operating Committee were re-
ceived and approved. Among these
recommendations was that providing
for a retain of two cents per box for
the coming season, one cent of this
to be devoted to general expenses,
and one cent for inspection, adver-
tising and handling of general indus-
try matters. At a meeting of the
shipper members held July 1 the fol-
lowing were appointed as members
of the Operating Committee to serve
during the coming year:
W. H. Mouser, Orlando; L. Maxcy,
Frostproof; R. B. Woolfolk, Orlan-
do; R. D. Keene, Eustis; John S.
Barnes, Plant City; W. G. Roe, Win-
ter Haven; L. P. Kirkland, Auburn-
dale; C. N. Williams, Orlando, and
Ed. Welles, Arcadia.
Following nomination of the mem-
bers, the Board of Directors at their
meeting July 7, received the names
of the Operating Committee, ap-
proving all of the nominations made
by the shippers. This action is gov-
erned by the Charter and By-Laws
and is indelible proof that ultimate
authority is vested in the Board.

danger its life, the shippers favor
continued efforts to secure the mem-
bership of the Florida Citrus Ex-

Ho! Hum!
This month's prize goes to the
Scotchman who sent the surgeon's
bill to his father-in-law when he
learned that his wife's tonsils really
should have been taken out when she
was a little girl.

Waverly's Growers

Show Confidence In

The Clearing House

Exchange Association To Join
As Shipper Despite Parent
Group's Action

One of the most outstanding illus-
trations of confidence in the Clear-
ing House, as well as faith in the
work it is doing for the industry, has
been furnished by the grower mem-
bers of the Waverly Citrus Growers
Association, member of the Florida
Citrus Exchange. At the annual
meeting of the Waverly growers held
July 2 the Association voted enthus-
iastically to join the Clearing House
as a shipper member. During the
season just ended the Waverly house
packed over 300,000 boxes of fruit
in contrast to less than 37,000 boxes
ten years ago.
Proof of Confidence
There is considerable significance
attached to the action of the Waver-
ly growers in that it is indelible proof
that not only are there many grow-
ers who sincerely believe the Clear-
ing House, under existing conditions,
is the most practicable method of
solving industry problems, but feel
also that the withdrawal of the Ex-
change as a shipper member is noth-
ing short of organization selfishness
and is a backward step as far as the
industry is concerned. The Waverly
growers in taking this action frankly
explained they felt "the Exchange
could do all the things the Clearing
House has accomplished," but fur-
ther declared that their own parent
organization has not yet reached the
point where it can do the things the
Clearing House has been able to ac-
The following is an excerpt from
the Waverly Association Manager's
annual report:
"Antagonism Built Up"
"There is no doubt that the Clear-
ing House has performed many use-
ful services since its birth. When it
was first organized many people gave
it two years to live. They based their
prophesy on the fact that if the Ex-
change would co-operate one hun-
dred percent by the end of two years
the growers of Florida would be edu-
cated along co-operative lines to the
extent that the Exchange could as-
sume the Clearing House duties and
membership. And if the Exchange
did not co-operate it would be such a
thorn in its side that the Clearing
House could not function. Since the
time of the organization of the
Clearing House, some of the Ex-
change officials have carried a chip
on their shoulders, waiting for the
time they could build up sentiment
enough against it to dare to with-
draw their support.
Industry Now Recg"nized
"In time, the Exchange could do
all the things the Clearing House has
accomplished, but they have not
reached that goal. I believe that

Pa-e 2

July 10, 1931

through organized effort of the
Clearing House the Florida citrus in-
dustry has gained more prominence
and better standing in the northern
markets than ever before. It must be
a surprise to our California competi-
tors to see what stiff competition the
standardization of grade and pack of
Florida fruit has made for them.
"The Clearing House has made
mistakes and I believe the worst mis-
take was the failure to estimate the
crop more correctly. Even at as late'
a date as March, its estimate on
grapefruit to be shipped was almost
1,000,000 boxes too low.
"Our Directors disliked to with-
draw from the Clearing House after
having helped to organize it and be-'
lieving in its usefulness with Ex-
change support. It was decided to
leave the matter of withdrawal or
remaining with the Clearing House
to this growers' meeting."


The 1931 Yearbook of Agriculture
is out. This annual of short popular
articles, reports, and statistics offers
a condensed record of what has hap-'
pened in and to agriculture, on the
farm and in the laboratory. The vol-'
ume touches on a thousand and 9ne
phases of farming and research, and'
includes a fairly complete statistical.
record not only of the production of
crops and livestock but also of their
disposition and distribution through'
the channels of industry and in for-
eign and domestic commerce. It also'
discusses the service activities of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture. As
usual, it includes the Secretary's an-,
nual report to the President. A series
of charts tracing the increase in the
production of the more important
commodities in the last forty years%
is regarded as a valuable feature.
Four hundred thousand copies of.
the Yearbook are printed, under a
special Congressional appropriation,,,
and the distribution is largely by the
members of Congress. Persons who"
cannot get a copy from a Senator or
a Representative may purchase the
Yearbook for $1.50 from the Super-
intendent of Documents, Govern;
ment Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. .'
In a foreword the Secretary of
Agriculture, Arthur M. Hyde, says,
farmers and research workers are
partners in the task. of shaping the"
agricultural industry to the most
profitable and desirable ends. The,-
Yearbook, he points out, is designed
to facilitate contacts between farmdr
ers and research workers. It includes
many articles of interest to non-agri"
cultural readers. Of general interest
are articles on economic subjects
on highway construction, pn the ad-
ministration of regulatory laws, and&
on home economics. The volume re-
ports recent progress in meteorology
and in the utilization of agricultural
by-products through chepiical re.
sea.ch. There are several frticles'on
the 1930 drought. "

Read the News for the latest infor,
mation about the citrus industry.

Pnco 9

Gleaned From the Press of the State

SPreserve the
Clearing House
4 (Tampa Morning Tribune, July 9, 1931)
Three years ago it was brought
~home to the citrus growers of Flor-
ida that they were suffering from a
-4ack of market stabilization and mar-
ket control. They had no instrument
of their own for remedying that con-
dition. Throughout the industry it
-was recognized that such instrument
must be provided. Agitation continu-
--ing for a number of months, during
which practically all the growers in
-the state were made acquainted with
the plan and a substantial majority
of them convinced that it was right,
resulted in the organization of the
'Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association.
The Association acquired in its
membership 75% of the fruit of the
state. It has been functioning for
,three years. It is now threatened
with destruction, because the Flor-
da Citrus Exchange has withdrawn
from its membership, leaving the
SClearing House with less than 40%
of the fruit.
If the Exchange persists in its
%.-ithdrawal, there will be no Clear-
-ling House. Then Florida will have
no organization representing a suf-
ficient percentage of the fruit to
comply with the terms of the Cap-
Sper-Volstead act and permit effective
market control-and Florida will
A#Dt have such organization unless and
until the Citrus Exchange succeeds
-in increasing its membership to con-
trol 60% of the fruit. Yet the Ex-
change, in all its existence, has not
succeeded in reaching that goal.
*With the Clearing House destroyed,
due to the withdrawal of the Ex-
.change, the Exchange will have to
convince growers that the Exchange
-isan take the place of the Clearing
House, exercising all of its functions,
"and also that the Exchange can ren-
der better service in distributing
h nd selling than its independent com-
petitors. If the Exchange succeeds
In this, it will be overcoming nearly
30 years of contrary experience. It
-is extremely doubtful that it can.
We take pride in the fact that we
'had something to do with the crea-
tion of the Clearing House-at least
'with the development of sentiment
among the growers which resulted in
Its organization. We naturally feel a
sense of loyalty to it. At the same
"ime, we have no bias, expressed or
implied, against the Exchange. We
fully recognize its great work for the
industry-the patience with which it
has struggled in the endeavor to
make itself dominant in its field, so
'hat it might bring to Florida citrus
the benefits of genuine co-operative
ifervice. We have a high opinion of
its executive and directorial staff.
We deeply regret any position as-
,pmed by either the Exchange or the
Clearing House which has, so far,
prevented compromise or concilia-
ion. We are convinced that the Flor-
4la grower needs the Clearing House,

needs it as much today as he needed
it when it was formed-and our con-
cern is wholly for the grower.
The plain situation is that if the
Exchange makes it withdrawal from
the Clearing House permanent and
the Clearing House is unable to get
enough fruit to comply with the pro-
visions of the Capper-Volstead act,
the Clearing House will be destroy-
ed, there will be nothing to take its
place, and the grower will be back
where he was three years ago, with
no agency of his own for market con-
trol. And that would be bad for the
grower, bad for the industry as a
whole, bad for the state.
We have made inquiries as to the
possibilities of conciliation, of a com-
promise of differences, which would
solve the present apparent impasse.
We find that the Exchange has made
certain demands for changes in those
methods of operation of the Clear-

Just A Correction
Clearing House members obvi-
ously will be pleased at the gen-
eral tone of the Tampa Morning
Tribune editorial, reprinted here-
with, but there are one or two
points brought out that require
FIRST: There WILL be a Clear-
ing House even though the Ex-
change does remain out of it!
There are too many growers in
the State who are showing their
faith in the work the Clearing
House is doing by retaining their
membership in it, to permit of any
prediction that the Clearing
House will not carry on.
SECOND: Provisions of the
Capper-Volstead Act make it nec-
essary (for a co-operative organ-
ization to function legally) to
have at least 51 % of the tonnage
it handles, signed up directly on
grower contracts in the organiza-
tion. It goes without saying that
the Clearing House will have little
difficulty in carrying out this pro-
vision of the law.

ing House to which it objects, and
that these demands have not been
complied with, except in one or two
minor particulars. Back of these de-
mands, although not expressed in
them, we find an undisguised hos-
tility on the part of some of the lead-
ers of the Exchange toward the
Clearing House. We have heard
statements from them that the Clear-
ing House has been of no benefit to
the Exchange or to the grower, that
it has been a detriment rather than
a help, and that 96% of the Ex-
change fruit is now opposed to the
Clearing House and to staying in it.
At the same time, these leaders ad-
mit that the Clearing House has
given valuable aid in more political
aspects of the .industry, although
worthless in a marketing sense.
We do not attempt to give judg-

ment on these controversial claims.
We do know that the Clearing House
ought to be preserved. To that end
we are making this plea, necessarily
directed first to the leaders on both
sides of the controversy, because it
is their voice that must decide-but
beyond them to the great body of
growers, whose desires, if sufficient-
ly concerted, these leaders must and
will heed: Employ and exhaust every
possible medium or opportunity for
getting together, adjusting differ-
ences, compromising demands and
counter-demands, to the ends that,
if it is humanly possible, the Clear-
ing House be maintained, and the
grower not deprived of the only
grower-owned agency which can pos-
sibly fill his need of market stabilia-
tion and control.

It Is Too Bad
The Citrus Exchange has definite-
ly turned down the efforts of the
Committee of Fifty to draw the Ex-
change and the Clearing House to-
gether, as told in a story in The High-
lander Tuesday. The Committee of
Fifty appeared before the Exchange
Board at Tampa Friday with a prop-
osition that it was hopeful might
bring the Exchange and the Clearing
House into friendly relations again.
Presented by the Committee of
Fifty,.which is today the only official
body in the citrus industry directly,
and without special interest, repre-
sentative of the growers, it was
hoped that this effort might succeed
and that the way might be paved for
the Citrus Exchange to come back
into the Clearing House again.
The Exchange, however, was not
inclined to compromise and has re-
turned the Clearing House a letter,
the tone of which indicates that there
will be no getting together.
It is a great pity.
If the Citrus Exchange had 60 or
70 percent of the crop The High-
lander would say there was no need
of the Clearing House, but such is
not the case and does not seem likely
to be the case for some years. There
is no way to tell how many Exchange
growers would like to see both organ-
iations kept up, but we believe most
of them would assess themselves for
the benefits that will accrue from a
united industry. At any rate the
Committee of Fifty, freshly from
the growers, is sure they want the
Clearing House.
The Exchange action probably
means another period of confusion,
stress and venomous competition in
the citrus industry for which in the
end, the grower will pay. It is a
pity.-Lake Wales Highlander.

Exchange vs. Clearing House
We do not pretend to know the
merits of the controversy between
the Citrus Exchange and the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation but unless we are badly
mistaken in our surmise the Ex-
change is deeply indebted to the lat-

ter organization for a considerable
part of its rapid expansion during
the past two or three years.
The Clearing House Association is
appealing direct to the growers of
the state, denying that the Exchange
received anything but the fairest
treatment, challenging the Exchange
to a public debate on the merits of
the case.
June 10 issue of the Florida Clear-
ing House News answers the com-
plaints of the Exchange and counters
with the information that "nine out
of 11 of our directors have been
growers and shippers through the
Exchange and were solely responsi-
ble for any unfairness, with full au-
thority by Charter and By-Laws to
veto any wrong action of the Operat-
ing Committee."
To our mind the Exchange is on
the defense because of their with-
drawal. If they consider the Florida
Citrus Clearing House Association
unessential or a detriment to the in-
dustry at this time the issue should
be positively and publicly met. The
organization might be strong enough
to disregard the challenge but they
can't be strong enough to make the
average grower like it.-Plant City

Withdrawal of the Florida Citrus
Exchange from the Clearing House
Association designed to serve both
organized and independent growers
gives rise to further discord in an
industry where harmony is essential
to progress.
The Clearing House statement is-
sued recently showed the vast im-
provement in prices received for
Florida products. For the first time,
Florida growers were marketing
their fruit profitably in contrast to
prices for California fruit that spell-
ed a loss for the western growers.
Then came the withdrawal of the
Exchange from participation in the
Clearing House, weakening the lat-
ter organization and doubtless the
former as well, for a number of
members of the Exchange have been
impressed by the favorable results
achieved by the Clearing House.
The Exchange protested the policy
of the Clearing House in regard to
expenditures and expansion of ac-
tivities. The protest was unheeded.
Florida generally is not concerned
with these internal differences, but
the entire state is deeply concerned
over the set-back suffered in intelli-
gent marketing of citrus products at
a time when the industry seemed to
be making encouraging progress.
The Exchange is to be commended
upon its growth. Not many years ago
it represented merely an idea, an ex-
cellent one it lacked the power to ex-
ecute. Now it represents more than
half the citrus acreage. (Editor's
Note: Clearing House shipment fig-
ures reveal that the Exchange has
moved less than 40% of the state
(Continued on Page Four)

July 10, 1931


Page 3

Pare 4

Resigns Under Protest
Port Orange, Fla.
June 25th, 1931.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I have today mailed to the Oak
Hill Citrus Growers Association can-
. cellation of my Clearing House mem-
bership, but not assignment of
equity. This action I have taken
under protest. At the time I signed
with the Clearing House I consider-
ed, as the Exchange must have con-
sidered, that the Clearing House was
a good thing. I have tried to investi-
gate this matter as thoroughly as
possible and I have found no logical
reasons for this action on the part
of the Exchange. It still looks to me
like an attempt at gratification of a
personal or group ego. Business can-
not afford such satisfaction.
I consider the quarantine work
alone worth all that membership in
the Clearing House has cost me. I
am closely in touch with retail and
wholesale trade in my section in the
north and I can note quite an im-
provement in the feeling about Flor-
ida citrus since the organization of
the Clearing House.
I am very sorry that we have not
enough growers in our Association
who can look far enough ahead in a
constructive program and see the
benefits instead of the cost.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) C. R. STONE.

"A Backward Step"
Union, New Jersey
June 14, 1931.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Dear Sirs:
I signed a withdrawal from your
association and sent it to the Ex-
change. I did this because it is, and
was the only co-operative out and
out, and I was a member of it before
I was with the Clearing House. But I
did sign it with a lot of misgivings,
and I so stated in a letter to the
Manager of my association at High-
lands City. It seems a great pity that
two, and the only two, real co-opera-
tive organizations in the State can-
iot co-operate with each other. I feel
that this is a backward step indeed,
and cannot but feel very badly about
it. Here is something to think about;
if these two great associations can-
not co-operate with one another, how
can they go to the growers and ask
them to co-operate? It does not seem
logical. I feelithat I will become a
Sminber at some later date again,
but you can realize my angle, that
the Exchange must be retained at all
I sincerely hope that you will car-


ry on as I feel that you have accom-
plished a lot of good for the time
you have been in existence and I
feel you will do much more in the
future, and become a necessity to
the industry. I hope that even if you
do not join up again that there will
be some working agreement made
so that it will not nullify the good
work already accomplished in the
past arrangement.
Well, here's wishing you luck and
great accomplishments for we grow-
ers and the shippers, the honest ones,
in the future seasons. It may be an
up-hill game but it will pay dividends
in the end.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) J. A. ALLAN.

Gleaned From The


(Continued from Page Three)
volume this season). The Clearing
House in the few years of its exist-
ence has grown rapidly and has ren-
dered valuable service.
Florida's citrus crop may be ex-
pected to continue to grow. Forty
percent of its groves are not yet
bearing. It must be prepared to han-
dle a larger output and to prevent
the tragic mistakes of the past when
price advances were converted into
sudden slumps by market flooding.
It cannot concentrate its forces on
the national market while fighting at
In the interest of the entire state,
as well as its own future, citrus
growers of Florida must subordinate
personal differences to the impera-
tive call for co-operation.-Miami
Daily News.

The Highlander believes the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange makes a mis-
take in trying to kill the Clearing
House. If the Citrus Exchange had
80 percent of the fruit in the state
there would be no need for a Clear-
ing House, of course. It has no such
figure and this paper does not be-
lieve that putting the Clearing House
out of business, especially on the rea-
sons assigned, will help the Ex-
change to get that much fruit. In
fact we are told that the Exchange
has to date handled 34 percent of the
fruit this year.
The Clearing House seeks to ad-
vertise Florida fruit, seeks to pro-
rate shipments, seeks to standardize
pick and pack. And -it is because:of
these things that :the Exchange
wishes to draw out, we are told!
Those are the three big things that
the grower wants done for his fruit.
It seems to The Highlander the

The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of
general interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association cannot, of course,
assume responsibility for the opinions expressed in these letters, but believes
growers should have the opportunity of expressing themselves if they are willing
to assume the responsibility. Communications should be as brief as possible-
preferably not more than 250 words in length-and MUST be signed with the
writer's name and address (although not necessarily for publication).

PaLTe 4

They're Scattered

Get a binder for your back copies >
of the


Keep every number of
the News. There isn't
an issue that doesn't
contain some informa-
tion you will want to
refer to, some of these

Just fill in the coupon
below and mail it in to
the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House As-
sociation at Winter Ha-
ven, together with dol-
lar bill, check or money
order and the binder
will be forwarded to




Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back copies of the Florida
Clearing House News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out of the
U. S.) currency, cpeck, money order.
N am e .................................................................................................
Street-......................................... ........................................ ............
Town ........................................ ...................................... ................


height of folly to draw out because
these things are planned.
We hope the management of the
Exchange will decide to stay in the
Clearing House. It can be made to
serve a useful purpose for the next
few years though its maintenance is,
for the present, a form of double
taxation. When the Exchange has
grown to the point where the Clear-
ing House is no longer needed, then
dispense with it.-Lake Wales

We have serious doubts as to the
wisdom of the proposal that the Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange withdraw from
the Clearing House.
Not knowing the motives or the
causes behind the suggestion, we are
unable to criticize them. But we do
insist that whatever the cause, the
result presages too great a disaster
to spring from a light consideration.
We are not so sure that the Clear-
ing House has been a failure. Before
the Citrus Exchange hurls its stones
-if that is the intention-let it re-
member that in twenty years the Ex-
change hasn't made much more pro-
gress toward its aim than has the
Clearing House in three years.
If the Exchange is to be the potent
factor it should be in maintaining
Florida's citrus industry, we have an
idea it must work within some or-

July 10, 1931

ganization such as the Clearing
House. The lone wolf has little
chance in these days of the pack-
and that goes for organizations as
well as individuals.
We have been saying for eight
years-and we repeat-one co-oper-
ative cannot retain the support of
enough of the crop to make it such,
a dominating factor in the industry
as is necessary.
There must be two or more co-
operatives, or the Clearing House orn -
its successor.
As long as men and women vote
according to the color of the candi-
date's hair or his religion, they are
going to market fruit with an organ-
ization whose manager they like, or-
refuse to deal with one whose man-
ager they dislike-Exchange or no.-
The millennium may change this
-but while we are working for this
pot of gold, let us keep an eye to the*
"nature o' the beast" we are dealing
We certainly don't advise any
glass shattering and stone throwing
in the neighborhood of the Clearing
House-unless a remedy is at hand.
-Scenic Highlands Sun.

A builder who was speaking in
public for the first time said: "I amr
unaccustomed to public speaking.
My proper place is on the scaffold."

July 10, 1931 FLORIDA CLEARING j



By E. F. DeBUSK, Extension Citriculturist
(Over WRUF, May 18, 1931)
In fertilizing citrus trees this
summer the grower should not be
mislead by the appearance of the
Streets. It must be borne in mind
that we have had very favorable
4 growing conditions for citrus trees,
and that in most cases the spring
application of nitrogen has been
largely taken up by the trees.
While trees may not show so much
the need of fertilizer, at the same
time, it may be found that the nitro-
gen supply of the soil is very low.
Then too there is cover-crop to
look out for. In case a natural
cover-crop of grass and weeds is
allowed to grow an extra amount
of nitrogen should be applied to
take care of the growth of the
cover-crop. This, of course, will be
returned to the soil in a very valu-
able organic form when the cover-
crop is decomposed. Where crota-
laria is grown it is doubtful if an
extra amount of nitrogen should be
applied, unless considerable grass
Sand weeds are allowed to grow in
combination with the crotalaria.
S Quickly Available Nitrogen
In the case of early fruit it is de-
sirable to use a quickly available
form of nitrogen and apply it in
SMay. It is the opinion of many of
our leading growers who produce
Early fruit that a quickly available
Inform of nitrogen in summer appli-
'cation will result in earlier matur-
Sing fruit than where the slow acting
organic forms of nitrogen are used.
Where an application of straight
nitrogen was applied in the spring
attention should be given to supply-
ing the needed amount of potash
and phosphoric acid in May and
June. A few facts are available
Indicating that the summer is a
more preferable time for making
a heavy application of potash than
the fall. If potash plays a part in
improving the quality of the fruit
it would seem that it would be
needed in the summer and early
fall rather than in the late fall and
Winter. However, these are points
on which we need more information
than our three years of fertilizer
experiments have shown. Very lit-
tle is known about the part phos-
phoric acid plays in fruit production
Sor tree growth, still we feel that it
is needed. But in old groves that
have been heavily fertilized for
years the soil is found to contain
an abundance of available phos-
phoric acid. Whether there can be
any advantage in continuing heavy
applications of phosphoric acid
under those conditions is an un-
answered question. It does seem
reasonable, however, that it might
be materially reduced. Investiga-
tions along this line are being made
and we hope to have more informal
tion on the subject within a few
Fertilize Under Tree
Attention is called to methods

of applying fertilizer as they relate
to the efficiency of the plant food
applied. It is known that the fer-
tilizer must be applied to the mass
of soil occupied by the tree roots
before the plant food it contains
can be taken up by the roots and
passed into the tree. It has been
found that 40 to 60 percent of the
fibrous roots of large trees are in
the soil covered by the tree top.
This percent runs even higher where
the roots in the middles have been
killed off by excessive cultivation.
Thus growers are finding that the
highest efficiency is obtained where
fertilizers are applied on the sur-
face in proportion to the active root
concentration beneath. This means
that fertilizer should be applied
under the trees as well as out in
the middles. Where a mechanical
distributor is used an effort should
be made to distribute it evenly over
the entire area from trunk to
trunk, that is, in old bearing groves
where the root system laps in the
middles. This, of course, will re-
sult in a heavier distribution of fer-
tilizer around the drip of the tree,
as it will be thrown into the
branches, some going under the
trees and the rest falling on the
ground just beneath the outer
branches. This will result in the
heaviest application being made
under the outer branches of the
tree immediately over the area
where the highest root concentra-
tion is found.
It has not been found necessary
to work fertilizer into the soil for
best results, therefore, one should
not sacrifice a young cover-crop in
an effort to work in the summer
application of fertilizer. It often
happens that a good stand of beg-
garweed or even grass is destroyed
in an effort to cut in an applica-
tion of fertilizer.
Vegetation Hauled In
The value of a good cover-crop
in a citrus grove must be under-
stood and constantly kept in mind.
It is a recognized fact that the
dominant problem in fertilizing for
citrus fruit production in Florida
is the maintenance of organic mat-
ter in our sandy soils. Organic
matter produced through the grow-
ing of covercrops is of the very best
kind and can be obtained in this
manner more cheaply than by pur-
chasing it. If it is impracticable
to grow in the grove enough cover-
crop to supply the needed organic
matter it may be found highly
profitable to grow some crop out-
side of the grove and haul it in. In
fact, this is being done bya large
number of our most successful
growers. In California it is a uni-
versal practice. Florida citrus grow-
,ers can well afford to give more at-
tention to this .means of supplying
organic matter in groves. Instead
of burning the grass and weeds on
uncultivated fields, the material
should be mowed and used in the


We Will Remain In]The
Clearing House!.

Six sensible and sound reasons for
remaining with the Clearing House
were recently given by J. W. Keen &
Son, of Frostproof, to the growers
affiliated with that marketing organ-
ization. The reasons were given in a
letter issued to the growers by the
shipper and reflect so aptly the gen-
eral attitude toward the Clearing
House that the letter is reprinted
herewith for the benefit of others
who did not receive a copy of the
original. The letter reads as follows:
"To Our Grower Friends:
"Just at this time we feel that we
are due our grower friends a declara-
tion as to our position relative to the
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association:
We Will Remain With the Clearing
"1st-We believe it proved to be
of untold value to Florida, and the
citrus growers especially, in the Med-
fly campaign, materially aiding in a
speedy extermination of the pest and
prompt removal of quarantine re-
strictions without the usual mixture
of nausiating politics, wire pulling,
and graft, so prevalent in such cam-
paigns. We hope the fly is gone but
if it returns, and who knows it will
not, who would fight our battles
without the Clearing House?
"2nd-Through its efforts the
Brogdex patent prohibiting the use
of Borax in the treatment of citrus
fruit was carried to the United
States Supreme Court and declared
void, thereby saving the growers of
Florida thousands of dollars each
season in the treatment of their fruit
for the prevention of blue mould de-
cay. (One of our largest shippers
had lost a suit in the courts and fail-
ed to overthrow the patent). The
Clearing House did us a real service
here. Where can we look for help in
other dilemmas, which are bound to
come, without the Clearing House
to sponsor our cause?
"3rd-It is an undisputable fact

groves. This practice would give
employment to some of our surplus
labor during the summer time, the
off season of the year, and would be
a step in the direction of solving
our unemployment problem. Bear
in mind that any form of vegeta-
tion that might be hauled into the
grove contains a certain amount of
plant food in addition to the desir-
able organic matter. For example,
a ton of dry grass and weeds con-
tains about all of the plant food,
both major and minor elements,
that go into the make-up of 100
boxes of citrus fruits. It is a recog-
nized fact that the quality of our
fruit can be improved by the proper
use of larger aniounts of coarse
organic matter.
Minimum of Cultivation
It would seem needless to say
(Continued on Page Six)

Pare 5

that the most successful shipper in
this age of keen competition is the
one who is fully posted each day as
to market conditions, the movement
of fruit to the various markets, the
price other shippers are quoting,
etc. Where else can any shipper get
this information without far greater
expense than the Clearing House as-
sessment of 2c per box?
"4th-Never before in the history
of the citrus industry has it been pos-
sible to get the majority of competi-
tive shippers in meetings together in
round-table discussions working for
the betterment of the industry as a
whole and thereby bettering them-
selves and their individual growers.
The elimination of the Clearing
House would stop all this immediate-
ly, throw the shippers out on the
sea of chaos again, and set the whole
industry back where it was several
years ago-each shipper for himself
and 'the devil for us all.' The most
desperate fighting and price cutting
is that carried on in the dark when
one shipper distrusts all others and
cannot tell whether the other fellow
is trying to knife him or help him.
The Clearing House practically elim-
inates this suspicion and confusion
by bringing the shippers together in
friendly, co-operative team work.
Where, other than through a C. H.,
can this be accomplished?
"5th-Never before has a crop of
fruit of the magnitude of the season
just passed been marketed in Flor-
ida. Smaller crops, which were bum-
per crops at the time, have shown
greater disaster and 'red ink' than
the past crop with better financial
conditions prevailing through the
country. To what, other than the
Clearing House, can this be at-
"6th-In the C. H. we feel we are
in better position to protect the in-
terests of our growers and we believe
that by the concerted efforts of a
large majority of the growers to-
gether with the support of the gen-
eral public, who are vitally interest-
ed in this very important industry,
the C. H. can accomplish within the
next few years what no other organ-
ization, co-operative or otherwise,
has been able to accomplish in twen-
ty years' effort.
"The assessment for the coming
season is 2c per box, which we be-
lieve will be money well spent. We
therefore wish to urge you to stay
with the C. H. if you are a member;
if not, we urge you to join.
"Yours very truly,
"J. W. KEEN & SON."

An illustration of the competition
which Florida citrus fruit faces in
the markets of the country is indi-
cated in a recent report of the money
spent for food advertising during
May of this year. The report, pub-
lished in "Food Distribution" was
based upon a survey made by Dor-
rance, Sullivan and Co., Inc. and
states that during May more than
$3,000,000 was spent for the adver-
tising of various food items and food '
beverages. Less than $1,000,000 of
this amount was spent in radio ad-
vertising, the balance being spent in
national magazines.

Page 5




Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.


Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
Lake Placid
Crescent City
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora

Grower-Controlled ?
Are you, as a grower, owned and controlled
or is your organization grower-owned, grow-
er-controlled? Who's boss-you or your or-
ganization? What control of our industry is
exercised by the growers? Is the grower's
voice so distant as to be unheard? Today the
attitude of mind of many growers is-"It's all
bunk-to blazes with these fine sounding
phrases-I won't join anything or anybody.
I'll look after myself."
The conclusion to look after himself is
sound. Every grower should. Too few do. Any
co-operative organization can have the best
purposes in the world, a right set-up theoreti-
cally, but can fail to carry out with enthusiasm
the real purposes for which it was created, if
the growers fail to control it because they
won't look after themselves, because of their
indifference-their lack of courage, and initia-
tive and the common temptation of feeling
"what's the use?"
Let's carry this idea home to our own organ-
ization. Our grower-members cannot rightly
claim that they have no voice. They elect by
direct ballot the Directors who are in charge
of their business. The Committee of Fifty
(growers appointed by growers in the Re-
gional Meetings) nominate three names for
each Director, from each district and the
growers can select which ever shipper they
please who is under contract to the Clearing
House. There couldn't be a more democratic
Each of the fifty men of the Advisory Com-
mittee are eager to represent and keep in
touch with his grower group in his district.
But the growers must take proper interest by
attending meetings or talking with their rep-
resentatives or voting or otherwise showing
they "own" and wish to "control." Those
placed in responsible positions in a co-opera-
tive must be men of unquestionable integrity
and a high sense of honor to "carry on" effec-
tively if they are without the live interest and
backing from the growers they represent.
The eleven members of our Board of Direc-
tors, the eleven members of our Operating

July 10, 1931

Committee and the fifty members of the Com- SUMMER FERTILIZING
mittee of Fifty have without compensation AND CULTIVATION
and at great sacrifice freely given themselves (Continued from Page Five)
to their respective duties during the past three anything about grove cultivation at
years. There has been a fine sense of trustee- this season of the year. It might
ship-a reward only of their own self-respect be in order, however, to drop the
-knowing they were doing what they could suggestion that in case we do have
for the grower-members who so often seemed some real dry weather before the
so discouragingly indifferent, beginning of the rainy season that
So far this organization has been grower- there is a great danger of both in-
owned and grower-controlled instead of own- during trees and adversely affecting
ing the grower and controlling the grower. It the quality of the fruit by cultiva-
tion. It must be borne in mind
must be kept so. To keep it so the grower must that under the conditions this spring
alertly sense his ownership and control and and summer the root development
act accordingly. There can be, and we believe of citrus trees has been brought
there will be, an aroused interest, a new life close to the surface by the ample
and a loyalty on the part of our members that supply of rainfall. Even very shal-
was probably impossible until we had our in- low cultivation under these condi-
tegrity questioned, our efficiency ridiculed and tions may result in the destruction
received a blow sufficient to make us fight for of enough tree roots to have an
those things the industry demands from us, urious effect. It has been found
that coarse texture of fruit is
even though reduced in numbers. largely due to excessive disturbance
of the root system during summer.
Tribute Paid Jim Morton It is also noted that root pruning
at this time often results in bad
Official recognition by the Clearing House cases of dieback and ammoniation.
has been given to the work done for the organ- It is significant to note at this point
ization by Jim Morton, Auburndale grower that dieback of citrus trees and
and retiring chairman of the Clearing House ammoniation of the fruit is rapidly
disappearing from individual groves
Committee of Fifty. Recognition was given and areas of the citrus belt in which
Morton's services in a resolution passed at a grove cultivation is being materially
meeting of the Clearing House Board of Direc- reduced.
tors July 7. In case of a short drought before
The resolution passed by the Board reads the beginning of the rainy season,
as follows: it would probably be better to mow
"WHEREAS, the voluntary services of the cover-crop in an effort to con-
James C. Morton, retiring Chairman of the serve moisture, rather than by culti-
Committee of Fifty, have been outstanding in ovation. Of course, where the grower
is equipped for irrigation, water
the good accomplished for the Clearing House, might be applied and a cover-crop
and left to grow.
"WHEREAS, regardless of expense, time or Mulching Proves Helpful
effort, "Jim" Morton has given freely of him- Attention must be given to keep-
self for the purposes for which the Clearing ing down the cover-crop around
House has stood, and young trees throughout the growing
"WHEREAS, he not only gave unstintingly season. This may be done by culti-
his services in organizing the Clearing House eating a strip around the tree row,
by hoeing around the trees, or by
but during the last two years has been invalu- mulching. The practice of mulch-
able in his enthusiastic leadership in further- ing an area as far as one would
ing industry efforts while acting as Chairman hoe, just heavily enough to keep
of the Committee of Fifty, keep down grass and weeds, is
"THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that this gaining in popularity. It has been
Board both officially and as a group of indi- found that in addition to reducing
vidual growers hereby expresses its most sin- the cost of hoeing the mulch is
cere appreciation and gratitude for this serv- beneficial to the young trees in that
it shades the soil and affords a con-
ice, recognizing as it does the loyalty and earn- tinuous supply of organic matter.
estness of effort continuously made without The mulch should not be removed,
compensation, a service the more valuable be- but should be added to from time
cause so genuine." to time as it decomposes. Where a
Morton's work, both in helping in the organ- mulch is used more fertilizer can
ization of the Clearing House three years ago, be used with safety and conse-
and in following its activities since, is credited quently a better growth of young
by many with having won innumerable friends trees can be brought about. The
and supporters for the industry movement fertilizer should be applied on top
of mulch as it will be carried down
undertaken by the Clearing House. Manager to the roots by the rains and heavy
A. M. Pratt of the Clearing House supplement- dews. In mulching young trees a
ed the Board's resolution by declaring that in grass mulch may be placed close
his opinion, "Jim Morton probably has done enough to the trunk of the tree to
more effective work for the Clearing House keep grass and weeds smothered
and the industry than any individual connect- down, without danger of termites
ed with it. Hundreds have given of their own or wood lice. The danger from
time and have even made actual cash outlays these pests comes through the use
with no hope of being reimbursed," Manager of mulching material containing
wood and bark coming in close con-
Pratt said, "and Jim Morton has been no ex- tact with the trunk. A good time
ception to this unless perhaps to have given to apply or renew the mulch is
more time and more money out of his own when the cover-crop is mowed in
pocket than any other individual." the late summer.

Page 6

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