Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00066
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: June 25, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00066
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
7"--..--C.-.- g / U. S. Postage
SBureau of Agri. Economics LORID A I int 0avnFl
Washington, D. C. L R I. . ePvemit No.1


CLEARING HOl )SE


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA


NEWS


Official
FLORIDA
CLEARING


Publication of the
CITRUS GROWERS
HOUSE ASSOCIATION


Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume III
$2.00 a Year rus Growers Clearing House Association, JUNE 25, 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven, um
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Number 18


You Are


The Wrong Side


0


Do you approve of the action of a 20-year-old co-
operative that declines to co-operate with others in 0
meeting Florida's problem,

Do you think your fruit returns will mean a profit if
the grade and pack of only your fruit is superior to 0
that of other growers,


Would you rather receive ten cents more per box
Than your neighbor with the industry working in the
dark,

Do you believe that the many shippers and thous-
ands of growers should move their fruit as they
see fit,

Do you think you and a small minority of Florida
. growers should carry the burden of advertising our
citrus fruit,


D.o ypu believe that advertising our fruit through
the Clearing House is a waste of money,

i Should the Clearing House be scrapped simply be-
Scause its industry requirements sometimes step on
the toes of all of us,


Either On


R


The Right Side


R Do you want a united industry bringing all inter-
ests together so as to boost price levels-?


Do you realize that high standards of grade. and
R pack of the fruit of all growers will help increase your
own returns?


OIR


OIR


OIR


OIR


OIR


Get twenty-five cents per box more even though your
neighbor gets the same with the entire industry iw6rk-
ing together?

Do you believe that a real effort to control the volume
of fruit from the state is a goal worth seeking?


Do you think that all growers should assume equal
responsibility by advertising through one organiza-
tion?

Do you believe that the Clearing House advertising
helps that much more the advertising your own organ-
ization is doing?

Shouldn't we all recognize that team work is essential
if the industry is to move ahead?


(Continued on Page Two)




age 2


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Do you believe that a sincere interest in your wel-
fare is behind the move to disrupt the Clearing 0
House,


Do you think we will enjoy the confidence of the 0
northern trade if all of us are fighting individually,


Do you approve of marketing efforts wherein the
sales manager of your organization trys to sell your
fruit without knowing what the other salesmen are
doing,


Do you believe that the Clearing House Directors
would permit discrimination to be shown against a
shipper,


Do you think we should return to the old days of
cut-throat competition and a grower-be-damned
policy,


Do you think our marketing problems are going to
be any easier in the future than they have in the past,


If you are one of those who has resigned from the
Clearing House, did an employee make you a party to
a wholesale move to disrupt the industry,


OIR


OIR


OIR


OIR


Has the Exchange been consistent in criticising the
value of the Clearing House commodity advertising, 0


Have yot given up or joined the "whlt's-the-use
class,"


Does the Exchange, or any others who have with-
drawn froni:the Clearing House, believe jhat condi-
tions which existed before the Clearing House was
formed are now remedied,


Do you believe that your interests have been lost sight
R of in a scramble for organization prominence?


Will the northern trade be in a position to depend
upon the Florida operators if they. know they are en-
deavoring to handle the crop efficiently?


Would you prefer that your sales manager have the
benefit of daily interchange of market information
which enables him to get the biggest dollar possible
for your fruit?


Do you believe that those Directors, nine of whom are
Exchange men, would see to it that the Exchange had
a fair chance?


Do you believe that the Clearing House should con-
tinue its efforts to have all shipping organizations
work together?


Do you think our increasing production is going to de-
mand even greater efforts toward industry direction?


Did you know what was best for you to do and did
your own thinking?


Has it been inconsistent in that its general manager a
R month ago asked the Clearing House to spend $25,000
in an emergency effort to help the grapefruit market, .
the fruit at that time being mostly Exchange fruit?


Are you ready to demand that you.have something to i
say about the business you own and should control?


Isn't i pretty well realized~that there still is much t,
be accomplished before our investments are as profitf-
able as they should be?


June 25, 1931






FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Exchange Rejects

Proposals Made By

Committee of Fifty

Clearing House Group's Ef-
fort To Iron Out Differ-
ences Fails

A further effort to persuade the
Florida Citrus Exchange to continue
its support of the Clearing House
failed in its purpose, and led some
Sof the members of the Committee of
Fifty who made the effort, to declare
'that in their opinion the matter is
definitely closed. Tentative proposals
by which the Exchange and the
Clearing House might reach a com-
mon ground were presented to the
- Exchange Board of Directors by the
Committee of Fifty, in Tampa, June
19.
The recommendations presented
to the Exchange dealt primarily with
Some of the operations of the Clear-
ing House, around which most of the
differences of opinion have arisen.
SGreater representation of the Ex-
change on the Operating Committee,
and a policy of more unanimous ac-
tion by the Operating Committee
were among the most important sug-
gestions made.
The refusal by the Exchange to
consider further co-operation with
Sthe Clearing House was in the form
of a resolution addressed to Secre-
Stary Fred T. Henderson, of the Com-
mittee of Fifty, and was passed by
the Exchange Board after members
of the Committee of Fifty had pre-
sented their proposals and had with-
drawn from the meeting. The Ex-
change resolution stated that the co-
operative is not in accord with the
Terms made by the Clearing House
to the Exchange, and that if the
Clearing House declines to accept
the original proposition of the Ex-
r change, that the matter will be
closed.
The meeting had been planned for
some time. The Committee of Fifty
late last month requested the Ex-
change Board to meet with them.
SThe proposals offered by the Com-
mittee of Fifty, which if adopted
still would have required approval
from the Clearing House Board of
Directors and the various other ship-
ping organizations affiliated with the
Clearing House, were refused in
their entirety by the Exchange
Board. The Committee of Fifty, in
presenting its proposals, explained
that their recommendations could be
regarded only as tentative sugges-
tions that might enable the Exchange
and the Clearing House to arrive at
general policies mutually acceptable.
The Committee was not empowered
to act for the Clearing House, but
explained to the Exchange Directors
rat the June 19 meeting that their
interests as individual growers, as
well as their affiliation with the Com-
mittee of Fifty, gave them an un-
biased viewpoint that they felt might
readily help solve the problem con-
Sfronting the two organizations. The
big majority of the Committee of


Fifty members are Exchange grow-
crs.
The recommendations presented
to the Exchange by the Committee
of Fifty, together with the letter
embodying the Exchange Board's
resolution, are as follows:
The Recommendations
1-That our Board of Directors
instruct our shippers that in offering
nominations for the Operating Com-
mittee the coming season, 11 mem-
bers shall be chosen, 3 of whom shall
represent the Florida Citrus Ex-
change.
2-that any action on the part of
the Operating Committee in connec-
tion with determining and directing
the marketing plans and policies of
the Association, unless agreed to by
a vote of 75% of the Operating
Committee members present, shall
be invalid.
3-That the percentage allot-
ments to all shipper members con-
tinue to be determined by the Man-
ager with the approval of the Board
of Directors of the Clearing House.
4-That the present f.o.b. privi-
lege clause permitting over-shipment
cn individual allotments, being a
matter of annual adjustment, shall
be determined by such action as a
majority of the Operating Commit-
tee may recommend and our Board
of Directors approve.
5-That it is the belief of the
Committee of Fifty that it is possible
for the Clearing House to operate
ond carry out the bare essentials for
which the Clearing House was
created. That an additional assess-
ment to be agreed upon would be ad-
visable to cover industry emergen-
cies, better merchandising and
broadening of markets.
6-That a special assessment on
tangerines for advertising and sales
promotion on tangerines be worked
out.
Exchange Reply
"Tampa, Florida
June 20, 1931.
"Mr. Fred T. Henderson, Sec.,
Committee of Fifty,
Winter Haven, Florida.
"At the meeting of our Board of
Directors yesterday, after the Com-
inittee of Fifty withdrew, the fol-
lowing action was taken on the prop-
osition submitted by your Commit-
tee:
S"'After a full discussion of the
proposition submitted by the Com-
mittee of Fifty, upon motion of Mr.
Burton, seconded by Mr. Needles and
duly carried, the following resolu-
tion was adopted:
"'WHEREAS, this Board has re-
ceived the Committee of Fifty at
their request, has given them a re-
pectful hearitig, has listened to and
considered their proposition, which
is not in accord with the action of
this Board in submitting a proposi-
tion to the Clearing House upon
which it was willing to continue its
membership in the Clearing House,
and inasmuch as the proposition sub-
mitted by the Committee of Fifty
does not meet the fundamental ob-
jections of the Florida Citrus Ex-
change,
"'THEREFORE, BE IT RE-


Boat Service From

Tampa to Europe

Is Assured by U.S.

Clearing House Told Efforts
To Obtain Refrigerator
Ships Successful

Refrigerated steamship service be-
tween Tampa and Europe will be in-
augurated next October, as a result
of Clearing House efforts, it was
learned late this month. John B.
Waterman, president of the Mobile
Oceanic Line, in advising the Clear-
ing House that the United States
Shipping Board had authorized the
Merchant Fleet Corporation to in-
augurate the service, pointed out
that four vessels will be equipped.
In co-operation with the fleet cor-
poration arrangements are being
made for semi-monthly sailings di-
rect from Tampa to United Kingdom
ports, one sailing each month to Liv-
erpool, and one sailing to London
and continental European ports.
This means the refrigeration of
four steamers at a large expendi-
ture, and provides for a direct ex-
press, refrigerated service to the
world's principal grapefruit export
markets from most of the fruit belt.
Result of Team Work
"Assurance of a refrigerated
steamer carrying grapefruit and or-
anges direct to England every two
weeks from Tampa is an outstanding
accomplishment of co-operative ef-
fort by the leaders of the citrus in-
dustry," President Tilden of the
Clearing House said. "It means
growers can now deliver their fruit
under refrigeration to the English
and continental ports at a lower
freight rate than they can to the do-
mestic markets of Boston and Chi-
cago. It is my belief that the people
of Europe will eat grapefruit just
as readily as the people of Boston
and Chicago if it does not cost them
any more, thereby affording a tre-
mendous market opportunity for the
increasing grapefruit production of
Florida.
"This direct service from Tampa
further means that our grapefruit
may be laid down in the United
Kingdom and continental ports for
approximately one-half the freight
rate that is now required via New
York.
"Packing houses within a truck-
ing distance of Tampa can take ad-
vantage of this service in less than
carload lots. Heretofore no packing
nouses could participate in the ex-
port business until they had assem-

SOLVED, that the Florida Citrus
Exchange reaffirm its proposition to
the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association and that if they
decline to accept that proposition,
ihe matter is closed.'
"The above is respectfully sub-
mitted for your information.
"Yours very truly,
(Signed) "0. M. FELIX,
"Secretary."


Page 3


bled a full carload of fruit which was
often difficult because of the special
sizes required. We have been assured
of more ships if the business war-
rants them.
"Direct sailings from Tampa to
England and continental Europe on
regular schedule will be of inestim-
able value to the exporters of other
commodities, being of great service
to the exporters of canned grape-
fruit and grapefruit juice, lumber,
phosphate, superphosphate and other
products of the forest, field and in-
dustry."
Clearing House officials have ex-
pressed the fullest appreciation for
the help given by the Florida Citrus
Exchange, the American Fruit Grow-
ers, Inc., Grapefruit Distributors,
Inc., the Fruitmen's Association, and
in fact, the entire industry working
together.
The necessity for a direct refrig-
erated service from Tampa to Eng-
land was brought to the attention of
the shipping board last summer by a
committee representing the industry,
composed of Mr. Tilden and J. T.
Swann of the Clearing House, J. C.
Chase, then president of the Ex-
change, and J. S. Crutchfield, presi-
dent of the American Fruit Growers.
The shipping board was impressed
and immediately started a survey of
the industry by F. G. Frieser, its di-
rector of traffic.
Mr. Frieser personally covered the
entire citrus producing area and sub-
sequently held a hearing before the
Clearing House at Winter Haven.
On Oct. 3, 1930, the Clearing House,
representing 80 percent of the pro-
ducers of the state adopted a resolu-
tion petitioning the shipping board
to properly equip the necessary ships
to "regularly transport available cit-
rus for export from the port of Tam-
pa direct to London and Liverpool,
at the earliest possible moment."
In March a committee composed
of Mr. Tilden and Mr. Swann of the
Clearing House, John Snively, now
president of the Exchange, and Har-
ry DiCristina, president of the
Grapefruit Distributors, Inc., at-
tended a hearing held by the ship-
ping board. The new service is con-
sidered a direct result of the hearing.
The government has acted. Authori-
ty has been granted for refrigera-
tion of four vessels which will give
the producers of oranges and grape-
fruit a direct, economical service to
England.
Lykes Brothers Steamship Com-
pany is the Tampa agent for the Wa-
terman Steamship Corporation who
will provide the service from Tampa.

CANNERY INSPECTION
Beginning on the first of July, the
Bureau of Agricultural Economics is
authorized to inspect and certify to
the grade of any canned fruit or veg-
ctable, for which Government grades
shall have been established, at the
request of any financially interested
party. Fees are to be charged to
cover cost of the service.

Teacher (to boy who is misbehav-
ing) : "James, sit down in front."
James: "I can't. I'm not made that
way."


June 25, 1931







FLORIDA CLEARING$ HOUSE NEWSV


Definitions Eliminate

Differences of Opinion


In Trade Term Meanings


Many honest differences of opin-
ion exist, some of them very heated,
fundamentally due to people not
really having in mind the same defi-
nition of the words of subjects dis-
cussed. There has been a lot of fight-
ing about unjust rejections on f.o.b.
orders. Some of this indignation has
been justified; some of it has not.
For instance the various custom-
ary trade terms: "f.o.b. sale," "f.o.b.
acceptance," "today's shipment,"
might seem fairly plain, yet an hon-
est difference of opinion can arise
over any one of them.
Ask Federal Adoption
It is because of these conditions
that the American Fruit and Vege-
table Shippers Association took the
initiative in a general conference at
Washington between the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, the Inter-
national Apple Shippers Association
and the National League of Com-
mission Merchants in offering recom-
mendations covering trading rules
which it hoped might be adopted by
the Secretary of Agriculture as part
of the Department's regulations ap-
plying to the enforcement of the
"Perishable Agricultural Commodi-
ty Act." Mr. A. U. Chaney, head of
the American Cranberry Exchange
and highly respected by many Flor-
ida growers and shippers, is chair-
man of the Trade Relations Commit-
tee and has done very constructive
work.
Some of the most important items
covered in the recommendations
were as follows:
"TODAY'S SHIPMENTS" chang-
ed to read as follows-"shall mean
that the goods referred to shall be
under billing by the transportation
company-in time to move on a trans-
portation facility scheduled to leave
by 3 a.m. of the day following the
day on which the order is given.
EXPLANATION
"It was reported to the Commit-
tee that in certain districts a train
passing through in the evening and
picking up the loadings of the day
would sometimes be as late as 2:30
a.m. picking up the loads at the end
of the district although those late
cars would move on the same train
as the loads gathered from town far-
ther down the line earlier in the aft-
ernoon. The change is to provide for
alf that actually leave on a train
scheduled to leave on the day speci-
fied.
"The term 'F.O.B.' (for example
'F.O.B. Laredo, Texas' or even 'F.O.
B. California') shall be deemed to
mean tht the commodity quoted or
sold is to,;f placed free on board the
Scar or truck at shipping point in suit-
able, shipping condition,: (See defini-
tion below of 'suitable shipping con-
dition'). And that the buyer assumes
all risks of damage and delay in


transit not caused by the shipper, ir-
respective of how the shipment is
billed.
"The buyer has the right of in-
spection at destination before the
goods are paid for but only for the
purpose of determining that the pro-
duce shipped complied with terms of
the contract or order when shipped,
and, subject to the provision cover-
ing suitable shipping conditions, does
not convey or imply any right of re-
jection by the buyer because of any
loss, damage, deterioration or
change which has occurred in trans-
it; nor because of declining market.
"THE TERM 'F.O.B. ACCEPT-
ANCE' shall be deemed to mean the
same as F.O.B. except that the buyer
Lssumes full responsibility for the
goods at shipping point and has no
right of rejection on arrival, nor has
he any recourse against the shipper
because of any change in condition
of the goods in transit, unless the
goods when shipped were not in suit-
able shipping condition. The buyer's
remedy under this method of pur-
chase is by recovery of damages
from shipper and not by rejection of
the shipment.
"THE TERM 'F.O.B. ACCEPT-
ANCE FINAL' shall be deemed to
mean that the buyer accepts the
commodity F.O.B. car at shipping
point without recourse.
Definition of Suitable Shipping
Condition
"'Suitable shipping condition' on
direct shipments shall be deemed to
mean that the commodity shall be in
a condition which, when handled
under normal transportation service
and conditions, will be delivered

without abnormal deterioration to
the destination specified in the con-
tract of sale.
"On reconsigned, rolling or tramp
cars suitable shipping condition shall
be deemed to mean that the commod-
ity at the time of sale, shall conform
to the above specifications.
EXPLANATION
"The Committee agreed that if
F.O.B. trading was to be continued
and fostered that the buyer must
have a fair and proper safeguard
against abuse. By far the major por-
tion of fresh fruits and vegetables
are sufficiently free from inherent
disease or weakness to permit their
delivery to destination under normal
transit service and climatic condi-
tions in good condition. We must,
however, admit that either fruits or
vegetables frequently do contain
some latent weakness which is not
easily detectable at time of loa4iAg
but which will develop to an unusual
degree while enroute, regardless of
transit conditions and cannot reach
its destination in good or normal
condition. (By normal condition is


meant the manner in which the com-
modity usually arrives when it makes
scheduled time and is properly re-
frigerated or ventilated).
"Therefore, when making regular
F.O.B. sales on regular terms, it is
plainly the responsibility of the
seller to protect the buyer from be-
ing expected to accept delivery of a
commodity that arrives showing an
abnormal amount of deterioration
when it has not passed through such
abnormal climatic conditions as
abnormal amount of deterioration
The latent weakness may be caused
by field or orchard disease, harvest-
ing or packing while wet, improper
protection while harvesting or pack-
ing, immaturity when picked, char-
acter of soil on which it is grown,
etc. In such cases, it is, of course,
presumed that the seller in his quo-
tation and in accepting the order
does not disclose to the buyer any
information that would indicate that
the goods are not in suitable ship-
ping condition.
"On such F.O.B. sales the Commit-
tee's thought was that the Buyer's
Risk included all transit loss and
damage that might occur on the com-
modity that has been shipped in
"suitable shipping condition" (as in-
terpreted).



The Grower's Voice

Under this heading will be published
communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who
desire to voice opinions upon matters
of general interest to Florida citrus
growers. The Association cannot, of
course, assume responsibility for the
opinions expressed in these letters, but
believes growers should have the op-
portunity of expressing themselves if
they are willing to assume the respon-
sibility. Communications should be as
brief as possible-preferably not more
than 250 words in length-and MUST
be signed with the writer's name and
address (although not necessarily for
publication).

Work Was In Vain
Crescent City, Fla.,
June 22, 1931.
A. M. Tilden, President,
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I am very greatly disappointed. The
request of the Committee of Fifty,
made personally by us to the Ex-
change Directors in Tampa on Fri-
day, June 19, was not for the adop-
tion or rejection of any plan of ours,
but only that negotiations be opened
with a view of trying to reconcile
differences and agree upon a budget
covering a program eventually satis-
factory.
As I understand it the Exchange
simply went into executive sessihY
and voted to reaffirm 'their former
position.
I feel that the Clearing House has
done everything possible in trying to
offer a method of meeting on some
middle ground. We were and are
sincere in our desire along this lindh
and we received most hearty co-6per-
ation from our Board of Directors
and officials in our efforts, and I am
confident something could have been
accomplished in holding this large
tonnage in the Clearing House if the


Exchange had been willing to come
part of the way.
I must confess I cannot under-
stand this arbitrary position of the
Exchange, for they represent only
about 40% of the fruit of the state
with 60 % outside. A minority inter-
est of the citrus industry cannot ex-
pect (sensibly) to be strong enough
to refuse to work with the other
shipping interests of the state in
matters vital to the industry as a
whole. It is very evident they prefer
to go it alone and in their own way
'-that is their right. There is one
thing, however, that none of us must
overlook and that is the law of pub-
lic opinion.
This will necessarily result in a
more or less bitter controversy be-
tween the Exchange and Clearing
House-a very unfortunate condi-
tion for the growers. How much bet-
ter it would be if both interests could

ping interests, sitting down together
and talking things over regularly
and coming to agreements as to the
best course to pursue as bad spots
and emergencies confront us.
Yours sincerely,
(Signed) E. H. WILLIAMS,
Member, Committee of Fifty.

"Taking Inventory"
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Gentlemen:
The non-profit experience of the
1930-31 season has reached the point
where we can digest errors of a
most serious nature as to the mar-
keting of the season's crop.
At the opening of the season a
large majority of shippers lost out
to the extent of 27,946 boxes of re-
jected citrus fruit. Who pays the
small bill? The bill, amounting to
whatever the fruit cost to grow,
pick and pack it, was very light as
compared to the market loss of
thousands of dollars due to sending
unripe fruit which passed inspection,
but could not pass consumer-public
inspection. It is the writer's belief
that inspection should be made at
the receiving end and conducted by
"Uncle Sam" only, and then the
shipper and packer would use great
care, etc.
You all know the result when Cal-
ifornia valencias were through and
Florida's early shipments followed.
Price for Florida fruit held for a few
days. After the uncalled-for disas-
trous beginning up to January 1st, it
is a known fact that gradually as the
market absorbed edible fruit, the de-
mand and price became stronger due
to the market absorbing quantities
of satisfactory oranges and grape-
fruit.
One leading shipper has made the
claim that they alone advanced the
market by certain control. The hold-
ing back of .valencia shipments,
coupled with fine eating quality of
pineapple oranges, was the absolute
cause of a higher price market to the
season's close.
We all know that mature Florida
oranges are the best in the world,
and the grower is entitled to a fair
(Continued on Page Six)


June 25, 1931


Page 4






June 25, 1931 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS Pare S


LClearing House Is

SThanked for Help

On Coloring Work

Recognition of and appreciation
'for the help and co-operation given
the United States Department of Ag-
vriculture in its investigation on fruit
coloring during the current season,
"vas expressed in a letter from Dr. J.
,R. Winston, of the Department, who
has been in charge of the work. Dr.
Winston's letter to President Tilden
'of the Clearing House reads as fol-
lows:
Orlando, Fla.,
SJune 9, 1931.
SA. M. Tilden, President,
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
-Winter Haven, Fla.
Dear Mr. Tilden:
S"I want to personally express to
you my sincere appreciation for the
excellent co-operation the Clearing
House has given us this season. Due
I to the fact that Federal appropria-
tions were not available for the ex-
pension of our work in this area, we
could not have done much without
,your assistance.
"Your employing the two coloring
Experts and turning them over to us
permitted us to do a real job which
otherwise would have been impossi-
ble.
S"Yours very truly,
(Signed) "J. R. WINSTON."



Book Review

"The Cultivation of Citrus Fruits," by
H. Harold Hume. 561 pp., price $5, post-
,paid. The MacMillan Company, publish-
ers. Copies may be secured by sending
check or money order to the Florida Clear-
ing House News.
H. Harold Hume is too well known
v.i Florida to need an introduction,
but the author of The Cultivation of
L-Citrus Fruits is probably as well
versed, if not more so, in the many
chases of citrus culture, as any indi-
vidual in the state. He has been in-
timately connected with the growing
of citrus fruit for more than twenty-
.ive years and during this time, as he
admits, there have been numerous
changes in the various methods of
producing and cultivating citrus
ruit. The Cultivation of Citrus
Fruits is founded on Mr. Hume's
,Citrus Fruits and Their Culture, a
book now out of print, and the pub-
uishers of the new book go so far as
'to declare that the Cultivation of
'Citrus Fruits "promises to become
the standard treatise for its field."
0 The Cultivation of Citrus Fruits is
Sas complete a treatise as could be
well included between the two cov-
ers of any book. Its illustrations,
numbering close to two hundred and
fifty, form a very important part of
.he ,contents, for in many instances
the picture tells more than could be
Aescribed'in several pages of print.
Every phase of citrus cultivation is
ratedd in detail, an introductory
chapter being devoted to a brief de-
1*


scription of the United States areas
producing citrus fruit.
The author takes up in turn a de-
scription of varieties, both oranges
and grapefruit, as well as the minor
fruits, such as kumquats, citrons,
lemons and limes, after which he
goes into the manner of planting,
cultivation, and handling of the cit-
rus crop. There are several chapters
devoted to discussions on varieties
for planting, propagation methods,
various tree stocks, and citrus soils.
These particular chapters should
prove of extreme value not only to
the newcomer in the state who de-
sires to set out a grove, but to the
grower who has replacements to
make, or a plot of ground available
which he desires to plant in citrus.
The chapter on citrus tree propa-
gation is, like the entire book, writ-
ten for the layman, the author going
into the matter of seeds, preparation
of the seed bed, irrigation and cut-
ting of bud wood, budding, including
the best time for budding together
with methods of budding, grafting,


I CITRUS EXPORTS

Exports from New York to the United Kingdom
1930-1931


Months
September ........................................
October ................ .........................
November ................................
December ............................................
January .......................................
February ............................... ......
March .--.-...........-...-...-.....................
Marchil ....................... ...............
April .................................... ......
May ..........................


Fresh
Grapefruit
72,453
23,737
25,167
17,754
18,417
34,582
49,916
60,121
51,984


Canned
Grapefruit
..........


Total.........--------------.. .......................... 354,131
Exports from Jacksonville to the United Kingdo
1930-1931


Months
October
November ...................................
December ........................................
D ecem ber -----..- .--------------------------------
January ....................................
February .......-.........-...............
March ............................... ......
April ...........-- ...............-. ..........
M ay .......... .................................


Fresh
Grapefruit
8,537
14,015
18,075
49,163
24,115
30,413
19,539
26,831


Total............................................... 190,688
Exports from Tampa to the United
1930-1931


Mont
Noven
Decem
Janua:
Febru.
March
April
May

Tot


IT


Canned
Grapefruit
200
4,790
7,295
7,210
1,952
5,743
5,990
5,305
38,485
Kingdom


Fresh Canned
:hs Grapefruit Grapefruit
Fiber ........................................ 15,616 2,800
Lber -............-...... .----- ......... 10,110
ry ............................................. ......... 11,207
ary .-...- ................................. .......... 13,639
................. ........................... .......... 15,130
.. . ........................................ .......... 5,452
.................................................... 935 18,728
tal-....................................... . 16,551' '. i 77,066
Exports from Los Angeles to the United Kingdom
1930-1931


Fresh
Months Grapefruit
November .......................................... 1,902
December ............................-......-----.. 2,509,
January ........................... 11,650
February ..-,---....-........----------.......... 1,413
M arch ......... ........... ..... ..... ........ .......... ;
April --------------------------------------- 9,523
M ay ................................................... 23,352
May ..................23,352
Total....................... .................... 50,349


Canned
Grapefruit


3

4


Oranges

1,648
15,328
5,278
85
316
3,802
7,719
34,176



Oranges

3,320
3,714
782
2,234
2,367
4,690
17,107



Oranges
89




1,984

2,073



Oranges
255
953
20,345
28,422
59,508
84,379
03,302

97,164


top working, etc. The discussion of
citrus tree stocks, which subject fre-
quently is somewhat confusing, is
made more readily understandable
by a summary of stock adaptations
in which conditions under which the
various stocks best react are given
in a series of brief paragraphs.
The question of grove cultivation
is treated in much detail. One chap-
ter is devoted principally to the
question of cultivation alone, the
author pointing out the value of hu-
mus and devoting some space to the
much discussed problem of clean cul-
tivation versus no cultivation. The
various cover crops and the method
of best handling them are treated
separately. Fertilization likewise re-
ceives detailed treatment, the author
describing the functions of phos-
phorus, potash, nitrogen, lime, the
analyses of citrus fruit and soils, the
sources of the various plant foods,
the leaching of fertilizers, the
amounts required for various formu-
las, and the method of application,
and giving as well, a word of caution


as to the manner of putting on the
fertilizer.
Among the most important fea-
tures in the book are the chapters
devoted to citrus tree insects and
diseases and the methods of control
in eradicating the injurious pests.
The biting insects, the scales, the
sucking insects, fungus diseases,
bacterial diseases and various friend-
ly fungi, are treated in detail and in
language easily understandable. Ir-
rigation, a discussion of frost dam-
age, arid frost protection, also are
treated in detail and include much
helpful information.
Summarizing, the book should be
in the home of every grower in Flor-
ida. It is not to be expected that all
will agree with the author in all of
his ideas, and for that matter condi-
tions may readily have made or will
make necessary changes from some
of his recommendations, but the
book will give any grower a more in-
timate feeling toward his trees and
cannot help but stimulate his inter-
est in humanly striving to make his
grove as good as, if not better, than
his neighbors'.

CITRUS GROWERS SHOULD
SPRAY FOR LIVE MITES
AND NOT YELLOW SPOTS

There's no need spraying for dead
six-spotted mites, and that's what
citrus growers are likely to do un-
less they find live mites on the yel-
low spots of the leaves, according to
J. R. Watson, entomologist with the
Florida Experiment Station. The
spots will remain on the leaves, but
it seems that many of the mites have
been killed by a fungus disease.
However the sulphur spray or dust
will kill rust-mites and purple ntitbs.

Let's don't forget, that when we
help the industry, we help our own
pocketbook.


Chinaberry is Host

To Citrus Whitefly

While the chinaberry tree is a beau-
tiful ornamental, it is a most of cit-
ius whiteflies, and should not be
planted near citrus groves unless it
is sprayed for whitefly, just as citrus
trees are. Each spring and summer
the Experiment Station receives a
number of inquiries regarding this.
In answering a recent inquiry, J. R.
Watson, entomologist, had the fol-
lowing to say:
"The chinaberry breeds whiteflies
by the millions during summer and
fall. The last brood of whiteflies,
which emerges in August or Septem-
ber, lays no eggs on the chinaberry
out moves en masse to citrus.
"This tree should by no means be
planted in citrus groves unless one
wants to go to the trouble of spray-
ing it in the spring and summer. It
should be sprayed twice, once about
ihe last of April and again about the
middle of June. Not only should it
not be planted in a citrus grove, but
it should not be planted in a citrus
community."


Pae


June 25, 1931


FLORIDA CLEARING


HOUSE NEWS


Pare 5





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS.
I


June 25, 1931


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE

NEWS

CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
bution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.
DIRECTORS
E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
O. F. GARDNER Lake Placid
W. F. GLYNN Crescent City
PHIL C. PETERS Winter Garden
JOHN A. SNIVELY Winter Haven
JAMES T. SWANN Tampa
A. M. TILDEN. Winter Haven
A. R. TRAFFORD .. . Cocoa
E. E. TRUSKETT Mt. Dora
R. B. WOOLFOLK. .. . Orlando


Accurate Estimates
Sorely Needed
Guessing or estimating the past season's
crop within about three thousand boxes is the
accomplishment of Ben B. Bledsoe, represen-
tative of the Haines City C. G. A. at the Clear-
ing House Packing House Managers' Conven-
tion held in Winter Haven last June.

At the Packing House Managers' Conven-
tion a year ago a crop estimating contest was
held among the packing house managers and
representatives present. The estimates-
which really were guesses rather than esti-
mates made after surveys-ranged from 26,-
887,500 boxes down to 16,500,000 boxes! Gov-
ernment shipments through June 11 indicate
that the crop totaled up to that time 26,883,-
830 boxes. The Government estimate thus is
seen to be 3,670 boxes less than Mr. Bledsoe's
estimate, although shipments since that date
are expected to slightly exceed the winning
estimate after all fruit is moved.

The winning estimate oddly enough was
more than three million boxes higher than the
second highest estimate made, the second
highest "guess" being 23,500,000 boxes. The
average of the thirty-six estimates turned in
for the contest was 19,728,068 boxes, indicat-
ing a rather universal feeling that the crop
would be far lighter than actually was the
case. W. C. Pedersen, manager of the Waver-
ly C. G. A., and L. C. Roberts, American Fruit
Growers, Inc., Leesburg, made the second and
third closest estimates. Pedersen's estimate of
23,500,000 boxes was followed very closely by
R6serts' estimate of 22,785,000 boxes.
Even though the contest was held rather
early, as far as an opportunity to make an ac-


curate crop estimate is concerned, the low
average of the estimates is excellent evidence
of the crying need that exists in Florida for an
accurate crop estimate. Close as the win-
ning estimate was to Government shipment
records, it must be borne in mind at the same
time that during the season now ending that
Florida had a far greater proportion going to
the canneries than has ever been the case, and
that express and the terrific truck shipments
build up the total tonnage to a figure far in
excess of the recorded car lot shipments.

The following packing house managers
or shipping representatives turned in estimates
in the contest:

Arthur Gunn, Valrico Growers Inc., Val-
rico; E. M. Patterson, Patterson Packing Co.,
Lakeland; J. H. Letton, Valrico Growers Inc.,
Valrico; J. E. Powell, American Fruit Grow-
ers, Inc., Avon Park; G. S. Hall, South Lake
Apopka C. G. A., Oakland; Clay Binion, Amer-
ican Fruit Growers, Inc., Orlando; J. B. Guth-
rie, Florida Orange Festival, Inc., Winter Ha-
ven; R. G. Carleton, Lake Garfield, C. G. A.,
Bartow; B. B. Bledsoe, Haines City C. G. A.,
Haines City; D. A. Field, American Fruit
Growers, Inc., Ocoee; Paul W. Rogers, Amer-
ican Fruit Growers, Inc., Maitland; John F.
May, Winter Haven Growers, Inc., Winter Ha-
ven; E. G. Pierce, American Fruit Growers,
Inc., Winter Haven; R. B. Woolfolk, Ameri-
can Fruit Growers, Inc., Orlando; L. C. Rob-
erts, American Fruit Growers, Inc., Leesburg;
G. R. Williams, Winter Haven C. G. A., Win-
ter Haven; O. S. Turner, Winter Haven Grow-
ers, Inc., Winter Haven; J. M. Sprott, High-
land Park Packing Co., Lake Wales; W. C.
Pedersen, Waverly C. G. A., Waverly; C. N.
Williams, American Fruit Growers, Inc., Or-
lando; J. D. Murdoch, Exchange Supply Com-
pany, Tampa; H. V. Pay, DeLand Packing
Assn., DeLand; T. B. Agerton, Adams Pack-
ing Co., Auburndale; Robert Sands, Florence
C. G. A., Florence Villa; F. W. Moody, Palm
Harbor C. G. A., Palm Harbor; L. A. Martin,
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc., Lake Wales;
N. D. Cloward, Babson Park C. G. A., Babson
Park; W. H. Smith, Elfers C. G. A., Elfers; A.
G. Warne, American Fruit Growers, Inc.,
Haines City; Frank P. Beaty, American Fruit
Growers, Inc., Cocoa; E. H. Moore, Interna-
tional Fruit Corp., Lynchburg; J. A. Watkins,
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc., Davenport;
George W. Kumberger, Lucerne Packing
Corp., Lucerne Park; N. H. Harper, New
Smyrna Packing Co., New Smyrna; Clifford
K. Rohde, Alexander & Baird Co., Beresford;
J. W. McBride, Alexander & Baird Co., De-
Land. .


Let's don't forget, that when we help the
industry, we help our own pocketbook.


How the Ass Got

His Reputation

The following story, sent the
Clearing House by one of its grower-,
members, goes back quite a ways
into the past, but like all good fables,
its message still has a "kick" in it.
The story is as follows:

At the beginning of things, when
the world was young, the donkey
was esteemed by all the tribes of-
men as the wisest of animals. The
good Sheik El-Sta-Shun-Air owned a
great herd of these sagacious beasts,
which was the pride and joy of his,
life.
Other Sheiks came from all
around to listen and marvel at the
wisdom of the herd. At such a time
came even the Prophet himself-
most learned and wise of all the sons,
of the East. With much glowing
pride El-Sta-Shun-Air led him out to4
the herd and said:
"Behold, 0 Prophet, the wise and
talented asses. Converse with them,,
test them, and see if they are not
verily wiser than 40 trees full of
owls."
Then the Prophet addressed the_
asses. "Let us test your wisdom,"
said he. "Answer me this question:
What should an ass require for three
days' journey?"
And they counselled among them-
selves and then made reply: "For a.
three days' journey, O Prophet, any
ass should require six bundles of hay
and three bags of dates."
"Very good," quoth the Prophet,'
"that soundeth like a fair and proper
price." Whereupon El-Sta-Shun-Air
broke into loud chuckles and said:
"Did I not tell you they are passing'
wise?"
The Prophet answered, "Wait,",
and he again addressed the asses. "I
have to make a three days' journey,`
but I will give you six bundles of hay
and three bags of dates for making
it. Let him who will go for less, stand
forth."
And behold, they all stood forth
and began to talk at once. One would'
go for six bundles of hay and one
bag of dates, until finally one espec-'
ially long-earned ass agreed to go
for one bundle of hay.
Then spoke the Prophet: "Fool,"
quoth he, "you cannot even live for,
three days on one bundle of hay,
much less profit from the journey."
"True," replied the long-eared
bne, "but I wanted the order."
And from that far-off day to this,
asses have been known as fools, and
price cutters have been known as
asses.

GROWER'S VOICE
(Continued from Page Four)
profit. The growers should have as
early a return as possible, but should
be encouraged to ship mature fruit.
only.
Yours truly, o
(Signed) G. M. LESTER.


Pae


Pase 6




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