Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00065
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: June 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00065
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
libraryy Cm
bureau of Ari
J. S. Dept- o
gnshington, Z

p *,
g. Econ ,


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


U. S. Postage
I1. Nid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31, Volume I
r2.us Growers Clearing House Association, JUNE 10, 1931 192, at the postoffice at Winter Haven Volume
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Number 17

Board Challenges

Critics To Debate

On Clearing House

Directors Willing to Support
Faith in Organization on
Public Platforms

The Board of Directors of the
Clearing House, believing that the
Work of the organization along in-
dustry lines is meeting a big need in
Florida, have elected to answer
critics and clear up existing misun-
"derstandings by issuing an open chal-
lenge to debate the question as to
whether or not the Clearing House
is needed. The challenge is being
published in newspapers throughout
the fruit belt, and if any organiza-
tion or individual is willing to take
issue with the Clearing House Direc-
tors, public debates will be arranged
and the question threshed out for the
enlightenment of every one connect-
ed with the industry. The challenge
as printed in advertisements in news-
papers reads as follows:
"Resolved:-That under existing
conditions the Clearing House is nec-
essary for the best interests of the
SFlorida citrus industry."
r The Clearing House Directors in
announcing their challenge declared
that they are sincere in wanting ex-
. pressions from others as to the value
of the Clearing House to the indus-
Stry. A statement made by the Direc-
tors says in part: "Our motives in is-
suing this challenge are sincere. We
genuinely believe that the funda-
mentals of the Clearing House must
be carried out if the industry is to
progress, and we feel also that the
efforts of this organization cannot
be criticised in fairness, nor should
we permit its functions to be misun-
e "We willingly grant that any indi-
vidual or organization accepting our
challenge to debate the question of
the need for the Clearing House will
be guided by motives as sincere as

Directors Re-elect
Former Officers In
Temporary Capacity

The re-organization meeting of
the Clearing House Board of
Directors held June 5 resulted in
the decision to elect officers on a
temporary basis because of the
situation resulting from the an-
nouncement by the Florida Citrus
Exchange that they would with-
draw from the Clearing House.
Nine of the eleven Directors of
the Clearing House are members
-of the Florida Citrus Exchange,
and in view of the fact that some
of them at least will be unable to
continue with-the Clearing House
with the Exchange no longer affil-
iated, it was thought advisable to
elect only temporary officers.
The same directors who held of-
fices during the season now end-
ing were elected on a temporary
basis at the June 5 meeting. These
Directors are as follows: Alfred
M. Tilden, President; E. C. Aurin,
Vice-President; E. E. Truskett,
Secretary, and F. G. Moorhead,

ours. If there be any individual or
organization in the state who sincere-
ly questions the value of the Clearing
House to the industry, we earnestly
desire the opportunity of clearing up
such doubt and prove to every grow-
er and shipper in Florida that now,
just as was the case three years ago,
there is a need for an organization
which can represent the entire indus-

Clearing House Position

Is Explained in Detail;

Complaints Answered

Operating Committee's Work
Always Subject to Approval
By Board, Exchange Is Told;
Directors Responsible for
Shippers' Allotments.

By A. M. PRATT, Manager
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House
It is only fair that the members
of the Clearing House and growers
in general should know specifically
just why the unified industry effort
as represented by the Clearing
House has received a serious blow
in the withdrawal of the Florida
Citrus Exchange from this industry
We will, therefore, take up the
written complaints emanating from
Exchange sources and answer them
-all being a matter of black and
white records and therefore fair to
all-and leave the verdict where it
should rest, with the growers of
Florida. Excerpts from Mr. Com-
mander's recommendations to his
Board on the subject of withdrawal
will be quoted and answers will be
taken from our written records
which are already in the hands of
the Exchange and most of the Sub-
exchanges and packing units, as well
as in the hands of all of our other
While reading these complaints
and answers bear in mind the fol-

lowing taken from Manager Com-
mander's report on the subject of
Mr. Commander says of our
Board and Committee of Fifty,
"The Board is to be compliment-
ed on the excellent work it has
done. Undoubtedly the reason for
this satisfactory political work on
the part of the Clearing House
has been the fact that the respon-
sibility and the directing energy
for all of this work came from
the two governing bodies of the
Clearing House the Committee
of Fifty and the Board of Direc-
tors. The personnel of these two
groups is composed almost exclu-
sively of growers. These men, as
growers, view the situation from
the standpoint of what would be
best for growers and for the in-
dustry as a whole. They naturally
are interested primarily in the
growers' welfare and in the final
success and stabilization of the
So there has been no complaint by
the Exchange of our Board or Com-
mittee of Fifty and yet they were
on the job all the time watching the
Operating Committee as well as all
other operations. Our Board was
solely responsible for seeing that
discrimination in no form was per-
mitted and stood ready at all times
to review any complaint from any
member, most certainly a complaint
from their own shipper member and
which involved 50% of the Clearing
House volume.
"The Clearing House as far as
controlling shipments are concerned
has failed completely"-"The ques-
tion of allotments never has been
fairly handled by the Operating
Committee. The Florida Citrus Ex-
change, with its two votes out of
eleven, was in no position to force
a handling of the situation which
would be satisfactory to the indus-
try as well as to its growers."
(Continued on Page Three)

Notice of

Annual Meeting
June 10, 1931.
Notice is hereby given, as required by Article III,
Section 4, of the By-Laws, that the annual meeting of
the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association
will be held at 11 a. m. Tuesday, July 14, 1931, at the
Williamson Theatre, Winter Haven, Florida.


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending June 6, 1931)

June 6
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 387
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 357
Total.............. ..--------25491
Florida Mixed Shipped-........... 51
Total ..............-------14461
California Oranges Shipped.... 1122

May 30

June 6, '30


Jun 6, '29

Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 432 460 8 ....
Average.-..--- .-----..--- $3.70 $3.70 $7.60 --
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 279 257 114 ---
Average--.........--.... ..---- $2.20 $2.30 $3.57 ..
California Oranges Auctioned 456 511 502 ..
Average .......------------.... $3.25 $3.15 $7.44 ----

Oranges No. 1 Orankes No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
May 30.................. 190 70 $2.97 210 50 $2.69
27% 24%
June 6 .................. 107 37 $2.95 128 46 $2.65
35% 36%
Difference.......... -83 -33 -.02 -82 -4 -.04
Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
May 30.................. 6 1 $1.65 19 5 $1.50
16% 26%
June 6................. 13 2 $1.58 20 8 $1.34
15% 40%
Difference.......... +7 +1 -.07 + 1 +3 -.16
Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
May 30................. 84 24 $2.03 144 41 $1.84
29% 28%
June 6.................. 84 33 $1.91 130 35 $1.59
39% 27%
Difference.......... +9 -.12 -14 -6 -.25

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 30 .......... 4 678 29 79 45 75 273
June 6............ 2 354 7 53 27 39 213
June 13............ .. 356 4 29 16 18 159
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 30--.......... 1022 1344 1005 1162 1108 756 1030
June 6............ 1002 1683 734 1284 1043 898 1271
June 13............ 759 2039 732 1304 1212 881 1573
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 30............ 2 308 169 154 73 145 384
June 6............ 2 136 102 70 62 63 220
June 13............ .. 87 60 34 45 27 130
Florida Mixed
Week. Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 30............ .... 89 18 32 10 12 No Rcrd.
June 6 ............ .... 61 10 17 9 10 No Rcrd.
June 13 ................ 64 6 14 3 5 No Rcrd.

Doing Well On Valencias
Our auction average of $3.70 this
week (ending June 6) is 40c more
than Florida valencias two years

ago and 45c more than California
valencias this week, whereas, Cali-
fornia valencias this week are 90c
less than their average two years

Page 2


ago. California's disappointment in
prices is again seen in her shipments
being 250 cars less this week than
the Exchange estimated would go
forward, there being 1150 cars this
week against the estimate of 1400.
Next week the movement is esti-
mated at 1600 cars from California.
Mr. W. G. Roe, who recently re-
turned from New York, said that he
could find nothing wrong with the
eating quality of California valen-
cias, no evidence of dryness, and in
fact thought they tasted better than
usual. They are, however, running
to small sizes, averaging about 260
to the box.
If we are going to reach the 39,-
000 cars estimated in oranges, 760
cars would have to be shipped from
this time on, and it looks as if Flor-
ida will make this and a little more,
but valencias are getting mighty
Grapefruit Out of Storage
Our members' records show that
46 cars more grapefruit have been
taken out of storage the past seven
days than have gone into storage.
This by chance is the same number
of cars in the way of net decrease
in storage for week before last. The
net decrease in oranges is 33 cars
this week as compared with seven
cars increase the past week. Grape-
fruit seems to be so ripe that some
cars are not holding up as well after
being taken from storage as last
The grapefruit shipments will go
over the 30,000 car estimate, as
grapefruit, including mixed, now
figures 29,760 cars, which would
leave only 240 cars for the balance
of the season. How many will be
shipped depends entirely upon
whether the market picks up. Cali-
fornia cantaloupes are selling at ex-
tremely low prices and offering real
competition. Quite a little grape-
fruit cannot be shipped that would
otherwise go forward on account of
the seeds sprouting. Low prices the
latter part of this week should cer-
tainly be enough warning so that
none of our shippers will ship any-
thing but their best sizes and grade
most carefully for keeping quality
as well as eating quality and ap-
The Lesson From Grapefruit
I know of no shipper or grower
who estimated the grapefruit crop
as large as it is turning out to be.
Our experience in grapefruit again
shows the extreme need of Florida
going to any expense to know what
it actually has to market during the
year. All of us were fooled and, had
we known the grapefruit crop was
as large as it is, the movement from
the state would have been such as to
not leave so much fruit for these
late markets. The Clearing House
has a duty to some how arrive at a
more accurate and comprehensive,
means of nearer approximating cor-
rect crop estimates.

Mary: Tom says he can read you
like a book.
Ann: You're wrong. He's never de-
voured me yet.

June 10, 1931

Rust-Mites Do

Most Damage To

Citrus in June

June is the month when rust-
mites are likely to do most damage
to the crop of oranges, according to
J. R. Watson, entomologist with the
Florida Experiment Station. They
do not care for citrus until the oil
glands begin to appear in the rind.
Then they cause the well known rus-
seting which lowers the quality of
the fruit. Rust-mites do most dam-
age during hot, dry weather, and
those are the conditions likely to
prevail just before the rainy season.
Since rust-mites multiply so rap-
idly groves should be watched care-
fully. Each female is capable of lay-
ing 500 eggs, and they may each be
mature specimens in 11 days. Thus,
cne rust-mite killed now may pre-
vent thousands two weeks later.
Watch For Them
The rust-mite remedy is sulphur,
either in the form of flowers of sul-
phur or lime-sulphur spray. Instead
of beginning now and spraying at
regular intervals, the economical
way to combat rust-mites is to be
constantly on the watch and find
them first. To find the mites grow-
ers must have a small hand lens,
which should magnify about 10
times, and must become acquainted
with rust-mite appearance. They
will be seen under the lens as small,
straw yellow, wedge shaped insects,
but cannot be seen by the naked
eye. Rust-mites are quite active, but
those that have been killed by fun-
gus diseases will be brownish in
color and, of course, inactive. A few
trees in all parts of the grove should
be examined every few days. On
trees fully exposed to the sun the
mites prefer the north side, while on
shaded trees most of them are like-
ly to be on the southeast side. When
any considerable number are found,
say usually two or three under the
small lens, the affected trees should
be sprayed or dusted.
Dusting is quicker, and more prac-
tical for the larger groves, and a
better coverage is usually obtained
if there is no breeze. The dust does
not kill the eggs, and must not be
washed off within three days or all
the eggs may not hatch and be kill-
ed. Spraying is cheaper, and partic-
ularly so for the small grower. Mr.
Watson recommends a 1 to 50 or 60
formula for rust-mites, which will
also kill six-spotted mites. A 1 to 40
is best if purple mites are present.
Lime-sulphur will burn tender
fruit if it is applied when the tem-
perature is over 90 degrees. Neither
the sulphur spray or dust should be
applied for at least two weeks after
an oil emulsion spray.

Father (looking at son's report
card): "Do you know that George
Washington was at the head of his
class when he was your age?"
Son: "Yes, but he was President
of the United States when he was
your age, Pop?"


(Continued from Page One)
Effectiveness of Prorating to May 23
In oranges our shipments were
prorated in 10 different weeks. We
did not prorate in 26 different
weeks. During the prorating weeks
Swe moved 64% of the state crop;
during the weeks when we made no
prorating we moved 73% of the
state crop.
7876 cars of oranges were
7778 cars were shipped in
the weeks allotted.
SIs there anything in this to indicate
our control of shipments "failed
S Grapefruit Prorating
Grapefruit shipments were allot-
ted to our members.during 21 sepa-
rate weeks out of a total shipping
period of 38 weeks. During these
allotment weeks, the Clearing House
Moved 68% of the state shipments
for those weeks. During the period
'when no allotment was made the
Clearing House moved 70% of the
state shipments. Is there anything in
this record to prove prorating "fail-
ed completely"?
Representation On Operating
The wrong impression has gone
abroad and is generally in the minds
of Exchange people that the Operat-
ing Committee decided what each
Shipper could ship or each shipper's
allotment. They never did so for
Sany shipper. They declined to do so
when Mr. Patterson of the Exchange
brought before the Operating Com-
mittee the claim that the Exchange
- made in the fall that it should have
52% of the Clearing House allot-
Sment. As Manager, I advised the
Operating Committee at that time
that unless they instructed other-
wise I would allot the Exchange
50% of our volume. The Operating
Committee was unwilling to pass on
,this or any individual shipper's al-
lotment,-as they. felt such decisions
Should be exclusively in the hands
of the Manager and the Board, in-
asmuch as the members of the Oper-
ating Committee were competitors.
At Mr. Commander's suggestion
and request the Exchange was given
one representative on the Operating
Committee the first year of the
SClearing House. The second year, at
the request of the Manager and
without a request from the Ex-
Schange, the shippers placed two men
on the Operating Committee repre-
.senting the Exchange. At the be-
ginning of this year the Manager
requested that the shippers name
three members from the Exchange
on the Operating Committee. Mr.
Commander was present, and in fact
a member of the nominating com-
mittee, but failed to take advantage
.-of this recommendation.
The Exchange has never asked
formally for greater representation
on the Operating Committee. It is
! within the power of the Clearing

House Board to grant such a re-
quest if our Board deemed it neces-
sary from a standpoint of fairness.
The Exchange representatives on the
Operating Committee have many a
time been embarrassed due to the
fact that frequently matters came
up on which they could not act be-
cause they were not authorized by
the Exchange; whereas, the other
members of the Operating Commit-
tee were men with full authority
prepared at all times to act decisive-
ly. Had Mr. Commander, who is a
member of the Operating Commit-
tee, personally represented the Ex-
change instead of having a substi-
tute, this difficulty would have been
,obviated. Is the Clearing House at
fault because of this situation?
The First Year
Mr. Commander was Chairman of
the Operating Committee the first
year. Thirty-one meetings were held
while he was chairman, during
which time he was present 12 meet-
ings, absent 19 meetings, usually be-
ing represented by General Bland-
ing. Is the Clearing House responsi-
bJe for Mr. Commander's resigning
fa Chairman of the Operating Com-
mittee or his failure to attend meet-

and to handle the allotments
fair and equitable basis."

on a

Clearing House Determined Ex-
change Allotments
Because the Exchange Board on
December 12 passed a resolution
claiming unfairness, claiming they
had 60% of the Clearing House vol-
ume and 50% of the state output,
the Clearing House Board, which as-
sumes full responsibility in all such
matters, met on Dec. 26 and called
for a most complete analysis, which
resulted officially Feb. 6 in their
agreeing that the 50% allotment up
to that time had been fair and then
allotting the Exchange, in accord-
ance with the recommendation of
the manager, 52.4% of the total
season volume of the Clearing House
and 54 % for the balance of the sea-
son. The Board instructed the Man-
ager to proceed according to these
percentage figures.
The result is this: To June 1st the
Exchange has marketed just 50%
of this season's Clearing House ton-
nage instead of the 52.4% allotted
and the 60% claimed by them. They
have marketed 36% of the state
shipments instead of 50% as claim-
ed. Is there anything unfair to the

Analysis of Motions Regarding Exchange in this official Board ac-
Allotments tion? It has. proven more than fair.
All of our shipper members have COMPLAINT No. 3
received the complete minutes of (From Mr. Commander's Recom-
each Operating Committee meeting. mendations)
An analysis of the motions bearing "After receipt of these instruc-
on prorating shows from the begin- tions from the Board of Directors.
ning of the season to April 11 the no further prorating of shipments
following: was attempted by the Operating
In the 17 different weeks when Committee. This, in itself, is definite
the question of allotment was of- evidence that the Committee recog-
ficially acted on as to oranges, the nized its inability to control ship-
Exchange either moved or seconded ments by means of proper allot-
13 of such motions which were car- ments. Further, it is evidence of
ried. the willingness of the Committee to
In the 22 weeks of prorating on attempt to do so only when the Ex-
;grapefruit, the Exchange either change could be put to a disadvant-
imoved or seconded 15 of the mo- age in the establishment of such al-
tions that decided the prorating lotments."
policy. ANSWER
Bear in mind, the above motions That Mr. Commander's statement
merely covered the total to be al- is in no way correct is proved by the
lotted, not what the Exchange or fact that our records in the hands
any individual shipper should be al- of the Exchange and all shippers
lotted. Individual allotments were show that between Jan. 3 and May 2
handled by the Manager and the we prorated during 10 different
Board. -

(From Mr. Commander's Report)
"When we protested (on our al-
lotments) we were ignored and crit-
icised. Finally, we were forced to
ask for a joint meeting of the Clear-
ing House Board of Directors and
our own Board of Directors. At this
meeting we presented the details of
the unfair practices of the Operat-
ing Committee and asked for their
"Following this meeting the Oper-
ating Committee was instructed by
the Board of Directors of the Clear-
ing House to base its allotments on
the actual holdings of each individ-
ual operator after the new estimate
had been completed and not upon
the former claims of the operators
as had been done. The Committee
was further instructed to cut out
the exceptions made on f. o. b. sales

weeks duenilte allotments to ouru
shippers, six of these allotments be-
ing from Feb. 9 on. Had the Ex-
change insisted, they could have car-
ried the prorating policy through all
these weeks. The facts are that the
Exchange did not send representa-
tives to our Operating Committee
meetings during the weeks of Jan.
23, Mar. 13, Mar. 20, April 10, April
17, April 24, May 1.
In closing may I say our records
are not only open, but every action
of the Operating Committee was
mimeographed in the weekly min-
utes, passed to all our shippers, to
all Directors, to all the Committee
of Fifty, and most of the time to all
packing house units, including those
of the Exchange.
More than that, nine out of 11 of
cur Directors have been growers
shipping through the Exchange and
were solely responsible for any un-

Canada's Revision

Of Import Tariffs

Handicaps Citrus

Changes in the Canadian tariff,
provisionally effective June 2, said
to be for the purpose of making up
a deficit in the Dominion budget
and to assist the unemployment sit-
uation through increased protection
to domestic industries, affect a broad
range of commodities, including
fresh and canned citrus, according
to telegraphic dispatches from the
American Commercial Attache at
Ottawa, received by the Florida of-
fice of the U. S. Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce, at Jack-
The new tariff schedule takes
United States oranges from the free
list and places a duty on them of
thirty-five cents a cibic foot, equiv-
alent to eighty-seven cents per box.
Canned fruits (including canned
citrus) is increased, when imported
from the United States, Germany,
and other non-treaty countries, and
is subject to a duty of five cents per
pound instead of two and three-
quarters cents as under the former
provisions of the Canadian tariff.
Jellies, preserves, etc., are increased
from three and three-quarters cents
per pound to five cents per pound.
Tn addition, the sales tax is raised
from one percent to four percent,
with an additional excise tax of one
percent of the duty-paid value on
all imports valued over $25.00. Un-
enumerated articles are raised from
seventeen and one-half percent to
twenty-five percent.
Canada is the principal foreign
market for United States oranges.
During the 1930-31 citrus season,
exports of Florida oranges to Can-
ada were estimated to have been
2,412,000 boxes. The new duty on
oranges will amount to $1.06 per
box, including sales and excise taxes
at the rate of $3.00 per box value.

fairness, with full authority by
Charter and By-Laws to .veto' any-
wrong action of the Operating Com-
mittee. The President of our organ-
ization, Mr. A. M. Tilden, (Presi-
dent of the Florence C. G. A.) as
well as the Committee of Fifty
Chairman, J. C. Morton, (this year
member of Auburndale Exchange)
attended nearly all Operating Com-
mittee meetings and usually a few
other members of the Committee of
Fifty, the big majority of whom are
Exchange members.

"When you told me this story last
year, you said you only killed three
mutineers; now you say you killed
"True enough, Miss, but that was
last year, afore you was really old
enough to know the 'orrid truth-
all of it."

He: "I am burning with love for
She: "Oh, don't make a fuel of

June 10, 1931

Page 3

p. pa A

Changes in Citrus

Maturity Law Are

Finally Enacted

Orange Standard Remains As
Formerly With Addition
of Solids

So that all members may more
clearly understand from a brief sim-
ple statement the green fruit bill as
it. has finally been passed, the fol-
lowing is passed to you:
Ratio reduced from 7 to 7, with
inspection period ending on night of
November 15.
Same as last year except the ad-
dition that total soluble solids shall
not be less than. 7% %.
Soluble Solids
Percent Ratio
8 to 9 .................................6.50
9 to 9.1------.................................--6.45
9.1 to 9.2..... .----------..6.40
9.2 to 9.3-----------------6.35
9.3 to 9.4---------.................................6.30
9.4 to 9............. ----.....................6.25
9.5 to 9.6--................................----- 6.20
9.6 to 9.7..................................6.15
9.7 to 9.8..................................6.10
9.8 to 9.9.......................------.........6.05
9.9 to 10 .......................----------..........6.00
10 to 10.1..................................-----------5.95
10.1 to 10.2------------..................................5.90
10.2 to 10.3..........................-......5.85
10.3 to 10.4.........................----------------... 5.80
10.4 to 10.5--------..................................5.75
10.5 to 10.6..................................5.70
10.6 to 10.7--................-----..................5.65
10.7 to 10.8-...........................------.----......5.60
10.8 to 10.9.................................----5.55
10.9 to 11 ...----------..............................5.50
11 ..................................5.50
Minimum Cubic Centimeters Juice
Content on Grapefruit
The minimum juice content on
grapefruit as evidenced by the new
law is as follows:
,! -- ........ Cubic
Size Centimeters
There was a false rumor that the
law as enacted started out with a
minimum soluble solids on grape-
fruit at 9.30 %. Investigation shows
this was due to not understanding
an ,amendment which was put in
commencing at that point, leaving
the original proposed law unchang-
ed..This rumor has been found ab-
solutely incorrect and also the ru-
mor that minimum solids in oranges
was 8 instead of 7%.

An ignorant person is one who be-
lieves that his town is the center of


Citrus Exports

The following figures, furnished
by the United States Department of
Commerce, show the grapefruit and
orange exports from New York, Los
Angles, Jacksonville, San Francisco
and Tampa for the weeks ending
May 9, May 16, May 23 and May 30:
Week Ending May 9
New York-London .................. ----------3,491
New York-Liverpool .............. 1,829
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,549
New York-Southampton ........ 981
Los Angles-Liverpool ............ 2,300
Jacksonville-Newcastle* ........ 350
Jacksonville-Hull* ................ 100
Tampa-Southampton ............ 935
Tampa-London* ..............--. 800

Total......----... ....-------12,335
New York-London .................. 214
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,104
New York-Southampton ........ 311
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........28,400
San Francisco-Liverpool .--... 500
Tampa-Southampton ....-...... 1,984

Week Ending May 16
New York-London .................. 7,237
New York-Liverpool .............. 1,696
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,088
Los Angeles-London .............. 3,000
Los Angeles-Manchester ........ 500
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 4,038

Total-..........--- .---------17,559
New York-Glasgow ..............----.. 1,608
New York-Liverpool .....-........ 462
New York-Southampton ....... 204
Los Angeles-London ...-......---29,000
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..--... 2,000
Los Angeles-Manchester ........ 1,500
Jacksonville-Liverpool .----........ 2,234

Week Ending May 23
New York-London .................. 3,803
New York-Liverpool .............. 1,769
New York-Southampton .-..... 1,356
New York-Glasgow ................ 622
Los Angeles-London .............. 5,800
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 2,752
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 5.00
Tampa-London* ....................11,043
Tampa-London** ............---- 2

Total --. .......---...-....--28,047
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,207
New York-Southampton ........ 500
Los Angeles-London .............41,339
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........57,613
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 1,250
Los Angeles-Glasgow ............ 400

Week Ending May 30
New York-London ............... 4,733
New York-Liverpool .............. 2,682
New York-Southampton ........ 1,707
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 5,100
Los Angeles-London .............. 200
Los Angeles-Glasgow ........... 500
Jacksonville-London ..............10,875.

P. Az

Jacksonville-Liverpool* --------
Jacksonville-Glasgow* ----------
Tampa-Liverpool* ----------------
Tampa-Manchester* --------------
Tam pa-H ull* --------------------------
Tam pa-Dublin* ----------------------
Tampa-Cardiff* ----------------------
Tampa-Dundee* --_----------------
Jacksonville-Glasgow* ........


Total----................................--- 43,492
New York-Southampton ........ 477
New York-London .---..---- 16
Los Angeles-London ...--..-..27,000
Los Angeles-Liverpool .-.....-53,000
Los Angeles-Glasgow ..---..- 7,200
Jacksonville-London -..-- -1,285

Total .--....... -------------88,978

Canned grapefruit.
** Canned grapefruit juice.

Canned Grapefruit
The data given below represents
Florida production of canned or-
anges and grapefruit during the
1930-31 packing season, with com-
parative figures for the 1929-30 sea-
son. This information was collected
from individual canners by the Flor-
ida District Office of the United
States Department of Commerce, at
Lhe request of the Florida Grape-
fruit Canners'. Association. This
statement includes reports from 29
individual firms, representing 38
canning establishments. Eight plants
reported not in operation during
season, with one firm sending no

Grapefruit Hearts..-. 1,316,738
Grapefruit Juice ......- 173,934
Orange Juice.----....-- 37,652
Totals ...---..-----. 1,528,224

Total number of stan-
dard field boxes of
grapefruit used dur-
ing season .......---.....
Total number of stan-
dard field boxes of
oranges used during
season --------


1,639,923 2,892,705



Jacksonville and Tampa Exports
Hearts Juice
Cases Cases
United Kingdom... 93,678 226 & 10 bbls.
Canada ...------....... 16,097 2,192
Holland ..---.. 760
France ------------- 160
Belgium ..-------------- 100
Germany .........---- 75
Sweden .---........ 20
China .--------------- 50
New Zealand...-. 25
Total -----................110,96

American oranges and grapefruit
will be confronted with keener com-
petition in foreign markets as a re-
sult of the increase in volume and
improvement in quality of foreign
citrus fruit, the bureau believes.
The United States formerly confined
the bulk of its orange exports to
Canada, but the larger American
crops the last few years have made
it necessary to seek additional mar-
Foreign producers are also seek-
ing market outlets for their citrus
fruit, and the American industry is
confronted with the problem of
what to do with its steadily increas-
ing production. Total United States
production of oranges has increased
from an average of 21,400,000
boxes in the five-year period 1915-
1919 to around 38,480,000 boxes in
the five-year period 1925-1929. This
season the total orange crop in the
United States is placed at 49,191,-
000 boxes, the second largest crop
on record. The United States grape-
fruit crop this year is a record, to-
taling over 15,000,000 boxes com-
pared with an average crop of about
8,500,000 boxes during 1922-1926.
The bureau reports that among
the foreign countries expansion of
orange production is especially
notable in the Southern Homisphere,
principally the Union of South
Africa and Brazil. Steadily increas-
ing supplies from these countries
are reported to be reaching Euro-
:pean markets during the months of
May to November,,-the. period, for,
marketing the California Valencia
orange crop. There are some indica-
tions of increasing production in
Spain, the world's largest orange
exporter, but the bureau regards
more significant the improvement
being made in packing and shipping
methods in that country. Palestine
is also making notworthy progress
in the development of its citrus in-
Grapefruit production, says the
bureau, is increasing in practically
all countries that have a citrus in-
dustry. Of the Southern Hemisphere
countries, the Union of South Africa
sends the greatest number of grape-
fruit to the European markets, but
the shipments do not coincide with
the heaviest movement of American
fruit. Palestine and Brazil are be-
ginning to export grapefruit. The
bureau says that world grapefruit
production has increased even more
rapidly than orange production, but
on a smaller scale.


Production of Citrus

Showing Big Increase

Federal Bureau Shows

Production of oranges and grape-
fruit is increasing faster than world
consumption in practically all coun-
tries that grow citrus, and produc-
tion is expected to continue to in-
crease as non-bearing areas come
into production the next few years,
according to the Foreign Agricul-

June 10, 1931

tural Service, Bureau of Agricul-
tural Economics, U. S. Department
of Agriculture.
"The world-wide increase in pro-
duction," the bureau says, "is caus-
ing considerable concern as to the
disposal of the increasing orange
surpluses. To this end many coun-
tries have passed legislation in an
endeavor to improve the packing
and grading of their export fruit so
as to obtain better prices. Such reg-
ulations have been put into effect
recently by Spain, Palestine, Argen-
tina, Brazil and Italy."
Stiff Competition Abroad

June 10, 1931

M. 0. Overstreet

Named Chairman

S Committee of Fifty

Other Officers Also Elected-
for Coming Year; Group to
Meet Exchange Board
Senator M. O. Overstreet, Orlan-
do, was elected chairman of the Com-
mittee of Fifty to serve during the
coming season, at the re-organization
meeting of the Committee held in
Winter Haven June 11. Senator
Overstreet succeeds Jim Morton, Au-
burndale, chairman during the past
two years.
The other officers of the Commit-
tee, including the seven district mem-
.bers of the Executive Committee,
were elected as follows:
First vice-chairman, A. F. Pickard,
Lakeland; second vice chairman,
,John D. Clark, Waverly; secretary,
Fred Henderson, Winter Haven (suc-
teeding F. E. Brigham); executive
committee: Norman H. Vissering,
Babson Park; C. W. Lyons, Tampa;
J. C. Merrill, Leesburg; E. H. Wil-
liams, Crescent City; J. G. Grossen-
bacher, Plymouth; R. R. Gladwin, Ft.
'Pierce, and H. G. Murphy, Zolfo
Springs. The retiring chairman also
is a member of the executive com-
SFollowing a lengthy discussion of
the announcement of the Exchange
to withdraw from the Clearing
House, it was determined to meet
'with the Exchange Board, as had
been planned, the meeting to be held
in Tampa June 19, to see if differ-
ences between the two organizations
can be removed.

Book Review

"Fertilizers, the Source, Character and
0.Composition of Fertilizer Materials, and
Suggestions as to Their Use," by the late
Edward B. Voorhees-second revised edi-
Aion by Sidney B. Haskell, director,
Massachusetts Agricultural Experimental
Station.;':Prie $2.50. The MacMillan
,Company, publishers, New York.
To know what is the best ferti-
lizer for a particular type of soil,
bow much to use and why, requires
reliable and recent information.
\Many of the plant food materials
ong in use have been replaced by
new concentrated fertilizers and
hnixtures. "Fertilizers" for nearly
thirty years, has been the standard
work on the use of fertilizers, and
the second revision brings it com-
pletely up to date and renews its
The question of fertilization to
the Florida citrus grower has been
assuming considerable importance
during the past two or three years,
and more and more the growers
generally are endeavoring to find
out the whys and wherefores of the
fertilization problem.
Although the author of "Fertiliz-
ers" has of necessity treated his
subject without undue attention to
geographical sections, his treatise is


such that Florida citrus growers, as
well as New York apple growers,
will benefit immeasurably from the
principles outlined. Briefly, "Ferti-
lizers" will show the grower how to
study his problem. The book by no
means answers every individual
grower's problems but there is so
much information in it that even a
casual reader thumbing through can
scarcely help finding something that
will be of benefit to him. Unlike a
great many technical books "Ferti-
lizers" is written in a simple style
and can readily and easily be under-
stood by the layman.
In a subject as big as that of fer-
tilization no author could hope to
cover the topic in detail but the
headings of the seventeen chapters
will give one an idea of the manner
in which Dr. Voorhees handles his
work. The following are the chapter
Natural Fertility of the Soil, and
Sources of Loss of the Elements of
Fertility-Function of Manures and
Fertilizers, and the Need of Arti-
ficial Fertilizers-Nitrogenous Fer-
tilizers-Phosphates, Their Sources,
Composition, and Relative Value--
Super-phosphates, Potash Miscel-
laneous Fertilizing Materials-
Farmyard and Green-Manures-
Lime and Cal ci um Compounds-
Purchase of Fertilizers- Valuation
of Fertilizers- Concentrated Ferti-
lizers-Methods of Use of Fertiliz-
ers Fertilizers for C e r e a 1 s and
Grasses-Field Truck Crops, Mar-
ket-Garden Crops-Tree-Fruits and
Berries-Fertilizers for Various
Special Crops.
While there is not space here to
go into detail as to Dr. Voorhees'
treatment of concentrated fertiliz-
ers, the author points out that "the
demand for organic nitrogen has so
far outrun the supply that it would
no longer be possible for manufac-
turers to find the necessary raw ma-
terials, were they to meet this rule-
of-thumb formula." Growers who
are interested at this time in the
question of concentrated fertilizers
will find the chapter of considerable
value. Comparisons, for example,
are made between lists of standard
materials anid concentrated ma-
terials and the manner of mixing
both the so-called low analysis fer-
tilizer as well as the high analysis
fertilizer-the weight in pounds of
the various ingredients being given
in a number of formulas.
The question of cost is also gone
into by the author and the expense
item is treated considerably in de-
tail. There is, of course, discussion
of some problems in the book that
do not apply directly to our prob-
lems here in Florida, but the Florida
reader will not find very much use-
less information for most fertiliza-
tion problems are much the same in
principle, regardless of geographi-
cal lines. The last two chapters pos-
sibly are of more interest to the
northern farmer than they will be
to the Florida citrus grower, and
one other chapter devoted to ferti-
lization of field truck crops likewise
is of more general rather than local
In summarizing his work, Dr.

Cover Crops Taking
Up Too Much Water,
Californians Learn

Californians are frowning upon
their cover crops, advices from there
indicate. The reason for disapproval
is that the cover crops absorb more
moisture than their value as nitro-
gen sources equalizes and California
this summer is said to be confronted
with a water supply shortage.
Agricultural authorities in Cali-
fornia are broadcasting advice to
the growers not to grow any cover
crops both because the crops take
up moisture needed by the trees and
because they also take up available
nitrogen. H. J. Wilder, a county
farm agent, had this to say to his
"Owing to the depleted supply of
irrigation water available this sum-

Voorhees declares that the methods
(of fertilizing) now generally prac-
ticed indicate a very great need of
a better understanding of what the
functions of a fertilizer are, of the
terms used to express their composi-
tion and value, of the kind that shall
be used, and the time and the meth-
od of application for the different
crops under the varying conditions
that exist.

Page 5

mer, it is better not to grow sum-
mer cover crops. We have had a
number of inquiries on this subject.
"Summer cover crops in orange
groves not only take a great deal
of additional water, if they are to
be grown at the time when the
greatest draught on moisture and
fertility is being made by the nitro-
gen that has been applied in the
regular spring applications of am-
monium sulphate, nitrate of lime,
nitrate of soda, dried blood, cotton-
seed meal, etc., at the very time
when the trees most need it.
"When a grove has been well fer-
tilize'a, even a legume summer cover
crop adds little, if any, nitrogen.
While it is possible for legume
plants to gather nitrogen from the
air when they need it badly enough,
:t is believed they do not so func-
tion when there is an abundance of
nitrogen available in the soil solu-
tion, and of course that is the case,
when any good fertilizing program"'
has been carried out."

"Why did you allow that fellow to
kiss you?"
"Did I, George?"
"Don't 'Did I George?' to me!
When I came in, one side of his nose
was powdered and one side of your's

They're Scattered

Get a binder for your back copies >
of the -


Keep every number of
the News. There isn't
an issue that doesn't
contain some informa-
tion you will want to
refer to, some of these

Just fill in the coupon
below and mail it in to
the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House As-
sociation at Winter Ha-
ven, together with dol-
lar bill, check or money
order and the binder,
will be forwarded to




-- - - - - - - - - - - - -
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back copies of the Florida
Clearing House News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out of the
U. S.) currency, check, money order.
Name .......................................... .................... ......
Street ............................................................................-- ................
Town ................................................................................... ------

---- I~ae 6OUSE NEI

June 10, 1931




Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of distri-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding among
growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.


Things Not Done That
Could Be
Two thousand eight hundred fifty cars of
tangerines from Florida sold at the various
auctions this year at a general average for
the season of $3.07 delivered. Charges of
course vary greatly, but this average on ac-
count of the extra expense of picking and haul-
ing, as well as packing tangerines, means a
net tree return of 15c to 30c a box. In fact,
tangerine results have been so strikingly low
as to have crystalized in the minds of nearly
all growers and shippers the necessity of one
organization directing the entire tangerine
problem for another season. Certainly with
Florida having a monopoly on tangerines,
there is no reason for ever permitting such
mishandling of tangerines as occurred this
year if we will only get together and recognize
the urgent need common to everyone.

Grapefruit comes next. We by no means
have a monopoly on grapefruit but our experi-
ence this year shows plainly that if there is
some better way of handling and generally
directing this grapefruit problem, plans should
be worked out without further delay. Texas'
product is coming by leaps and bounds. Flor-
ida should beat Texas in at least one matter by
organized effort and that is in deliberately and
determinedly establishing the widest possible
outlet for Florida grapefruit in the export
markets. This never can be handled as effici-
ently for the industry by individual operators
as it could be by the growers and shippers of
Florida working together on this export
In general,. every grower and shipper in
Florida would be better off if this industry had
experienced, loyal men at strategic marketing

points contacting retailers, jobbers, brokers,
and agents. These men should be continually
interesting the trade in Florida's citrus pro-
ducts, and digging into new ways for helping
the merchandising of our crop, such as dis-
playing our fruit and also overcoming friction
and misunderstanding, and settling controver-
sies with the authority of the industry itself
behind them. Such men would of necessity
have to be of high integrity, devoid of any par-
tisanship as to any shipper or marketing or-
ganization, acting only from the one standard
for which the Clearing House was created,
namely, the betterment of the industry.

Our supplies to the various auction markets
should be better regulated from this end than
they have been. There might easily be team-
work also at the other end that could meet
emergencies so successfully as to control the
general auction price levels far better than
they ever have been.

The daily information service, for the guid-
ance of all our shippers' sales managers, could
be improved by being more specific as to terri-
tory. This three-year-old organization will find
it can do many things of an extremely practi-
cal nature, vitally helpful to every citrus pro-
ducer in Florida and decidedly helpful to her
shippers, providing we will but do these essen-
tial things together and work out a program
that will take not only one year into account
but build for three to five years or ten years
hence. What the Clearing House can do that
it has not done is entirely dependent on how
much its members, including its shippers, are
willing to place industry welfare ahead of
some immediate self-interest of the individual.
The Florida industry today, possibly uncon-
sciously, is going through an intelligence and
character test. Efficiency in industry matters,
under the most practical slant one can get, de-
pends foremost upon a sense of honor and trus-
teeship and upon whether we are big enough
to see the elemental needs of the industry in-
stead of being blinded by the distracting de-
tails connected with our individual ambitions.

California Expecting
Shorter Crop
California's navel crop for next season is ex-
pected to run about 65% of normal, and Valen-
cias about 80% of normal, according to recent
press dispatches from that state. This season,
California shipped approximately 35,000 cars
of navels and the Valencia movement is now
getting well under way.
The outlook for a shorter crop on the Pacific
Coast has brought with it a hope by the Califor-
nia growers of much better returns than those
they have received for their oranges this


Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
Lake Placid
Crescent City
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora

Small Sizes Giving

California Trouble

In Marketing Crop'

Advice received from California
under date of June 6 shows conclu-
sively the difficult problem Califor-
nit is having in selling her valencias'
on account of such small sizes. 360s
and 392s are being packed and sell-
ing generally at $1.65 f.o.b.; 324s,
and 344s at $1.75 f.o.b. These four
sizes are almost unknown in orange.
in Florida. 288s are generally selling
at $2.00 and 250s at $2.25.
216s and larger are scarce as in-
dicated by the fact that 216s are,.
commanding $2.65 f.o.b., or 40c a
box more than 250s. 200s are selling'
at $2.90, whereas, 150s and 176s are
bringing $3.50, and the occasional
126s $3.75.
These prices are for fancy, the
choice of course being discounted,
the usual discount ranging from 25ce
to 50c.
California valencias are running
an average of slightly over 260 or-
anges to the box, 250s and 288s be:"
ing the predominating sizes. Steps
are now being taken to restrict thed
movement of extremely small sizes
and because these small sizes are so
close to red ink the total shipments,
of California valencias may be re-
duced below original estimates.
The shortage of water for irriga-
tion purposes and the normal ab-
sence of rain in California during'
the summer time precludes any hope
that the small sizes will grow into'
something more merchantable.

Jones-"Sorry, old man, that my
hen got loose and scratched up your
Smith-"That's all right-my dog
ate your hen."
Jones-"Fine! My car just ran
over your dog."-The Recorder.

Copies of Talks on
Cultivation Methods
Free for the Asking

So great was the interest mani-
fested by the growers attending
the Clearing Ilouse Regional
Meetings this spring in the talks
on grove cultivation made at the
meetings by citrus experts, that
the Clearing House has prepared
in condensed form typewritten
copies of the various addresses.
Copies of these talks will be
sent free of charge to any grower
requesting them. If you were un-
able to attend the Regional Meet-
ing held in your district, or if you
did and would like to have the
copies of the talks for more
leisurely study, simply drop a line
to the Clearing House asking for
a copy of the Regional Meeting
addresses, and one will be sent to
you without charge.

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