Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00063
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: May 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00063
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
U. S. Postage

AWinter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume III
$2.00 a Year rus Growers Clearing House Association, MAY 10, 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven. Number 15
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8. 1879.

Florida's Average

Is 58c Higher Than

Californians Receive

Work of Clearing House in
Aiding Distribution Largely

Florida orange growers show an
average gain of 29c per box over
production cost as compared with
California orange growers showing
a loss of 29c per box on this year's
business, as shown by auction aver-
ages from January 1 to May 8. This
is a rare coincidence of figures,
especially as figures were not man-
ipulated to reach them and are based
on published auction averages for
the year. The 29c gain to Florida
growers is a net profit over all costs,
including his own cost of produc-
tion. The net loss of 29c to the Cali-
Sfornia grower is reached on the'
same basis.
Another most interesting fact-
Florida's average during this period
is 19c per box higher on all oranges
sold at auction than two years ago ;
whereas, California's average is 53c,
per box lower than two years ago.
SThis gives from this basis of analy-.
sis a lead to Florida of 72c, as well:
s as the lead based entirely on com-
parisons of this particular year of
Despite Depression
This out-distancing of our big
K rival is something that most growers.
and very few of the public know.
-'Two years ago, with a slightly
smaller crop between the two states
Sand with normal employment and
with the Clearing House just born,
Florida's average to May 8 on or-
anges was 19c a box less than we
' averaged this year. This year five
million persons are unemployed and
Shave been unemployed for a long
period. Depression is world-wide.
The citrus crop as a whole is bigger
than ever produced. But regardless
of these tremendous obstacles, Flor-
ida has made a gain of 19c over its
previous record. Never before has
Florida made such a gain over Cal-
ifornia "during the same'period. We
haven't waked up to the 'fact that
we are in the lead and need no
longer covet, our neighbor's ability,
even though we have not yet been
(Coriinued on Page Three) .

Clearing House Answering

Prayer for a "Moses" By

Business-Like Management

Harmonizing Of Divergent
Views And Making Real
Progress in Carrying Out
Purposes Of Organiza-
tion, Proves Growers Are
On Right Track.

By A. M. PRATT, Manager
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association
It is quite the popular thing to say
that a Moses or a Mussolini is what
the citrus industry needs. The idea
is good for it recognizes the need in
our citrus industry of greater con-
trol, of discipline, of confidence in
leadership and in ourselves. But the
popular cry for a Moses or Musso-
lini is not the solution.
There is a wrong impression in
the minds of many of our grower
members and probably some of our
shipper members, that management
of a big corporation or any big busi-
ness is of the nature of a despot. It
is assumed that the "boss" is the
law, the whole law and no law but
the "boss." But that is not true. The
government of any big business in-
cludes the entire body of executive,
technical, and supervisory direction.
Management, Not a Moses
What those who are calling for a
Moses or a Mussolini want is "busi-
ness management" of the citrus in-i
dustry, and its management, the
same as the direction of any busi-
ness of size, is a task dealing con-
stantly and primarily with many
contrary forces. Citrus management
comes somewhat more in the cate-
gory of government, or general di-
rection, rather than in the popular
sense of personal management. This
management is in the center of
views which are more or less discor-
dant, hostile, with much diversity of
opinion from advisors, from those
co-ordinating, and those that make
citrus management or government
possible. Always exists the problem
of the greatest good to the greatest

An executive of any business of
any size knows he is dealing with
constant change and the bigger the
problem the greater the necessity
for maneuvers and adjustments in
operating. Get on the inside of any
business and you will find that that
business is controlled not by one
despotic mind but by many forces.
It is true, efficiency depends upon
the clear vision of those at the top
assuming the greatest responsibili-
ties. It is also true that the biggest
part of management is that of deal-
ing with the many conflicting
forces, differences of opinion, work-
ing with the "has-to-be" side of life
and making the best of it. Get on
the inside and it seems some times
merely a muddling through. It is be-
cause of the necessary complexity
of any big business structure that
those who have worshipped the des-
potic idea of control find themselves
disillusioned when intimately ac-
quainted with inside facts.
Price Fixing No "Cure-All"
Let's apply this to our own indus-
try. Today there is unrest every-
where. This unrest is no more pre-
valent in our citrus industry than in
any other industry you can name.
There is a call for stabilization.
Stabilization is something about
which there are misconceptions
Stabilization of our citrus industry
is by no means solved by so-called
price fixing. Price fixing in many an
industry has often been the quickest
means of upsetting most completely
any permanent stabilization of in-
dustry. Price fixing may play a part.
A uniform attitude as to proper
prices is thoroughly practical where-
as inflexible minimum prices if made
low enough to meet the rapidly
shifting situations may be so low as
to tend to pull down general price
levels, and a higher positive mini-
mum may be so restricting as to not
permit functioning there-under. Our
citrus industry cannot be stabilized
by despotic methods. We are simply
a part of the general scheme of
things. The industry to become sta-
(Continued on Page Four)

Clearing House

Rejects Demands

Made by Exchange

Directors Declare Proposed
Changes Would Require
Demands by the Florida Citrus
Exchange that certain "drastic
changes" be made in the method of
operation of the Clearing House as
a prerequisite to continuance of Ex-
change membership in the Clearing
House, were rejected by the Clear-
ing House directors at a meeting
held at headquarters May 8. Hopes
that the Exchange would reconsider
its proposals led the Clearing House
directors to withhold details of the
demands until the Exchange has an
opportunity to study the reply pre-
pared by the Clearing House. It is
expected that the Exchange board
will consider the Clearing House an-
swer at its meeting in Tampa on
May 15.
The Exchange demands, embodied
in a lengthy resolution, were pre-
sented by Chairman Erle L. Wirt
and General Manager C. C. Com-
mander who met with the Clearing
House directors. The Clearing House
directors, recognizing the universal
interest in the matter, issued a brief
statement following their meeting,
explaining the substance of their
reply to the Exchange. The state-
ment said in part that the Exchange
resolution "was a demand on the
part of the Exchange for quite dras-
tic changes requiring reorganization
of the Clearing House as a prere-
quisite to the continuance of Ex-
change membership as a shipper
member of the Clearing House. The
Directors of the Clearing House
have forwarded their answer to the
Exchange in the form of formal res-
olutions which will be considered by
the Board of Directors of the Ex-
change at its meeting in Tampa next
President Alfred M. Tilden de-
clared that "the changes in set-up
requested by the Exchange are so
revolutionary in character that the
Board of Directors of the Clearing
House have been wholly unwilling
to accede to them." He said fur-
ther, however, that he is quite hope-
ful that the Exchange will recon-
sider its position.


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending May 9, 1931)

May 9
Florida Oranges Shipped-...... 969
Florida Grapefruit Shipped -- 952
Total---.....................-----------..----....... 23609
Florida Mixed Shipped............ 248
Total..-..-----..-----.---.. .. 14076
California Oranges Shipped.... 2069

May 2

May 9, '30

May 9, '29

Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 681 520 94 510
Average.......------------. ... $3.75 $4.05 $6.93 $3.34
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 408 400 208 204
Average-....--........------... $2.60 $2.75 $3.97 $3.93
California Oranges Auctioned 413 383 463 524
Average................................. $4.05 $3.80 $6.66 $3.80

Oranges No. 1 Oranges No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
May 2------.................... 391 141 $3.13 290 115 $2.86
36% 40%
.May 9.................... 357 99 $3.03 246 73 $2.78
28% 30%
Difference.......... -34 -42 -.10 -44 -42 -.08
Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
May 2.................... 60 19 $1.87 104 65 $1.60
32% 63%
May 9.................... 55 19 $1.79 110 31. $1.57
35% 28%
Difference.......... -5 -.08 + 6 -34 -.03
Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
May 2.................... 151 65 $2.33 173 97 $2.04
43'% 56 %
May 9.................... 168 56 $2.33 197 78 $1.97
33% 40%
Difference..........+17 -9 --24 -19 -.07

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 2--.......... 7 1046 150 272 192 254 679
May 9.---...... .. 789 126 207 168 243 540
May 16----............ .. 820 92 172 119 156 484
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 2----.............. 1175 1958 902 1816 1377 1105 1340
May 9.............. 812 1776 1182 1613 1361 1014 1047
May 16----...... 1264 1703 1159 1448 1281 1032 993
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 2.............. 24 717 404 455 307 442 590
May 9.......... 17 687 256 475 260 337 494
May 16.---...... 9 774 195 365 192 199 600
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
May 2.............. 8 257 67 101 24 50 No Rcrd.
May 9-......--.. 12 134 59 88 27 38 No Rcrd.
May 16-........ .... 133 54 55 28 24 No Rcrd.

Moving Valencias Too Fast the average movement from Florida
Last week you will remember for the previous four weeks. The
Florida shipped 1295 cars of or- heavy movement last week was more
anges which was 50% heavier than or less deliberate on account of Cal-

ifornia's light movement of 1150
cars for the week ending April 25
and 1263 cars for the week ending
May 2. Wired advice from Califor-
nia indicated even a lighter move-
ment for the last mentioned week
and a movement of 2200 cars this
week (ending May 9).
But this week's movement from
Florida is too heavy on top of last
week's movement. 1125 cars of or-
anges, including 60% of the mixed
will be shipped this week from Flor-
ida, and, if the estimate as shown
for the coming week is correct of
875 cars oranges, 875 cars grape-
fruit and 250 cars mixed, it will
mean 1025 cars of oranges next
week with only 2342 cars of oranges
to move from that time on.
Grapefruit Shipments Too Heavy
This week's movement of grape-
fruit again is approaching the 1100
cars limit. If Saturday's estimate is
correct, there will be 1065 cars of
grapefruit this week, and if the es-
timated movement of next week is
correct, 975 cars, including proper
proportion of the mixed, will be
shipped. This would leave only 1300
cars of grapefruit to move from
then on.
Looking Backwards and Forwards
We can get the true picture of
possibilities in the future better if
we will look back over the past five
weeks' shipments and compare them
with what would be a proportionate
movement of the crop during the
next five weeks. In drawing up the
tabulated figures immediately fol-
lowing, we are assuming the maxi-
mum crop estimate that anyone is
ready to concede, namely, 39,000
cars of oranges and 30,000 cars of
grapefruit. This, together with the
5241 cars of tangerines, would make
total carlot shipments from the
state of 74,241 cars. This means
over 27,000,000 boxes in carload
lots alone aside from the big volume
that went into the canneries and
was moved by truck, which last
would mean that our carlot figures
are dealing with about a 30,000,000
crop estimate, which anyone will
grant is high enough.
With this in mind, therefore.
glance at the following figures and
see for yourself if there is not every
reason to reduce shipments, particu-
larly in oranges, this coming week
because they can be held with less
deterioration, with every reason for
anticipating a higher price than we
can possibly expect if the movement
goes out as heavy as estimated. 800
cars for week after next, then drop-
ping to 600, 500 and 400 certainly
is in contrast to the 1000 to 1300
cars per week that have recently
been shipped for consumption. In
grapefruit, 600, 400 and 200 cars
per week is in extreme contrast to
the 1000 cars per week or more
which have been moving forward.
No Prorating
The Operating Committee, this
week, agreed that there should be
no prorating because of the varying
condition of crops where, regardless
of the small volume left, some ship-
pers would be compelled on account

of possible deterioration to move
promptly rather than permit deteri-
oration in quality as indicated in in-
dividual instances. The Operating
Committee, however, did agree that
the estimated amount left was lib-
eral and that all of our members,
should attempt to see the possibili-
ties of the future so as to act intel-
ligently in holding back for prob-
able better prices any fruit which
was in condition to be held. The
table immediately following makes
this self-evident:
Week Grape-
Ending Oranges fruit
April 4....-..... 819 1104
April 11............ 825 1157
April 18............ 853 829
April 25............ 983 1024-
May 2.............. 1295 990
May 9-----..............*1125 *1065"
May 16..............---- *1025 975
May 23..............* 800 600
May 30..............* 600 400
June 6............* 500 *2O
June 13............* 442 100

Total............39000 30000

California's Advance In Price
It is interesting to note the ad-
vance realized on California auction
averages. An examination of the.
auction sales so far indicates plain-
ly this advance in price is the last-
spurt on the part of the trade to
get hold of the few remaining na-
vels left, .as California Valencias so
far have averaged 40c per box less
than navels. Chain stores and other
merchandising factors soon will
have to switch to California Valen-
cias or Florida Valencias, and it is-
believed that Florida will again re-
sume its leadership in auction aver-
ages when the temporary spurt as
shown on the wind-up of California
navels is over.
Season's Auction Average Oranges
Through Friday, May 1, Florida
has sold 13,827 cars of oranges at
auction at a general average of.
$3.29 delivered, compared with 14,-
151 cars of Florida oranges two
years ago at $3.22 delivered.l:Inthe
face of the much heavier crop not
only here but in California and
especially in the face of the con-
tinued unemployment of five million
people and depression generally, this
is a good showing. Compared with
two years ago this same week, it is
also interesting to note that Flor-
ida's average of $3.75 delivered on
681 cars is 40c per box higher than
two years ago when 510 cars sold at
$3.35. In other words, the market
took 170 more cars and paid 40c a
box average more for them. Cali-
fornia on the other hand sold at
only 25c advance over two years
ago and had on the market 111 cars
less than two years ago.
F. O. B. Market Lower
The index analysis shown at the
beginning of this report indicates a
drop in the f. o. b. price on No. 1
Valencias of 10c and on No. 2s of
8c. Midseason grapefruit show a
(Continued on Page Three)

May 10, 1931

PaL-e 2

Page 2



(Continued from Page One)
publicly recognized to get the glory
' due.
California has an organization
representing 75% of the citrus in-
dustry, but that organization is 40
years old. Florida finally became or-
ganized through the Clearing House
With about 75% in full and in three
Years has put it over California in
comparative net returns. This was
made possible by the continued sta-
bilization effort that the Clearing
House has followed so strenuously.
Its ranks have been composed of
A highly competitive shippers but
there has been a growing control of
- supplies to the markets in the pro-
portion to market requirements, or
the achievement shown this year
could never have been made, be-
,cause Florida has to compare results
with a very worthy and long estab-
Slished competitor.
Confidence Born
In the stabilization effort formed,
Florida for the first time has had
constant inspection of grade and
pack to insure a uniform product
reaching the trade and the consumer.
Dishonest methods have been made
Most difficult. The efficient service
rendered by the impartial inspection
department of the Clearing House
has established a confidence in Flor-
ida that never existed before. The
intelligent handling of the crop by
Florida shippers in the teamwork
made possible by the Clearing House
Shas established confidence in the
Minds of the trade as well as in our
Florida sales managers in handling
its rapidly changing marketing prob-
At the beginning of the season
there was a vast amount of pessim-
ism. Red ink was quite the popular
talk. Many believed the entire crop
b could not possibly be marketed.
Many a time when demoralization
Otherwise would have resulted and
the morale of those meeting its dif-
ficult problems broken entirely, the
Clearing-House has pointed out the
way, shown how the shipments could
be spread out for the balance of the
, season and said: "take it easy-not
so fast." When live, aggressive com-
petitors learn to work together, they
no longer are working in the dark
Sand it is the fear of the unknown
that demoralizes rather than the
fear of facts.
Unknown Made Known
SThe Clearing House made the pre-
4viously unknown factors known.
And the man that was handling the
wires and directing sales in the dis-
tant market, having before him the
daily cross-section of experiences of
the rest of the shipper members and
Automatically furnished daily by
wire within an hour or two after the
+,markets the auction results, and
knowing the steadying influences of
;the Clearing House, was in an en-
tirely different frame of mind than
he would have been without the
benefit and council of his fellow-

(Continued from Page Two)
drop of 8c on No. Is and 3c on No.
2s, with Marsh Seedless showing the
same price on No 1 grapefruit and
a drop of 7c on No. 2 Marsh Seed-
California Navels Nearly Through
A wire from the California Fruit
Growers Exchange estimates that
about 100 cars of navels, including
Bloods, St. Michaels and Sweets,
will be shipped next week (ending
May 16) by them, the balance of
the shipments being Valencias, with
the estimated state movement being
2000 cars of oranges. About one-
third of the Exchange movement
this week was navels and odd varie-
ries, two-thirds being Valencias. The
Exchange further wired that Val-
encias at present were generally be-
ing picked orchard-run as to sizes
and that shipments were running
heavily 250s and smaller.
To April 29 only five cars of Cali-
fornia cantaloupes had been ship-
ped. Wired advice indicates slowly
increasing number of cars with
probably not over 25 cars leaving
daily by Monday, May 11, from
which time there will be a more
rapid increase reaching the peak
movement around May 25 or 30.
The California cantaloupe crop is
estimated as coming from 51,600
acres this year as compared with
50,900 last year, with about 5%
frost and wind damage. The Arizona
crop is estimated at 4500 cars com-
pared with 5436 cars last year, with
shipments not amounting to any-
thing before May 30.

operators through the Clearing
C. C. 'Teague, President of the
California Fruit Growers Exchange,
when in Florida most naturally ex-
pressed grave doubt as to the Clear-
ing House accomplishing the tre-
mendous task he saw was before it
in the year we have gone through.
Having been president of an organi-
zation 40 years old and comparing
it with what he considered an or-
ganization quite in the experimen-
tal stage, he publicly expressed his
doubt but did admit that this year

The Louisiana crop is estimated
at 2900 cars compared with 2387
last year and 2859 two years ago.
The California cherry crop is es-
timated at 1200 cars compared with
1017 last year; Washington's cherry
crop at 600 against 627.
The total apple crop is estimated
at 109,500 cars compared with 102,-
817 last year and 127,528 the year
Florida Bulk Movement To April 1
Through March 31 the railroads
have kindly furnished us with a seg-
regation of their bulk shipments
from the balance of the regular
packed box shipments in citrus.
8113 cars have been moved from the
State of Florida in bulk, or 14.6%
of the total movement from the be-
ginning to April 1.
Storage Holdings
Our members have in cold storage
149 cars of oranges and 309 cars of
grapefruit. A wire received from M.
B. Parker at Charlottesville, Vir-
ginia, urges our shippers to discon-
tinue shipping grapefruit into stor-
age under standard ventilation as
weather is too hot and fruit too ripe
to hold up in storage.

Bet Doc Liked That
"What is it?" asked the doctor
who had been hurriedly summoned
at midnight.
"Nothing this time, Doc," answer-
ed Newlywed, looking at his watch.
"My wife just wanted to see how
soon you could get here in case the
baby was suddenly taken ill."

would be the real test. Florida has
met this real test with a three-year-
old cooperative organization as com-
pared with his organization which
has heretofore been recognized as
the outstanding example of coopera-
tive success.
The following tabulated figures
are based on published auction re-
sults and can be proved by any
grower or shipper that has been re-
ceiving the daily auction informa-
tion which has been furnished to so
many of our grower and shipper

From Jan. 1 to May 8, 1928-29 and 1930-31
1928-29 1930-31 1928-29 1930-31
Cars Avg. Cars Avg. Cars Avg. Cars Avg.
9226 $3.17 9688 $3.36 7026 $3.86 7312 $3.33
Florida's gain over two California's loss over two
years ago ............................ 19 years ago ............................ .53
(To Auction Inclusive)

Producing Crop ...........------...-------------
Picking and Hauling ---.........------......------
Packing and Marketing..-..........----.. ------
Freight and Icing-----...................------------
Auction Charges ................----------------
Total.............---- .---------------
Deducted from Year's Auction Average leaves
net profit over production cost..---........................

$ .70



(red ink)

Citrus Exports

The following figures, furnished
by the United States Department of
Commerce, show the grapefruit and
orange exports from New York,
Jacksonville, Los Angeles, San Fran-
cisco and Tampa for the weeks end-
ing April 18, April 25 and May 2:
Week Ending April 18
New York-London .................. 9,743
New York-Liverpool .............. 2,535
New York-Southampton ........ 1,133
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,527
New York-Hull ---................... 100
Jacksonville-London ..............15,745
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 3,794
Jacksonville-London* ............ 3,535
Jacksonville-Liverpool* ........ 475
Jacksonville-Bristol* -----....... 250
Jacksonville-Manchester* ...... 75
Jacksonville-Avonmouth* ...... 25
Los Angeles-London .............. 200

New York-Liverpool .............. 34
New York-Glasgow ................ 308
Jacksonville-London ---........... 867
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 829
Los Angeles-London ..---.........13,900
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 1,500
Los Angeles-Glasgow ........-- .. 1,000
San Francisco-Liverpool ........ 2,000
San Francisco-Rotterdam ...... 500

Total...----------... .. ....................20,938
Week Ending April 25
New York-London .......-....--- ...11,504
New York-Liverpool .............. 4,943
New York-Southampton ........ 1,040
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 2,000
Ios Angeles-London ---......-.... 500
Jacksonville-Newcastle* ........ 125
Jacksonville-Glasgow* .......... 50
Tampa-Hamburg, Germany*.. 25

Total.....---...-- ..--..--......------- 20187
New York-London ......----.. 141
New York-Liverpool .---...... 319
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........43,000
Los Angeles-Southampton .... 6,000
Los Angeles-London ............. 1,000

Total.-................................ 0,460
Week Ending May 2
New York-London ................. 9,711
New York-Liverpool .............. 4,245
New York-Southampton ........ 813
New York-Glasgow ............... 2,672
Los Angeles-London ....-........ 1,100
Los Angeles-Liverpool .......... 1,600
Jacksonville-Liverpool ..........11,918
Jacksonville-Liverpool* ........ 910

Total...................................-- 32,969
New York-London .......------------ 387
New York-Glasgow ................ 1,038
New York-Southampton ........ 191 .
Los Angeles-Liverpool ..........-33,000
Los Angeles-London ..............20,000
Los Angeles-Glasgow .--..---.....---1,600
Jacksonville-Liverpool .......... 1,171

Total...................................... 58,387

Canned grapefruit.

Page 3


May 10. 1931


(Continued from Page One)
bilized must go deeper than the im-
mediate price return. Our industry
must reach out in research work to
find its relative position in the food
markets. A deep and thorough study
of statistical data, developed intel-
ligently and then employed intelli-
gently, is the only basis for stabili-
zation of industry. Data are the re-
corded vital facts of the past and
the only guidance of any scientific
value for the future.
Need Consumer's Confidence
Stabilization of our citrus indus-
try calls emphatically for a recog-
nition of the many complex forces
which must be met and honestly
dealt with. An industry to be per-
manent must have the good will and
confidence of its customers. That is
why the Clearing House, as one of'
its fundamentals, insists that its
members' products live up to the
minimum requirements at least of
U. S. standards. Without this stand-
ardization or stabilization of grade
and pack the Florida industry neces-
sarily suffers, the just with the un-
just, as Florida's reputation is sen-
sitive to the whims and suspicions
of the trade. This is especially true
as inside merit rather than outside
appearance must be the measure-
ment of the amount of confidence
and good will that Florida can hold
in its competitive relations. Stabili-
zation therefore also calls for prop-
er legislation and strong enforce-
ment of such legislation on maturity
Stabilization again calls for con-
trol, for greater and greater con-
trol, as competitively our citrus in-
dustry is meeting not only other or-
ganized citrus industries, but other
food industries similarly organized
to secure their full proportion of the
consumer's dollar. There must be
control of supplies from week to
week. There can be no fixing of
prices or even remote uniformity of
prices without control of supplies.
This is volume control.
There must be intelligent distri-
bution geographically. Stabilization
calls for reaching out and command-
ing for the moment at least the in-
terest of the consumer as well as the
retailer and the jobber, distracting
his attention long enough so that in
the rush of affairs he will remember
and turn to Florida for a portion of
his needs. This is advertising. If the
industry as a whole cannot adver-
tise, it again must do its best to
hold what attention can be gained
by as representative publicity and
advertising as may be possible.
Stabilization of our citrus indus-
try is also equally dependent, if not
more so, on its relations right here
at home in our own fair State of
Florida. Until some other organiza-
tion may come into the field that
will be equally comprehensive and
inclusive and that stands ready to
assume for the entire industry such
responsibilities as may be placed

I It's Billie Burke's Treat---And Ours I

Children attending the health
clinic now being conducted by Dr.
Ira Walton Drew at the Philadel-
phia Osteopathic Hospital had the
honor and fun recently of receiving
some Florida oranges and grape-
fruit right from the hands of the
famous Billie Burke, for many years
a Broadway and movie star. The
children pictured above probably
didn't know "what it was all about,"
nor did they know that the growers
of Florida (through the Clearing
House) had been making it possible
for them to supplement their daily
bread with a real health-giving and
delicious fruit. The picture above

upon it for the industry as a whole,
the Clearing House must take this
responsibility and be the mouth-
piece for the Florida citrus industry.
The Clearing House, of necessity,
becomes Florida's citrus manage-
ment in the broad sense of the word.
This management of Florida's citrus
industry, therefore, depends upon
its coherent parts in Florida. Our
grower members might be thought
of as investors in the Clearing
House from which they hope to have
dividends, in its effort towards sta-
bilization, or citrus management.
Its stockholders or growers cannot
be ignored and very greatly influ-
ence management policies.
Net returns are the measurements.
Discipline Volume Control
"Volume," which has been wor-
shipped by industry in general to
the point of bringing about in many
industries the means of their own
destruction, cannot be, in the Clear-
ing House, its prime purpose except
so far as volume control may permit
creating a disciplined industry. As
and in forcefully working towards
take whatever steps necessary in re-

shows Billie Burke tempting the lit-
tle tot in the arms of the nurse with
one of the luscious Florida oranges
which the famous comedienne had
presented to the children. Distribu-
tion of Florida oranges and grape-
fruit by the Clearing House has been
under way in this clinic in Philadel-
phia for several weeks and the re-
sult not only has been beneficial to
Florida as far as publicity is con-
cerned, but has been a real factor in
introducing Florida oranges and
grapefruit to thousands of children,
many of whom still look forward to
"an orange in their Christmas stock-

stricting all low grade supplies. We
must bring about economic steps in
production, packing and marketing
an din forcefully working towards
one end only-the greatest possible
net returns to the industry, rather
than clinging to the foolish view-
point, so commonly held, that vol-
ume in itself means profit and suc-
The present nature of citrus man-
agement or stabilization in the gen-
eral direction that the Clearing
House is attempting to give, is that
of seeing its problem steadily and
seeing it as a whole. Recognizing as
it. does its necessarily complex prob-
lems, it admits its limitations as well
as its possibilities, and believes that
there is no inherent disgrace in
recognizing that its machinery
would be more efficient if it devel-
oped less friction as the result of
having a greater amount of moral
lubrication throughout its mechani-
cal parts.

St. Peter: "And here is your gol-
den harp."
Newly Arrived American: "How
much is the first payment?"

Processing Citrus

Shows Progress at

Experiment Station'

Scientific Work Being Carried
Out in Effort to Extend
Marketing Season

By A. F. CAMP, Horticulturist
(Paper Read at Horticultural Soci-'
ety Meeting, Miami, April 16)
One of the outstanding needs of
the citrus industry in Florida has
been the extension of the marketing
season. We have been faced with the
necessity of marketing an ever in-
creasing volume of fruit in a period
of seven or eight months. This not
only crowds the market badly but--
leaves several months during which
Florida citrus fruits are not placed
before the buying public. The prob-
lem is further complicated by the
fact that many of our varieties of
citrus fruits have a very marked and
comparatively short ripening period
and must be shipped within that
period. In addition to this we have
for several months a very large mar-
ket for citrus fruits within our own
state which we cannot supply. As a
result we have periods when, in
large crop years, fruit is present in
a great surplus but so far we are
without adequate means of holding-
this surplus over for the periods
when we have a market and no
Some means of lengthening this
period of marketing is greatly to be
desired and it is natural to turn to
the problem of cold storage as offer-
ing one of the most feasible an-
swers. Cold storage has done a great
deal for the apple industry and to-
day we buy apples months after they
have been picked. This extension of
the apple season has been of untold
value to the apple growers and gives
us a key to what might be possible
in the citrus industry along the same
Avoid Supply Peaks
With methods available by which
citrus fruits could be held safely for
from three to five months, it would
be possible to eliminate the present
shipping peaks which injure the;
market and to carry the extra fruit
over into periods when the pressure'
on the market is lessened. It would
also be possible to carry fruit in
storage through the summer to sup-
ply our own and other summer mar-
kets and further relieve the winter
markets. By relieving pressure on
the market at critical times and sup-
plying markets now unsupplied it'
would be easily possible to add tre-
mendously to the value of our citrus
Unfortunately considerable diffi-
culty has been experienced in the
cold storage of citrus fruits. The re-
sults have been uncertain and the.
losses heavy; where many have suc-
ceeded splendidly, followers in. their
footsteps have experienced heavy
losses. A great deal of work remains
to be done before we can get the


Paee 4

May 10, 1931


best results from cold storage but
it appears to offer the best available
possibility for extending our" citrus
season immediately with the grove
acreage now planted.
Processing Becomes Factor
Together with cold storage of
fruit, we find developing the idea
of marketing the fruit in other
forms than as fresh fruit, i. e., as
canned fruit or juice, frozen juice,
marmalades, etc. The canning of
Grapefruit already offers a market
4 for sound grapefruit that is unsight-
ly in appearance or off size. This re-
lieves the pressure on the fresh fruit
market and permits the more sight-
ly grades of fruit to be marketed to
better advantage. A similar relief, is
to be hoped for in the orange mar-
keting situation as the result of the
establishment of the marketing of
frozen orange juice. This product is
being studied on a large scale in
this state at the present time and
upon,,the, successful, marketing of
the large amounts of juice now be-
ing produced hangs a great deal of
Like the canning of grapefruit,
the marketing of frozen orange
juice tends to relieve the market
congestion for fresh fruit and also
to extend the marketing period into
those months when we ordinarily do
not-have fresh fruit available. To a
certain extent these products com-
'pete with the fresh fruit but all
plans have their weak spots and in
both of these cases the good effect
should greatly outweigh the ill ef-
fects. The last three seasons have.
shown strikingly that the marketing
k of a small amount of fruit is much
more profitable than the marketing
of a large amount and it is hoped
that these various outlets for No. 3
fruit will enhance the value of the
higher grades.
Refrigeration Experiments
Realizing the importance of the
above considerations we have, dur-
Sing the past year, constructed at the
Experiment Station at Gainesville
an experimental refrigeration plant
with which we hope to be of some
material help to the industry in
solving some of the problems per-
taining to the cold storage of fruit
and the freezing of fruit pulps and
juices. We now have available six
,rooms for storage experiments and
these are being run at the following
temperatures: 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and
60 degrees Fahrenheit. Each of
these rooms is controlled accurately
within one degree Fahrenheit (10F)
and each is capable of accommodat-
ing a half carload of fruit without
interfering with proper air circula-
tion or the accurate maintenance of
temperature. With this range of
temperatures it should be possible
to have temperatures both above
and below the optimum storage tem-
perature-a very necessary require-
ment in carrying on experimental
,,cold storage work.
In addition to the storage rooms
we have two freezer rooms-one
operating from 0oFahr. to -10o
Fahr. and one at +10o Fahr.
These rooms are for use in car-

trying on experiments on frozen
products and are chiefly used for
the storage of such products. Some
additional facilities for this work in
the shape of a small quick freezer
are being installed and will be ready
shortly. This equipment will include
a small low temperature brine bath
operating at -200 to -300 Fahr. or
any higher temperature desired and
furnish brine for any type of equip-
ment desired. Lower temperatures
than -300 Fahr. are obtained with
Dry-Ice but such temperatures are
not ordinarily necessary in fruit
work. With the above equipment we
will be prepared to handle all ordi-
nary lines of research on frozen pro-
ducts and cold storage that may
Various Wrappers Tested
In the handling of citrus fruits
in cold storage there are three chief
problems: (1) the drying out of the
fruit, (2) pitting of the rind, and
(3) decay. We are planning experi-
ments designed to. throw additional
light on all of these problems. We
already have work started by a grad-
uate student, Mr. Fifield, on the use
of various types of wrappers such
as waxed paper, oiled paper, Cello-
phane, parchment, aluminum foil,
etc., to determine the influence of
such wrappers on keeping quality of
the fruit. This work is being carried
on at all temperatures as the fruit
frequently reacts differently to tem-
perature when different wrappers
are used. Other work on the effect
of surface coatings and other treat-
ments has been started and we have
a few fruits that have been kept in
good shape since the middle of De-
cember, 1930. The effect of temper-
ature and humidity is, of course, of
fundamental importance but the sit-
uation is complicated when the fruit
reacts differently to temperature,
according to treatment and wrap-
per. As usual the amount of stem-
end rot in stored fruit has been dis-
couraging but it is hoped that the
Plant Pathology Department will be
able to aid in the solution of this
vexing problem.
Beyond the immediate problems
we find the very difficult problem
of estimating the value and import-
ance of the feeffect of cultural treat-
ments on the keeping quality of the
fruit. This field will have to be ex-
tensively explored and we are plan-
ning work with this particularly in
mind. It is not ant all improbable that
in years to come citrus fruits may
be cultured particularly for cold
storage, the fertilization and culti-
vation being adjusted to this end. In
any such experiments the variety
and root-stock and the soil as well
as the fertilizer and cultural treat-
ments will have to be considered.
What Occurs After Storage
There is an additional problem in
such work and that is the problem
of what happens after the fruit is
removed from storage. Fruit may
keep in splendid condition in the
storage rooms but go to pieces in a
very short time after it is removed
from storage. This is not important
where the fruit is being removed
from storage and immediately

juiced as has been the case in some
of the northern cities where com-
panies operating orange juice stores
have stored fruit for summer use
and removed the necessary amount
of fruit each day. It is a problem of
prime importance, however, when
the fruit is to be merchandised
through the regular channels so
that it will be out of storage two
days or more before being consum-
ed. All of our work calls for the ex-
amination of the fruit at various
intervals after removal from storage
in order to take care of this im-
portant point.
In addition to work on citrus we
are also studying the effect of stor-
age on other fruits and another
graduate student, Mr. Lyle, is study-
ing the storage of avocados. This
work has already developed some
very interesting angles. I hope that
at the next meeting of this society
he will be able to offer a very inter-
esting paper along this line.
I want to turn now for a moment
to the question of frozen products.
When Mr. Clarence Birdseye started
the quick freezing of fish he started
what has developed into the begin-
nings of a great field of work. The
idea of merchandising perishable
foods in individual containers in a
frozen condition bids fair today to
affect modern horticulture as exten-
sively as did the tin can a few years
ago. Already meat and fish in frozen
package form are standard products
and such horticultural products as
raspberries, spinach, peas, peaches
and now orange juice are being ex-
tensively marketed and received
with great favor. Many of the pro-
ducts are the equal of the fresh ma-
terial in quality and are even indis-
tinguishable from it.
A Frozen Meal
In the not distant future the
housewife in our larger cities will
be able to buy a complete dinner in
the frozen state and with the sim-
plest preparation place it on the
table. I recently had the pleasure of
eating a luncheon made up almost
entirely from frozen products-fish
and steak of the very best, peas, as-
paragus and corn indistinguishable
from the fresh product, and frozen
raspberries and cream for dessert-
all of the products frozen last sum-
The limitations of this sort of
marketing are rapidly being elimi-
nated. Processes are being worked
out for freezing various types of
products and the best varieties for
freezing and the best type of pack-
age for marketing are being deter-
mined. The refrigerator companies
are designing showcases for display-
ing products in stores in the frozen
condition and electric house refrig-
erators are coming out with com-
partments for holding frozen foods.
This development is separate from
the bulk freezing of fruits that has
been used in some fields for several
years. Strawberries, for instance,
are packed on a large scale for pre-
servers, the fruit being packed with
sugar in barrels and frozen and re-
tained in this condition until the
preserver is ready to use it. .Fruit is

now being packed in this way in
Florida for shipment to northern
canners and to pie bakers. This sort
of thing is quite different from the
development of the individual pack-
age method of freezing in which the
product is frozen in a package of
.uitable size for home consumption.
The freezing of orange juice is a
part of this great development and
will have in its favor the great na-
tional trend toward frozen products
that is now taking place. Additional
impetus has been given to the move-
ment by the difficulties attached to
tanning the juice successfully. Two
companies are now freezing the
juice on a large scale, using the in-
dividual package and intend to de-
liver it by milk wagon through their
present distributing system. So far
the work of marketing this new pro-
duct is proceeding under the most
favorable auspices and the highest
standards are being maintained in
the production of the product.
Florida Leading the Way
Just what the future of this de-
velopment will be it is difficult to
say. Much will depend on the large
scale experiments now being carried
on. Probably at this point a note of
warning should be sounded against
too optimistic expectations. As now
constituted, the juice plants offer an
outlet for No. 3 fruit similar to the
outlet offered in the grapefruit in-
dustry by canning. The companies
involved are expending large
amounts of money in this work on
this basis, whereas there has been
a tendency in some quarters to ex-
pect more of them. The growers of
the state must work with them in
developing this new industry if we
are to benefit properly from its de-
velopment. Florida is the natural
setting for the development and we
should strive to keep it here to as
great an extent as possible. Other
citrus areas are not asleep to the
situation and are likely to offer in-
ducements for such developments
that we will have to combat in the
future. Extensive experiments are
already being carried on in Califor-
nia and some foreign countries
along this line and we have to keep
pace if we are to hold our initial ad-
There is still a great deal of ex-
perimental work to be done on
frozen orange juice. We know far
too little about the actual constitu-
tion- of the juice and the factors in-
fluencing its keeping quality. The
last word has not been said on meth-
ods of either extracting or freezing.
The relation of varietal and cultural
characteristics to the keeping qual-
ity of the juice needs to be deter-
mined. Much effort is being spent
in determining the best means of
keeping the counts of bacteria and
yeast at the lowest possible point.
Florida has a "head start" on these
problems and we hope to maintain
our advantage.

Lawyer: "Have you ever been
Accused: "Rather-I have been
married ten years and my mother-
in-law lives with us."

May 10, 1931

~US~' V
---- --

P o.n K



Citrus Grove Practices

On the Hammock Lands

Of Indian RiverlArea

By L. R. HIGHFILL, Cocoa
(Excerpt of Paper Read at Horticultural Society Meeting, Miami, April 14)

It has been my privilege (during
the past twelve years) to observe,
advise and direct the cultivation and
fertilizing of hammock groves, from
the North to the South end of the
Indian River section. Also it has
been my privilege to have direct
charge of one or two groves that
are known to be typical hammock
The fame of Indian River brands
of fruit has become fairly well
known to the average grower in
Florida, and to the principal mar-
kets. The generally accepted theory
is that fruit from this section pos-
sesses superior quality. Much fruit
is produced in this section that at-
tests this fact. I have seen just as
fine fruit in other sections of the
state, but only on soils of a similar
character to that of the hammock
land of the Indian River section.
Mostly Sour Orange Stock
The root stock on these groves is
almost entirely sour orange. The
early growers often got their root
stock from the wild sour orange
trees that they found growing on
the very land they were clearing.
Many orange trees, in these groves,
that have been giving their owners
wonderful fruit for years and years,
are on native wild orange root stock
that may have been 40 years old
when they were budded or grafted.
In all plantings of budded trees in
later years, the sour stock has been
used almost entirely on all hammock
lands, both on the high hammock as
well as on the low hammock, and in
fact up to the last ten years this
type of root stock was used almost
entirely throughout this section, on
all types of soils. In recent years
much lemon root has found its way
ffito pIntirgs of groves, but not -on
any of the hammock soils.
These early growers from neces-
sity were forced to do the greater
part of their cultivation by hand
labor, and with no more improved
equipment than a one-mule plow
and harrow. From this we naturally
find that they did as little cultiva-
tion as possible. Their biggest task,
after the land was cleared, was to
cut down the heavy vegetable
growth from time to time, and hoe
in their fertilizer. Often times they
did not even hoe in their fertilizers.
This practice of limited cultivation
has been handed down and today
even with more systematic planting
and improved tools, the cultivation
in all hammock groves is compara-
tively small.
Individual Attention
There is one thing that has al-
ways impressed me in this system
of cultivation by hand as followed by
these early growers, and which is

practiced very extensively even to-
day in those famous hammock
groves north of Titusville, on Merrit
Island, and along the ten-mile sec-
tion west of Ft. Pierce, it has auto-
matically brought with it a system
of making the individual tree the
unit of attention. Not one tree
escapes the attention of the owner
as he leads or directs the hand work
through these groves. It becomes his
aim to make every tree do its best.
Every tree comes before his inspec-
tion and if there is some special at-
tention needed, the individual tree
gets it.
In the matter of fertilizing the
hammock groves, the owner has in
a general way, the same problems
as those of the grove owner any-
where. It is largely a matter of
judgment, and ability to correctly
analyze the needs of the tree, and
then make the application. In the
very beginning the hammock grove
gets some fertilizer. It may be a
handful, two or three times-a year,
according to the appearance of the
tree. Usually the formula is very
low in ammonia and high in potash.
This is desirable for the best char-
acter of growth on the young tree.
Care is taken to avoid forcing
the tree too much. It is an easy mat-
ter to do this on those rich ham-
mock lands. At the age of six years
the trees are getting only about
eight to 10 pounds of fertilizer a
year, while at the age of from 12
to 20 they get from 20 to 30 pounds
per year. At this point the grove
may begin to show some distress

Copies of Talks on
Cultivation Methods
Free for the Asking

So great was the interest mani-
fested by the growers attending
the Clearing House Regional
Meetings this spring in the talks
on grove cultivation made at the
meetings by citrus experts, that
the Clearing House has prepared
in condensed form typewritten
copies of the various addresses.
Copies of these talks will be
sent free of charge to any grower
requesting them. If you were un-
able to attend the Regional Meet-
ing held in your district, or if you
did and would like to have the
copies of the talks for more
leisurely study, simply drop a line
to the Clearing House asking for
a copy of the Regional Meeting
addresses, and one will be sent to
you without charge.


from exhaustion of the native rich-
ness of the soil; from this time on
the hammock grove owner is facing
the problems of replenishing his or-
ganic material, similar to that con-
fronting the grove owner of thinner
Usually the new grove will use a
formula of fertilizer running lower
in ammonia and higher in potash
than is used on higher lands. I have
known some hammock groves to re-
ceive not more than 3 % ammonia
and not less than 8 % potash at any
time of the year, and often the sum-
mer application would be 2% am-
monia and 10% to 12% of potash.
The phosphoric acid is kept rather
constant at 6 % to 8%. In the past,
some hammock grove owners have
in some cases resorted to the use of
all-chemical fertilizers. It has been
my observation that where this prac-
tice was followed over a period of
years, in spite of the tremendous
amount of humus that was in those
*soils, the trees began to harden.
The leaves became smaller, and thin-
ner. The growth is shorter and less
vigorous, and the fruit begins to de-
crease in size. I have never yet seen
or created any injury to groves on
heavy hammock soils by the use of
a reasonable amount of organic ma-
terials in the fertilizer, and particu-
larly on these old hammock groves.
The drain on these soils from years
of crop production is tremendous.
These originally rich soils cannot
stand the strain indefinitely.
It has been my observation that

Adams Packing Co., Inc-Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc.
______ _Beresford
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
__ ----O__Orlando
Bilgore, David & Co.......Clearwater
Browder-Fowler Fruit Co.-...Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc... ..- Plant City
Dixie Fruit & Pro. Co...........Tampa
Fields, S. A. & Co..--.----Leesburg
Florida Citrus Exchange .-__.Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co.... Plant City
Fosgate, Chester C. Co.. Orlando
Gentile Bros. Co--.....-.... Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co..--__ Leesburg
Hills Bros. Co. of Florida, The
.............................................Tam pa
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
___------__ ------__------- ---Davenport
Keen, J. W.....---------........ Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co ........... -- Eustis
Lee County Packing Co.....Ft. Myers
Lee, J. C., Sr ..-----_......-----Leesburg
Mammoth Grove, Inc-...Lake Wales
Maxcy, G...............................Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc........-_.--...Frostproof
McKenney-Steck, Inc...........Orlando
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co.
____ ___..... St. Petersburg
Mouser, W. H. & Co...O..Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc.-..-- ..... Oviedo

May 10, 1931

with all humus that is returned to
these soils annually from the na-
turally heavy vegetable growth,
that the supply of organic material
is steadily depleted by the removal
of crops and development of trees,
over a period of years. It has been
my observation that the bacterial ac-
tivity is reduced even on these rich
soils to such a state that the addi-
tion of some form of quickly avail-
able material in addition to the
cover crops, that will stimulate bac-
terial activity is necessary. I know
of no better way of doing this than
by the use of a properly balanced
fertilizer containing organic ma-
erials in accordance with the needs
of the soil.
.The reverses that have come to
growers during the past few years
have been disturbing, and the low
returns of fruit this year have made
growers everywhere particularly
susceptible to new ideas, untried
formulas, and half-baked experi-
ments, which are being offered. I
do not want to convey the impres-
sion that I do not heartily approve
of research and experimental work.
On the contrary, research work that
is carried on with a proper degree
of thoroughness and over a suffici-
ent period of time and the results
carefully and accurately checked
and properly analyzed, and the con-
clusions placed in words that can be
readily understood by the average
grower, and put into practice-this -
sort of research work is of inestim-
able value.

Orange Belt Packing Co.__ Eustis
Richardson-Marsh Corp. Orlando
Roe, Wm. G............Winter Haven
Roper, B. H._____..-- Winter Garden
Stetson, John B. Est. of..__DeLand
Sullivan, H. C. rostproof '
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
-- --Ar4ad
Associated With Other Shipper-
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn.
___Babson Park
Chase & Co.. -....... Sanford
Citrus Grove Dev. Co., The
Babson Park
DeLand Packing Co.____. DeLand
Fellsmere Growers, Inc..-Fellsmere
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co
Davenport r
Indian River Fruit Growers .........
International Fruit Corp. Orlando
Johnson, W. A .-__-_.- Ft. Ogden
Lakeland Co., Inc. The......Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
_ ___ _Lake Wales
Middleton, W. D..... Isle of Pines
Mitchell, J. M.- ___ Elfers,,
Nocatee Packing Co., Inc.....Nocatee
Ulmer, H. D....__... .... Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc.----Valrico.
West Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co. West Frostproof

Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of this organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House. as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to join and ship through one of these operators.


Cultural Methods Change

As Growers Analyze Costs

Extension Citriculturist
(Radio Address Over Station WRUF)
Economic conditions affecting the
citrus industry are forcing certain
changes in many of the time-honor-
ed practices in connection with cit-
rus fruit production in Florida. In-
creased production and other fac-
tors resulting in lower price levels
of fruit demand strict economy in
grove management to make possible
a fair profit on the grove operation.
Therefore, recent trends in grove
management are toward the adop-
tion of cultural practices that tend
to lower production cost and im-
prove fruit quality. More than ever
before, growers are seeking facts on
which to build sound economic grove
Cut Fertilizer Costs
In an effort to reduce production
Cost, the fertilization program usual-
ly receives first attention. It is this
phase of grove management that
presents the greatest possibilities in
reducing production cost. Here, a
rapid trend toward the use of inor-
Sganic fertilizers is noted. It has been
clearly demonstrated that inorganic
-fertilizers produce results in both
yield and quality equal to organic
fertilizers, and at a much lower cost.
The next logical step in reducing
the fertilizer bill is toward the quite
general use of mixtures of higher
Analysis. This is encouraged by re-
cent developments in the synthetic
nitrogen industry. Such analyses as
9-9-9, 12-12-16, 20-16-22 are rapid-
ly coming into general use. The sav-
ing in mixing bags, freight and dis-
tribution is very evident in the use
of mixtures carrying three to four
times as much plant food as some
of the low grade mixtures carry.
There is a tendency to reduce the
Amount of phosphoric acid in ferti-
lizer applications to old bearing
groves, and to draw on the surplus
built up in the soil by years-of heavy
applications of this plant food ele-
ment. There can be but little doubt
tthat this reverted phosphate sup-
plies phosphorus to citrus trees un-
-der proper cover-cropping and grove
management practices.
Muriate of Potash Cheaper
Muriate of potash is replacing
sulphate to a considerable extent.
SThis too results in a material saving
in the fertilizer bill. There is also
ma tendency to use less potash in cit-
rus fertilization than has been used
in the past. The limited amount of
experimental data available seems
to support a ratio of about 4 ammo-
nia to 5 potash. Where a ratio of
three plant food elements is still ad-
hered to, 4-4-5 or 12-12-15 is much
,in demand.
Another practice in citrus ferti-
lization worthy of observation is to
apply only nitrogen in January or
February and make up the potash
and phosphorus needs of the trees

in May or fall either by using mix-
tures running extra high in these
two elements or by the use of sim-
ple materials. Many are using sim-
ple materials altogether, such as ni-
trate of soda, sulphate of ammonia,
urea, nitrate of lime, superphos-
phate, and sulphate and muriate of
potash. This practice can be follow-
ed economically only by growers
who have sufficient knowledge of
fertilizer materials to be able to cal-
culate their grove needs and to un-
derstand something of plant food
Careful Application
More thought is being given to
the matter of efficiency in the appli-
cation of fertilizers. It is known that
the fertilizer must be applied to the
mass of soil where the fibrous tree
roots are before the plant food it
contains can be taken up by the
roots and passed into the tree. It
has been found that 40 to 60 per-
cent of the fibrous roots of a large
citrus tree are in the soil covered
by the tree top. This percent runs
even higher where the roots in the
middles have been killed off by ex-
cessive cultivation. Thus growers
are finding that the highest effici-
ency is attained where fertilizers
are applied on the surface in pro-
portion to the active root concentra-
tion beneath. It has not been found
necessary to work fertilizers into
sandy citrus soils for best results.
The value of cover-crops in a cit-
rus grove has been so clearly demon-
strated that the practice of produc-
ing organic matter in the grove has
become almost universal. The trend
is toward producing the organic
matter so much needed in our sandy
soils by growing more cover crops
in the grove rather than by trying
to supply it by purchasing organic
commercial fertilizers. Many are go-
ing a step further and supplement-
ing this organic matter produced in
the grove by bringing in vegetation
produced on land outside the grove.
With the rapid decomposition of or-
ganic matter in our sandy soils, and
synthetic process, comes the recog-
nized problem of maintaining the
optimum nitrogen level in the soil
for best tree growth and quality
fruit production.
Cut Cultivation Costs
Since these problems are so close-
ly tied up with grove cultivation,
this phase of citrus culture is receiv-
ing serious consideration at this
time, both in an effort to improve
quality and reduce production cost.
It has been demonstrated in a num-
ber of bearing groves throughout
the state that the old practice culti-
vation cost can be reduced 30 to 75
percent, and at the same time the
quality of the fruit greatly improv-
ed. It has been found that coarse
texture of fruit is largely due to im-
proper cultivation. It is also noted
that root pruning by deep winter

cultivation usually results in a disc-
ing back of small branches just in
time to pave the way for melanose
infection the following spring.
In the control of citrus diseases
more attention is being given to pre-
vention-to maintaining soil condi-
tions more favorable for the growth
of vigorous trees-rather than to
applying some remedy directly to
the disease after it has been brought
on by some improper cultural prac-
tice. It is significant to note here
that so-called dieback of trees and
ammoniation of fruit are rapidly
disappearing from individual groves
and areas of the citrus belt in which
grove cultivation is being materially
Natural Control of Pests
Increased attention is being given
to natural control of grove insects.
It has been observed quite generally
that all friendly fungi thrive best in
groves that are cultivated least and
where cover crops are allowed to
grow over the greatest part of the
year, other conditions being on a
comparative basis. Under such con-
ditions scale control does not re-
quire regular oil spraying but is
handled by an occasional spot spray-
ing of trees showing heavy infesta-
tion. More attention is being given
to encouraging the development of

California Having

Maturity Troubles

On Valencia Crop

From a letter just received from
one of the shippers in California, it
seems that some of the Valencias
are being held back because they
are too sour and do not pass the 8
to 1 test. This letter in part reads
as follows:
"Shipments for last week con-
tinued abnormally low. This, no
doubt, owing to the difficulty in get-
ting under way with Valencias, part-
ly on account of some not testing up
to the 8 to 1 standard, and partly
on account of the necessity of color-
ing most of the fruit which slows
(Continued on Page Eight)

scale fungi,.and greater use is being
made of natural control of scale in-
sects as well as whitefly, rust mites
and mealy bugs. Growers are report-
ing whitefly control by the use of
red aschersonia at a cost of less
than one-tenth that of spraying with
an oil emulsion. Effort is made to
avoid the use of any more oil emul-
sion on the trees than is necessary
for economic insect control.

They're Scattered

Get a binder for your back copies
of the



Keep every number of
the News. There isn't
an issue that doesn't
contain some informa-
tion you will want to
refer to, some of these H

Just fill in the coupon E-2
below and mail it in to
theFlorida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House As-
sociation at Winter Ha-
ven, together with dol-
lar bill, check or money
order and the binder
will be forwarded to

- - - - - - - - - - - - -
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back copies of the Florida
Clearing House News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out of the
U. S.) currency, check, money order.
Name ..........................................................................................
Town .......................................................................... ..........

May 10, 1931

Page 7





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.




Ft. Ogden
SWinter Park
.Lake Placid
- DeLand
Winter Garden
S Tampa
Winter Haven
S Cocoa
Mt. Dora

Abandoned Groves
a Menace
(From "Texas Citriculture")
"Last October in an article entitled 'Civic
Citrus Improvement,' it was pointed out in
Citriculture that small abandoned citrus
plantings scattered at miscellaneous places
should be destroyed. Their unsightliness was
taken to account, their menace to other prop-
erties in harboring pests was shown, and their
uselessness dwelt upon. Every method of
getting results from the facetious to the coer-
cive were employed. So far there has been
no improvement-a number of the small neg-
lected plantings are still to be seen especially
within valley townsites.
"It seems particularly desirable for the rea-
sons just named that these obnoxious speci-
mens be removed. Although the article re-
ferred to was reproduced in several promi-
nent Valley newspapers, the urge even upon
one owner of such property to help the mat-
ter along by setting an example and pulling
'his trees out, still seems to be missing. There
is little doubt that some of these premises be-
long to companies, forming all the more rea-
sons for civic pride in the matter which
should result in the elimination of these trees.
"Let us pause here briefly and consider
how a matter of this nature is handled in Cal-
ifornia. California considers such trees a me-
nace, and has given them the recognition of
a law that provides for their removal, or else
their upkeep. From the Pacific Rural Press
we reproduce the following news item, which
is interesting in this respect:
'Seventeen notices were served this past
season by the Los Angeles County Agricul-
tural Commissioner's office on forty-three
acres of abandoned citrus trees that were re-
garded as a menace to the surrounding or-
chards. The abandoned trees in all instances
were found with insect pests and the notices
were served for the purpose of requiring the

owners of the property to control these pests.
'Deputy Agricultural Commissioner H. H.
Wilcomb stated that in all cases where no-
tices were served on abandoned orchards this
past season the owners cut or pulled out the
trees rather than go to the expense of control
by spraying or fumigation.
'The forty-three acres mentioned above
do not represent the total citrus acreage upon
which notices were served by the county agri-
cultural commissioner's office this past year,
but included only the neglected properties.
The number of trees removed was approxi-
mately nine hundred seventy-five.
'Pulling the trees out does not usually
cost more than the expense of one spray or
fumigation,' Wilcomb said, 'and it does away
with the possibility of having to control a pest
over a period of years in the future. It is
quite difficult to rehabilitate a citrus tree that
has been neglected for several years. Where
ever such trees are left standing without care
their removal increases the value of the land
and makes it more sightly. Also it saves the:
owner the added expense of spraying or fumi-'
gating to protect his neighbors.'
"Texas has powers with which it is possible
to make compulsory the cleaning up of seri-
ously infested properties. But funds are lack-
ing to keep a force active and it is not prob-
able that a regular force could be profitably;
employed in this kind of work. We should,
however, be continually looking forward to
future legislation that will progress with the
citrus industry and give it added protection in
all its details as such security is needed."

Tangerine Control
Practically all of the tangerines consumed
in the United States and Canada are grown in
Florida. Control of the sale and distribution:
of these tangerines is entirely within the:
hands of Florida shippers and growers. Any
marketing plans made by them are not sub-
ject to interference by competition from other
states or countries.
It would seem that this commodity is un-
usually subject to control. This season's ex-
perience clearly indicates that it is time that
such control was exercised and that during
the coming summer marketing plans and poli.
cies for a wide and intelligent distribution of
tangerines should be considered.
Present Clearing House members together
with Dr. Phillips, who has recently joined the
Clearing House, shipped this season 90% of
all the tangerines. It is the purpose of the
Clearing House to immediately begin a study
of this season's distribution together with a
study of the vital statistics of the consuming
areas so as to determine those particular
areas in which tangerines have not been prop-
erly introduced. With this information and
the assistance of growers and shippers, pro-
ducing and shipping tangerines, we should be
able to place this commodity again in a profit-
able position. Certainly, this continent can
easily consume at fair prices two million
boxes of tangerines, and certainly this indus-
try should have sufficient courage and ability
to distribute and introduce tangerines so as
to greatly increase present consumption. We
believe that it can be done and we intend that
it shall be done.

Burdett Lewis Is

Recommended For

Farm Board Post'

Burdett C. Lewis of Clay County,
Florida, has been recommended to
President Hoover to succeed C. C.
Teague on the Farm Board, accord-
ing to Associated Press dispatches
from Washington.
A delegation, presented to the
President by Senator Fletcher and'
Representative Ruth Bryan Owen of
Florida, urged him as "the best
qualified man in the country" to car-
ry out an agricultural rehabilita-
tion program in the southeastern
Teague, fruit member of the_
board, will retire shortly.
In a letter left with the President,
;he delegation suggested that the
southeastern states, "so dominantly
agricultural, should have direct rep-
resentation on the Farm Board, as
the most important agency of the
government for the accomplishment-
of this constructive program."
The committee included John S..
Taylor, president Florida Horticul-
tural Society, Largo; Hugh McRae,
chairman Southeastern Economic
Council, Wilmington, N. C.; William
L. Wilson, chairman industrial de-
partment, Florida State Chamber of-
Commerce, Panama City; R. H.
Prine, vice-president, Florida Truck
Growers, Bradenton; Samuel Loo-
ney, vice-president, Growers Loan &
Guaranty Company, Tampa; W. F.
Glynn, representing the Florida Cit-,
rus Growers Clearing House Asso-
ciation, Winter Haven; Frank Ham-'r
mett, editor Florida Farm and
'rove, Tampa, and Merton L. Corey,
receiver of the Tri-State Tobacco
Cooperative, Richmond, Va.

(Continued from Page Seven)
down the process of getting started*
n packing.
"Valencias which have been pick-
ed and moved are of good quality
and when accelerated by gas, the
color seems to come up to a good
"There is still some question as
to what is a proper estimate of Val-r
encias yet to be moved. Some, who
are well informed, claim the crop is
not quite as large as was antici-
pated. This can be told better in a
wveek or two when some Valencia
groves will be stripped of theirs
California orange shipments total
34,000 cars. A letter received from
Los Angeles estimates the total Val-
encia crop at 37,000 to 38,000 cars,
indicating a probable total orange
crop of 70,000, and each minimum
carload permitted is 462 boxes, or
a total of 32,340,000 boxes. This
added to our citrus crop which will"
reach in commercial shipments
some over 27,000,000 boxes makes
a total crop between the two states
in round figures of. 60,000,01)0
boxes, aside from California lemons.

Page 8

May 10, 1931

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