Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00061
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: April 10, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00061
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
Burca r ric u 3 Econofics,
Wash C.plb 0


U. S. Postage
le. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
'Dr ;4- XT 1




Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 1,. Volume III
$0Ct a C rus Growers Clearing House Association, APRIL 10, 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Havrn. N r
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg.. Winter Haven. Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 189. Number 13

Record Vote Cast for New Clearing House Directorate

Wider Exemption

Asked for Citrus

In Labor Measure

Clearing House Seeks To Have
Proposed Law Include All
Handling Phases

Inclusion of all forms of labor,
connected with the preparation gen-
erally of citrus fruit for market, in
the exemption afforded agricultural
labor by the proposed Workmen's
Compensation Act now before the
State Legislature, has been request-
Sed by the Clearing House. The
Board of Directors of the Clearing
House as well as the Operating
Committee in their respective meet-
ings April 10, urged that this ex-
emption be included in the bill, the
Directors passing a formal resolu-
tion which is to be presented to
both the Senate and the House.
Discussion of the bill brought
Forth the point that the exemption
afforded agriculture, to be consist-
ent, should include the other forms
of labor devoted generally to the
handling. of citrus fruit such as
picking, gathering, hauling, process-
ing, and packing of the fruit. Citrus
growers themselves, it was brought
out, are "vitally and financially in-
terested in all stages of the handling
of their agricultural and horticul-
tural products," and for that mat-
ter are directly affected in the pres-
ent form of the bill by both exemp-
tion and non-exemption. In other
words, the exemption afforded agri-
culture in the present form of the
bill tends to be inconsistent as the
Clearing House sees it in that the
farmer or grower is exempted in one
instance from the provisions of the
bill but is not exempted throughout
the 'entire process of handling his
The resolution as passed by the
Clearing House Board of Directors
summarizes this situation and re-
quests the Legislature to amend the
proposed measure so that the ex-
emption will be consistently compre-
(Continued on Page Four)

Next Year's Board

J. C. Chase -----.... -----------------Winter Park
O. F. Gardner .------- --- ------- Lake Placid
John A. Snively -- --------------Winter Haven
R. B. Woolfolk .--------------- ----- ----Orlando
District One-A. M. Tilden ----------------Winter Haven
District Two-J. T. Swann -- ------------Tampa
District Three-E. E. Truskett ------------------ Mt. Dora
District Four-W. F. Glynn ---------Crescent City
District Five-Phil C. Peters W-----Winter Garden
District Six-A. R. Trafford -- ------Cocoa
District Seven-E. C. Aurin ----------Ft. Ogden

New Committee of Fifty

The new Committee of Fifty to
serve next year, together with the
counties in the districts they repre-
sent, are as follows, the names of
the new members being shown in
bold face or heavy type:
District No. 1-Polk County: Har-
ry L. Askew and Dr. J. A. Gerrard,
both of Bartow; F. E. Brigham,
Fred Henderson, C. F. Lathers, and
James Thompson, all of Winter Ha-
ven; John D. Clark, Waverly; C. D.
Gunn, Haines City; E. Winton Hall,
Dr. James Harris, and A. F. Pickard,
all of Lakeland; James C. Morton,
Auburndale; Norman H. Vissering,
Frostproof, and Max Waldron, Lake
District No. 2-Hillsborough and
Pinellas Counties: T. C. Bottom and
Ira W. Watt, both of Valrico; H. M.
Carson, Lutz; C. W. Lyons, and an-
other yet to be appointed for Tam-
pa, and S. A. Whitesell, Clearwater.
District No. 3-Pasco, Hernando,
Citrus, Sumter and Lake Counties:
H. C. Brown, Clermont; R. P. Conk-
ling, Eustis; W. J. Ellsworth, Dade
City; J. C. Merrill, Leesburg, and
J. B. Prevatt,' Tavares.
District No. 4-Marion, Levy,

Alachua, Putnam, Volusia, Flagler,
Seminole and St. Johns Counties:
W. D. Cam, Ocala; T. S. Carpenter,
Jr. and E. H. Williams, both of Cres-
cent City; B. J. Nordman, DeLand;
H M. Papworth, Sanford; John J.
Peterson, Pierson, and J. W. Stark,
District No. 5-0 range and
Osceola Counties: J. R. Donegan,
St. Cloud; Chas. A. Garrett, Kissim-
mee; J. G. Grossenbacher, Ply-
mouth; Dr. A. A. Kent, Winter
Park; D. M. McKinnon, Winter Gar-
den; M. O. Overstreet, Orlando, and
J. W. Wray, Apopka.
District No. 6-Brevard, Indian
River, St. Lucie, Martin, Palm
Beach, Broward, Dade, Highlands,
Okeechobee, and Glades Counties:
G. A. Draa, Mims;. R. R. Gladwin,
Fort Pierce; W. M. Reck, Avon
Park; E. W. Vickers, Sebastian, and
D. C. Williams, Cocoa.
District No. 7-Manatee, Saraso-
ta, Hardee, DeSoto, Charlotte and
Lee Counties: H. C. Case, Ft Myers;
W. W. Hubbell, Palmetto; H. G.
Murphy, Zolfo Springs; R. H. Prine,
Terra Ceia; Rupert Smith, Arcadia,
and R. K. Thompson, Sarasota.

Two New Members

Elected to Serve

On 1931-32 Board

W. F. Glynn and J. A. Snively
New Directors-Commit-
tee 50 Are Also Named

A record vote in which approxi-
mately thirty-two hundred grower
members of the Clearing House cast
their ballots was polled at the third
annual election, held April 7, for
members of the Board of Directors
to serve next season. Nine members
of the old board and two new mem-
bers were elected. The two new
members are W. F. Glynn, Crescent
City, former state senator and for
two years a member of the Com-
mittee of Fifty, and John A. Snive-
ly, member of the Board in 1928-29.
Senator Glynn succeeds F. G. Moor-
head as director from District 4,
while Mr. Snively was elected to
serve from the state-at-large, Mr.
Snively succeeding Mr. J. A. Griffin,
who had asked that his name be
withdrawn from the ballot. The new
Directors take office June 1.
Fail To Sign Envelopes
While the exact number of bal-
lots totaled 3,016, some two hun-
dred other ballots were received
which could not be counted because
the growers had failed to sign the
return envelope. A few even were
received after the last hour in which
they could be counted which was 5
p. m., April 7. These likewise could
not be counted.
The task of counting the votes-
all voting being done by mail-was
a big one. Members of the Commit-
tee of Fifty in District 1 were re-
quested by the Election Committee
to serve as tally clerks. Those who
handled this job were J. D. Clark,
Waverly; C. D. Gunn, Haines City;
E Winton Hall and Dr. James Har-
ris, Lakeland; C. F. Lathers, Winter
Haven; J. C. Morton, Auburndale;
A. F. Pickard, Lakeland; Theron
Thompson, Lake Hamilton; Norman
Vissering, Babson Park, and Fred J.
(Continued on Page Four)

L.mab oILU V.

April 10, 1931



a T


- / %




The New Board
Reading down from top:
Left Row: W. F. Glynn, Cres-
cent City; R. B. Woolfolk. Or-
lando; J. C. Chase, Winter
Park; E. E. Truskett, Mt. Dora.
Center Row: John A. Snive-
ly, Winter Haven; O. F. Gard-
ner, Lake Placid; A. R. Traf-
ford, Cocoa.
Right Row: A. M. Tilden,
Winter Haven; J. T. Swann,
Tampa; E. C. Aurin, Ft. Og-
den; Phil C. Peters, Winter








, f"

Apr. 11
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 681
Total....... ...................... 24189
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 1036
Total....---........................... 20088
Florida Tangerines Shipped............
Total.... ...............
Florida Mixed Shipped--.......... 252
California Oranges Shipped.... 1342

Apr. 4

Apr. 11,'30

Apr. 11, '29

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending April 11, 1931)

should be left about 8000 cars in the
state. At the Operating Committee
meeting April 10, it was expressed
quite positively by some of our
shippers that this figure was too
high. Attention was called to the
fact that a pretty big movement of
valencias has gone by truck and
will continue to go and that the
Valencia crop to the minds of some
is cleaning up faster than antici-
pated. I have talked with others on
the 'phone since this meeting and
my own guess would be 7500 cars
of oranges that will actually be
moved forward from April 12 on.
Should this 7500 cars be moved in
equal quantities during the next
eight weeks, (ending June 6, Flor-
ida would move 937 cars per week.
Last week, including proper pro-
portion of mixed, 872 cars were
shipped; this week, including the es-
timated movement for Saturday,
875 cars of oranges. If there are
8000 cars in the state, it would take
1000 cars weekly to move the crop
if we finished by June 6; if only
7000, it would take 875 cars week-
ly. The past eight weeks have shown
an average orange movement, in-
cluding mixed, of 1250 cars, in con-
trast with the anticipated average
movement during the next eight
weeks of from 875 to 1000 cars.
This week's movement and last have
been extremely light, averaging 875
Next Week's Shipments Oranges
No prorating was thought neces-
sary on oranges. You will notice the
state carlot movement of oranges is
estimated as 850 cars for next week.
Adding in 70% of the 250 mixed
would make an orange movement
of 1025 cars, which would seem a
sensible shipment from the state.
There are some growers who are
anticipating spectacular prices due
to California navels during the last
eight weeks showing a continued de-
cline in quality, both as to outside
appearance as well as flavor and
juice. Personally I think it quite
necessary to keep our feet on the
ground as it seems to me there is a
tendency to over-play our hand right
now, and in our eagerness to get
more we will take less if we find a,
few weeks hence that we must ship
considerably heavier, with our own
sizes by then being somewhat larger
with a little more tendency to be
dry and coarse and off-color. Per-
sonally I cannot see the spectacular
price possibilities that some few are
considering, nor do I see anything
to warrant any spasm of immediate
shipments for fear of lower prices
later, providing we will just keep
going along on an even keel. We
must keep the chain stores and the
regular Florida customers properly
supplied otherwise they might turn
to Californias on account of the
much heavier supplies and the much
lower prices from California.
California Valencias Started
If you have been watching Will-
son's government report you will
notice a fairly steady movement
from Central California which is
the beginning of the estimated 3000
to 3500 Valencia movement from

Oranges. Doing Well
Florida outsold California, based
on auction prices, 45c per box, dur-
ing the week ending April 11, Flor-
ida's auction average being $3.65
and California's $3.20. To put it on
a comparative basis from cost of
production to auction we would have
to add 50c per box more to the
premium realized by Florida. In
other words, from a cost of produc-
tion basis to the grower, Florida out-

sold California this week 95c a box.
Another interesting contrast is that
compared with two years ago Flor-
ida outsold her own record of two
years ago 70c a box, whereas, Cali-
fornia is behind her record of two
years ago 35c a box, this again de-
noting about a dollar spread be-
tween the two in favor of Florida.
Valencias Should Move Steadily
If our original estimate of 39,500
cars of oranges is correct, there

Porterville and Lindsey territory.
This will doubtless be increasing
each week as Central California is
planning on moving, if possible,
most of her Valencias by May 1.
California Navels Left
Wired information indicates not
over 6000 cars of navels left from
this time on. Orange County, from
which center Southern California's
biggest proportion of Valencias
move, will probably start moving
their Valencias slowly May 1. By
May 9 the navels from California
should be practically through ship-
Decidedly Higher Prices Grapefruit
The past eight weeks' movement
has averaged over 1100 cars of
grapefruit per week. The next eight
weeks' movement should average
only 625 cars per week. This would
market 5000 cars by June 6 and
would make a total grapefruit move-
ment of slightly over 28,500 cars
for the season. Because of these
facts, the Operating Committee felt
it necessary to prorate shipments
this coming week, allotting our
members 560 cars.
Marsh Seedless Should Be Held
Recently there has shown a grow-
ing tendency to be shipping Marsh
Seedless in undue proportion con-
sidering the wonderful opportunity
ahead in higher prices on grapefruit.
We realize some Marsh Seedless is
showing depreciation, but with the
necessity of moving grapefruit only
half as fast during the next eight
weeks as we did the last eight weeks,
certainly there cannot be anything
else to expect than decidedly higher
prices when we finally get into our
last steady pull on Marsh Seedless.
It is probable that our 560 cars of
grapefruit will be not over two-
thirds of the grapefruit movement,
therefore, have estimated the state
carlot movement of grapefruit for
this coming week at 850 cars, to
which should be added 75 from the
mixed, which would make about 925
cars for the week as against a neces-
sary average of 625, or 50%
heavier than the average even with
the Clearing House prorating. It
would therefore seem that any ship-
per and grower should from a self-
interest standpoint reduce his grape-
fruit movement to a lower basis
than that requested in the allotment
given. But so far grapefruit has act-
ed like we all do when we don't
give a d- what happens. Maybe
we will come to our senses this
week, but I think it is about a week
too soon.
Truck Prices And Movement
In our discussion in the Operat-
ing Committee meeting and else-
where, it is becoming more and
more self-evident that prices made
by packing house managers should
be better controlled. These truck
drivers are taking the usual ad-
vantage of misinforming packing
house managers as to prices they
can buy from others and in some
cases are getting away with un-
(Continued on Page Five)

Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 377 524 284 509
Average......----........................... $3.65 $3.50 $6.85 $2.95
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 406 338 207 301
Average..-----.. .......-.......... --$2.65 $2.50 $5.00 $3.06
Florida Tangerines Auctioned ...... 16 .........
Average................................. .....----------$2.45 .......
California Oranges Auctioned 504 523 384 408
Average ......................---............ $3.20 $3.20 $6.15 $3.55

Oranges No. 1 Oranges No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Apr. 4.................... 211 95 $2.79 124 76 $2.62
45% 61%
Apr. 11................ 211 94 $2.85 139 56 $2.58
44% 40%
Difference......... -1 +.06 +15 -20 -.04

Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Apr. 4............ 152 70 $1.71 271 107 $1.54
46% 39%
Apr. 11............... 207 72 $1.70 312 138 $1.54
35% o44%
Difference..........+45 +2 -.01 +41 +31 -

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
April 4......... 464 1001 306 613 559 462 1150
April 11.......... 294 899 265 598 697 369 1065
April 18.......... 44 684 230 455 640 295 893
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
April 4............ 1242 1510 1274 1530 1319 838 1107
April 11.......... 1598 1596 1342 1686 565 873 1270
April 18.......... 1525 1683 1409 1950 1874 1113 1542
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
April 4......... 771 759 393 625 349 950 634
April 11.......... 566 838 372 627 371 834 548
April 18........ 110 734 415 518 435 769 354
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926. 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
April 4............ 200 294 111 174 83 75 No Rcrd.
April 11.......... 166 273 87 175 104 89 No Rcrd.
April 18.......... 82 204 105 153 86 73 No Rcrd.

Paoe 8

April 10, 1931



Page 3


ON 1931-32 BOARD
(Continued from Page One)
Henderson, member-elect, Winter
Secret Ballot Maintained
In counting the votes all ballot
envelopes before being opened were
arranged alphabetically and checked
carefully for duplication. They were
then re-sorted into districts. The
ballots and envelopes in which they
were mailed into the Clearing House
headquarters were separated by
three clerks, the folded ballot being
extracted from the envelope and
passed to a fourth clerk who could
not have an opportunity to see the
grower's name on the envelope. In
this way the ballot was kept abso-
lutely secret. A duplicate check like-
wise was kept on the teller so as to
insure accuracy. The names of the
members of the new Board are
shown on the first page of this issue
of the News, while the tabulation of
the votes as received from the vari-
ous districts and for the state-at-
large nominees is shown elsewhere
in this issue.
New Committee of Fifty
The members of the Committee
of Fifty who will serve next year
were elected at thirty-four Regional.
Meetings held last month through-
out the fruit belt. Like the new
Board the Committee of Fifty mem-
bers will take up their duties June
1. The election committee compris-:
ed of Messrs. Alfred M. Tilden,
President; E. C. Aurin and Phil C.
Peters from the retiring Board of
Directors, reported favorably on the
results of the Regional Meetings.
The attendance at these meetings
this year was very much better than
it has been in previous years, ap-
proximately fifteen hundred grow-
ers attending the thirty-four meet-t
The Election Committee's report
in addition to showing the tabula-F
tion of the votes reads as follows:
"The Election Committee wishes'
to express thanks to Mr. Pratt, Mr.
Morton, Mr. Mouser and Judge:
Walker for the valuable service they
gave in presenting the Clearing
House message to the growers at
these meetings.
Educational Talks Given
"A new feature was added to the
regional meetings this year by dis-
cussion of cultural methods at each
meeting. These created a great deal
of interest and doubtless will prove
of great value to the growers, aiding
them to think out solutions to their
own individual grove problems and
teaching them the art of personal
observation in grove care. The
thanks of the committee is extend-
ed to Mr. Albert DeVane, of the
Lake Placid Land Company; Mr.
Louis Alsmeyer, County Agent of
Highlands County; Prof. E. F. De-
Busk, Extension Citriculturist; Prof.
E. L. Lord, Florida State Agricul-
tural College, and Mr. K. C. Moore,
County Agent of Orange County,
for the splendid work done at these

(Balloting for Nominees)

A. M. Tilden, Flor
H. E. Fairchild, Ba
John F. May, Winte

District No. 1
ence Villa.... 420
bson Park.... 203
er Haven...... 148
District No. 2

James T. Swann, Tampa............
S. A. Whitesell, Clearwater......
S. F. Wooten, Tampa ---........
District No.

E. E. Truskett, Mt. Dora............
Wm. Snodgrass, Clermont.......
Joe Knight, Elfers.............-...--
District No.

W. F. Glynn, Crescent City........
M. J. Timmons, Ocala.---.......


District No. 1............................ 791
District No. 2........................... 220
District No. 3------.....................----...... 324
District No. 4............................ 345
District No. 5 --------379
District No. 6...........-- .....-..... 262
District No. 7............................ 309
Non-Resident .......................... 386

"We have heard statements made
that growers generally were dissat-
isfied with the work of the Clearing
House, questioned its value, were
critical of its service to the indus-
try, and hesitant about giving it
continued support.
"The regional meetings certainly
gave definite denial to these asser-
"Praise, Not Criticism"
"Instead of the critical attitude
we had been advised to expect we
found growers everywhere deeply
appreciative of the service given by
the Clearing House in this the most
difficult of marketing seasons. In-
stead of criticism we found praise
and where blame had been predict-
ed commendation was received.
"Many. growers spoke favorably
comparing this year under Clearing
House control with other large crop
years without a Clearing House.
"The interest of the growers is
clearly shown in the number of bal-
lots received. 3,016 to which may
be added 190 received without grow-
ers signature, making a total vote
of 3,206, an increase of 150 over
last year. In addition to this 18
contracts were received from pros-
pects to whom ballots and contracts
were mailed."
The marketing affiliations of the
members of the new Board are as
A. M. Tilden, Florence Villa Ex-
change; James T. Swann, Tampa
Exchange; E. E. Truskett, Mt. Dora
Exchange; W. F. Glynn, Crescent
City Exchange; Phil C. Peters, Win-
ter Garden Exchange; A. R. Traf-
ford, Cocoa, American Fruit Grow-
ers; Dr. E. C. Aurin, Ft. Ogden Ex-
change; J. C. Chase, Winter Park
Exchange; John A. Snively, Winter
Haven Exchange; O. F. Gardner,
Lake Placid Exchange; R. B. Wool-
folk, Orlando, American Fruit

42 -




Voting for State-i
(Balloting I

Nominees 1 2 3
J. C. Chase............... 688 184 26
R. B. Woolfolk.......... 627 160 23
John A. Snively ........ 550 127 19
0. F. Gardner........--.. 544 126 13
F. G. Moorhead........ 310 108 18
Douglas Igou .......... 275 102 19
Total Votes Cast...... 2994 807 121

(Continued from Page One)
hensive. The resolution reads as fol-
"WHEREAS, it has come to the
attention of the Board of Directors
of the Florida Citrus Growers Clear-
ing House Association that the Hon-
orable Legislature of the State of
Florida now in session is considering
the enactment of a Workmen's Com-
pensation Law upon the basis of a
proposed law known as Senate Bill
No. 1 already introduced in said
Legislature for consideration, and
"WHEREAS, it appears from an
inspection of the provisions of said
proposed bill that the same affords
only partial protection to the pro-
ducers and handlers of argircultural
and horticultural products in that it
apparently exempts agricultural la-
bor, and
"WHEREAS, the Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association
is composed of some 7,000 grower
members and shipper members con-
trolling between 70 and 80 percent
of the citrus tonnage of the State of
Florida, and
"WHEREAS, the citrus growers
are themselves vitally and financially
concerned in all stages of the hand-
ling of their agricultural and horti-
cultural products, and
"WHEREAS, it is the sense of
this Board of Directors that the ex-
emption sought to be extended to
agricultural labor by the terms of
said proposed bill should in order to
be effective extend with equal jus-
tice and logic to all forms of busi-
ness engaged in the actual handling
of citrus products as well as those
organizations handling other agri-
cultural and horticultural products,
SOLVED, that this Board of Direc-

it-Large Directors
ly Districts)
4 5 6 7 Res. Total
9 301 348 209 244 339 2582
1 245 338 189 212 282 2284
9 195 210 158 209 255 1903
7 120 147 168 185 225 1652
8 269 199 105 145 185 1509
4 162 201 102 111 110 1257
8 1292 1443 931 1106 1396 11187

tors does hereby strongly protest
against the enactment of such pro-
posed Workmen's Compensation Act
in the form proposed and does here-
by respectfully and urgently request
the Honorable Legislature of the
State of Florida, as well as its com-
mittees considering said proposed
measure, to amend the same so that
the exemption from the provisions
of said bill is not only applied to
agricultural labor but to all forms
of labor engaged in the picking,
gathering, hauling, processing, pack-
ing or handling of all agricultural
or horticultural products in the
State of Florida from the time the
same are gathered or picked from
the farm or grove on which they are
produced up until the time they are
delivered over to a common carrier
or to the trade, such exemption to
apply to citrus packing houses, cit-
rus canneries, citrus juice plants,
citrus preserving and by-product
plants, vegetable packing houses
and to all forms of labor employed
in the carrying on of all or any of
the said forms of business."


Investigators at the Florida Ex-
periment Station have found that it
is possible to freeze tangerine juice
by relatively simple methods and
without any special precautions.
The resulting product is very satis-
factory, with a flavor that is pleas-
ing and appealing. Frozen tangerine
juice has been kept in the Station's
cold storage plant for over four
months. Just how long the juice will
keep remains to be determined.
Tangerine juice has blended with
orange juice, and has given a richer
and deeper color and more spright-
ly flavor to the orange juice. Blends
with the juice of grapefruit, tange-
los, etc., are being studied.

PApril 10, 1931

Page 4

District No. 5
Dist. Non-Res. Total
Phil C. Peters, Winter Garden.. 227 18 245 A
L. L. Payne, Orlando................. 68 8 76
R. M. Shearer, Orlando.............. 67 6 73
District No. 6
Dist. Non-Res. Total
A. R. Trafford, Cocoa ----................ 107 7 114
Earl Hartt, Avon Park.............. 91 17 108
*R. B. LaRoche, Cocoa................ 38 7 45
District No. 7
Dist. Non-Res. Total
E. C. Aurin, Ft. Ogden.............. 218 6 224
F. W. Perry, Ft. Myers.............. 0 5 55
F. G. Janes, Wauchula......-----........ 26 3 29

Mr. LaRoche withdrew his name after the ballots
had been mailed.


44th Annual Meeting
Horticultural Society

Headquarters: Columbus Hotel
April 14, 7:30 P.M.
Call to order by President John S.
Taylor, Largo. Invocation by .Dr.
Win. G. Clinton, Miami. Address of
Welcome by Mayor C. H. Reeder,
Miami. Response for Society. Presi-
dent's Annual Address. Adjourn-
ment to witness Pageant Pan-Amer-
ican Day Celebration, Bay Front
'Park, Miami.
April 15, 9:30 A.M.
"The Trend of Fertilizer Prac-
tices," by J. J. Skinner, U. S. D. A.,
Washington, D. C.
"The Importance of Calcium in
Citrus Culture," by Grey Singleton,
I Ft. Meade.
"The Importance of Certain Spe-
cial Elements in the Agriculture of
South Florida," by R. V. Allison,
Everglades Experiment Station,
Belle Glade.
"Citrus Grove Practices on the
High Pine Lands," by N. H. Vis-
"sering, Babson Park.
"Citrus Grove Practices on the
Hammock Lands," by W. E. Evans,
Vero Beach.
"Citrus Grove Practices on the
Rocky Lands of Dade County," by
"C. H. Steffani, Homestead.
April 15, 2:00 P.M.
"Comparison of Crotolaria Striata
and Crotolaria Spectabilis as to the
Abundance of Plant Bugs," by J. R.
Watson, Agricultural Experiment
Station, Gainesville.
"Cryptolaemus Lady Beetles as a
Control for Mealy Bugs," by W. L.
Thompson, Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion, Lake Alfred.
"Some New Bases for Weather
Forecasting," by Dr. M. R. Ensign
#and B. F. Dostal, University of Flor-
ida, Gainesville.
"Insects and Mite Enemies attack-
ing Citrus Trees in Hawaii," by W.
-W. Others, U. S. D. A., Orlando.
April 15, 8:00 P.M.
"Some Plant Introduction Exper-
iences," by Dr. David Fairchild, U.
"S. D. A., Coconut Grove.
"The Utilization of Citrus Fruits,"
by Miss Flavia Gleason, State Col-
.lege, Tallahassee.
April 16, 2:00 P.M.
S"Citrus Coloring and the Decay
of Fruit in Transit," by J. R. Wins-
ton, U. S. D. A., Orlando.
"Decays in Citrus Fruits," by H.
R. Fulton and H. E. Stevens, U. S.
D. A., Orlando.
"Some New Citrus Hybrids of
Florida," by T. Ralph Robinson, U.
rS. D. A., Washington, D. C.
"Transit Conditions of Export
Citrus Fruit," by M. A. Hyde, Jack-
"Refrigeration Work at the Ag-
ricultural Experiment Station," by
*A. F. Camp, Gainesville.
April 16, 8:00 P.M.
"Standards of Maturity of Citrus
Fruits," Clinton Bolick, Ft. Myers;

Where Florida Surpasses California

The photographs above show the
contrast between the California na-
vel and the Florida valencia in the
thickness of the skin, the top row
being the California orange and the
bottom row the Florida orange.

When the northern housewife
buys a dozen Florida valencias and
a dozen California navels of the
same size (per box) she will get on
an average of close to one ounce
more from the Florida orange.
Tests recently were made by the
Clearing House prorating represen-
tative in New York in which Florida
valencias and California navels-
pictured above-were c a r e fu 11 y
weighed size for size. Without ex-
ception the Florida orange proved
heavier than the California orange.
Measurements further re v e a 1,
however, that the average thickness
of skin of the Florida valencia ran
from 1/16 of an inch to 1/8 of an
inch. At the stem end of the Cali-
fornia navels the skin was found to
be from 5/16 of an inch to % inch
thick, with the skin at the center
of the orange being 1/ inch thick.
Obviously this thick skin has much

R. P. Burton, Leesburg; W. E. Sex-
ton, Vero Beach.
"Enforcement of the Plant Quar-
antine Act," by Lee A. Strong, U. S.
D. A., Washington, D. C.
Report of Legislative Committee
by Frank Stirling, Chairman.
Business session.
April 17
Inspection of Matheson Hammock
-Visit to Chapman Field-Plant
Introduction Garden of the United
States Department of Agriculture.
Sub-Tropical Fruit Seminar at

(Continued from Page Three)
necessary low prices. This is partic-
ularly true of grapefruit, which is
offering serious competition to our
carlot shipments from these ped-
dlers. Truck prices on oranges seem

to do with the weight of the Cali-
fornia orange.
Further measurements later in
the season with the Florida valencia
compared with the California valen-
cia will be made and the results
described in the News. The follow-
ing table shows the results of the
weighing test averages of the Flor-
ida valencias and the California



Size (Ounces) (Ounces)
150 ....... 9 1/2 8 1/3
176 ........ 8 1/2 71/2
200 ..... 7 1/3 6 2/3
216 ........ 7 6
250 ....... 6 5
The following table shows the per
box weight, by sizes of the Florida
orange and the California orange,
some fifty-five boxes being weighed
in order to obtain these averages:
Florida California
Size Av. Wt. Size Av. Wt.
in Lbs. in Lbs.
150 93 1/3 150 79 1/2
176 95 176 83 1/2
200 97 200 81
216 97 3/4 216 80
250 98 250 83

to be ranging from $1.75 to $2.25 _. k.... L.
Bulk Grapefruit At Auction AGEMENT, ETC., OF THE FLORIDA
At the request of the Operating SEMI-MONTHLY BY THE FLORIDA CIT-
Committee, we wrote the two auc- SOCIATION AT WINTER HAVEN, FLA.,
tion companies in Philadelphia and AS REQUIRED BY ACT OF CONGRESS
have received similar replies from OF AUGUST 24, 1912.
both Mr. Ives and Mr. Blix to the APRIL 1, 1931.
effect that there is no way where Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers Clear-
they can refuse to handle bulk cars ing House Association, Winter Haven, Fla.;
cf grapefruit at auction though they editor: T. G. Hallinan, Winter Haven, Fla.;
owner: Florida. Citrus Growers Clearing
both realize there is certainly no House Association, a cooperative organiza-
revenue in such low sales, it being tion of Florida citrus growers, incorpora-
tors for which are:
practically a courtesy proposition. Allen E. Walker, Winter Haven, Fla.; T.
They also come back at us with the Carpenter, Jr., Crescent City, Fla.; W.
M. Igou, Eustis, Fla.; Dr. E. C. Aurin, Ft.
statement that canned grapefruit in Ogden, Fla.; C. O. Andrews, Orlando, Fla.;
their opinion is depressing fresh R. E. Mudge, Fellsmere, Fla.; James T.
Swann, Tampa, Fla.; James Harris, Lake-
grapefruit prices, some of the retail land, Fla.; Norman A. Street, Winter Ha-
stores being mentioned as selling "3 ven, Fla.; James C. Morton, Auburndale,
cans for 25 cents, which is a lot There are no bondholders or mortgagees.
cheaper for the meat with no trou- (Signed) T. G. HALLINAN, Editor.
Subscribed and sworn to before me,
ble to serve, than the fresh fruit." Essie H. Noland, Notary Public, on the
6th day of April, A. D. 1931. (SEAL).
Advice from Porto Rico indicates My commission expires Feb. 22, 1932.

their late bloom crop as totaling
about 970,000 boxes, which they es-
timate will be moved about as fol-
Month Boxes
April ....................................150,000
M ay ......................................150,000
June ......................................200,000
July ......................................270,000
August ...............................--200,000

From advice received, it is quite
possible that a considerable propor-
tion of this movement will go into
export unless prices advance materi-
ally in the New York market.
Coming Crop Talk
So far here in Florida the general
talk seems to be that the bloom in-
dicates as heavy a crop of oranges
for the coming season as this year,
with grapefruit being talked as
probably running 65% to 75% of
this year's crop. Marsh Seedless
grapefruit is reported as generally
showing better bloom conditions
than regular grapefruit and budded
oranges generally better bloom con-
ditions than seedlings.
Texas' Coming Crop
Reports from Texas are quite
jubilant from the Texan's view-
point, the crop being estimated
from 10,000 to 15,000 cars of
grapefruit, judging by the prolific
bloom reported on three year old
trees and older. So far Texas always
has over-estimated their crop.
California Bloom
A letter received from California
indicates the bloom a little lighter
than a year ago with probably a
lighter crop, some talking that it
may not be much heavier than 1929-
30. At any rate the talk from Cali-
fornia is all that indicates the hope
that some of our competitors may
have a fairly light citrus crop, and
California never talks very much
this early.

A lady motorist was driving along
a country road when she spied a
couple of repair-men climbing tele-
phone poles. "Fools," she exclaimed,
to her companion, "they must think
I never drove a car before."-Bos-
4-- Tr+'.nsort

. .t tt ..N....

.- -

Page 5


Auril 10. 1931

Page 6

Grower Who Thinks

Pack-out Too Small

May Pay for Decay

Absolutely ideal weather has fav-
ored Florida in her keeping quality
problem. Warning must be given re-
garding every precaution being
used, particularly in picking and
hauling. Grossly bad methods are
following in some cases and openly
One of the most difficult things to
correct seems to be that of over-
filling the boxes. The grower criti-
cizes the shipper from a suspicious
standpoint of thinking that he or
some other grower has been credit-
ed with part of his packed output
if he doesn't show as many packed
boxes as field boxes (at least in or-
anges). Some packing house man-
agers admit they are filling their
boxes too full with Valencias but
say they cannot do the impossible
of grading and packing their fruit
and making a slack field box turn
out as many packed boxes as they
receive field boxes. If a packing
house man is handling the fruit for
the grower account, he blames the
speculator with shaking down and
practically packing down the field
boxes. When a speculator buys fruit
from the grower by the field box he
states that he must have a full box
or an over-full box to meet his kind
of competition.
One packing house man who is
dealing in bought goods, insists that
certain of these houses that are
handling for the grower account
have an over-size box and that he is
compelled to over-fill his boxes to
meet competition. Each blames the
other and bad grove practice is fol-
lowed because of this vicious circle,
a party to which the grower is equal-
ly if not more responsible than any
one else because of his lack of con-
fidence and his suspicion of the
packing house through which he is
operating. But in the end the grower
pays the bill just the same, as any
bad practice, especially that de-
velops decay, in the long run is go-
ing to lower net returns.
These over-filled boxes are not
only loaded one on top of each other
but have ladders and the help sitting
on top of it, as frequently seen on
the road. It is high time that this
kind of business be stopped, and it
can be stopped by everybody recog-
nizing the necessity and doing it
simultaneously, at least among our
own shippers. It is imperative we
wake ourselves up to the necessity
of putting a stop to this short-sight-
ed practice before we get into seri-
ous decay resulting from it. Clip-
per cuts, long stems or rough hand-
ling in the packing house are also
just as much to be avoided as is
careless jamming down at the box
press before working the ends down
with the hands.

Scotch Road Sign
Detour: Toll Bridge Ahead.


Copies of Talks on

Cultivation Methods

Free for Asking

So great was the interest mani-
fested by the growers attending
the Clearing House Regional
Meetings last month in the talks
on grove cultivation made at the
meetings by citrus experts, that
the Clearing House has prepared
in condensed form typewritten
copies of the various addresses.
Copies of these talks will be
sent free of charge to any grower
requesting them. If you were un-
able to attend the Regional Meet-
ing held in your district, or if you
did and would like to have the
copies of the talks for more
leisurely study, simply drop a line
to the Clearing House asking for
a copy of the Regional Meeting
addresses, and one will be sent to
you without charge.

Prevent Melanose

By Keeping Spores

From Young Fruit

The time to prevent melanose
scars and blemishes on citrus fruits
and a likely heavy dropping or later
decaying is from the time the fruit
is set until it is about an inch in
diameter, E. F. DeBusk, extension
citriculturist, recently explained in
an address over WRUF. The meth-
ods suggested were the prevention
or removal of dead wood, and cover-
ing the young fruit with a good fun-
The melanose spores embed them-
selves in the dead branches, where
they are protected from sprays, and
are washed onto the t e fruit by rains
and dew. Fruit that is over one
inch in diameter does not seem to
be very susceptible to injury.
Under such conditions the most
practical control for melanose would
be to prevent the occurrence of dead
wood. Severe root pruning due to
excessive deep cultivation, under or
improper fertilization, over prun-
ing, and other conditions unfavor-
able to the citrus tree are to be
avoided. Preventing the formation
of dead wood is far better than re-
moving it later, though the removal
of wood that died during the winter
and early spring is one of the con-
trol measures. Mr. DeBusk did not
wish to discourage pruning and
spraying when they are needed, but
stated that it is more practical to
approach the problem from the
other angle and prevent the under-
lying causes.
It may be necessary to spray the
young fruit to protect it from the
spores. In such cases spraying with
bordeaux-oil made by mixing 3 to
5 quarts of oil emulsion with 100
gallons of 3-3-50 bordeaux mixture,


Texas Lowers Bars

On Florida's Fruit

Effective April 6, Texas let down
her bars against Florida citrus-
that is into that portion of the state
north of the fruit belt, the Commis-
sioner of Agriculture of Texas ad-
vised the Clearing House the first of
this month. According to the recom-
mendation of J. M. Del Curto, Chief
of the Division of Horticultural
Quarantines, the action was taken
because of "the present emergency
involving scarcity of citrus fruit in
the state."
It is somewhat difficult to deter-
mine what effect this will have on
Florida shipments although it is gen-
erally thought that but few cars
will go into the Lone Star State.
During the entire season of 1928-29
Florida shipped only a trifle more
than two hundred cars of both or-
anges and grapefruit to Texas.
Hence it is unlikely that the people
of Texas will consume very much
Florida fruit.

Members of the Clearing House
will be interested to learn that Mer-
ton L. Corey, who aided the Com-
mittee of Fifty three years ago in
the creation of the Clearing House,
has been recommended for a place
on the Federal Farm Board by
South Carolina tobacco growers ac-
cording to recent press dispatches.
Mr. Corey, who has served as re-
ceiver of the Tobacco Growers Co-
operative Marketing Association, ap-
parently has earned the friendship
of the South Carolina growers in
that tt he association formally went
on record petitioning President
Hoover to appoint Mr. Corey to the
position of vice-chairman of the
Federal Farm Board. The action was
taken because of the o vacancy on the
Farm Board caused by the resigna-
tion of Chairman Legge.

is suggested. The primary aim of
this spray should be to completely
cover the young fruits, and to do it
after they have set and before the
spores have been washed onto them.
Some prefer to use casein instead of
the oil as a spreader, as it is usually
necessary to follow with an oil spray
in May or June to control scale.
Many scale fungi will be preserved
if the bordeaux is not sprayed on
the trunk and large limbs.

Local Color
A celebrated white preacher had
been engaged to address the congre-
gation of a little negro church, and
was being introduced by the very
nervous colored pastor.
"Sistern an' bred'rn," he began,
"'it affords me the extremist pleas-
ure to introduce de speaker of de
evening. I wants to explain dat
while his skin ain't the same color
as de odders here, I assures you his
heart is as black as any of yourn."

April 10, 1931

Effective Spray

For Citrus Aphids

Made By Growers

J. E. Palmer, of Loughman, and
Alex Warren, Sr., of Haines City,
have learned that they can make
their own tobacco extract and con-,
troL citrus aphids much more cheap-
ly than they can by purchasing corn-'
mercial nicotine sulfate. Enough of
the home-made preparation to spray
300 to 400 acres of groves is made
at a cost of $5 or $6. The commer-
cial nicotine sulfate to spray this
grave formerly cost from $90 to'
For a small grove, Mr. Palmej
takes an ordinary metal drum with
the bung near the end. He puts a
pipe and valve in the bung and cuts
out the head of the drum. He packs
tobacco stems in the drum, and
covers them with water, allowing'
them to stand over night.
Before it is filled, the drum is
placed on concrete blocks or tall
iron legs, so that a fire can be built
under it the next day. The tobacco,
stems and water, which have been
standing over night, are then heated,
and allowed to simmer until 4 or 5
o'clock in the afternoon. They aret
not boiled rapidly, for that drives
off some of the volatile gases.
From 20 to 30 gallons of tobacco
extract is obtained at a boiling. The,
strength will vary with different
batches, but Mr. Palmer uses all of
them at a rate of 1 part to 70 parts
of water. An extra strong solution.
does not damage the trees.
Mr. Warren, having a larger
grove, uses a much larger vat, but
the process is about the same. Both
get effective aphis control with the
home-made decoction.

He: "My ancestors came over in,
the Mayflower."
She: "It's lucky they did. The im-<
migration laws are a little stricter

Warm Weather Here
And Fruit Should Be
Handled With Care,

Florida fruit has been excep-
tionally free from decay for a
long period. This may make us
unduly venturesome with the
warmer weather that must be ex-
pected. Nothing knocks the con-
fidence of the trade more than to
run into a lot of unexpected de-
cay. Every possible precaution
should be used in picking, haul-
ing and handling throughout
packing as well as due considera-
tion given to the necessity or not
of icing. It is important that we
maintain the confidence of the
trade in the keeping qualities of
Florida oranges as well as su-
perior eating quality, especially
in the face of the possibly weak-
ened condition that California
navels will be showing.

April 10, 1931

No Buying Power
Minier, Ill.
'Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
In regard to poor prices for fruit,
in the beginning of the season I
think there was green fruit shipped.
Whether the Citrus Exchange ship-
'ped any green fruit, or outsiders did
it, it should be entirely stopped.
People hesitate to buy the second
time when the first was no good.
Another thing, I haven't seen any
decent fruit in the market this fall,
and I've heard a number of others
say the same. The other day I was
in a store and I saw some "ornery"
looking, shriveled up fruit, and I re-
marked what measley looking or-
,.anges they were, and they laughed
at me and said they were grape-
fruit, and had come from Florida.
Next to them were some oranges
-that no one could brag about, but
they were from California. I believe
if they would can that measley,
shriveled up little stuff they, or we,
.might get a reasonable, decent price
for decent fruit.
But I think the biggest reason of
all that sales are no better than
they are is because so many are out
of work up here and they haven't
money to buy with, and it is the
working class that does the buying.
There are over a hundred thous-
and people in Chicago alone, who
are out of work and go to the soup
kitchens twice a day for their meals.
No one can expect them to buy
I'm just as anxious to get a good
price as anyone, but really I can't
see how one is going to get it when
so many are broke, but I hope we
will get enough to pay expenses and
some over or I will have to get my
meals at a soup kitchen too.
- (Signed) MRS. C. L. MOORE.

Praise For Committee of Fifty
East Orange, N. J.
' Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
During late January and early
"February the writer looked about
Florida citrus sections and has in
mind from observations that fruit
already sent to market and con-
sumed locally will show less than
30% total remainder of an esti-
mated 24,000,000 to 25,000,000 box
crop early estimate of fruit on trees
for shipment.
This season more fruit has been
consumed locally than ever before
in Florida, due to low consumer
price at road stands and city retail-
ers. Liberal estimates of truck ship-
ments have been made while passing
Through southern states enroute to

Florida, and have learned that the
several thousand cars sent through
seems entirely justified as to esti-
mates made.
The Florida Clearing House News
last issue (February 10) is wonder-
ful in general treatment of condi-
tions, and the Committee of Fifty
with Mr. Jim Morton as spokesman
cannot be too highly commended for
their efforts in the solving of Flor-
ida's citrus marketing problems. I
am certain that the present adver-
tising by the Clearing House and
Citrus Exchange will prove very fine
by increasing consumption of Flor-
ida citrus-increased prices have
already indicated market recovery.
The work of prorating by the
Clearing House has been a tremen-
dous success to date and the season
as a whole should finally show a fair
profit for all the fruit shipped out
of Florida.
More advertising funds should
have been granted.
Now that greater efforts will be
made each season as to spot picking
for tree-ripened fruit so that the
early season fruit will be good,
Uncle Sam will ask for more and
more, thus creating a reputation for
standard, not second to California
as in the past (with a few possible
Mr. Morton's article covered the
entire situation so well that much
permanent good should result. The
above is only an expression of how
a small grove owner is interested.
Yours truly,
(Signed) G. M. LESHER.

"Cut Down Plantings!"
Wabasso, Fla.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
When the prospective planter of
a grove must first find out if the
Clearing House or any marketing
agency will sign up with him to mar-
ket his fruit before he plants, we
will be on the way to limiting pro-
duction which is the only possible
way for our citrus industry to live.
Have all the marketing agencies
in the Clearing House open to sign
up only their quota under penalty
of a stiff fine if they sign any new
ones without permission of the Com-
mittee of Fifty or Directors.
It would hurt only the real estate
promoters who care nothing for the
ultimate success of the man who
puts out a grove.
You have enough in the Clearing
House already, though I think the
Citrus Exchange would be a better
medium to enforce this to an extent
which would make new planting
strictly suppressed and limited.
Then why submit to shipment of
fruit in size so small as to block the

The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of
general interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association cannot, of course,
assume responsibility for the opinions expressed in these letters, but believes
growers should have the opportunity of expressing themselves if they are willing
to assume the responsibility. Communications should be as brief as possible-
preferably not more than 250 words in length-and MUST be signed with the
writer's name and address (although not necessarily for publication).



market for the fruit that would
pay? I am against the canning in-
dustry as at present conducted as I
am sure it curtails the sale of our
best fruit.
Very truly,
(Signed) J. C. TAYLOR, M.D.

A Plea For Quality
Boston, Mass.
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I-wish to show clearly the condi-
tions of affairs in Boston suburban
markets and quote from a corre-
spondent something that should
show up a lot of bad condition due
to the stuff that is dumped on my
home market.
Jan. 15, 1931.
"I wish you could see the meas-
ley little things they have in
Houghtons (a big Boston store)
29c a dozen and not worth pick-
ing up for nothing. I asked them
if that was the only Floridas they
had and they said 'Yes, they are
fine oranges, wonderful fruit.' I
saw plenty fine Californias and
almost no nice quality Floridas.
What's the answer?"
This is the general condition in
Boston. Are there powers at work
to queer our fruit, or is our mar-
keting department asleep? A few
days ago I sent my correspondent a
box of real Floridas.
(Signed) CHAS. G. GREELEY.

Petersburg, Illinois.
Florida Clearing House News,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Dear Sirs:
Will you please send me memeo-
graphed copies of summaries of the
speakers talks at the Regional Meet-
Permit me to congratulate the
Committee of Fifty on their good
work in 1930-31. Let's hope more
and more growers will line up.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) H. P. MOULTON.

"Getting Together"
Director-Elect, W. F. GLYNN
"The chief value that the Clear-
ing House has been to the citrus
industry is the demonstration of
the fact that a very large per-
centage of the growers can get
together, and have done so, in a
common effort toward co-opera-
tive control. It is the first .step in
the direction of orderly handling
of this big industry. Experience
has shown that all big business
nowadays must have some kind
of central control of distribution
and marketing or go on the rocks.
We are on our way to this ulti-
mate central control through the
Clearing House idea. The Clear-
ing House was a helpful factor in
marketing this season's crop in
the face of discouraging condi-
tions. If it were given one hun-
dred percent support and co-
operation it would make a real
demonstration of its value to the

Pafe 7

Page 7

Here Are Several

Things to Remember

During the last fifteen years my
work has permitted me to make
many citrus grove observations and
note the effect that soil conditions
and cultural practices have on the
development and control of many
of our citrus diseases and insects
and on the profits from the grove
as a business enterprise.
In the first place, many of our
tree troubles are due directly or in-
directly to soil conditions unfavor-
able to normal tree growth and fruit
production. With this handicap the
grower usually proceeds to try to
correct the many abnormal condi-
tions showing up in his trees by
spraying or otherwise treating his
trees, or by applying some special
commercial fertilizer mixture, in-
stead of going back to the soil and
making an effort to bring about a
soil condition favorable to the nor-
mal growth of plants. With most of
our Florida citrus soils this is
brought about by supplying the
needed organic matter through the
growth of cover-crops and by prop-
erly regulating the supply of soil
moisture. When these conditions
are met and trees are given an am-
ple supply of any of the forms of
plant food commonly used in citrus
fertilization, and proper cultivation
is practiced, many of our tree
troubles either disappear or become
of little importance.
"Begin At The Bottom"
What I am trying to say is that
we should begin at the foot of the
ladder-get down to sound funda-
mentals in plant growth-instead of
going to the top of the tree to try
to correct a trouble that originates
at the other extremity.
If the unshaded soil of a citrus
grove will not produce at least a ton
per acre per annum of some kind of
a cover-crop its period of satisfac-
tory tree growth and fruit produc-
tion will surely be of short dura-
tion, unless the unfavorable soil
condition is corrected by bringing
in coarse organic matter from the
The growth of a luxuriant cover-
crop in the unshaded portion of a
well-drained grove insures the
grower of a soil condition favorable
for the satisfactory growth of citrus
trees and fruit production and for
the greatest use of commercial fer-
tilizers applied.
After a heavy cover-crop is pro-
duced trees are sometimes butcher-
ed unmercifully by severe root-
pruning with a big plow, in an ef-
fort to bury the cover-crop. The
greatest benefit from a cover-crop
is obtained by leaving it as near the
surface as a safe practice in fire
protection will permit. The effect
of severe root-pruning of citrus
trees is often very evident either in
the amount of dead twigs produced
and the melanose and stem-end rot
(Continued on Page Eight)





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.
E. C. AURIN . Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE . . Winter Park
O. F. GARDNER Lake Placid
J. A. GRIFFIN . Tampa
PHIL C. PETERS. Winter Garden
A. M. TILDEN Winter Haven
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
A. M. TILDEN. President
E. C. AURIN . Vice-President
F. G. MOORHEAD Treasurer
E. E. TRUSKETT . Secretary

Florida Still Beats
One wonders sometimes whether some of
our trouble in Florida isn't purely an attitude
of mind. For instance, for many weeks the
Florida citrus industry has openly and con-
clusively demonstrated that it is doing far bet-
ter than California and yet we will continue
to hear from the public, sometimes through
the press right in our own state, talk to the
effect that California is doing better than
Florida. Just the reverse is true.
For eight consecutive weeks, based on the
cost of production, Florida citrus growers
have been netting 75c per box more than Cal-
ifornia orange growers. Yet it seems to stir
only mild enthusiasm and appreciation. It
would actually seem sometimes from the pub-
licity that goes out, from the talk that goes
around, that there is an attitude of mind in
Florida that seems to rejoice in its troubles
and enjoy mouthing them more than in its
Florida needs to realize what it has accom-
plished, especially as this particular year has
met a test that could never be more severe.
Not only has there been the combination of
far greater citrus crops than have ever been
produced before, but that also of a period of
continued unemployment with a greater num-
ber of people than remembered by most of
us. To have come out victor to the extent of
75c a box against our largest competitor
under such a supreme test is doing something
that speaks well for Florida not only now but
in the future. It is at such times that the
strong laws of survival of the fittest are seen
to operate most clearly.
This past week California's general aver-
age at auction on oranges was $3.20. Florida's
auction was $3.65, or 45c more than Califor-

nia's. It must be borne in mind that to net
the same money to the citrus grower, based
on cost of production with other expenses, de-
livered to auction markets, the California or-
ange grower must get 50c a box more at auc-
tion. This would therefore show a gain of
95c a box to the Florida grower as compared
with the California grower.
Another interesting thing, compared with
two years ago, Florida is outselling its own
record 70c a box, whereas, California com-
pared with two years ago is behind its own
record 35c a box, or from this analysis again
$1.05 gain by comparison.
There are eight weeks left in which Florida
will be shipping freely. Therefore, let's take
the last eight weeks and compare the two
By referring to the following table you will
notice that during the past eight weeks Flor-
ida outsold California in the same auctions
25c a box, which means 75c a box gain, in-
cluding production cost, the general average
of Florida being $3.55 as compared with Cal-
ifornia's average of $3.30 delivered.
Compared with two years ago we have out-
sold our own Florida record 50c a box during
the past eight weeks. California on the other
hand has slipped under her average of two
years ago 12c a box, or a spread here of 62c
in Florida's favor. These are actual industry
tests not bolstered figures to prove a point.
They are simply the stern facts resulting in
our competitive relations and most certainly
something that Florida can be proud of and
should recognize as something proving the
permanence of Florida in contrast with Cali-
fornia in times of stress.
Look over these figures carefully and you
will draw these same conclusions:

Week end
2-27-31 ..
3- 6 -31 ..
3-27-31 ..
4- 3 -31 ..-


This Year
Cars Avg.
484 3.35
577 3.35
588 3.40
526 3.60
510 3.90
608 3.55
524 3.50
377 3.65

Total...-.. 4195

What's In
A Tree


2 Yrs. Ago This Year 2 Yrs. Ago
Cars Avg. Cars Avg. Cars Avg.
504 3.07 304 3.10 311 3.73
636 2.92 281 3.40 433 3.43
446 2.85 358 3.50 388 3.36
431 3.13 469 3.40 398 3.37
395 3.11 471 3.40 435 3.15
473 3.35 524 3.35 373 3.46
545 3.00 523 3.20 451 3.41
509 2.95 504 3.20 408 3.55

3.55 3939 3.04 3434

3.30 3197 3.42

A 19-year-old grapefruit tree was recently
analyzed at the Florida Experiment Station,
Gainesville, to determine just what mineral
or fertilizer elements the tree with its leaves
and immature fruit contained. According to
Dr. R. M. Barnette, associate chemist at the
station, the tree, taken from a grove near
Dunedin last May, was seventeen feet high
and had a spread of over eighteen feet. It
showed a healthy deep green color and con-
tained about 1200 immature fruits when sam-
pling began. After all parts of the tree were
weighed and samples )analyzed the green
weight was 1200 pounds, containing 600
pounds of lime, less than a pound of magne-
sia, four pounds of nitrogen, one and a half
pounds of phosphoric acid and a little over
five pounds of potash.


(Continued from Page Seven)
infection that usually follows or in
dieback and ammoniation.
Beware of Foot Rot
In hoeing bearing trees the slight,
beneficial effect of stirring the soil
under the trees may be more than,
offset by the damage resulting from
the dissimination of such diseases as,
foot rot, mushroom root rot and pos-
sibly gummosis and psorosis, and
even stem-end rot and melanose
where the limbs are hanging low,
and are broken and bruised by the
hoe. Extreme care should be exer-,
cised in preventing the spread of
disease through wounds inflicted by
the improper use of any cultivating
Citrus trees are often pruned at
the wrong time. I do not have refer-'
ence to the time of year but to the
condition of the tree. In the first
place very little, if any, pruning
should be done except in removing:'
watersprouts and dead wood. I
doubt if tree decline or dieing back
is checked by pruning out the weak,
and dead branches. In severe prun-
ing, in removing dead wood, many
wounds are made by cutting back
into the live part of the limbs, and
the tree is thereby weakened.
Through these wounds diseases are
introduced and a still further dieing
back may result. Run down trees
should be well fertilized and every
effort should be made to build up
their vitality before severe pruning
is done.
Quick Acting Nitrogen
I am afraid a good many growers
have overlooked the matter of ap-
plying a sufficient amount of quick-
ly available nitrogen to take care
of the needs of the bacteria in de-
composing the crop of grass mowed
or worked into the soil this fall and
at the same time supply the tree's
needs. The bacteria will use an-
amount of nitrogen equivalent to
100 pounds of nitrate of soda or 75
pounds of sulphate of ammonia to
each ton of grass. If this is not- sup-
plied it will be taken from the soil,
and may result in a deficiency to
the trees and consequent yellowing
of foliage. Bear in mind that a'
tree showing a deficiency of nitro-
gen is more susceptible to cold in-
jury, insect attacks and disease in-
The theory of starving trees to
make them "hard" and "more cold
resistant" is not born out in actual
experience. The well-fed tree is the
best risk as well as the most profit-
able one.

Ringing Sarcasm
Bellhop (after guest had rung for
ten minutes): "Did you ring, sir?"
Guest: "No, I was tolling; I
thought you were dead."

"Boss, will you all give me about
a dollah. Our pastor is done gwine
;away and we all wants to give him
;a little momentum."

Pacre 8

Pamro 8

April 10, 1931

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