Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00058
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: February 25, 1931
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00058
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
r.eNil

ashinQ


RIDA




G H


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA
,\


NEWS


U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 1




HOUSE

Official Publicat ion of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION


$20 Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August $1, Volume III
$2.00 Year rus Growers Clearing House Association. FEBRUARY 25, 1931 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven.
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg.. Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8. 1879. Number 10


Committee of 50 To Select Nominees for New Board March 9


SCalifornia Is 25c

Bei6 d Florida in

Prices at Auction

For the week ending Feb. 21, the
a total cars of Florida oranges sold at
auction averaged 25c per box higher
Than California oranges sold at the
same auction. California in this peri-
od sold 304 cars at auction at $3.10
Delivered; Florida sold at the same
time 484 cars of oranges at $3.35
delivered. Florida's price was 28c a
Sbox higher than the figure she real-
ized for a corresponding amount of
' fruit at auction two years ago,
whereas, California's price was 63c
a box less than she realized for a
corresponding amount two years
ago.
It will be interesting to note the
comparative averages by auctions
this year as follows:


Cars
New York.. 247
Boston .... 56.
Phila. ...... 94
Pittsburgh 23
SCleveland.. 13
"Chicago... -22
St. Louis.... 7
Cincinnati.. 15
Detroit........ 7


orida California
Avg. Cars Avg.
$3.57 76 $3.32
3.16 44 2.99
3.19 15 3.07
2.94 21 3.01
3.23 23 3.21
3;04 63 3. 12
2.85 28 2.94
3.10 6 2.68
3.06 28 2.94


Total........ 484 $3.35 304 $3.10
We are advised that the rainy
Weather has had its effect in rough-
ening up more than usual the Cali-
fornia navels. There has also been
some complaint of flavor, whereas,
Florida oranges have most delight-
ful eating quality, are delicately
rich in flavor and have the usual
superior juice ctent. Florida also
Shas been fortunate in having good
shipping weather. The fruit has
Been keeping well and carrying well
to the consumer.
With this difference in Florida's
favor showing up on mid-season or-
anges, it would seem that Florida
would not be hoping for too much in
expecting even a wider differential
when her wonderful crop of Valen-
(Continued on Page Two)


Teamwork in Distributing

Grapefruit kShould Boost

Market for Rest of Year


The orange market has advanced
-the grapefruit market will ad-
vance.
These statements are not based
on silly optimism but the cold facts
that govern business. The advance
already has occurred in the orange
market and the advance that will
come in the grapefruit market is
made possible not only by the cold
statistical facts but because the in-
dustry through the Clearing House
has reached that point where there
is an agreement in attitude towards
situations of this kind where com-
petitors instead of unintelligently
knifing each other are cooperating
together in a pleasing manner to
bring about the greatly desired end
that all are seeking. No one man, no
one shipping or marketing factor
could do this thing alone.
What Teamwork Has Done
What teamwork can do in indus-
Ary atters. has recently been de-
monsifrat leasing manner by
the up-turn in the orange market,
which has shown an advance of
from 50c to 75c per box on mid-sea-
son oranges. On February 6 this
matter was thoroughly talked over
by the members of the Operating
Committee and others present. The
opportunity was seen and agreed to.
On Feb. 10, news releases were sent
to the various trade papers over the
United States which were hungry
for the good news that the Clearing
House sent, outlining in unmistak-
able terms the reasons why the or-
ange market should advance.
On Feb. 12 a carefully prepared
detailed statement was furnished to
all of our shippers, going into the
matter so thoroughly as to be con-
vincing to all that the turn is just
ahead. The statement showed also
that the mid-season oranges were
bound to advance and prepared the
way too for a firm and united stand
on Valencias.


It is only through coordinated ef-
fort at this time that a permanent
advance can be insured. It was not
guess work. Mixed cars were broken
down to their proper proportion of
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
so that comparisons could be made
with two years ago on similarly
classified data. Comparisons were
given showing auction averages, the
amount left, and it was conclusive-
ly evident to all of our shippers that
by proper teamwork and all seeing
the situation alike, the market was
bound to pick up. And it has!
Valencia Prospects Bright
Also, there is a solid confidence
in the Valencia deal. We have every
reason to anticipate a higher net re-
turn on Valencias this year than
two years ago, regardless of the de-
pressed business conditions general-
ly over the United States. Our crop
is better quality inside and out. We
have a longer marketing period and
we are not' laboring under' the hys-1'
teria that more or less controlled
conditions two years ago when the
Mediterranean fly quarantine had
been placed upon us.
This feature is mentioned regard-
ing oranges because it also is hoped
that the Clearing House by a simi-
lar analysis, an accurate check-up,
and a fearless facing of facts will
find the way out on grapefruit. Such
an analysis has already been pre-
pared by the manager and passed on
to the shipper members as will be
seen in the Citrus Summary pub-
lished elsewhere in this issue.
In a way, it may be more difficult
to bring up grapefruit because it is
not such a necessary household ar-
ticle as oranges. But with the ex-
ception of Porto Rico, Florida has
absolute control of the grapefruit
situation from now on. We can, if
necessary, get into cold storage
again. We certainly know that, with
(Continued on Page Sis)


All Members Urged

To Attend Meeting

In Orlando March 9

Selection of Advisory Body
To Be Made at Series of
Regional Sessions
Nomination of directors who will
serve on the Clearing House Board
next season will be made by the
members of the Committee of Fifty
at the advisory group's next meet-
ing, to be held at Orlando Monday,
March 9.
Nomination of the directors by
the Committee of Fifty is provided
for in the Clearing House Associa-
tion's By-Laws. The election will be
held the first Tuesday in April,
which this year falls on April 7.
Every member of the Committee of
Fifty is expected to be present at
the Orlando meeting in that one
hundred percent representation of
the growers is highly important.
Jim Morton, chairman of the Com-
mittee of Fifty, in formally an-
nouncing the March meeting, de-
clared that it is the solemn duty.of
aperyvreneTbpr .nf tJcr&n ptesC.-.flf.
Fifty "to attend this session. -
Attendance Is Important .: -
"Every grower-member of the
Clearing House," Chairman Morton
said, "is entitled to a voice in the
government of the Clearing House.
The grower speaks through his di-
rector, and unless the Committee of
Fifty member directly representing
that grower has a hand in nominat-
ing the Board members, the Com-
mittee of Fifty member thereby de-
prives the growers in his territory
of their charter-given privilege."
According to the By-Laws, mem-
bers of the Committee of Fifty in
each of the seven Clearing House
districts place in nomination the
names of three growers, one of
whom will be elected to the Board
to represent that particular district.
The Committee of Fifty as a whole
will designate eight other growers
as nominees, four of whom will be
(Continued on Page Four)




-A


FLORIDA CLEARING ( HOUSE NEWS


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending February 21, 1931)
WEEKLY INDEX ANALYSIS


Week
Ending
Feb 21,'31
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 1199
Total---.................-------------------17370
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 975
Total---...... ------. .------.13339
Florida Tangerines Shipped.... 100
Total---.....--.....---------- 2852
Florida Mixed Shipped............ 627
Total--...........-------..--10494
California Oranges Shipped.... 1131


Week Week
Ending Ending
Feb 14,'31 Feb 21,'30
1106 966
16171 12224
838 578
12364 11052
169
2752 815
730 354
9867 6228
686 913


Week
Ending
Feb 21,'29
1226
18542
742
11216
32
1090
351
5777
1196


Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 484 576 417 504
Average ....---...---...----. $3.35 $2.85 $4.51 $3.07
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 412 359 309 241
Average....... ...---------- $2.40 $2.35 $3.95 $2.95
Florida Tangerines Auctioned 147 150 10 98
Average...-........ .-----....--- $2.70 $2.80 $7.09 $3.88
California Oranges Auctioned 304 412 280 311
Average...............................-... $3.10 $2.90 $5.11 $3.73


FIRST FIVE DAYS' SHIPMENTS AND SALES
Oranees No. 1 Oranaes No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Av
Feb. 14 ................. 206 103 $1.98 220 117 $1.7
50% 53 %
Feb. 21.................. 189 76 $2.38 205 105 $2.1
40% 51% _


Difference.......... -17


-27 +.40


Grapefruit No. 1
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg.
Feb. 14 -................. 146 64 $1.80
44 %
Feb. 21.................. 173 74 $1.59
43%


g.
6
1


-15 -12 +.35


Grapefruit
Shipped Sold
232 95
41%
254 120
47%


No. 2
Avg.
$1.44
$1.20


Difference..........+27 +10 -.21 +22 +25 -.24

PREVIOUS COMPARATIVE SHIPMENTS
Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 14 -.......- 796 1196 372 834 746 1074 1260
Feb. 21 .......... 966 1226 433 1034 793 958 1026
Feb. 28 .......... 1031 954 485 796 764 747 940
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 14 .......... 1026 1438 1123 474 828 650 1181
Feb. 21 .......... 913 1196 1001 1200 555 786 1166
Feb. 28 .......... 834 1413 1137 1341 1165 1006 1221
- < .. Florida Grapefriit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 14 .......... 544 750 391 605 496 942 679
Feb. 21 ......... 578 742 541 671 621 902 697
Feb. 28 .......--- 589 638 497 695 621 688 615
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Feb. 14 .......... 351 354 205 221 153 170 No Rcrd.
Feb. 21 .......... 354 351 198 223 167 152 No Rcrd.
Feb. 28 .......... 412 280 198 212 154 138 No Rcrd.
TOTAL CARLOT SHIPMENTS INCLUDING MIXED APPORTIONED
Orgs. Gft. Tangs.
To last week, including Feb. 14......................... 21,781 14,985 4371
This week, including Sat. est. (apportioned).... 1,543 1,163 194
To Feb. 21, including estimate for Sat.............. 23,324 16,148 4565
Estimated movement next week (miked inc.).. 1,550 1,100 75
Estimated Total week ending Feb. 28................ 24,874 17,248 4640
Estimated left commencing March 1.----........ 12,126 9,752 110
Estimated total for Season-Cars.................... 37,000 27,000 4750

Grapefruit Market Will Advance look over the figures immediately
When you read the paragraph above and realize that by March 1,
heading, you will all say, "I hope unless we have a very sudden
so, but what's the idea?" Now just change of heart, Florida will have


moved a total of 17,248 cars of
grapefruit. Most of us, I believe,
are ready to admit that there are
probably not over 27,000 cars of
grapefruit that will be shipped. That
would leave from March 1 on only
9752 cars to move. From March 1
on two years ago when we were
having pretty tough sledding, there
moved, including the proper pro-
portion of the mixed, 10,216 cars.
The auction markets two years ago
were hanging around a $3.00 de-
livered level from February 1 to
April 1, and then they began to pick
tp. The auction markets this year
from December 25 on to the pres-
ent time have ranged from 50c to
65c less than two years ago. But
there never has been such heavy
shipments of grapefruit. Including
this week, the past four weeks show
and average of 1100 cars per week.
The same four weeks two years ago
showed an average of 835 cars, in-
cluding the mixed.
Compared with two years ago our
shipments have been about one-
third heavier during the past four
weeks. We know that they don't
need to continue to be so heavy.
That's the very comforting fact, and
it is time that we realize this. We
are not going to slow up on this
coming week's movement. We will
probably see about 1100 cars go
out, including the proper propor-
tion of mixed. And for the week
ending March 8, unless the Clearing
House should decide to prorate ship-
ments on grapefruit, the movement
voluntarily will not be reduced to
less than 1000 cars. It might be
fair to assume that the next three
weeks, ending on March 29, will
show an average of 900 cars per
week. This should give us some ad-
vance in prices. But those who hold
for shipment from April 1 on will
reap the benefit, as our shipments
from then on will be decidedly
lighter than those of two years ago.
Contrast this with the fact that dur-
ing this week and the previous three
weeks we have been going 35%
heavier than two years ago. With
the grapefruit market bringing the
growers almost nothing, I am con-
vinced it, is.high,,time that we got
away from the panicky attitude of
shipping grapefruit. Our growers
should be advised that from March
1 on we have no more grapefruit to
move than we had two years ago,
that they have very little to lose by
taking a chance on the future and
that, although it has been extreme-
ly difficult to get the grapefruit
market up, even under restricted
movement, whether the Clearing
House prorates or not the growers
should have better prices-and not
many weeks hence. I am attaching
as a last sheet to this Citrus Sum-
mary an analysis comparing grape-
fruit shipments of two years ago
with our shipments so far this year
and with the estimated movement
necessary to move our crop this
year as compared with last year,
also auction prices compared. This
is deserving of every man's atten-
tion and I believe the big majority
of those to whom this bulletin is go-
ing will be bound to realize that we


have a comparatively bright future
ahead in; grapefruit and that the
turn is coming inside of two or three
weeks. -
Pretty Advance On Oranges
The advance on oranges has come
steadily. It is going to continue as
it is not fictitious. We recognized in
our bulletin of February 12 what
we were running into. This, by the
way, was a similar analysis to the
one we are now giving you on grape-
fruit. The steady advance in or-
anges can only be spoiled by those
shippers who insist upon shipping
Valencias at this time. I should like
to see our shippers approve listing
the names of all of our shippers who
have insisted on moving Valencias
this past week and the coming week
in the light of our Board and the
Operating Committee urgently -re-
questing that every one hold back
in shipping Valencias until March
1. It would seem that it is only fair
to handle these things just as frank-
ly as we do allotments and ship-
mients on allotments. Our Board of
Directors yesterday again urged
that everything be done to hold back
the shipment of Valencias for an-
cther week.
Decidedly Lighter Shipments Just
Ahead
Bear in mind that, including our
mixed, our shipments including this
week on oranges have averaged a
little over 1650 cars per week. We
(Continued on Page Three)

CALIFORNIA IS 25c
BEHIND FLORIDA IN
PRICES AT AUCTION

(Continued from Page One)
cia oranges come into competition
with California's navels.
Western Valencias Later
California will not start moving
her Valencias until May. Probably
a few cars of Valencias from Cen-
tral California will be moved the
forepart of May. The big proportion
of California's Valencia crop is in
Southern California and these will
not start moving in any consequence
until the middle of May.
In other words, California will be
starting moving her Valencia crop
of about 36,000 cars about the time
we are through moving our entire
orange crop. Her Valencia crop
alone will equal our total orange
crop. It is fortunate for California
and fortunate for us that California
can hold her Valencias on the trees
and have such a long marketing
period. With the crop that she has,
her Valencias will be shipped every
day in the week until she starts
moving her new crop navels again
from Central California. Between
the two states we ought to keep the
consumers orange-minded.

Great Excitement
"I was in a big train robbery on
the way to Dallas."
"How exciting! Tell us all about
it."
"Took my girl to eat on the
diner."


February 25, 1931


SPawge 2


,Pa-e 2





February 25, 1931

WEEKLY CITRUS SUMMARY

(Continued from Page Two)
know from March 1 on we will not
have to move over 1000 cars per
week to move the orange crop that
is left. Certainly we can also know
that if we will just stand pat, have
Proper self-reliance in ourselves and
in each other, there is no reason for
Staking a cent less than $3.00 f.o. b.
on our No. 1 Valencias and $2.50
on our No. 2s, with discounts on the
126s and larger where they are ex-
cessive. California shipments are
Going to be heavier-they must be
-but California caters to quite a
different lot of customers than we
need to cater to with our shipments
cut down so strikingly as they will
be from March 1 on. Best of all, we
are already seeing auction prices on
our mid-season oranges showing 25c
, advance over California navels. Our
Valencias, we know, are worth at
least 25c more than mid-seasons.
We believe they will command 50c
to 75c more than California navels
from now on. By sitting steady in
the boat and having the confidence
in each other that the Clearing
, House has demonstrated you men
can have, we have the prettiest
Chance in the world to show that
Florida has men in its ranks with
real moral stamina, self-confidence
and proper foresight in turning a
season that has been almost disas-


Week
Ending
Aug. 30........
Sept. 6........
Sept. 13......
Sept. 20........
Sept. 27........
Oct. 4.--.
Oct. 11..........
Oct. 18.........
Oct. 25..........
Nov. 1..........
Nov. 8..........
Nov. 15..........
Nov. 22 .--
Nov. 29 ........
Dec. 6..........
SDec. 13..........
Dec. 20..........
Dec. 27..........
Jan. 3..........
Jan. 10..........
Jan. 17..........
Jan. 24 .....
Jan. 31..........
Feb. 7..-........


FLORIDA
This 2 Years


3
5
8
59
393
855
1008
1166
1157
1063
871
1520
1910
1189
620
1399
1040
1127
1323
1752
1649


Total Actual..20,117
Feb. 14.......... *1650
Feb. 21-........ 1650
Feb. 28......... 1650
Mar. 7.......... 500
Mar. 14........ 1000
Mar. 21 ....... 1100
Mar. 28 ........ 1100
Apr. 4 ........1200
Apr. 11....... 1200
Apr. 18........ 1100
Apr. 25........ 1000
May 2....... 900
May 9........ 900
May 16........ 750
May 23.......... 750
May 30 ........ 500
June 6..........
June 13..........


5
53
207
267
200
767
1250
1180
935
804
1471
2375
1072
605
1563
1412
1384
1395
1356
1367


FLORIDA CLEARING

trous to date into a victory. This
applies emphatically to Valencias,
and I hope that you will agree with
me that it may apply also to our
grapefruit. Both are going to come
out fine. But in all these matters it
is going to take self-discipline on
the part of our shipper members,
as well as grower members; it is
going to take genuineness of atti-
tude between ourselves, frankness,
and a real spirit of cooperation in-
stead of any nominal attitude in
that respect.
California Shipments Continue
Light
Not over 1131 cars of oranges
will have left California this week;
last week, including over-looked
boat shipments, only 782 cars; the
week previous only 918 cars. It sure-
ly is the time to be moving every
box of mid-season oranges. L. D.
Savage of the California Fruit
Growers Exchange wires estimating
1400 cars next week. We are esti-
mating 1500. His wire says that
the only reason they have been hold-
ing back is on account of rain.
Winston's Assistance To Be
Continued
Through the action of the Board
yesterday, the valued assistance of
Mr. Winston in carrying on coloring
room investigation work and re-
search work along keeping qualities
will be continued through the means


ORANGE ANALYSIS
Seasons of 1930-31 and 1928-29 Compared
FLORIDA AUCTIONS
CALIFORNIA This Year 2 Yrs. Ago
This 2 Years Cars Avg. Cars Avg.


680
581
674
580
570
543
472
334
115
167
682
987
782
1555
1874
1450
558
612
732
556
.911
1434
1459
907


737
696
735
723
568
555
495
450
435
171
813
1335
1078
1638
1697
1066
712
797
1261
1657
1080
1089
1013
871


1

6
53
212
400
438
534
590
441
470
571
609
288
345
579
494
509
578
590


$2.60
5.40
5.65
5.15
4.15
3.55
3.20
3.00
3.10
2.80
2.65
2.60
2.90
3.20
2.70
2.65
2.80
2.95
2.85


19,668 19,215 21,672 7,708


1444
1472
1150
1194
1250
1230
1259
1207
1090
827
1458
1226
883
913
889
740
397
401


1438
1196
1413
1394
1412
1362
1537
1510
1596
1683
1701
1958
1796
1703
1156
1344
1683
2039


1

21
85
71
93
507
497
325
337
387
565
342
274
573
575
400
526
471
6,050
494
504
636
446
431
395
473
545
509
480
488
494
510
425
460
241


HOUSE NEWS

that the Clearing House will be af-
fording of furnishing two valuable
assistants that have been working
with him. Any of our shippers
should feel it their privilege and
duty to know that their coloring
rooms are right, not only in a super-
ficial way, but as to humidity, cir-
culation, temperature and general
practices. Any shipper having any
difficulty with decay should report
that difficulty promptly either direct
to Mr. Winston or to this office
through Mr. Crews, in charge of our
inspection work.
A Parting Shot
Some of you are going to be skep-
tical about this grapefruit deal.
Please note this: Up to March 1 we
will have shipped 17,248 cars as
compared with 14,366 cars two
years ago. We have thrown on the
market 3000 cars more than two
years ago and we have if anything
less to move from March 1 on than
two years ago. We are beating now
our price of two years ago on or-
anges, under a similar situation, cer-
tainly we can come much nearer
equalling grapefruit prices of two
years ago and maybe even better-
ing them; because we know that
Florida never did put onto the mar-
ket the abundance of grapefruit of
such wonderfully fine eating and it
has gone.into consumption.
The following tables analyze the
orange and grapefruit situation:


CALIFORNIA AUCTIONS
This Year 2 Yrs. Ago
Cars Avg. Cars Avg.


$2.15
3.38
3.73
5.30
4.62
2.99
3.15
3.10
3.05
3.23
3.42
3.58
3.64
3.28
3.18
3.06
2.92
3.05


$3.23
3.07
2.92
2.85
3.13
3.11
3.35
3.00
2.95
3.39
3.59
3.48
3.34
2.93
2.77
2.74


$7.33
7.20
7.55
8.00
8.70
8.95
8.40
7.35
7.30
6.84
5.05
4.75
3.95
3.60
3.15
3.10
3.20
3.00
3.20
3.40
3.50
3.30


6,525


490
359
426
254
243
246
222
174
215
307
316
341
446
293
211
266
365
347
321
320
6,162
346
511
433
388
398
435
373
451
408
412
422
475
524
583
550
409


$4.68
4.69
4.88
7.71
8.15
7.83
7.24
6.38
5.90
5.25
4.29
4.30
4.66
5.13
5.20
4.90
4.66
4.43
4.12
3.99


$3.92
3.73
3.45
3.36
3.37
3.15
3.46
3.41
3.55
3.91
4.11
4.03
3.80
3.20
3.11
3.25


* Estimated from this on.


Page 8

Citrus Experts To

Discuss Problems

At Regional Meets

Saving In Cultivation Costs
Will Be Keynote of
Speakers' Talks
Growers attending the Regional
Meetings next month-at which
time they will elect their represen-
tatives on the Committee of Fifty
to serve next year-will have an op-
portunity to obtain first-hand and
authoritative information on citrus
culture topics.
Announcement of this has just
been made by Jim Morton, chairman
uf the Committee of Fifty, and who
is in charge also of the election ar-
rangements. "Through the co-opera-
tion of the Agricultural College and
the State Agricultural 'Departinet,"'
Chairman Morton said, "our Re-
gional Meetings this year will be
more than merely business sessions.
Instead of attending a meeting
where the principal business will be
that of electing Committee of Fifty
representatives, the growers will be
able to hear authorities on citrus
culture discuss some of the more re-
cent developments in cultural meth-
ods especially those tending toward
the production of quality fruit at a
lower cost per box, and at the same
time will have an opportunity to
talk over with these experts some of
their individual problems.
"I do not mean to imply that elec-
tion of the Committee of Fifty rep-
resentatives is not an important
matter with the grower-members of
the Clearing House, but it is not of
course, an all-absorbing topic and at
best will require only a few minutes
to handle. The more economical pro-
duction of better fruit appears to
be assuming an ever-increasing im-
portance to the growers. I am glad
to note this for there is no question
in my mind but that the improve-
ment in quality of our fruit will of
itself help all of us immeasurably.
Our opportunities to discuss in per-
son our grove problems with the
men engaged in studying citrus cul-
ture are far too few. Growers are
showing more and more an eager-
ness to learn more about growing
better fruit, and I believe that the
growers will.gladly avail themselves
of the chance to hear these men and
talk with them when they meet with
us at our Regional Meetings.
"Messrs. Louis H. Alsymeyer,
Highlands County Agent; E. F. De-
Busk, Extension Specialist in Citri-
culture; E. L. Lord, Professor of
Horticulture, and Mr. DeVane in
charge of the Consolidated Land
Company grove work at Lake Pla-
cid, have kindly consented to at-
tend our Regional Meetings and ad-
dress the growers. The subjects of
their talks will be announced as
soon as definite dates and meeting
places can be arranged."

Read the News for information
about the citrus industry.


(Continued on Page Four)





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


In planning and carrying out an
effective and economical spraying
program in the control of any dis-
ease, it is necessary for the grower
to be able to recognize the disease
and to have a practical knowledge
of its chief characteristics and the
effect that weather conditions have
on its development and on control
measures to be employed.
Citrus scab is easily recognized
by any practical grower. It occurs
in the form of rough, corky projec-
tions on the fruit and leaves. It is
caused by a fungus (Sphaceloma
fawcetti) that attacks the very
young and tender fruit, leaves and
twigs of susceptible species; result-
ing, in severe -eases in culls and low
grade fruit of the mature crop.
The economic importance of the dis-
ease is noted in the production of
grapefruit, the King orange and sat-
suma, while other species and va-
rieties are more or less susceptible.:
Rain Is Aid To Scab
It is important to note that the
organism that causes citrus scab
lives over the winter on the scabby
leaves and twigs which serve as
sources of new infection the follow-
ing spring, but a "bad scab year"
from the grower's standpoint, de-
pends more upon frequent rains
while the trees are blooming and
while the fruit is attaining a diame-
ter of % of an inch, at which stage
it seems to have reached immunity.
The rains not only create a condi-
tion favorable for the development
of the scab fungus, but render
spraying more or less ineffective in
the control of the disease, by wash-
ing off the spray material.
I think it is generally understood
that successful scab control is a
matter of prevention, rather than
cure. Effective control measures
must therefore aim at protecting
the very young fruit. This calls for
a--thor6ugh spraying with a 3-3-50
bordeaux mixture plus about 1
gallons of oil emulsion to the 100;
or liquid lime-sulphur, 1 to 30, be-
fore the new spring growth is form-
ed and before the trees bloom. This
is to cover the old scab lesions on
the leaves and twigs and is the first,
and often most important, step in
protecting the young fruit. In case
weather conditions turn out to be
very unfavorable for spraying after
trees have bloomed, and favorable
for scab development, scab control
will depend almost entirely upon the
dormant spray.
When To Spray Again
A second spraying, using either
bordeaux or lime-sulphur 1 to 40,
may be made when about two-thirds
of the petals have fallen. This is to
cover the young fruit with the fun-
gicide and further protect it against
the disease.
It should be remembered that the
young fruits are most susceptible to


scab infection immediately after the
petals have fallen, and that they be-
come more resistant as they grow
larger. The greatest loss from scab
often results from a heavy infection
on the very young, unprotected
fruits followed by heavy dropping,
rather than from the disease blem-
ishes and consequent lowering of
the grade of the fruit left to ma-
ture. Dormant spraying is usually
more effective in scab control than
spraying after the fruit has set.
A few suggestions on making and
using bordeaux-oil are perhaps in
order. These suggestions will apply
to both scab and melanose spraying.
Unless bordeaux mixture is prop-
erly made the results from its appli-
cation will surely be disappointing.
A practicable method of making
bordeaux oil, one that stood a high
test made by the Arkansas Experi-
ment Station, is by dissolving 50
pounds of bluestone in 50 gallons
of water. Shake 50 pounds of lime
in a 50-gallon barrel and finish fill-
ing the barrel with water. Have
these two stock solutions near the
place where the spray tank is filled.
As the spray tank is being filled
with water add to the spray tank the
required number of gallons of the
stock bluestone solution to make a
3-3-50 bordeaux. When the spray
tank is almost full, start the agita-
tor and add slowly the required
number of gallons of the stock lime
solution. If hydrated lime is used,
use 4% pounds of the lime to be
the equivalent of three pounds of
the lump lime. After the lime is
added to the spray tank, pour in the
oil to make a 1 % oil solution, about
1 % gallons of oil to 100 gallons of
the mixture. This gives a 3-3-50
bordeaux-oil.
Making Bordeaux Mixture
Another very practicable method
of making good bordeaux mixture
is one approved by the Massachu-
setts Agricultural College, generally
known as the "instant method." For
this method finely powdered blue-
stone (copper sulphate) known com-
mercially as "snow-form" bluestone
and chemical hydrated lime are
needed. To make 100 gallons of
3-3-50 bordeaux mixture, place 6
pounds of bluestone on the screen
of the spray tank while same is be-
ing filled with water. When the tank
is about % full add 6 pounds of the
lime, keeping the agitator running.
To make bordeaux-oil, add the re-
quired amount of oil emulsion while
water is being added to bring the
total volume up to 100 gallons,
while the agitator is still running.
If the "standard method" of mak-
ing bordeaux mixture is preferred,
full instructions for same may be
obtained by applying to the Agricul-
tural Extension Service, Gainesville.
Bordeaux mixture should be used
the same day it is made, as it de-
teriorates very rapidly with age.


WEEKLY CITRUS SUMMARY
(Continued from Page Three)
GRAPEFRUIT SHIPMENTS (INCLUDING MIXED) AND GRAPE.
FRUIT SALES AT AUCTION-SEASONS OF 1930-31
AND 1928-29 COMPARED


Spraying for Scab Control
(Radio Address Over Station WRUF)
By E. F. DeBUSK, Extension Citriculturist


Florida Florida
Shipments Shipments
1928 1930-1931 1928-1929


Sept.
Sept.
Sent.


14....
21....
28....


Fla. Cars Sold at Auction
1930-1931 1928-1929
No. Avg. No. Avg.


38 4.60
102 3.75
125 3.65


Oct. 4 Oct. 5........ 286 144 187 3.35 30 4.88
Oct. 11 Oct. 12...... 543 398 180 3.60 44 6.37
Oct. 18 Oct. 19...... 511 733 264 3.20 159 5.02
Oct. 25 Oct. 26 ... 373 :667 223 3.20 252 4.03
Nov. 1 Nov. 1........ 656 .399 218 3.50 201 3.59
Nov. 8 Nov. 9........ 797 443 332 3.10 149 3.63
Nov. 15 Nov. 16...... 633 556 341 2.80 208 3.81
Nov. 22 Nov. 23...... 566 588 303 2.75 204 4.16
Nov. 29 Nov. 30...... 584 939 243 2.85 209 4.20
Dec. 6 Dec. 7........ 980 -772 297 2.75 397 3.23


Dec. 13
Dec. 20
Dec. 27
1931
Jan. 3


Jan. 10
Jan. 17
Jan. 24
Jan. 31
Feb. 7
Feb. 14


Dec. 14......
Dec. 21......
Dec. 28.....
1929
Jah. 4........


11......
18......
25......
1........
8........


Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.


753
742
934
1100
1066


Feb. 15...... 1090


579 351 2.60 238 3.00
438 295 2.60 251 3.17
.414 169 2.75 176 3.47 '


800


260 2.75 194 3.43


3.16
3.17
3.15
3.07
2.95


708
-762
781
936
803


856 359 2.35 276 2.98


Total....14985 12797 6128

Feb. 22......*1163 :847
Mar. 1........ 1100 722
TOTAL TO MAR. 1..17248 14366


Mar. 8........
Mar. 15......
Mar. 22......
Mar. 29......


1000.
900
900
900


4363

241 2.95
302 2.92


285 3.03
299 3.06,
305 2.97
259 3.03


Apr. 5........ 850 847 281 3.08
Apr. 12...... 800 920 301 3.06
Apr. 19...... 750 795 324 3.18
Apr. 26...... 700 887 289 3.16
May 3........ 700 794 232 3.49
May 10...... 700 727 204 3.93
May 17.... 700 814 249 3.74
May 24...... 500 574 252 3.44
May 31...... 300 335 136 3.32
June 7........ 200 154
June 14...... 100 106
Total........10000 10216

Estimated movement from this on.


ALL MEMBERS URGED
TO ATTEND MEETING
IN ORLANDO MARCH 9

(Continued from Page One)
elected to the Board as directors-at-
large.
May Nominate By Petition
The By-Laws further provide that
nominations also may be made by
growers upon petition to the Board
of Directors. Seventy-five growers
in any district may place any grower
or growers in nomination by filing
a petition to this effect with the
Board of Directors of the Clearing
House at least twelve days before
the date of election. Three hundred
growers may nominate a grower
from the state-at-large by filing sim-
ilar petition also at least twelve
days before the date of election.
The various polling places in the
seven districts, which may be used
if the growers prefer to cast a direct
ballot rather than to vote by mail,


will be determined by the election
committee within the next couple
cf weeks. The election committee,
comprised of three members from
the Committee of Fifty and three
from the Board of Directors, will as
usual be in charge of the prepara-
tion of the ballots and the schedul-
ing of the Regional Meetings. Those
on the election committee are
Messrs. A. M. Tilden, E. C. Aurin,
and Phil Peters from the Board,
and Messrs. Jim Morton, C. D.
Gunn, and John Clark from the
Committee of Fifty.
The election of the members of
the Committee of Fifty will be held
at meetings in the various Clearing
House districts. At these meetings,
which are known as Regional Meet-
ings, the growers will nominate the
Committee of Fifty member or
members.
The meeting in Orlando, March 9,
will be held at 10:30 a. m. in the
Orange County Chamber of Com-
merce Building.


Date
Week Ending
1930
Aug. 30
Sept. 6
Sept. 13
Sept. 20
Sent. 27


February 25, 1931


Palre 4


Pape 4





February 25, 1931


OBSERVATIONS

On Coloring
Being the first of three articles by
Robert Tilden, formerly of the U. S. D.
A., who has been assisting Dr. J. R.
Winston in the work of perfecting col-
oring processes in Florida. These arti-
cles are written for the layman, and af-
ford the reader an unusually interesting
picture of this important phase of pre-
paring our fruit for the markets.


There is no need to stress the im-
portance of the coloring of citrus
fruit. Appearance, in our feministic
,regime, is the order of the day. Our
natural color season is short.
To begin, then, let us become a
little Socratic. Just what is meant
by "coloring" in the above heading?
The term itself has a negative ap-
peal. It suggests the non-genuine,
the unnatural. However, it doesn't
*mean the imparting of an artificial
color. The process is more a par-
tial bleaching, the breaking-down of
the dominant green pigment in the
chlorophyll bodies, leaving the sub-
ordinate yellow or orange formerly
hidden. The action is thus Nature's
own, greatly hastened.
There are two major factors in
citrus coloring; the fruit and the
treatment.
The manner in which fruit colors
depends largely upon its innate
qualities. For instance, thin-skinned,
fine textured fruit, as the sour-root
,.Pineapple of Orange County that
have had their share of potash, color
uniformly better, more rapidly and
more deeply than the rough, coarse,
lemon-root stuff from the sand hills
that has effervesced from soda and
water.
Fertilizer And Coloring
This reminds me of an interesting
observation regarding the relation
Between fertilization and coloration.
Well-fed fruit of a deep, dark green,
0 but on the verge of breaking, colors
a richer orange and just as quickly
as the pale, partly colored fruit
from half-starved trees. A little sur-
prising at first sight but after
thought, to be expected. Heavy fer-
tilizer, deep color-composed of a
deep, orange underlying the deep
-4 green.
Fruit first turning, colors decided-
ly better than fruit that is re-green-
ing, as Valencias have a perverse
habit of doing. June-blooms are
hopeless.
Besides its inborn qualities, fruit
acquires or rather, suffers, others
before reaching the coloring room.
A defensive oil film from a recently
applied oil emulsion spray might be
mentioned. The most important, and
unfortunate, of the artificial quali-
ties, however, I believe is the bruis-
ing of green fruit. This results in
green spotting if no worse. The fruit
is picked in a turgid, tender condi-
tion. Bruising ruptures the oil cells,
producing an oil film that protects
the green pigment from the coloring
action. If the bruise escapes decay
it later dries out and turns an ugly
brown.
We now arrive at the coloring
room. Taking the fruit for what it


FLORIDA CLEARINGR HOUSE NEWS


Volusia Goes A-Fairing


II I

The above pictures were snapped at the Volusia left. While the Fair was not exclusively a citrus ex-
County Fair the middle of this month, and show Gov- position, the exhibits of oranges and grapefruit indi-
ernor Doyle E. Carlton making an address to the cated that Volusia and environs are doing an excel-
thousands of fair-goers shown in the photo at the lent job in producing high quality citrus.


is worth, the next concern is its
treatment.
The modern method aims at ex-
posing the fruit to a gaseous agent
(considered catalytic) in the proper
concentration, administered most
advantageously, under the best
physical conditions. The problem is
to discover the points of the target,
then make the aim true.
Evolution of Coloring
Citrus coloring has evolved from
the gasoline engine exhaust along
the line of incomplete combustion,
through the use of kerosene stoves
enclosed with the fruit, to the pres-
ent method of conducting the fumes
to the coloring rooms from a sep-
arate smoke house. The active agent
in this smoke is thought to be an
unsaturated hydro-carbon compound
of the ethylene or acetylene series.
Paralleling use of kerosene smoke
in late years has been the increas-
ing use of a hydro-carbon gas
known as ethylene. Improvement in
methods of using this gas has been
more a mutation than an evolution.
The mutation took place last spring
when Mr. Winston developed, (in
collaboration with engineers?), the
famous "trickle system." The pecu-
liarly descriptive name of this meth-
od is due to Mr. Winston's admir-
ably characteristic disregard for the
dignity of technical terminology.
Before the dawn of the trickle, it
was the general custom to adminis-
ter ethylene in periodic doses. Noth-
ing else to do with its use could be
said to be general. Everything was
decidedly local. Every house appear-
ed to have its own system and ideas.
Most houses also had their own
troubles.
Getting At The Bottom Of It
Mr. Winston began a study of
fruit coloring, both experimentally
at the laboratory in Orlando and
commercially in the packing houses
over the state. He started by testing
prevailing methods. Ethylene seem-
ed to be a better coloring agent
than kerosene smoke but caused


more decay. There followed work
upon everything connected with col-
oring, using both ethylene and kero-
sene. We tested and studied concen-
trations, means of administering,
and conditions. At the end of the
season records showed less decay
from the use of ethylene than from
that of kerosene, even somewhat
less than that of untreated fruit.
Why? First, the gas was used more
intelligently, but the principal im-
provement was in the conditions
under which it was used. They are
of primary importance.
Entirely too much gas was being
used. It was the logical idea that
the more gas used the better the
color. Such was not the case. All
that was needed was enough to
stimulate the action.
Now the conditions. What are
they? Using the term broadly, be-
sides the coloring agent there are
temperature, humidity, fresh air
supply, air circulation, and time to
he reckoned with. Here is where we
really reach the realm of impres-
sions. Our work has been character-
ized by a great deal of contradictory
data. The many uncontrollable vari-
ables necessitate much repetition
and consolidation of tests and com-
mercial observations before arriving
at conclusions on any one constant.
The general trend almost has to be
felt.
Suiting The Taste
The new coloring rooms have been
designed in an attempt to furnish
the desired control over conditions.
Some approach the goal more close-
ly than others; still you are remind-
ed of the rainbow story. Some
rooms appear satisfactory but are
misleading. I have seen rooms that
gave good temperatures and appar-
ently supplied the fruit with fresh
air and proper circulation. As a mat-
ter of fact a cosmic commotion was
created above the fruit while pock-
ets or semi-pockets were left below.
Frantic attempts to remedy the
trouble practically destroyed the
basic design of the rooms by holes


in the floor (perhaps a good thing),
an absurd supply of outside air, ini-
tial and repeated turkish baths to
offset the drop in temperature and
humidity, resulting in wet fruit and
the upset of conditions and their
control generally.
In any case the new rooms are
far better than the old rooms that
boxed the fruit up, asphyxiated or
suffocated it, scalded some with
kerosene stoves or left the bottom
fruit too cold to color in the dead
air of the ethylene rooms. The ob-
ject now is to make the best of the
control we have. Much remains to
be done in the way of determining
the best. Nevertheless, there are at
least impressions that might be
worthy of consideration.
What of ethylene gas? Since
ethylene is used in the new rooms
we will leave kerosene where we
found it. First impressions of ethy-
lene are favorable. It is much more
pleasant to have about the house
than kerosene smoke. With the
trickle system it is also more con-
venient.
There are two sources of 'ethy-
lene. Alcohol (ether of, or find out
just what) and as a by-product of
the carbide industry. The alcohol
kind gives me the better impression.
It at least smells sweeter.
"Best They Knew How"
In the old "shot" days a charge,
more or less, of so much ethylene
was turned into the coloring room
every so often, oftener, or not so
often-this by means of a pressure
tank laboriously trundled about.
Besides the variations, the method
itself was primitive. Periodic airings
before gassing seemed very desir-
able if not actually necessary. This
complicated the temperature detail.
Furthermore, tests indicated that
most of the coloring action of ethy-
lene took effect the first hour or
two after its introduction. What,
then? Looking back the answer ap-
pears obvious.
A steady uniform flow of the


Page 5





Page 6


proper coloring conditions; a con-
tinuous process; a minute but con-
stant trickle of gas; a small but
constant supply of fresh air; con-
tinuous circulation of the room air;
proper maintenance of temperature
and humidity. Simple, on the face
of it, but not so easy practically. In
working it out, difficulties arose ga-
lorously. There was first to learn
just what conditions were best, all
factors considered. Then there was
the engineering problem of obtain-
ing them most efficiently and eco-
nomically.
Take the gas supply now. Here
enters Mr. Winston's trickle, a de-
vice of regulating valves and noz-
zles for supplying the very minute
flow desired. The difficulty of get-
ting the right flow obtained. A bub-
ble-gauged needle-valve, immediate-
ly discarded by Mr. Winston for its
lack of control, was used in a cer-
tain system but proved unsatisfac-,
tory. The trickle, using a very low,
constant pressure, evolved from a
nozzle containing a disc with cali-
brated orifice to a multiple capillary
tube. The future nozzle may use
some porous solid to regulate the
flow.
Having arrived at some degree of
control, the question was how much
gas should be used. We have worked
a great deal in trying to arrive at
conclusions as to this, and are still
striving to get beyond the contra-
dictions. If asked to be definite, and
shippers appear to value definite-
ness above accuracy, I would say
about 3 cu. ft. to a one-car room a
day and 5 or 6 cu. ft. to a two-car
room. Theoretically it would seem
desirable to immediately establish
the proper gas concentration in the
coloring room by means of an initial
1 or 2 cu. ft. charge. Practically,
little if any difference in the results
has been noted. I think the above
gas supply is sufficient (unless the
fresh air intake is too large) with-
out being too much. It is my feeling
that there has been some tendency
to stretch the minimum limit too far
since we started the pendulum
swinging away from the heavy
doses.
(To Be Continued)

TEAMWORK SHOULD
BOOST GRAPEFRUIT
FOR. REST OF YEAR
(Continued from Page One)
the consumer trade in the United
States taking an average of 1100
cars a week from Florida and en-
joying as they are the wonderful
eating quality of our grapefruit this
year, when we reach the point
where our shipments will be going
out at 900 cars per week as they
probably will be the middle of
March on, that the 200 cars per
week less is bound to be reflected in
increased prices, especially with the
trade being acquainted as they will
be with the continued decreasing
shipments from week to week.
Better Consumer Demand
Also, by the time these reduced
shipments are beginning to have


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Growers Should Hold
Back Valencias Until
Mid-seasons Move Out

According to wired estimates re-
ceived from our shippers, our own
shippers have left as of March 1 on
2375 cars of mid-season oranges.
These figures were received from
our shippers without any thought of
prorating, but even at that they
may be an over-estimate. If we
would assume that the mid-season
estimate from our shippers would
cover the total from the state, it
would make 14,375 cars, including
the 12,000 cars Valencias, to move
from March 1 on, which would make
the total crop movement a little
over 39,000 cars of oranges. This
volume of mid-season oranges as
wired in by our shippers is disturb-
ing. Every Valencia grower should
be advised at once of the fact that
our own shippers have over 2000
cars of mid-season oranges left and
the state has from 2500 to 3000
cars left. From an industry stand-
point it means that this coming
week and the week following, Val-
encia growers, to get the most out
of their crop, should hold back their
picking and not have their fruit in
competition with the big volume of
mid-season oranges that must be
shipped during the next two weeks.
Of course we are going to have
scattered shipments, increasing in
quantity, this coming week in Val-

their effect, there normally is an in-
creased consumer demand; the sea-
son of the year has been reached
when a big proportion of the people
want something a little more acid
such as our grapefruit. They want
their spring tonic. From March on is
the big consumer period for Florida
grapefruit.
Hope has been deferred so long
on this matter of advance in grape-
fruit that many growers have given
up. We understand a lot of sales
have been made at 25c a box. We
are informed of several instances
where growers have secured per-
mission from their local packing
house to sell to some speculative
shipper at 25c a box, this local man-
ager having lost courage as well as
the grower. These things may have
been unavoidable in the past; they
are not, however, the facts that
should guide in the immediate fu-
ture. We see daylight in our grape-
fruit deal. It shows up very clearly
and again through the coordinated
effort of our shipper members be-
coming fully acquainted with the
statistical facts governing such mat-
ters, there is no question but what
a decided turn for the better is just
ahead in grapefruit. Our growers as
well as our shippers should recog-
nize these facts and act according-
ly. We recommend that every reader
carefully assimilate the detailed an-
alysis made in the Citrus Summary
published elsewhere, which was sent
to all shipper members and packing
house managers of the Clearing
House.


encias. It seems that some of the
growers have such large size Valen-
cias that they are unwilling to take
the chance of holding, though it is
still very early to be moving Valen-
cias. But why any grower or ship-
per should be wanting to move Val-
encias, except under extraordinary
conditions, cannot be fathomed
when it is realized that this week,
including the mixed, 1565 cars of
oranges have gone forward, the pre-
vious week 1566, the week just
ahead of us will probably see over
1600 cars roll and probably the
week following about as much. Then
the big rush will be over and Flor-
ida can move her crop along easily
at the rate of 1000 or 1100 cars per
week and in no instance should have
to go over 1200 cars for any week.
In other words, our Florida ship-
ments for the next two weeks will
be 33% heavier than the most that
will have to be shipped any other
week after the middle of March.
F. O. B. Prices On Valencias
With No. 1 mid-season oranges
leaving in such quantities this com-
ing week and selling probably
around $2.50 f. o. b. on No. Is and
$2.25 on No. 2s, those moving .their
Valencias cannot expect to get the
$3.00 price talked of and will do
well to get $2.75, or 25c premium
over mid-seasons. If the Valencia


They're Scattered

Get a binder for your back copies
of the t

FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS r

0

Keep every number of
the News. There isn't
an issue that doesn't
contain some informa-
tion you will want to
refer to, some of these
days.

Just fill in the coupon
below and mail it in to
the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House As-
sociation at Winter Ha- 0
ven, together with dol-
lar bill, check or money
order and the binder,
will be forwarded to
you.



-



Name - - .- - - - - - -.......
(CUT ALONG THIS LINE)
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Florida.
Please send me a binder for my back copies'of the Florida
Clearing House News. I am enclosing $1.00 ($1.25 out of the
U. S.) currency, check, money order.
Name
Street ...................................................................................................
Streetow n ....................................................
Town


February 25, 1931

movement should be heavy the Val-
encia price would be forced down
to practically the same level as mid-
seasons. A $2.50 f. o. b. price for
Valencias on No. Is would mean
only a little over $1.00 per box on
the trees after discounting the No.
2s and the off-sizes. Most shippers
seem to agree that Valencias should
net an average of about $1.50 on'
the trees. Those moving their Val-
encias at present are missing this'
probable return by 50c a box. All
these figures are of course general
and simply an -effort to be more
specific in trying to visualize what
we are running into so there may,
be proper caution and foresight
used in voluntarily holding down
the Valencia movement so as to not
sacrifice the prices that can be ob-
tained by exercising a little more
patience.

Economy
Then there is the Scotch motor-
ist who bought exactly 10 % gallons.
for a 215 mile trip because the
salesman told him the car would do
just 20 miles to the gallon.

Such "Crust!"
Bride: "Where's the paper plate'
I gave you under your pie?"
Groom: "Was that a plate? I,
thought it was the lower crust."





February 25, 1931


Changes in Green

Fruit Law Offered

By Composite Body

Definite recommendations for
changes in the state maturity law
were made this month by a group
known as the Composite Green Fruit
Committee, the recommendations
probably to be presented to the Leg-
islature for action at the coming
session.
The Composite Green Fruit Com-
.nittee is the outgrowth of a move-
ment inaugurated early this winter
rby the Winter Haven Chamber of
Commerce, the Committee being
made up of representatives of the
Committee of Fifty of the Clearing
House, the Florida Citrus Exchange,
the Winter Haven Chamber of Com-
Wmerce, the Fruitmen's Association,
and others interested in securing a
>change in the present law. Several
meetings have been held during the
past two months not only of the Com-
posite Committee but of the sub-
committees representing the various
organizations just named. At the
*most recent meeting of the Com-
posite Committee, held in Lakeland,
*Feb. 12, the individual recommen-
dations of the various groups com-
prising the Composite Committee
were discussed thoroughly and in
detail by the entire committee, and
definite resolutions drawn up.
N The following is a resume of the
resolutions adopted at the Feb. 12
'meeting:
(1) We recommend that the inspec-
tion period for TANGERINES
be extended to December 1, and
that the ratio standard be 7 /
to 1.
(2) That the ORANGE standard be
made as follows: That the min-
imum total soluble solids of the
juice is not less than 9 and the
minimum ratio of total soluble
solids to anhydrous citric acids
shall be 8.00 to 1.
(3) a-That the minimum solids on
GRAPEFRUIT to be mature
must have not less than 8%' to-
tal soluble solids in the express-
ed juice.
b-That GRAPEFRUIT with a
solid content between 8 and 9
to have a minimum ratio of 6
to 1, and on all grapefruit hav-
ing solids over 9 that the gradu-
S ated ratio as now provided in
the present law be retained, as
follows:
Minimum Total Solids to Acids
Solids Percent Minimum Ratio


9.10
9.20
9.30
9.40
9.50
9.60
9.70
9.80
9.90
10.00
10.10
10.20
10.30
10.40


6.45 to 1
6.40 to 1
6.35 to 1
6.30 to 1
6.25 to 1
6.20 to 1
6.15 to 1
6.10 to 1
6.05 to 1
6.00 to 1
5.95 to 1
5.90 to 1
5.85'to 1
5.80 to 1


10.50 .........-- .........
10.60 .........
10.70 ....................
10.80 ....................
10.90 ....................
11.00 ...................
11.10 ............-......-
11.20 ...............
11.30 ....-...............
11.40 ..................
11.50 ....................
11.60 .....--.-.....
11.70
11.70 ....................
11.80 ------ ---
11.90 ....................
11.90
12.00 --------------------


5.75 to 1
5.70 to 1
5.65 to 1
5.60 to 1
5.55 to 1
5.50 to 1
5.45 to 1
5.40 to 1
5.35 to 1
5.30 to 1
5.25 to 1
5.20 to 1
5.15 to 1
5.10 to 1
5.05 to 1
5.00 to 1


c-That the tolerance be elimi-
nated from the grapefruit test.
d-That the juice content re-
quirement on grapefruit be as
follows:


Sizes
36


126


CC of
Juice
230
215
200
180
160
145
125
105


(4) That the Green Fruit Law shall
be amended so as to eliminate
the words "willfully and know-
ingly" when used in connection
with the manner of its violation.
(5) That the law be amended to al-
low the inspection of all pack-
ing house records pertaining to
receipts from groves and pack-
ing house runs by duly author-
ized inspectors.
(6) That the packing house be re-
quired to notify the Inspection
Department whenever it runs
two or more lots of fruit sim-
ultaneously and that it be re-
quired further to notify the In-
spection Department of the
number of boxes in each lot so
run.
(7) That the enforcement of the
Green Fruit Law be retained
with the Commissioner of Agri-
culture.

CALIFORNIA CROP ACREAGE
TO BE REPORTED BY COUNTIES
Holding that differences in net in-
come could be better understood in
the light of knowledge of competi-
tion between areas, the Economics
Committee of the California Eco-
nomics Research Council has asked
that crop reports be broken down as
to acreage and production by coun-
ties. At a meeting of the commit-
tee held in San Francisco, E. E.
Kaufman, chief of the co-operative
:crop reporting service in California,
agreed to do this for field crops reg-
ularly, and through correspondence
from his office for nine principal
vegetable crops. Figures on pro-
duction, he said, would be difficult
if not impossible to obtain.
The California Economics Re-
search Council was organized sev-
eral years ago to co-ordinate the
work in economics investigations be-
ing done by the University of Cali-
fornia, the State Department of
Agriculture, and other public and
private organizations.


80% Are Doing So
Fort Ogden, Fla.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Gentlemen:.
As a member of the Clearing
House, I am writing you this letter.
To get all growers in the state to
join the Clearing House, so that it
can have a 100% control of ship-
ments, I propose the following let-
ter be printed in the news columns
of the Florida papers, prominently,
in large type:
Growers of Citrus Fruit
Do you, or do you not, want a
good profit on your fruit? If you
farmers will give the Clearing
House a trial by joining it for two
years, see if you do not get bet-
ter prices in that time than you
ever had before. Try it for two
years. United we stand, divided
we fall. Let us bc united.
I propose the Clearing House
make a two years' trial offer to all
growers and shippers that have not
joined. I propose the letter be in-
serted in the papers once a week
for three months.
The Clearing House asked for
suggestions, so I send in my above
suggestion. It might be a means of
giving the Clearing House a very
near control of the whole crop.
Yours very truly,
(Signed) A. J. JACKSON.

Tree-Ripened Fruit
Valley Stream, L. I., N. Y.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Gentlemen:
This talk about over-production is
all the bunk. We could sell double
the amount of this year's crop at e
good profit to the grower if we
would only sell tree-ripened fruit
Listen to what happened the other
day up here in New York City. The
well known pure food expert, Alfred
W. McCann, who talks for a ful:
hour, four days a week, over the
WOR broadcasting station, which is
one of the largest in New York and
reaches countless millions of peo-
ple, was rapping the unripened fruit
and especially the artificially col-
ored green oranges and grapefruit
of Florida, as injurious to babies,
children and grownups. Then he an-
nounced that of Orlando,
Florida, would, from now on, send
only tree ripened and not artificial-
ly colored fruit at $5.50 per box
plus express charges, to anyone
sending in their orders. And furth-
ermore announced that these grow-
ers would have their first shipment
ready for sale at their warehouse in
uptown New York at a certain day.
Then what happened? The people


simply stormed the warehouse and
soon no more fruit was to be had
and the wise growers made a profit
of $3.00 per box net.
Give the people tree-ripened fruit
and they will buy.
Here is the remedy: Pass a law
forbidding fruit out of the state be-
fore December 1st.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) WALTER C. BOEHME.

Dealers' Prejudice
Mansfield, Pa.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Gentlemen:
At four leading grocery stores I
visited this morning (editor's note:
last month) I found nice displays of
California fruit but not a Florida
orange could I find in any of them.
I asked the manager of the A. & P.
store when he would have the same
good Florida oranges and he told
me he was not going to stock, them
any more for he always lost money
due to decay.
Traveling men I have talked with
tell me that retail dealers are near-
ly all prejudiced in favor of Cali-
fornia oranges largely due to the
better keeping quality of the fruit.
If the Florida growers ever over-
come this decay problem I would
suggest that the Clearing House cir-
cularize the retail trade and try to
break down this prejudice and keep
the retailer and his clerk from
knocking Florida oranges.
I would suggest that such a cir-
cular printed in large readable type
be pasted on every crate. This would
Le read by the retailers and clerks
and might help.
There is no use to spend good
money for advertising to send the
consumer into the store for Florida
oranges if the man back of the
counter is going to switch the sale
over to California oranges.
The most important thing to do
is to ship only good, sound fruit.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) W. A. McCAUSLAND.

Keep Poor Fruit at Home
Detroit, Mich.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Gentlemen:
For thirteen years I have been
paying Florida taxes and money for
the care and upkeep of a citrus
grove and have been looking with
hopeful eyes to see some figures on
the black side of the ledger, but up
to date find myself away in the
hole. It seems to me that it is up
to Florida to do something about
this.
(Contiwued on Page Eight)


The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of
general interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association cannot, of course,
assume responsibility for the opinions expressed in these letters, but believes
growers should have the opportunity of expressing themselves if they are willing
to assume the responsibility. Communications should be as brief as possible-
preferably not more than 250 words in length-and MUST be signed with the
writer's name and address (although not necessarily for publication).


FLORIDA CLEARING


HOUSE NEWS


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---..--------.----..-
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Page 7


Page 7






Pai~e 8 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS February 25. 1931


FLORIDA


Our Help in Getting


CLEARING HOUSE IResearch Bureau


NEWS

CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for.orderly control of dis-
tribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.
DIRECTORS


E. C. AURIN
J. C. CHASE
0. F. GARDNER
J. A. GRIFFIN
F. G. MOORHEAD
PHIL C.PETERS
JAMES T. SWANN
A. M. TILDEN
A. R. TRAFFORD
E. E. TRUSKETT
R. B. WOOLFOLK
A. M. TILDEN
E. C. AURIN
F. G. MOORHEAD
E. E. TRUSKETT
ARCHIE M.PRATT


.Ft. Ogden
Winter Park
.Lake Placid
Tampa
DeLand
Winter Garden
Tampa
Winter Haven
Cocoa
Mt. Dora
Orlando
OFFICERS
President
Vice-President
Treasurer
Secretary
Manager


Low Cannery Price Hurts

Fresh Fruit Sale

The grapefruit canning deal this season
has been more disappointing and damaging
than it has been helpful. The sale of grape-
fruit to the canners at prices as low as thirty
cents per box is the factor that has done the
damage in that the retail sale of the canned
product has actually given the consumer more
for his money than he could have obtained by
buying fresh grapefruit.
The sale of grapefruit at thirty cents a box
has given the consumer a 54 size grapefruit
prepared and sugared for four and a half
cents. Obviously, fresh fruit cannot compete
at this price and many thousands of cans have
been put up at the thirty cent price for the
stock.
If the growers and shippers of Florida
grapefruit would stand firmly for a fifty cent
price, the cannery deal as well as the market
level for the fresh fruit would be helped. A
fifty cent level would demand a higher price
for the canned grapefruit which in turn would
give the canners and jobbers a profit on the
fruit which has been put up, up to date, at
thirty cents. This immediately would stimu-
late the whole trade and permit the canning
of probably another million boxes. Fifty cent
cannery stock will make the 'canners more
money than the continuation of the present
thirty cent stock.
The Clearing House would like to see every
grower and every shipper in the state insist
upon receiving fifty cents per box for his can-
nery grapefruit. The orange market is im-
proving and the grapefruit market will be
stimulated considerably if the cannery deal
can be improved.


Efforts of the Clearing House to induce the
United States Department of Agriculture to
establish a citrus by-products research bureau
in Florida have been successful, recent ad-
vices from Washington state. Establishment
of such a bureau in Florida has long been
desired in that a similar bureau which has
been in California for several years has been
proving of considerable help to the West-
erners.
Florida became actively interested in the
matter during the fly campaign, and the
Clearing House more than a year ago took
it upon itself to push the matter through. The
United States Department of Agriculture
made a survey of Florida, two government
experts making a very comprehensive report
on the need for such a laboratory in this state.
The Clearing House learned that the United
States Department of Agriculture favored
establishment of such a bureau and immedi-
ately undertook to work with the Depart-
ment toward a Federal appropriation.
With the Department's co-operation and
support an appropriation of ten thousand dol-
lars was recently passed by the Congress and
the establishment of the bureau then became
a certainty.


And Let's Remove

The "Shiners"
Some time ago the Clearing House suggest-
ed that a certain amount of grove clean-up
work be carried on this spring just as a pre-
caution against any recurrences of our past
troubles with the fly. With the weather be-
ginning to turn warm, it probably would be a
good idea to start a little grove sanitation
work now.
The Federal Department still has a large
number of inspectors combing the fruit belt
for possible trace of the Mediterranean fruit
fly. They have found no fly but there is of
course always the chance that maybe one
overlooked insect might be uncovered. Re-
membrance of our battle with that pest is
fresh in the minds of all of us, and none of us
want to go through that experience again.
There doesn't appear to be much likelihood
that we will go through that experience
again, but it can't possibly do any harm to
take just a few precautions.
It is comparatively easy to remove the
"shiners" from the trees in blocks where the
fruit has been picked. This fruit is quite ma-
ture and obviously would serve as an' excellent
attractant to a wandering fly (if indeed there
be such an animal). We certainly do not want
to jeopardize our crop of wonderful Valencia
oranges and late grapefruit, and the trouble
and cost of removing a few "shiners" in our
picked blocks is cheap insurance for safe re-
moval of our late fruit.
The Clearing House does not regard the
situation as being critical or dangerous.
Neither is this word of caution intended as a
"scare" article. The matter is one merely of
sensible precaution.


F. C. HOUSE, M.D.


Frost Damage Was

Light, California

Advises A.M.Pratt

California a p p a r e n ty passed
through the December cold spell,
with a minimum of damage and the
current low prices now governing
the California market do not seem
to be the result of frost damage.
Manager Pratt of the Clearing
House has just received a letter
from a friend actively interested in
the California orange industry who'
bears out this assertion.
The following excerpt from the
Californian's letter to Manager
Pratt probably will be of interest to
Clearing House members in that it
is a first-hand picture of the situa-
tion on the Pacific Coast:
"As to the frost situation, an-
swering your questions in order. As,
far as navels go, the frost effect I
believe is nil. There are no separa-
tors working that I know of nor any
possible need of them. I believe the
total frost elimination of navels will
not be 500 cars. On Valencias I do,
not think it will exceed 1200 cars,
including Tulare County. The fruit.
just did not get the damage it
should have considering tempera-
tures. This is apparent.
"Decay is probably caused by
limb bruises and such defects, the
rain of course aggravating any such r
difficulty. The fruit is somewhat
rougher after the rain but still is in
very fine shape. I do not think the
flavor of California fruit was ef-
fected in any appreciable amount by
the frost; in fact I think the flavor
of California oranges was never
finer, at least what we see coming
through our packing house."

THE GROWER'S VOICE
(Continued from Page Seven)
I have watched carefully the work
of the Clearing House and the Ex-
change, and feel that they are both
doing all they can to make citrus',
growing a profitable industry. What
they both lack is authority. It is up
to the state of Florida to legislate
in such a way as to prevent the
green fruit hog and the bulk ship-
per from ruining the market every
year. Fruit that is too small or too
poor to be boxed should never be
allowed to leave the state and the
green fruit shipper should be pen-
alized so heavily that he'd never for-
get it. If nothing but first class fruit
were shipped there would always be
a market and a fair price, regard-
less of the size of the crop. The only
way to reach that ideal condition'
is to pass laws with teeth in them
and see that they are enforced. The
only opposition to the law would be
from those who are responsible for
present conditions. Give the Clear-
ing House or the Exchange author-
ity and they will be able to handle
the situation satisfactorily.
Yours very truly,


Pave 8


FLORIDA CLEARING


HOUSE NEWS


February 25. 1931


(Signed)


.




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