Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00053
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: December 10, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00053
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text


Sec. 435%, P. L. & R.
U. S. Postage
1c. Paid
'Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 11

Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81 Volume III
C.er0 a ear us Growers Clearing House Association, DECEMBER 10, 1930 1928. at the postoffice at Winter Haven. ume
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 1879. Number 5

Careful Handling

SOf Fruit Urged To

Overcome Decay Evil

7Warning Issued By Clearing
House Regarding Coloring
-Damage Reported
The question of decay in oranges
is assuming considerable importance
at the present time, and is being de-
bated spiritedly by many growers
and shippers throughout the state.
The problem of coloring is playing
an important part in the matter
also. Advocates of the ethylene gas
method of coloring citrus are find-
ing differences of opinion from
users of kerosene. Both methods
have supporters and success appar-
ently is being achieved by each
I method, and by the same token
there seem to be some failures in
a both methods.
The Clearing House received a
telegram recently from one of the
Clearing House shippers who severe-
ly condemned the ethylene gas meth-
od, the telegram being an answer to
a wire issued by the Clearing House
Dec. 3 urging the shippers to dis-
continue coloring fruit on account
of the general reports from the
' trade indicating a rapid breakdown
of our fruit. -
L Tlpnl.. recip.L..f this telegram
Manager Archie M. Pratt issued a
bulletin to the shipper members call-
ing their attention not only to the
coloring problem, but urging them
to exert every care possible to pre-
vent bruising and damaging of the
fruit. An excerpt from this bulletin
i: given herewith as follows:
Care In Handling Needed
Personally I doubt if all of our
. trouble can be traced to artificial
coloring. I want to repeat what I
,have said several times to the Oper-
ating Committee and others: We
Shave not approached here in Florida
the careful handling of our oranges
that California applies as a matter
of course. In California no picker
,, is allowed to pick fruit without
gloves because of the danger of his
finger nails bruising the skin. When
the orange is picked it is not flipped
into the picking sack; the left hand
puts the orange in the sack. When
the sack is emptied, the neck of the
(Continued on Page Four)

Will The Citrus Industry Get Together?

Prices At Auction Low Despite

Fact That Markets Are Getting

Less Than Customary Proportion

The very low price being realized
at auction on Florida citrus fruit is
sinking into the minds of everybody,
including growers, shippers and bus-
iness men. The volume sold at auc-
tion compared to the amount ship-
ped, contrary to popular opinion, is
so far, less than normal. Through
Dec. 9, 3389 cars of oranges have
been sold at the various auctions
out of a total of 8233 cars of or-
anges shipped to Dec. 6, these ship-
ments including 61% of the mixed
cars estimated as oranges. This
means that 41.3% of the orange
crop was shipped up to Dec. 6, hav-
ing been sold at auction up to Dec.
9, inclusive.
On grapefruit there have been
sold 3031 cars at auction through
Dec. 9 out of a total of 6995 cars of
grapefruit shipped to Dec. 6, or
Weekly Avers
Week Cars
Ending Grapefruit A
September 13 .......... 38
September 20............ 102
September 27---........... 125
October 4-..............---. 187
October 11 ..-----.. 180
October 18.............. 264
October 25................ 223
November 1............ 218
November 8............ 332
November 15........... 341
November 22----............ 303
November 29......... 243
December 6.............. 297
Total...................... 2853
The auction averages including
sales of December 9 by markets (in-
stead of weeks) show up as surpris-
ingly uniform. The following table
on grapefruit shows thatup to Dec.
9th, 1026 cars were sold in New
York at a general average of $3.12,
this being the highest. Chicago is
next with 400 cars at $3.07, then
Detroit with 123 cars at $3.04, Phil-
adelphia with 318 cars and Boston
with 222 cars-both at $3.00, Pitts-
burgh 197 cars at $2.99, Cleveland

43.3% of the grapefruit shipped so
far. These figures are based on to-
tal offerings at New York, Philadel-
phia, Boston, Pittsburgh, Chicago,
Cleveland, Cincinnati, St. Louis and
Sales Proportion Good
Under normal conditions from 45
to 50 percent of Florida citrus sells
at auction. It therefore speaks well
for the industry that we have in this
trying year been able to sell as much
as we have outside of auction with
auction averages having been so dis-
appointly low.
The auctions have been on a
steady decline from the beginning
asshown in the following tabulated
figures showing weekly averages at
auction on Florida grapefruit and

iges Auctions



es Average


155 cars at $2.89 and Cincinnati
122 cars at $2.86, a difference of
only 26c .between the highest and
the lowest in comparing averages to
date between various auctions:
Auction Sales to December 9
No. Av. to
Place Cars Date
New York ........ 1026 3.12
Philadelphia ........ 418 3.00
Boston ................ 222 3.00
(Continued on Page Six)

Clearing House Is

Trying ToFind Way

To Meet Situation

Committee Believes Outside
Shippers Will Go Along
To Help Market Crop
About two weeks ago the Board
of Directors of the Clearing House
took action that regardless of pre-
cedent and all difficulties the Clear-
ing House should make a supreme
effort and exhaust all resources in
its purpose to determine if there
were not some way in which a work-
ing arrangement could be arrived at
whereby a control of supplies for
the entire industry could be secured.
The Operating Committee and the

Just as this issue of the News
was going to press it was learned
unofficially that shippers outside
of the Clearing House have de-
cided to organize a grower con-
trolled co-operative. The organi-
zation will be similar to the Clear-
ing House in its functions and
objectives, it is understood, and
ihe plan is for this organization
to work with the Clearing House
so as to stabilize conditions. Crea-
tion of such an organization and
establishing of relations with the
Clearing House would mean that
95% or more of all of the citrus
fruit in Florida would be handled
under the greatest degree of con-
trol that it has been possible to
achieve. Definite announcement
concerning the new organization
probably will be made by the
shippers connected with it within
the next few days it is thought.

Board of Directors had been pre-
sented with a statement from the
manager showing the extremely
serious phase that the industry had
reached with the constantly declin-
ing prices which have been evi-
denced and with the tremendous
crop that was left to market under
a curtailed consumer demand that
(Continued on Page Four)




Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending Dec. 6, 1930)


Dec. 6
Florida Oranges Shipped........ 1101
Total..........---------------. 6387
Florida Grapefruit Shipped.... 713
Total...............------.........----------- 5909
Florida Tangerines Shipped-. 239
Total .............------------- 929
Florida Mixed Shipped............ 775
Total....--.....-------------. 3030
California Oranges Shipped.... 1874

Nov. 29

Dec. 6, '29

Dec. 6, '28


Florida Oranges Auctioned .. 470 441 434 337
Average ------...........................---- ...------ $2.80 $3.10 $3.58 $3.05
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 297 243 261 397
Average-...--...----------- ... $2.75 $2.85 $4.35 $3.23
Florida Tangerines Auctioned 159 225 76 80
Average..............------------- $3.35 $3.15 $5.02 $4.45
California Oranges Auctioned 300 245 289 316
Average ....-------.... ------. $3.95 $4.75 $4.78 $4.29

Oranges No. 1 Oranges No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Last week ............ 206 61 $2.22 137 35 $1.84
30% 25%
This week --...... 254 67 $1.98 223 71 $1.70
S26% 32%
Difference..........+ 48 + 6 -.24 + 86 + 36 -.14

Grapefruit No. 1 Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Last week .-.....-.... 120 47 $1.93 105 36 $1.66
39% 34%
This week ..---.... 201 69 $1.89 174 47 $1.66
34% 27%
Difference .......... 81 +22 -.04 + 69 + 11 -

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 29........... 781 612 1080 1383 1147 1736 1489
Dec. 6.............. 900 1154 1162 1753 1164 1885 1717
Dec. 13............ 1492 1969 1396 1421 1300 1457 1993
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 29-..-........ 1293 1638 1204 891 1258 1217 1571
Dec. 6.............. 1689 1697 1804 1615 1432 1296 1934
Dec. 13----........... 1126 1066 1383 1071 1262 796 1249
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 29............ 415 857 575 814 584 480 676
Dec. 6.............. 413 636 372 440 536 510 494
Dec. 13............ 474 405 349 291 422 279 327
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 29............ 360 274 338 269 122 222 No Rcrd.
Dec. 6.............. 433 453 393 323 186 368 No Rcrd.
Dec. 13----.......... 735 580 544 336 193 309 No Rcrd.

Week Ending Dec. 6 Disappointing The auction shows a decline of 10c

All shippers have been disappoint-
ed in the result of the week's effort.
As indicated in the above figures,
f. o. b. prices have dropped about
24c on No. 1 oranges and 14c on
No. 2s. The auction average is 30c
less than a week ago, being $2.80.
This is 25c less than two years ago,
which we were hoping to equal or
exceed. Grapefruit. f. o. b. prices
are about the same as a week ago.

and is about 50c less than two years
Rolling Unsold And To Auction
The greatest increase in the roll-
ing unsold is on grapefruit, Friday
night's wires showing 147 cars grape-
fruit rolling unsold as against the
previous Friday's as follows: 85,
64, 136, 169 and 67. The rolling to
auction on grapefruit also is heavier

this Friday, being 118 as against
previous Friday's of 59, 76, 69, 97
and 85. On oranges the rolling un-
sold Friday is 195 as against 110,
119, 249, 227 and 188 for the pre-
vious Fridays. Rolling to auction
on oranges is 129 as against 137,
119, 152, 150 and 116 for the pre-
vious Fridays. The auction returns
continue to be the most disappoint-
ing phase of our marketing. 470
cars of oranges, although plenty
heavy, do not in themselves account
for the low price, as for the corre-
sponding week last year 434 cars of
oranges averaged $3.58, 430 cars in
1927-28 averaged $4.70, and 542
cars in 1926-27 averaged $3.08. Our
sales of grapefruit at auction this
week are comparatively heavier
than oranges, though two years ago
197 cars of grapefruit averaged
$3.23, while in the season 1926-27,
286 cars averaged $2.97. This year
our 297 cars averaged $2.75.
Decay Can Be Eliminated
Contributing more than anything
else to the low price on Florida or-
anges has been decay. Many cars
apparently delivered sound, have
broken down rapidly in the hands of
the jobber and retailer, so rapidly
that the trade in many instances
have become scared and confidence
has been lost. This confidence must
be regained. There has been a lot
of fruit that went forward over-
colored. We have sent out a highly
colored product at the expense of
keepability. The industry would be
better off if we did not artificially
color an orange or tangerine from
this time on.
Where a packing house considers
this necessary, we urge the desir-
ability of coloring only those or-
anges that absolutely require it, the
men at the grading belt removing
the green fruit to be specially col-
ored and letting the balance go
through in natural color. Nothing
that we can suggest will do more
toward pulling up prices on oranges
than recognizing the damage that
has been done by too much humid-
ity, too little circulation and too
much time in the coloring room,
with probably in some cases too
much ethylene gas to try to force
the color. Aside from this, extreme
care in picking and painstaking ef-
forts precluding bruising the fruit
in the packing house would make a
big difference in Florida's problem.
Our Bulletin No. 57 fully covered
this matter. It is a part of the mar-
keting problem of every shipper
and cannot be over-emphasized as
we all must know that we are suf-
fering from extremely.low prices on
oranges and part of this at least
could have been prevented had we
used greater precautions in coloring
and handling as covered by that bul-
Fooled By Mixed Cars
Unless one does more figuring
than usual, many of our shippers
can be easily misled by glancing at
the government figures on oranges
and grapefruit and ignoring mixed
cars. At the Operating Committee
meeting last night the general im-
pression seemed to be that the state

would not ship over Schedule C
which called for a state movement
of 1300 cars oranges and 600 cars
grapefruit. The government figures
show only 1075 cars oranges and
700 cars grapefruit, including the
estimates indicated for Saturday in
the above tabulation. Where the
joker comes in is the mixed cars-
750 of them. Classify 500 cars as
oranges and the state moved this
week 1575 cars of oranges. Classify
the other 250 cars as grapefruit and
the state moved 950 cars of grape-
fruit. In other words, the state
over-shipped Schedule C 275 cars of
oranges and 350 cars of grapefruit.
Yet some of our members in the
Operating Committee confidently ex-
pressed the thought that the state
was not going to ship this week even
up to Schedule C. This over-ship-
ment, particularly on grapefruit, is _
something that cannot be ignored
and our grapefruit shipments this
coming week will be in still more
serious difficulties than were antici-
pated when the Operating Commit-
tee made its allotment of 440 cars.
Bulk Shipments
The Operating Committee has
taken no further action on bulk
shipments. Fundamentally, I con-
sider them wrong from an industry
viewpoint, but the evil cannot be
corrected unless we all agree. Truck
shipments are in the same category.
Both are a demoralizing influence,
tending to increase rapidly in pro-
portion to the balance of the busi-
ness handled under standard prac-
tices. Bulk and truck shipments al-
ways increase in a low price year
and the increasing volume of such
shipments tends to increase the
necessity because of undermining
the regular channels of trade. Price
arrival and consignment business
similarly tend to increase under con-
ditions like the present, and the
greater the expansion of this ten-
dency the greater becomes the com-
petitive necessity of it being more
general. One of the members of
the Operating Committee suggested
last night that we might reach a >
point where the Clearing House
would have to agree to maintain
certain markets strictly on an f. o. b.
basis, permitting the balance to be
handled on price arrival or consign-
ment. The Clearing House has a
duty to have due freight on all
such tendencies and endeavor to
firmly establish policies that will
safeguard all shipper members
against strategic loss of the seller
versus buyer which is unavoidable
except by united effort.
California Shipments
Because of California's distance <
from her principal markets, this
week's shipments of 1825 cars will
be followed next week by much
lower shipments. The California
Exchange wired estimating about
850 cars oranges for next week.
The estimates so far have been
under-estimated so in the above tab-
ulation they have been estimated at
900. Developments since the first
of the week (or Sunday, Dec. 7) in-
dicate however that the estimate of
(Continued on Page Three)

December 10, 1930

Page 2


Monthly Orange Movement for 1930-'31

Mo. S

Sched C

Scheduled in

% Cars
2 363
13 2906

Year Av.
% Cars
3 769
15 4225

(33,000 Cars Estimated)
Contrast With Past Seven Seasons

% Cars
3 1176
11 4142

% Cars
6 1131
18 3620

% Cars
2 587
16 3985

% Cars
3 565
16 3444

% Cars
1 369
18 5040

%. Cars
3 1192
18 6437

4095 20 5412 23 5167 15 5801 24 5008 21 5509 20 4347 24 6573 15 5477
3584 17 4722 23 5099 17 6242 19 3897 18 4521 17 3621 19 5222 13 4451
3840 15 4200 19 4328 15 5599 12 2376 17 4342 15 3290 17 4581 14 4885
3840 13 3673 15 3262 13 5087 11 2256 12 3151 13 3197 11 3080 16 5681
3072 11 2975 5 1012 14 5186 7 1315 10 2453 12 2608 6 1752 13 4547
1792 5 1468 17 10 3771 3 518 4 921 3 623 3 812 6 2166
777 1 289 2 2 785 38 1 186 82 127 1 521

T't'l 21000

22739 18887 32471 15408 21083

T't'l' 27600 27733 22156 37789 20159 25655


Shed C

17768 22147 27728

21777 27556


Monthly Grapefruit Movement for 1930-'31
(27,000 Cars Estimated)
Scheduled in Contrast With Past Seven Seasons

Year Av.
%- Cars
9 1766
12 2482

% Cars
12 2047
12 2003

% Cars
9 2255
10 2537

1 2320

% Cars
4 809
16 3023

% Cars
6 1001
15 2289

1924-25 1923-24
% Cars % Cars
9 1867 12 2486
13 2853 13 2708

2250 11 2198 13 2194 11 2799 12 2070 11 2185 13 2030 10 2275 9 1834
2700 15 2881 18 3015 14 3675 15 2434 15 3000 18 2759 12 2659 13 2628
3150 15 2888 17 2714 14 3633 13 2183 15 2843 15 2293 17 3658 14 2893
3150 15 2998 18 2990 14 3664 15 2458 16 3140 16 2477 15 3248 14 3006
2925 14 2700 9 1523 15 3886 11 1853 14 2665 11 1751 17 3678 11 2368
2700 8 1698 64 11 2768 7 1134 8 1583 6 892 6 1269 12 2543
1125 1 289 2 1 244 2 330 1 188 1 182 1 260 3 532

T't'l 18000

T't'l 23700

15652 12502 20669 12462

19900 16552 25461 16679

The above tables showing the
monthly orange and grapefruit
movement during the past seven
seasons also give a "bird's-eye" pic-
ture of the monthly movement which
has been worked out by the Clear-
ing House in an effort to handle ef-
ficiently this season's crop. Schedule
"C" or the schedule by which the
fruit may be moved most efficiently,
is shown at the left.
This schedule was computed on a
crop estimate of 33,000 cars of or-


(Continued from Page Two)
900 cars will be far under actual
shipments. From Sunday through
Thursday, California has shipped
1093 cars, or better than 200 cars
per day. You will notice that Cali-
fornia auction prices have dropped
80c this past week. Reports from
California indicate they are meet-
ing the same stolid sales resistance
and curtailed consumptive ability
that we have been up against. So
far, California's product seems to
have been keeping better than ours,
but with this handicap overcome I
believe we will yet come into our
own comparatively.
Sell Low Value Cars In California
It has been suggested that instead
of spoiling our own regular nearby
markets in the south and east with

15604 12384

19436 15674

anges and 27,000 cars of grapefruit.
In the table for the orange move-
ment it will be noted that 6,600 cars
of oranges were moved up to De-
cember and 5,700 cars of grapefruit.
In preparing schedule "C" for the
consideration of the industry it was
estimated that 20Y % (5,400 cars
of oranges) should not be moved.
This volume consists of the off-size
and poor quality fruit. Similarly
with the grapefruit it was estimated
that 15 % (or 3,300 cars) should
not be moved.

bulk shipments and low value cars
that every effort should be made to
get into the more distant markets of
Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota,
etc., thereby less severely compet-
ing with the better type of fruit
which would go into Florida's regu-
lar marketing outlets.
Schedule C Adopted
The Operating Committee last
night formally adopted Schedule C
offered in the report of the Manager
to the Board and Operating Com-
mittee. This takes the place of
Schedule B which was formerly
adopted and contemplates restrict-
ing the movement from week to
week to a point where from Decem-
ber 1 on, the state will be moving
only 21,000 cars of oranges and 18,-
000 cars of grapefruit. Such a pro-
gram, of course, is tentative, it be-
ing understood that if a greater
movement than this can be shipped
and proper prices returned to the

17047 15804



Thus the sub-total of 21,000 cars
of oranges and the sub-total of 18,-
000 cars of grapefruit shows the
movement from the first of Decem-
ber throughout the rest of the sea-
son after the off-size and low grade
fruit is deducted. The figures given
in the total-27,600 in the case of
oranges and 23,700 for grapefruit-
represent the season's movements,
both in the oranges and in grape-
fruit with the off-size and poor
grade fruit deducted.

growers, that increased shipments

growers, that increased shipments
would be permitted.
Possible Cooperation With Outsiders
Looking towards the necessity of
removing from the markets the sur-
plus, the Clearing House is doing
everything possible to reach some
working arrangement with those
shippers outside the Clearing House
so that supplies can be properly con-
trolled and the growers get their
proper proportion out of the com-
bined effort of the industry instead
of having in prospect such severely
low returns as so far are indicated.

Pity The Poor Dog
The young husband could eat no
more of his wife's dinner.
"That's a pity," she said, "for if
you don't I shall have to give it to
the dog!"
"Yes, it is a pity-it's such a nice
dog!"-Progressive Grocer.

The Grower's Voice

Under this heading will be published
communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who
desire to voice opinions upon matters
of general interest to Florida citrus
growers. The Association cannot, of
course, assume responsibility for the
opinions expressed in these letters, but
believes growers should have the op-
portunity of expressing themselves if
they are willing to assume the respon-
sibility. Communications should be as
brief as possible-preferably not more
than 250 words in length---and MUST
be signed with the writer's name and
address (although not necessarily for

"Ship 25% At a Profit"
Strongville, Ohio.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.
I believe that if you can keep the
shippers from shipping all this
damnable, inferior, and small size
fruit you will have accomplished
something worth while. Day after
day I read the Cleveland auction
sales report and there is never a day
but what some Florida fruit is sold
under cost to the producer. For in-
stance, the low on Florida oranges
has been $1.50 per box for a good
many days past, still it costs the
producer about $2.30 per box just
to pick, pack and market that fruit.
Why is it? Does the packer care?
Not so much, he gets his. The larger
the volume, the more he makes, so
why should he care?
No, I do not agree with you in
your article of November 10th. You
have proof enough to the contrary,
as you admit California fruit is
bringing a good price, apples are
also selling at a good price. Your
trouble, in fact our trouble, is too
much poor fruit. Year after year
the same old story, fruit shipped
too early and not matured enough.
The result, jobber is disappointed,
dealer is disappointed, consumer is
disappointed, and last but not least,
the producer is disappointed.
Florida produces from 85% to
95% (I believe) of the grapefruit
in this country. So for God's sake
ship only 25% of that if that's all
the market will stand and get a de-
cent price for that.
Respectfully yours,

Use The Eating Test
Youngstown, Ohio.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
If the members of your associa-
tion live in the North in industrial
communities they certainly cannot
have the nerve to say that the de-
pressed industrial conditions have
not had a material effect on fruit
The main cause of the lower
prices of Florida fruit, however, is
due to the shipping of green and un-
fit fruit early in the season. I pur-
chased some of this fruit myself,
and thought it a crime to offer such
fruit to the public. As a matter of
fact it was not until last week that
(Continued on Page Eight)

Page 3

December 10, 1930

Page 4

(Continued from Page One)
sack is put in the bottom of the box
and the oranges rolled into the box.
It does not go into a box with a
partition in the center but into a
much smaller field box without the
center partition, these field boxes
containing usually from 47 to 52
pounds net of fruit. There is, there-
fore, not the pressure of the fruit
itself in the box.
The picker, the receiver at the
packing house, the man loading the
truck and unloading, every one
handling the boxes handles only a
little more than half the weight that
is required to be handled in Florida.
Our field boxes are grossly too large
to permit proper handling in the
manual effort necessary.
Those that do the grading, in roll-
ing the oranges on the grading belt,
have both hands gloved. The man
that pulls down the fruit in the bins
does so with gloved hands. The
girl that reaches into the bin to pick
up the orange or grapefruit has a
glove on the hand that reaches into
the bin, the other hand being un-
gloved so that she can twist the
wrap. Generally speaking, there is
more care exercised in working to-
wards a paramount pack so that too
much pressure will not be required
from the press in nailing the box.
No oranges are permitted picked up
under the trees to be shipped. If or-
anges are dropped on the floor or if
a stack of oranges falls down, that
fruit usually goes into culls or sec-
ond or third grade after special
Every field box in the better type
of houses is carefully examined for
nails, splinters, gravel or blue mold
before being permitted to go out
into the field again. The better type
of operators have field foremen
keeping an accurate tab not only on
hauling time and picking expenses
but also checking long stems, or
clipper cuts, or bruises of any kind
in the field with the use of a read-
ing-glass. The house foreman or
some one acting under him contin-
ually makes similar checks on the
fruit in the bins for abrasions of any
kind. An abrasion the size of a pin
point is thought of almost as seri-
ously as a greater abrasion on the
Our oranges, far more tender,
thinner skinned, therefore deserving
of much more careful treatment, do
not remotely approach the care that
is customarily' given and competi-
tively required in California. G.
Harold Powell, because of the tre-
mendous saving made to the indus-
try by his exposure of wrong hand-
ling methods of citrus fruit, was
recognized as the sort of man that
should be manager of the California
Fruit Growers' Exchange and was
a highly satisfactory manager re-
gardless of his having been for
years a government expert, delving
in so-called details.
Our industry even more so re-
quires a scientific approach in the


Grove Protective Service



NAME OF OWNER..... ............... .................... ..............

Th' Clearing House will get 'em
if they don't watch out!
And that's what the above sign
will mean to these gentlemen who
are trying to get something for
nothing by stealing fruit from Clear-
ing House grower members. A de-
teimined effort is to be made by the
Clearing House to put a stop to
fruit thievery, and the posting of
signs like the above is the first step
in the effort.
Following a number of complaints
from growers in various sections of
the state, the Committee of Fifty
some time ago undertook to look
into the matter. It was finally de-
cided that the fruit stealing evil
could be handled in an effective
manner by posting "no trespassing"
signs on the groves of such mem-
bers desiring protection. The Clear-
ing House accordingly plans to dis-
tribute signs similar to the above
and to furnish each grower desiring
them the service of a detective who
will run down any cases of theft
called to his attention. Details of
the plan to distribute the signs call
for their sale at a nominal cost by
the Clearing House to such growers
desiring them. The signs will be
sold at the rate of five for one dol-
lar. If a sufficient number of grow-
ers order the signs the protective

service will be inaugurated. The
signs are priinted on a heavy piece
of paraffined cardboard eighteen
inches by twenty-four inches. These
signs will easily last throughout the
citrus season, and if the growers so
desire, the service will be inaugu-
rated again next season.
In order to determine whether or
not the growers desire this protec-
tive service, it will be necessary that
they so advise the Clearing House
Association. The protective service
will be given only to those growers
purchasing the signs, and will be
furnished only in case a sufficient
number of growers indicate their de-
sire for it, thus making the service
possible. To inaugurate the pro-
tective service, it will be necessary
that at least 2,000 grower members
subscribe (by purchasing the signs).
If less than this number subscribe,
the orders for the signs will be can-
celled and the money, paid by the
growers purchasing the signs, will
be refunded to them.
If you want this protective serv-
ice, fill out the coupon below and
send it in with a dollar bill, check or
money order for one dollar, to the
Clearing House headquarters at
Winter Haven. Signs will be sent
to you with your name lettered in
as soon as they can be obtained
from the printer.

(Cut Along This Line)

Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Please send me five of the "No Trespassing" signs, for which I
enclose herewith $1 in (currency) (check) (Money Order). It is
understood that this money will be refunded to me if the plan for
inaugurating a Grove Protective Service appears impracticable at this
Nam e........................... ......... .......... ............... ........
Street. ......... ........................ ... ............ ... ..................
Tow n........ .................................. .......... ... ............

physical handling of our product.
The average reaction to a program
like the above is that it is useless
bother and an additional expense, a
lot of theory and technical bunk.
Science, scientific engineers and
cold scientific thinking and planning
have done wonderful things for our
material progress. The business men
with their "practical" viewpoint
have applied the results of these sci-
entific engineers, but some of the
biggest business men today are

recognizing that a continued suc-
cessful industry requires the same
scientific viewpoint applied to busi-
ness as some of our leading scien-
tists have applied in their painstak-
ing maner to their problem in life.

Florida citrus growers are no dif-
ferent from other folks-they can't
get the most from their efforts by
working at cross purposes.

- December 10, 1930


(Continued from Page One)
has never before been so serious.
All agreed that to realize for the
growers a proper gross return on
the tree that it would be impossible
to follow the usual procedure of dis-
tributing throughout the season the
full quota each week of the entire
estimated crop. It was also agreed
that it would be very difficult to ef-
fectively and decisively curtail ship-
ments each week to the point neces-
sary to bring the growers cost of
production and more, unless an in-
dustry effort could be made rather
than an effort dependent entirely
upon the Clearing House.
Outside Co-operation
The Clearing House, although
controlling 80% of the crop, would
under such a restricted shipping
program fail to control this same
percentage because those outside
the Clearing House could easily ship
30 or 40 percent of the crop unless
an agreement could be reached with
the outside group.
Steps therefore were taken two or
three weeks ago looking towards a
get-together plan between the out-
side group and the Clearing House.
In line with this effort, J. J. Par-
rish, Titusville, recognizing the se-
rious situation, called a meeting at-
tended by 28 shippers outside of
the Clearing House. The meeting
was a protracted one, discussion
lasting from 7 o'clock until nearly
midnight, Manager Archie M. Pratt
of the Clearing House being called
in for advice toward the end of the
meeting. The outside shippers then
appointed a committee to meet with
the Clearing House.
Sacrifice Packing Profits
It is believed that this group feels
like the Clearing House does, that,
regardless of sacrifices which are
unavoidable in reduced profits on
the packing and marketing opera-
tions for the shippers themselves,
that the growers and the industry
must be given first consideration
and the matter be handled jointly
and firmly in such a prorating sche-
dule as to insure the growers against
the disastrous returns that will oth-
erwise be inevitable. To do so obvi-
ously requires a united effort in car-
rying out a strict prorating shipping
schedule from week to week and
taking off the market the surplus
that in connection with the reduced
demand has brought about the low
returns. All agree that in removing
the surplus that that fruit of least
potential value should be the fruit
considered as a surplus and that the
prorating must be carried out with
extreme fairness and yet with posi-
tive firmness, not only with the ship-
pers but the shippers through their
packing units in turn must carry out
the same fair but firm policy of pro-
rating in their picking schedule al-
lotted to their grower members.
The Clearing House has hoped
and offered to work with this out-
side group on a basis where a special





contract would be entered into by
each outside shipper agreeing to
carry out the allotments and privi-
leging the group to have proper rep-
resentation on the Operating Com-
mittee in determining all policies re-
-garding the prorating problem.
Must Be Fair To All
There has been some hesitancy on
the part of some of the outside ship-
pers in entering this program and
the Clearing House is willing to con-
sider any other approach where a
positive get-together and equitable
control could be exercised that
would be the practical means of con-
trolling supplies in fairness to all.
Under such extreme necessity the
Clearing House feels that it must,
Sif necessary, set aside temporarily
its purpose of building into its own
-body the industry membership if in
so doing it can in any way reach an
agreement, with those outside its
ranks, that would do those things
that the Clearing House was created
to do in meeting the staggering
problem which it feels can be met
so far as severely prorating.
To Dec. 1, although the Clearing
House unquestionably has in its
ranks 80% of the citrus volume, it
has actually shipped under its re-
stricted prorating plan that it has so
far exercised but 70% of the grape-
fruit and 77 % of the oranges. Those
in the outside group also realize
that in attempting to carry out 'the
steps necessary to meet our prob-
lem, that of necessity we also must
have their co-operation, not only in
the way of assurance but in an ac-
tual working arrangement. It is ar-
dently hoped that this industry,
-under this time of stress, recogniz-
ing the dire need of throwing aside
all prejudices, will actually get to-
gether and do that thing which is
necessary to give to the producer in
Florida that proportion of the cit-
rus return which is his just due.

Clearing House Cancels
a Its Contracts With Two
Of Its Shipper-Members

Contracts between the Clearing
House and the Emca Fruit Company
and the firm of Merrion & Dodson
-have been cancelled by the Clear-
ing House. This action was taken by
sthe Board of Directors at its meet-
ing Nov. 28.
Difficulty in maintaining contrac-
tual relations with these two ship-
per-members-both being affiliated
more or less directly with shippers
who are not members of the Clear-
ing House-made it necessary for
the Board to take this action, it was
explained. Grower-members who
have signed contracts with the
Clearing House and who ship
through these firms, are notified
herewith that the two shippers above
referred to are no longer members
.of the Clearing House. The contract
between the growers and the Clear-
ing House makes it incumbent upon
the grower to ship his fruit only
through an agency that likewise is
a signed member of the Clearing

The following suggestions for
consideration by the Clearing
House Board of Directors and
Operating Committee have been
presented by Manager Archie M.
Pratt as starting points from
which a plan may be' evolved by
the Clearing House and the in-
dustry to market profitably the
crop of fruit now on the trees.
Both the directorate and the
Operating Committee are studying
these suggestions and indications
are that some definite action, even
though slightly modified, will be
taken at least by the Clearing
House if not the entire industry,
within a short time. The sugges-
tions are given herewith as fol-

The present incapacity of the
markets to absorb Florida citrus
fruit fast enough to market our big
crop at a price that leaves the
grower a profit over cost of produc-
tion is self evident. We have hard
times with us. It is not only na-
tional but world-wide. Under such
conditions Florida with its big crop
this year has a surplus, if we define
a surplus as an excess volume that
can be moved at a reasonable return
to producers.
The Clearing House will be only
nominally doing its duty if it mere-
ly prorates the entire crop at a time
when it appears that the entire crop
cannot be marketed profitably, ex-
cept to the railroads, the commis-
sion men, the crate and paper mills
and the packing and marketing in-
terests. In reducing supplies to meet
curtailed demand, it is unwise to
make such a horizontal cut as to
include the best values with the
worst; therefore, at the request of
the Operating Committee, I wish to
submit the following program and
recommend its adoption not only by
the Clearing House but by the en-
tire citrus industry, as the Clearing
House has a disagreeable duty it
cannot avoid in this crisis:
Severe Grade Restrictions
That our Standardization Depart-
ment be instructed to eliminate the
10 percent tolerance privileged
under United States grading rules
and require that the grades shall be
packed up to the higher standard
resulting by such elimination. "Line
fruit" in every case to be included
in the next lower grade. By com-
plying with this advanced standard
of grade our Ones and Twos will be
pulled up to decidedly more attrac-
tive uniform appearance, thereby
better meeting California competi-
tion with its generally more attrac-
tive appearance.
No Shipments From Groves Or Pack-
ing Houses To Be Permitted of
Grades Lower Than No. 2s
It is the severest kind of self-com-
petition to permit shipping grades

lower than a high standard number
two. Temporarily the individual
profits doubtless by bulk shipments
in cars or by truck shipments of low
value fruit. Such practice delibe-
rately undermines the regular chan-
nels of trade, destroying the con-
fidence of the buying trade and mak-
ing it increasingly difficult to han-
dle at a profitable basis to growers
the better grades and sizes. Filling
up the markets with the miserable
appearing mass of low grade fruit
resulting from bulk and truck ship-
ments in a year of surplus is the
height of absurdity.
All growers should be warned
that if they are a party to permit-
ting their fruit to be shipped by
bulk, such shipments will carry a
penalty of fifty cents per box be-
cause of being contrary to the in-
structions given under authority
conferred by the Board and the
Operating Committee upon the Man-
ager. Every shipper should be warn-
ed that bulk shipment or truck ship-
ment where such fruit eventually
leaves the state shall be subject to
a similar penalty, on account of vio-
lation of grade or size restrictions
and such penalty shall be collected
at all costs.
Estimate 10 Percent Reduction In
Supplies By Above Grading
Last year nearly 10 percent of
the crop was moved under what is
commonly called third grade or
plains. Under the above advanced
standard requiring "line fruit" to be
classified in the next lower grade
and requiring the elimination of the
10 percent tolerance allowed in
United States grading requirements,
we will take entirely off the market
about 10 percent of the crop; it be-
ing the lowest potential value. We
will be pulling up our standard
where outside attractiveness as well
as inside merit would place Florida
where it belongs.
Size Restrictions Oranges
An orange is an orange to the
consumer. A'real small orange is as
hard to eat and takes as much time
and bother in preparation as the
large. Therefore, in figuring on a
surplus problem, when we supply to
the consumers 288s and 324s we
are, from a consumers' standpoint
of habits, supplying him with twice
as much fruit as in a 150 size. In
other words, every box of these
small sizes passed to the consumers
doubles the surplus already existing.
288s and smaller, in Number Two
grade, should be entirely taken off
the market. Any shipper or grower
permitting the shipment of 288s
and smaller in seconds and 324s
and smaller in firsts should be sub-
ject to a penalty of 50 cents per box,
such penalty to be rigidly enforced.
Based on the type of fruit that we
have so far been moving, these size

Some Solutions for Problems Con-

fronting Florida's Citrus Industry

restrictions would keep the Florida
industry from cluttering up this
marketing problem with about 15
percent of the crop which otherwise
would go forward.
Hold Small Sizes On Trees
By having such strict packing re-
quirements, our picking for size
recommendations would no longer
be a joke. The small sizes should be
left on the trees so that if later on,
a less severe program seemed wise,
such small sizes could be picked in
due proportion and moved with
some of the larger sizes which
doubtless we will be running into
later in the season. The small sizes
chat do come into the packing houses
under strict picking instructions
should go either into by-products or
be destroyed as culls. Valencias are
maturing early and average much
larger sizes than our early type or-
anges. The large size Valencias
should be picked as early as they
are unquestionably satisfactory to
the consumer and some latitude
probably can be arranged on small
sizes left on the trees, when this
time comes or possibly earlier. The
holiday markets by custom require
sizes that the above restrictions
would make highly desirable.
Size Restrictions Grapefruit
Except for shipments where the
shippers are automatically showing
conclusively that such fruit is go-
ing to export markets, including
Canada, 96s and smaller in Number
Twos and 126s and smaller in Num-
ber Ones, should not be permitted
packed, shipped or sold, except for
by-product purposes within the state.
This again would tend to hold back
on the tree the small size grapefruit,
which is the only grapefruit which
can be held until the later market.
Continual spot picking of the larger
sizes should be required. The severe
standard above recommended of
"line fruit" being classified in the
lower grade and with the elimina-
tion of the Government 10 percent
tolerance would apply also to grape-
fruit. Also, of course, the restric-
tions as to bulk and truck shipments
and the entire removal of any third
grade fruit from the market. At a
later date we might have to put a
stop order on shipping any 36s or
larger. The above size and grade
restrictions should eliminate from
our domestic markets 15 percent of
the crop that otherwise would be
Comparative Monthly, Season and
Weekly Tables
We will have shipped through
Nov. 30th about 6600 cars of or-
anges and 5700 cars of grapefruit,
leaving for shipment from our pre-
viously estimated crop, 26,400 cars
oranges and 21,300 cars grapefruit.
Applying the general program rec-
ommended and deducting 5400 cars
of oranges (20.5% of crop left)
leaves 21,000 cars of oranges to
move. Deducting 3300 cars grape-
fruit (15.5%) leaves 18,000 cars
grapefruit to ship from the state
under our restricted program. This
corresponds with elimination of low-
est potential fruit values by raising

December 10. 1930

Paee 5


grade and restricting smallest sizes
as heretofore mentioned.
Therefore, I recommend that our
weekly prorating decisions from
Dec. 1st on be based on an expect-
ancy of the state moving 21,000
cars oranges, 18,000 cars grapefruit
and 2950 cars tangerines, and vig-
orously adopting such a program
for the purpose of bringing the pro-
ducers as a whole a decidedly higher
total net return than will otherwise
be possible.
This program is severe. It touches
the pocketbook of the Clearing
House as it will probably cut down
our income $60,000. It will cut down
the packing and marketing profits
of our private operators. It will in-
crease the overhead of the co-opera-
tive operators. It will increase the
resistance and temptation to eva-
sion to allotments given our shipper
members. The Operating Commit-
tee will have a responsibility that
is more serious than heretofore. A
major operation is required. The
Operating Committee must perform
the operation and no anesthetics
may be given. There will be growers
as well as shippers protesting loud-
ly against doing what I am convinc-
ed is necessary for their good.
Prorating allotments not only
must be lived up to but any viola-
tion promptly penalized at the rate
of 50 cents per box. Every shipper
will find more additional reasons
than ever, why his allotment is too
low, and why the other fellow's is
too high. The shippers outside the
Clearing House will in some cases
take advantage. But I believe if we
have the stamina to meet this thing
boldly together and the self-discip-
line to see it through we will com-
mand not only the respect of those
operators outside our'ranks but gain
many new members, for they are
sick and looking for a remedy and
leadership. Also I think they see
and will be made to see the duty of
an industry effort, not merely a
Clearing House program. The press,
public opinion, service clubs, our
directors, our Committee of Fifty,
the carlot buyers at destinations,
the brokers, the trade papers all can
be aroused to get behind this move
and show up the yellow streak of
those who attempt undue advantage.
It is a matter of survival, an eco-
nomic war where all differences of
opinion and minor irritants must be
cast aside. It will be better to drop
the plan entirely unless entered into
with supreme determination and
real conviction. It cannot be a half-
hearted effort or a gesture. It must
be genuine.
Solicitation Competition
Some growers will high-pressure
our shippers. No shipper under such
conditions can legally solicit a
grower who is under contract with
a fellow shipper-member by indicat-
ing in any way that he can move
his crop and the other fellow can't.
Any member doing so should be re-
ported to the Manager and the mat-
ter substantiated by a signed state-
ment from the grower, whereupon

3 Nominations For

Director To Replace

L. Gentile Are Made

The nomination of three growers,
one of whom will be selected by the
Board of Directors to succeed Law-
rence Gentile, who recently resign-
ed, and a thorough discussion on the
early green fruit situation, were
among the most important matters
of business acted upon by the Com-
mittee of Fifty at its meeting Dec.
8 in Crescent City. The committee
also went on record as opposing the
shipment of valencias before Feb-
ruary 15.
The action taken nominating a
successor to Lawrence Gentile to
serve on the Board the remainder of
this season, resulted in the names of
Messrs. H. C. Brown, of Clermont;
O. F. Gardner, of Lake Placid, and
A. F. Pickard, Lakeland, being
selected by the Committee as a
whole. The names of six growers
were voted upon, the three receiv-
ing the highest number of votes be-
coming the official nominees, from
which group the Board will select
Mr. Gentile's successor.
(The by-laws of the Clearing
House provide that other nomina-
tions may be made by petition of
growers, three hundred names of
grower members being required
for nominations for a director
from the state-at-large).
James Thompson reported for F.
E. Brigham, chairman of the Green
Fruit Committee, who was unable to
be present because of illness. Mr.
Thompson told briefly of a move-
ment inaugurated by the Winter
Haven Chamber of Commerce to
give this matter serious considera-
tion, with the idea in mind of hav-
ing a more stringent law passed by
the legislature. Details of this pro-
gram, Mr. Thompson said, probably
will be available for presentation at
the next meeting of the Committee
of Fifty.
F. M. O'Byrne, chairman of the

such soliciting member will have his
allotment percentage reduced to the
proper basis.
The easy thing to do, the line of
least resistance is to do nothing. Let
it rock along. Say it can't be help-
ed. Pass the buck. Call it theory-
impractical-impossible. California
did such a thing successfully in
1923-24. We have the ability to do
as much if we are willing to accept
the challenge and pay the price in
effort and loss of profits to ourselves
for the sake of the growers, many
of whom it is true may never appre-
ciate what it meant to them nor the
sacrifices made for them by those
that must at this time act as their
responsible trustees.

committee on grove protection, re-
ported that arrangements had been
completed for the securing of "No
Trespassing" signs for growers de-
siring such a service. Mr. O'Byrne
explained that the signs would be
sold at the rate of five for one dol-
lar, the money thus obtained, less
the actual cost of the signs, to be
used as payment for legal prosecu-
The matter of early shipment of
valencias was then taken up, and
the following resolution passed:
"Because of the possibility of
early shipment of valencia or-
anges that may be immature, be
it resolved that we, the Commit-
tee of Fifty, urge the Board of
Directors and the Operating Com-
mittee to issue definite orders that
no valencias be shipped prior to
Feb. 15, and that the inspection
department of the Clearing House
be instructed to report violations
of this order."
A general discussion then ensued
regarding the citrus situation and
particularly the restriction of ship-
ments. Several of the growers at-
tending the meeting spoke on the
subject, and the entire meeting
unanimously expressed a willingness
to have their individual shipments
curtailed if such a plan is regarded
as feasible.
Manager Tells of Work
Manager Archie M. Pratt, of the
Clearing House, spoke briefly on
the situation as it is today, describ-
ing somewhat in detail a few of the
suggestions that have been made to
help work out the problem facing
the industry.
Directors F. G. Moorhead, of the
fourth district, and A. R. Trafford,
of the sixth district, were present,
and each spoke briefly, assuring the
committee members and growers
present of their desire to help work
out some solution.
A final expression on the market-
ing situation was voiced in the fol-
lowing resolution presented by F.
M. O'Byrne:
"Resolved that the Committee of
Fifty urge the Board of Directors
of the Clearing House and the Oper-
ating Committee to request all out-
side shippers to co-operate with the
Clearing House in restricting ship-

Frank I. Harding

Members of the Committee of
Fifty have lost another of their
number, Frank I. Harding, District
1 representative, passing away un-
expectedly from the effects of a
heart attack. The end came at Mr.
Harding's home in Babson Park the
night of Dec. 7. Another member
lost to the Committee was D. S.
Boreland, of Fort Myers, who died
a month ago.

News of Mr. Harding's death
reached the Committee of Fifty just"'
as the members assembled in Cres-
cent City for their meeting on De-
cember 8. The entire gathering was
stunned at the news, and further
shocked when F. M. O'Byrne, Lake
Wales member, told how he had'
talked with Mr. Harding early Sun-
day night over the telephone, both
planning to ride together the next
morning to Crescent City to attend
the meeting. A few hours later Mr.
O'Byrne was telephoned and inform-
ed that Mr. Harding had just died.
Mr. Harding was born at Canfield,
Ohio, fifty-eight years ago. He was
treasurer of the Peerless Motor
Company at Cleveland for several
years, and became interested in
Florida after retiring from active
business in the north shortly after
the World War. He invested in
grove property and immediately in-
terested himself in the problems con-,,
fronting Florida's citrus industry.
As a member of the Committee of
Fifty he has taken an active part in
all of this group's work, and won a
place for himself in the hearts of his
Funeral services were held Dec.
11.at the Harding home in Babson-
Park, and the body has been sent to
Orlando for cremation.
Following announcement of Mr.
Harding's death at the Committee of
Fifty meeting, the following resolu-
tion was presented:
"WHEREAS the Heavenly Fath-
er in infinite wisdom has called
unto Himself our highly respect-
ed and beloved fellow-member,
Frank I. Harding,
RESOLVED, that we thus public-
ly express our respect for his high
ideals, splendid business ability,
and lovable characteristics, and
deplore his untimely passing,
SOLVED that copies of this reso-
lution be sent to his family, and
the press, and that it be recorded
in our minutes."


(Continued from Page One)

Pittsburgh ...-......
Chicago ..............
Cleveland ...-......
Cincinnati ..........
St. Louis ............
Detroit ..............





On oranges a wider range is
shown between the auctions, New
York averaging 58c more on its"
1243 cars at $3.55 as against De-
troit the lowest showing an average
of $2.97 on 81 cars, Philadelphia
with 627 cars and Chicago with 275
cars show the same average of

Committee of Fifty Department

Page 6

December 10, 1930


$3.35, Boston coming next at $3.26
on 357 cars.


Auction Sales To December 9
No. Av.
Place Cars D
w York............ 1243 3.
iladelphia ........ 627 3.
iston ................ 357 3.
ttsburgh .......... 244 3.
icago ............. 275 3.
eveland ..........- 138 3.
ncinnati .......... 159 3.
SLouis-----....--- 104 3.
troit ................ 81 2.



In the above tables shown

on t



averages for the separate auctions
Indian River fruit has been exclud-
Sed and the averages have been car-
ried to Dec. 9, whereas in the week-
-ly averages of all auctions we have
included Indian River fruit but have

stopped the sales on the week end-
ing with Friday's auctions, Dec. 5.
Our season's averages to date look
high compared with the immediate
averages of this week which as go-
ing to press are as follows:
Average All Auctions This Week
Cars Avg. Cars Avg.
Gpft Gpft Orgs Orgs
Dec. 8 107 2.60 159 2.80
Dec. 9 71 2.60 85 2.80
Dec. 10 72 2.60 130 2.55
Dec. 11 45 2.60 93 2.60
Two years ago, or the 1928-29
season, the auction average for the
season on grapefruit was $3.34 de-
livered, on oranges $3.19 delivered,
this being through the entire season.
Our average to date has just about
reversed by variety the season's
average in 28-29 when we take the
weekly average through December 6
which shows $3.44 for oranges and
$3.13 for grapefruit.

The table below shows the weekly auction averages together with
the number of cars shipped, and the number sold at auction for the period
beginning with the week ending Dec. 7 to the week ending Feb. 1. Inci-
dentally it will be noted that the 1928-29 averages on both grapefruit
and oranges were higher for the week ending Dec. 7 than they were for
the corresponding week this season (week ending Dec. 6):

Dec. 7................
Dec. 14............
Dec. 21.................
Dec. 28.................-
Jan. 4.................
Jan. 11..................
Jan. 18..................
Jan. 25.....-----.........
Feb. 1.....-------..........

Shpd. Auct.
Cars Cars Avg.
636 397 3.23
405 238 3.00
366 251 3.17
371 176 3.47
693 194 3.43
588 271 3.16
655 238 3.17
662 273 3.15
820 268 3.07

Adams Packing Co., Inc--Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc.
_.___ _____ _Beresford
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Bilgore, David & Co.......Clearwater
Browder-Fowler Fruit Co.....Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc........ Plant City
Dixie Fruit & Pro. Co ........Tampa
Fields, S. A. & Co ..--.----Leesburg
Florida Citrus Exchange ...--Tampa
SFlorida Mixed Car Co-... Plant City
Fosgate, Chester C. Co.__ Orlando
Gentile Bros. Co._. --.. --_----Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co-.....-. Leesburg
Hills Bros. Co. of Florida, The
......................................... Tam pa
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
. -_--____ ___----------------- Davenport
Keen, J. W...----.----.----- Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co. ------- Eustis
Lamons, D. H. -----------Ft. Myers
Lee, J. C., Sr .........-------.. Leesburg
Lovelace Packing Co__Winter Haven
Mammoth Grove, Inc.... Lake Wales
Maxcy, Gregg---............------Sebring
< Maxcy, L., Inc........-------.Frostproof
McKenney-Steck, Inc...........Orlando
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co.
.__ ...._ ..-St. Petersburg
Mouser, W. H. & Co.........-- Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc.........-------... Oviedo





Orange Belt Packing Co. --- Eustis
Peace River Fruit Co..........Arcadia
Richardson-Marsh Corp ...- Orlando
Roe, Wm. G.........----.....Winter Haven
Roper, B. H. -----.- Winter Garden
Stetson, John B. Est. of .-- DeLand
Sullivan, H. C. --. ---....Frostproof
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
-____-___-- --Arcadia
Associated With Other Shipper-
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn.
_____....-- ...----...Babson Park
Chase & Co.......----..... Sanford
Citrus Grove Dev. Co., The
______________ B ...... Babson Park
DeLand Packing Co ............DeLand
Fellsmere Growers, Inc. -Fellsmere
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co
-......------___..____--- Davenport
Indian River Fruit Co.. --- Wabasso
International Fruit Corp. Orlando
Johnson, W. A ...---------. Ft. Ogden
Lakeland Co. Inc., The-....Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
-__-_____--__-Lake Wales
Middleton, W. D...--- Isle of Pines
Mitchell, J. M.--- __.--- ------ Elfers
Ulmer, H. D --------Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc...........-Valrico
Vaughn-Griffin Packing Co.-Howey
West Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co.......-West Frostproof

Clearing House Operation
Distribution Activities
The activities of the Clearing
House which concern the actual dis-
tribution of the citrus crop consti-
tute the most important part of the
organization's work. Briefly, these
activities consist of collecting all in-
formation possible on conditions af-
fecting the market for citrus fruits
and using this information to im-
prove the distribution of the crop.
Information Service
The basis of the Clearing House
information service is the series of
reports submitted by shippers and
other agencies affiliated with the
Association and those received from
the United States Department of
Agriculture. Under the terms of his
contract with the Clearing House,
each shipper member is required to
furnish complete daily reports on
his shipments, sales and intended
shipments. He sends a daily wire to
the Clearing House office, reporting
his shipments, F. O. B. sales, high,
low and average prices received and
discounts for off-sizes, for No. 1,
No. 2, and "Commercial Pack" or-
anges, grapefruit and tangerines.
He also reports sales of "off-condi-
tion" fruit, number of cars shipped
for export, number of cars rolling
unsold and destinations of those
rolling to various terminal market
auctions, and number of cars sold
at auction.
The Clearing House receives from
its special representatives daily wire
reports of prices received for Flor-
ida and California citrus fruit at
auction in the important terminal
markets. These reports include the
average for the day's sales of each
variety, and the price range for the
various sizes of some representative
Each morning a wire report is re-
ceived from a special representative
at Potomac Yards, Va., an import-
ant diversion point, showing Poto-
mac Yard passing of cars of citrus
fruit to various markets and num-
ber of cars held at Potomac Yards
for reconsignment.
The Division of Fruits and Veg-
etables of the United States Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, co-oper-
ating with the Florida State Mar-
het Bureau, maintains an office at
the Clearnig House headquarters in
Winter Haven. From this office
during the marketing season the
Clearing House receives daily re-
ports on carlot shipments of all cit-
rus fruits from all producing states,
passing of cars of citrus fruits

through the Florida gateways, and
cars arrived, ontrack and offered
for auction, and weather conditions
in northern cities.
From the information received in
this series of reports, the Clearing
House keeps its members constantly
informed on market conditions. A
daily analysis is made of the ship-
pers' reports and a composite report
prepared showing the number of
cars shipped by member shippers,
the number of cars sold and indi-
vidual high prices received, com-
posite high prices, individual and
composite low prices, individual and
composite average prices, and dis-
counts for off-sizes. This report also
shows the number of cars rolling to
auction from member shippers and
their destination, cars rolling un-
sold and for export, and govern-
ment reports of Potomac Yard pass-
ings and cars shipped to date dur-
ing the current marketing season.
Special information on conditions
likely to affect the market often is
A daily report also is prepared
from the reports on auction results,
showing average prices received by
varieties and prices by sizes for
some representative brand, in each
of the important auction markets.
The Clearing House daily reports
originally were wired to member
shippers. A careful survey of mail
schedules in the Citrus Belt, how-
ever, showed that by sending mim-
eographed reports late at night by
messenger to Haines City, a few
miles from Clearing House head-
quarters, every member shipper
could be reached before 8:30 the
next morning by special delivery
mail. This was the system followed
during the 1929-30 season.
An auction report, similar to that
sent to shippers, is prepared by the
Clearing House and mailed daily by
the Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics to member growers and to
ether growers who have requested
it. This report accompanies the
daily government report and is mail-
ed under government frank.
In addition to the mimeographed
reports, three daily wire reports are
sent to those shippers who request
them,-in the early morning a wire
report of Florida shipments and
passing at Potomac Yard; in the
early afternoon a report of the gov-
ernment figures on Florida gateway
passing of citrus fruit east, west
and south; and late in the afternoon
a wire showing results on each of
the auctions, similar to the report
regularly mailed.
Auction results also are wired to
a radio broadcasting station at Jack-
(Continued on Page Eight)

Survey of Clearing House

U. S. Chamber of Commerce

The following is the fourth article reprinted as an excerpt from the published
report of the survey of the Clearing House made by the United States Chamber
of Commerce. The report is "neither an endorsement nor a criticism of the
clearing house principle or this organization," the Chamber explains, but the
report unquestionably will be of interest to Florida citrus growers.

Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of this organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House, as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to join and ship through one of these operators.

December 10, 1930


Page 7





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.



FS t.Ogden
Winter Park
Winter Garden
SWinter Haven
Mt. Dora



It's Never So Bad

An individual's own troubles frequently
seem pretty black until the individual ex-
amines the troubles of those around him. It
may not help us to know that the other fel-
low is experiencing rough sledding, but at
any rate it affords some consolation for mis-
ery loves company. And so it is that Flor-
ida's citrus growers, instead of being the only
group in the country confronted by problems
that appear insurmountable, are in some re-
spects as fortunate, if not more fortunate,
than the average agricultural group through-
out the United States.
The annual report of Secretary of Agricul-
ture Arthur M. Hyde to President Hoover in-
dicates that such is the situation. Farm in-
comes for 1930, according to Secretary Hyde,
are expected to be lower than for any season
since 1921. Exports of agricultural commod-
ities have touched the lowest ebb since 1915,
and farm land values have continued down-
ward as a whole. The following excerpt from
the Secretary's report doubtless will be of
considerable interest to Florida growers for
by comparison it will show unequivocally that
our position is considerably better than the
average. It cannot be said that examination
of the rest of the agricultural interests will
cause our fruit to sell at a higher figure in the
markets, but it is not at all impossible that a
study of the situation in the north may reveal
some weaknesses in our own viewpoint that
will enable us to improve our own situation.
The excerpt given below touches only the
questions of farm incomes, exports, and pro-
duction, and reads as follows:
Farm Income in 1929 and 1930
Farm incomes from the production of 1930
are expected to be lower than for any season

since 1921. The gross income from the 1929
production amounted to about $11,851,000,-
000, or about $110,000,000 greater than that
for 1928. The aggregate gross income from
the 1930 production will probably be about
$9,950,000,000, or 16 percent below that of
In 1929 the major farm expenditures
showed very little change. Hence the increas-
ed gross income in that year resulted in an
increase in net income computed as a return
for the farm operator's capital and labor.
The net income available in 1929 as a return
for the operator's capital and labor was $1,-
055,000,000, as compared with $984,000,000
in 1928, and $1,206,000,000 in 1925, which
was the best year since the postwar slump.
Farm expenditures in 1930 have been less
than they were in 1929, but the reduction is
small compared with the reduction in gross
The reduced farm incomes of 1930 follow
a series of years-1924 to 1929, inclusive-in
which, despite diverse conditions in different
agricultural sections, the aggregate income
was fairly stable. This year all sections suf-
fered because of world-wide industrial de-
pression. In addition, farmers in a wide area
suffered seriously from drought. In the
drought-stricken area the gross farm income
will be reduced about 25 percent below that
of 1929. In other sections the gross income,
though greatly reduced, may be better than
it would have been had the drought not les-
sened the country's total farm production.
Exports of agricultural commodities in the
year ended June 30, 1930, were the lowest
since the year ended June 30, 1915. The ex-
port index number for the 12-month period
was 97. This index is based on the exports
of 44 of the principal farm commodities, with
the movement in the period of 1909-10 to
1913-14 taken as the base. The decline in
the exports was general.
Production Adjustments
The growing efficiency of American agri-
culture helps to explain but does not justify
its persistence in over-production. Technical
progress has increased farm productivity tre-
mendously in the last 15 years, but the bene-
fit has gone largely to the consumers. Farm-
ing has been industrialized and mechanized.
It has used science, decreased its production
costs, and increased its output, without find-
ing either profit or security in the process. It
has made two blades of grass grow where one
grew before, only to find the second blade
depressing the price of both. Farming is be-
coming more efficient all over the world, and
crop acreage and livestock breeding are in-
creasing. The competing groups know that
a halt in production will have to be called,
but no group wishes to be the first to slow
By this time it is evident that supply-and-
demand conditions can not be set aside by
legislation, that the dumping of surpluses
abroad is not feasible, that the indefinite stor-
ing of surpluses tends to prevent rather than
to cause a rise of prices, that tariff duties are
not effective on commodities produced large-
ly for export, and that subsidies would in-
crease rather than restrain production. Vol-
untary curtailment of production is the only
logical remedy for the surplus problem.

(Continued from Page Seven)
sonville, where they are broadcast
daily at 6 p. m. Auction averages
are wired daily to Tampa, for pub-
lication in the next morning's Tam-
pa Tribune.
Several weekly summaries are
sent to member shippers. One of
these summarizes the Clearing House
shipment information, showing ship-
ments by Clearing House members,
total shipments, percent of state
shipments shipped by Clearing House
members, Clearing House member
sales F. 0. B. and at auction, and
average prices, received for private
Another weekly summary shows
auction averages and price ranges
for various sizes. A third summary,
shows F. 0. B. sales results by days,
and compares the week's averages
with averages of the -preceding
A weekly size analysis shows auc-
tion averages at New York, Phila-
delphia, Boston and Chicago for va-
rious sizes of Florida fruit, together -
with a tabulation of the average
number of boxes of various sizes in
the cars shipped from the State,
based on an analysis of over 100
representative cars.
The Weekly Citrus Summary, pre-
pared by the Clearing House man-
ager, summarizes and interprets sta-
tistical information on all citrus
shipments and sales and clearing
house shipments and sales; discusses
in detail the factors which may in-
fluence the market during the com-
ing week, and advises shippers as to
shipping and marketing procedure
calculated best to preserve the
strength of the market.
On several occasions the Clearing
House has made estimates of the to-
tal Florida citrus crop and the num-
ter of cars remaining to be shipped.

(Continued from Page Three)
we had fruit that, I considered, was
fit for human consumption.
There should be an absolute em-
bargo on fruit, not fit for consump-
tion, regardless of its acid content.
The eating test is what buyers are
guided by, and that includes other
things besides acid test. Much of
the early fruit was riceyy" or
stringy, and lacked juice.
Unless all the growers join your
association and sell to houses that
abide by your plan of allotment of
shipments no hope of better condi-
tions during crop years, such as
this, can be hoped for.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) J. M. WOLTZ,
The Youngstown Sheet & Tube

Springfield, Ill.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Cut down on the damned mania
for new groves! Stop new grove
(Signed) J. V. MEYER..

December 10, 1930

Page 8

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