Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00051
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: November 10, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00051
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

Library . Coiup' F I
of Atig. con-1 FLORIDA
Ii,.S. Dept-. 0L


Sec 4835%, P. L. & R.
SiU. S. Postage
J 1c. Paid
W' ter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 11


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit


SOfficial Publication of the

2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31, Volume III
$2.00 e rus Growers Clearing House Association, NOVEMBER 10, 1930 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,ue
10 Cents a Copy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida. under the Act of March 3, 1879. Number 3

Last of Quarantine Regulations Modified

-Drops No Longer-Must Be Picked Up ---Grove Certification Abolished

Removal of the last quarantine regulation
in Florida, announced November 10 by Lee A.
Strong, chief of the Plant Quarantine and Con-
trol Administration U. S. D. A., will be a wel-,
come relief to growers and shippers through-
out the state. In dollars and cents this final
modification under which it is no longer neces-
sary to pick up drops for grove certification,
means a saving of between $2,000,000 and
$3,000,000 to the citrus industry. The modi-
fications become effective November 15. Dr.
Strong's announcement means that the gov-
ernment is now convinced that Florida no

.Grove Depreciation

Should Be Deducted

For Income Returns

Approach of the end of the cal-
endar year is turning the thought of
many to the task of making out
.their income tax return. In regard
to this annual job, it would be well
for all growers to bear in mind the
wisdom of deducting from their in-
come the depreciation on the grove.
The Clearing House has just been
advised by A. Gilbert Lester, ac-
countant for the Clearing House,
4hat growers in this organization
should be reminded of this point.
The government allows a citrus
grower 3 % depreciation on the cost
of the grove-exclusive of the cost
of the land-in preparing the in-
come tax return. Should a grove
,,owner fail to take advantage of this
depreciation allowed by the govern-
ment and later sells his property,
the government will consider that
Depreciation as having been taken
each year whether it was or not.
The result of this will be that the
cost of the grove sold will be de-
0.reased by the amount of the depre-
ciation allowed. This, of course, will
increase the profit on the sale pro-
Obviously it is to the interest of
the grower to deduct this deprecia-
tion from his income because if he
(Continued on Page Three)

longer is in danger of infestation and further-
more that this state is not a menace to any
other state. There is little question that the
bait spray program throughout the past sum-
mer and the clean-up work which has been
carried on since the shipping season opened
were important factors in the quarantine mod-
ifications just announced. Had the Clearing
House not carried out the spray campaign last
summer as whole-heartedly as it did and if the
growers had refused to pick up the drops, the
government probably would not have been
convinced that the state was free from danger

It has been expressed by some
that in our grapefruit experience
early this season, a very disappoint-
ing downward turn was caused en-
tirely by the poor fruit which went
out in September and the first
of October. Undoubtedly this con-
tributed but we have now been ship-
ping surprisingly good fruit for so
long that it is becoming self-evident
that we cannot blame ourselves too
severely by attributing all of the
low prices to Florida's mistake in
shipping so-called green fruit to the
markets. Every sales manager is up
against something that is more stub-
born and baffling than usual. We
have to admit it but it looks as if
we in Florida have to be affected
the same as the rest of the United
States by the same general business
depression which is affecting nearly
all industries.
The people that buy our oranges
and grapefruit seem to be showing
the same attitude toward our fruit
that they have in buying other pro-
ducts. The buying public is at pres-
ent controlled by the conviction that
every penny must be saved and
every economy practiced. Thrift has
become riot. When the public gets
in this frame of mind, we always

have depressed times. Over-produc-
tion exists because of under-con-
sumption. Buying capacity is at a
low ebb because of unemployment
as well as because of fear of unem-
ployment and the strict habit of sav-
ing for the rainy day. Unemploy-
ment exists because the wage earner
has not been paid a big enough share
of our national dollar to keep buy-
ing. Capital has expanded its efforts
to produce more at a time when it
should have been investing its
money in higher wages so that con-
sumption would balance production.
Must Meet Problem
Under this national pernicious cir-
cle, Florida cannot avoid being af-
fected in its marketing problem.
Competitively, anything that can be
done by publicity or advertising to
swing the purchasing selection to-
ward citrus is highly imperative.
There must be a practical and im-
mediate teamwork such as we never
have had before. We must as a uni-
fied body meet the problem vigor-
ously. We have a small size problem
in oranges. Those in danger of red
ink must never be shipped. The in-
dustry must be prepared to take
(Continued on Page Four)

and quarantine regulations would still be in
Since the beginning of the campaign against
the fly a year and one-half ago the Clearing
House has stood steadfastly behind a policy of
co-operation with the government. This has
been done even in the face of some criticism
throughout the state, but results now show
that had the government not had the co-opera-
tion which the growers of the state have given
that modification of the quarantine regula-
tions might have been withheld for some time.

1930-'31 Advertising

Campaign in North

Getting Under Way

Program Will Be Direct Mer-
chandising Effort in
Newspapers Only

The 1930-'31 advertising cam-
paign of the Clearing House will get
under way the middle of this month.
The size of the appropriation avail-
able, about $150,000, has made it
necessary to confine the campaign
to the principal market centers, it
being hoped that the benefits de-
rived from the advertising will tend
to improve the price level also in the
less important points of consump-
tion because auction prices affect all
markets. The markets in which the
advertising will be concentrated are
the seven largest auction markets in
the east and middle west, and sev-
eral of the most important markets
in the southern states.
A Merchandising Campaign
The entire campaign will be car-
ried in newspapers in black and
white, and will be a direct merchan-
dising effort. The advertising com-
mittee of the Clearing House at a
meeting Nov. 5 decided that the
funds available would not be suffi-
cient to permit the use of any "gen-
eral" or educational copy. Briefly,
(Continued on Page Six)

Effect on Citrus Prices of

Depression in North Shows

Need for Genuine Teamwork


Nov. 8
Florida Oranges Shipped-..- 962
Florida Grapefruit Shipped 662
Total .....----.. --.--..... ---. 3830
Florida Tangerines Shipped.... 4
Total....--........--------...... 6
Florida Mixed Shipped-----........... 335
Total-....-- ...........--------- 944
California Oranges Shipped.... 678

Nov. 1

Nov. 8, '29

Oranges Lower
As might be expected, oranges
have shown a further decline, the
f. o. b. price showing a drop of 75c
on No. Is and 65c on No. 2s over
the week previous; the auction mar-
ket showing a drop of 60c over the
week previous. With Florida or-
anges so exceptionally well flavored
and juicy, it is felt that statistically
the market should begin to steady
itself. The color inside and out is

Nov. 8, '28


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing
House Association)
(Week Ending Nov. 8, 1930)


tail stands may still have a few of
the earlier shipments, which might
have been pale and rather uninvit-
ing, but these soon will be out of
the way.
Some of our shippers are inclined
to think our oranges are over-esti-
mated because sizes are so extreme-
ly small. Several instances were re-
ported to our Operating Committee
where oranges picked way below the
timate, one grove estimated at 4000
boxes, picking out 2900. Three hun-
dred twenty-fours and 288s do not
make boxes very fast.
Advertising Small Oranges
For the purpose of increasing the
consumer demand for small oranges,
the following copy will be released
this coming week to leading news-
papers covering all the auction mar-
kets and nearby territory, as well as
the southern markets:
"For juice, for flavor, for econ-
omy-insist upon Florida oranges.
Ripening on the trees, they are
full of juice and delicate in flavor.
This year nature has produced an
abundance of small sizes of ex-
ceptional quality. Buy them for
juice-reasonably priced. Hold a
small Florida orange in your hand
-feel the extra weight. That's
juice! Remember too that you
can have the larger sized Florida
oranges as well, but the smaller
oranges are an opportunity in
thrift. 'Phone your grocer to-
Bulk Shipments
The Operating Committee went
on record as still opposed in princi-
ple to bulk shipments because of
the demoralizing influences result-
ing from the class of dealers that
take hold of such low priced pro-
ducts. Our shippers are urged to re-
frain from shipping in bulk, but at
the same time there is no restric-
tion which is so binding as to inter-
fere with any shipper meeting such
an emergency if he feels compelled
to. By some it is felt as a necessary
evil under our present conditions.
On account of the state maturity
test still holding back the free move-
ment of oranges, it was again felt
that it was unnecessary to do any
prorating on oranges. Advice from
California estimates this week's
movement at 675 cars from the
state and next week at 550 cars.
We have moved to date 10.5% of
our estimated orange crop as
against the seven year average of
Grapefruit Slightly Lower
Average f. o. b. prices received
during the week on grapefruit show
a drop of 15c on No ls and 14c on
No. 2s, the auction markets show-
ing a drop of 40c. Grapefruit sales
at auction were unusually heavy, be-
ing 332 cars, compared with last
week's 218, or 50% of the state
movement. Our shippers fully real-
ize the necessity of increasing pri-
vate sales and decreasing sales at
auction in balancing the price levels
between the auction and private
sales. Reports as to dropping of
grapefruit are coming in quite gen-
erally, several of our shippers be-
lieving that this may materially cut
down the total crop. On the other

improving each day and, with the
extremely low prices existing on
288s and smaller, forcing growers
and shippers to more generally spot
pick, it would seem as if there was
no further reason for anticipating
lower prices. Reports coming from
the trade are certainly encouraging
as to quality, there being practical-
ly no complaint such as usually oc-
curs this early on account of sour-
ness or poor color. Some of the re-

hand, where grapefruit crops have
been completed in picking, reports
generally so far indicate such groves
as having been under-estimated in-
stead of over-estimated. With grape-
fruit so good as it is, exceptionally
juicy and sweet for so early, it is
hard to explain why grapefruit is
not being absorbed rapidly at such
reasonable prices.
Grapefruit allotments to our mem-
bers were made for next week on
the basis of 500 cars. This would.
indicate a state movement of about
675 cars for the coming week, which
is the exact figure laid out in the
general schedule, except that it does"
not include about 100 cars addition-
al which would have to be included
from the probable 300 car move-
ment of mixed citrus. With ship-r
ments week after next, being the
big week for the Thanksgiving mar-
kets, and with the concentration
that may be given to oranges at that
time, it is believed that there will
not be quite such a heavy pres-
sure to move grapefruit this coming
week as we have been experiencing'
recently. The opportunity for ship-
ping grapefruit a week hence may,
therefore, be better than the imme-,
diate week ahead of us on account
of the week ending Oct. 22 being
given more-generally to the effort
of moving oranges and tangerines.
The movement of our tangerine
crop to date has been unusually
light. The state maturity restriction
requiring the 8 to 1 test is severely
holding down the movement. On
midnight of Saturday, Nov. 15, the
state maturity test will be lifted on'
tangerines. Naturally, there will be
a strong tendency to move tange-
rines very freely during the week
ending Nov. 22, when some shippers
may unwisely throw to the winds
size, color or eating qualities in
order to jump in on the bare market
created by our present state stand-
ard. For this reason, those tange-
rines that can be moved this coming
week, even though prior to the regu-
lar Thanksgiving market, will prob-
ably sell for better money than
those moved the week following in
the general rush which will go for-
ward unless some means is used to
check this.
The maturity certificate and state
assessment will apply on tangerines
on only that fruit which is packed
or in the bins up to midnight. Fruit
received in field boxes will not be
subject to tax or maturity tests.

"How much do I pay for a mar-
riage license?"
"Five dollars down and the rest
of your entire salary each week for
the rest of your life."-Frisco Em-
ployes'' Magazine.

Too Early To. Tell
"Hello, Willie," exclaimed the
kind old traveling man, "how is your
dear old grandpa standing the
"Ain't heard yet," said Willie,.
"he's only been dead a week."-Ex.

Florida Oranges Auctioned.... 438 400 121 93
Average.......---------------... $3.55 $4.15 $3.24 $4.62
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned 332 218 233 149
Average---.....--.. ...-----.. $3.10 $3.50 $3.75 $3.63
Florida Tangerines Auctioned 2 20 -
..-Average............-----------. $5.40 $5.30 -
California Oranges Auctioned 189 276 479 222
Average............----------.. $7.30 $7.35 $4.14 $7.24

Oranees No. 1 Oranees No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Nov. 1 .........----- 350 109 $3.88 209 66 $3.19
31% 32%
Nov. 8.................... ---361 118 $3.13 237 52 $2.54
33% 2 22%/r
Difference........ + 11 + 9 -.75 + 28 -14 .65

Grapefruit No. I Grapefruit No. 2
Week Ending Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Nov. 1-................... 165 63 $2.43 112 51 $1.98
39% 45%
Nov. 8-......--...... 239 73 $2.28 189 63 $1.84
30% 33%
Difference........ + 74 +10 .15 + 77 +12 .14

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 1..----.... 178 682 314 225 381 805 398
Nov. 8-----............ 276 1119 491 375 471 1145 780
Nov. 15----........... 469 1016 771 926 781 1125 1671
California Oranges
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 1.....-----........ 281 171 314 344 87 190 48
Nov. 8 ............ 861 813 159 91 132 326 94
Nov. 15----....... 631 1355 116 1476 633 813 154
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 1.............. 358 362 325 693 440 458 653
Nov. 8----........... 321 387 563 762 621 818 823
Nov. 15---....... 309 485 399 421 474 774 463
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1928- 1927- 1926- 1925- 1924- 1923-
Ending Year 29 28 27 26 25 24
Nov. 1.............. 87 122 176 64 83 62 No Rcrd.
Nov. 8----........ 102 187 225 131 90 118 No Rcrd.
Nov. 15---......... 195 235 314 225 74 170 No Rcrd.

Page 2

November 10, 1930


World Competition

In Citrus Industry

Will Be Discussed

Frostproof, in southern Polk Coun-
ty, will be the citrus mecca of Flor-
ida Nov. 17 when the Associated
Boards of Trade of the Scenic High-
lands will hold a meeting to discuss
,."The World's Citrus Market as Ef-
fecting Florida's Outlook."
The program will be divided into
an afternoon and a night session
with C. C. Teague, member of the
Federal Farm Board, as the guest of
honor and principal speaker sched-
uled to give an address at the night
program. Other speakers will be
Commissioner of Agriculture Na-
than Mayo, W. J. Howey, J. C. Mor-
I ton and Dr. Charles Northen, each
of whom will speak on different
phases of the principal topic.
Both sessions of the program will
,be held out of doors and the pro-
ceedings broadcast from at least one
radio station. If the weather proves
unpleasant on that day, the crowd
'will be accommodated in various
buildings with loud speakers ampli-
fying the talks so that all may hear.
A fish fry is one of the features
M planned for the entertainment of
those attending the meeting, the
Frostproof Rotary Club having un-
dertaken to handle details for ac-
commodating the large gathering
which is expected.

Florida Fairs

Indian River Orange Festival at
Cocoa, Jan. 15 to 16.
Pinellas County Fair at Largo,
Jan. 20 to 24.
Florida Orange Festival at Winter
Haven, Jan. 27 to 31.
South Florida Fair at Tampa,
Feb. 3 to 14.
Lee County Fair at Ft. Myers,
SFeb 17 to 21.
Volusia County Fair at DeLand,
Feb. 17 to 21.
Central Florida Exposition at Or-
lando, Feb. 24 to 28.
Palm Beach County Fair at West
Palm Beach. To be held last week
in February.
Highlands County Fair at Sebring.
To be held the last week in Feb-
SDade County Fair at Miami, Mar.
2 to 8.
Florida Strawberry Festival, Plant
City, March 4 to 7.
Festival of States at St. Peters-
burg, March 23 to 28.

The Guilty Man
SJudge (to prospective juryman)
-"So you've formed an opinion of
the case?"
Prospective Juryman-"Yes, your
Honor, one look at that man con-
vinced me he was guilty."
Judge- "Heavens! Man, that's
the prosecuting attorney!"-Ex.

Clearing House Operation
Although organized as a co-oper-
ative marketing association, the
Clearing House itself does no mar-
keting. Its activities are directed
altogether toward co-ordinating the
marketing operations of the con-
tracting shippers who market the
fruit of the Association's grower
During the past two shipping sea-
sons the assessment for the support
of the Clearing House has been 4
cents a box. During the 1929-30
season member shippers marketed
in excess of 10,000,000 boxes, from
which the Clearing House received
an income of slightly over $400,000.
The assessment for the 1930-31 sea-
son has been reduced to 2 cents a
Inspection and Standardization
The purpose of the Inspection
Department Is to standardize and
improve the quality of the Florida
citrus fruit pack. During the ship-
ping season the department main-
tains a staff of from thirty to forty
inspectors, who cover the two hun-
dred or more packing houses oper-
ated by member shippers. Each in-
spector visits the packing houses on
his route from one to three times a
day. His duties are to see that the
fruit packed in the various grades
conforms to government standards
for those grades, and to advise
packing house managers as to meth-
ods of improving the pack. Once
each week the packing house equip-
ment is inspected for cleanliness,
and field boxes for nails, splinters
and other projections which might
injure the fruit.
The Clearing House has had ex-
cellent co-operation from all but a
very small number of member ship-
pers in its inspection services. The
Clearing House General Manager,
Mr. A. M. Pratt, comments on this
phase of the work as follows:
"The Clearing House, as a disin-
terested body, has had from thirty
to forty men in continual contact
with the grade and packing opera-
tion. By maintaining a uniform
grade and holding this grade firm
to U. S. requirements, it has result-
ed not only in commanding con-
fidence from the trade, that would
not have otherwise existed, but it
has also resulted in confidence on
the part of the sales managers them-
selves in their own product, as well
as confidence of those sales mana-
gers in their competitors. They real-
ize that no longer will a competitor
be permitted to continually offer for

sale so-called U. S. No. Is at a cut
price because that competitor knows
it may be a combination grade or
practically all No. 2s.
"More than this, the disinterested
but firm policy followed by the
Clearing House has insured the in-
dividual grower a square deal in
grading policy. It has given back-
bone to the grading foreman or
house manager when pressure has
been put on that man to give some
large or influential grower, or some
grower that is a kicker, a better
grade than he is entitled to. This
disinterested service has also in-
sured the accuracy and fairness of
returns where they are made on a
pool basis. The objections that some
growers have had to pools are elim-
inated where every pool member
knows a uniform grade has been
maintained through the pool peri-
od." (Florida Clearing House News,
Vol. II, No. 14, April 25, 1930,
page 3).
Publicity and Advertising
About half of the income of the
Clearing House has been devoted to
a consumer advertising campaign
for Florida citrus fruits. During the
1928-29 season, advertising was
placed in a number of magazines
with national circulation. The
Clearing House broadcast some ad-
vertising over the radio and dis-
tributed a looklet containing recipes
for preparing citrus fruits.
In 1929-30, with the distribution
of Florida citrus fruits greatly re-
stricted on account of Mediterran-
ean fruit fly quarantine regulations,
no advertising was placed in nation-
ally circulated magazines, because
such advertising would have covered
a large territory which could not
have been reached by Florida fruit.
Instead advertising was placed in
daily newspapers, chiefly in the
states to which Florida fruit could
be shipped without processing.
On various Sundays in November
and December, an 80-inch advertise-
ment, covering slightly over half a
page, was carried in the rotogravure
supplements of eleven metropolitan
newspapers. A series of five 30-inch
advertisements, covering slightly
less than a quarter-page, were car-
ried in the Sunday rotogravure sup-
plements of from six to eleven
newspapers on various dates from
December to April. The week-day
advertising consisted of a series of
five 30-inch advertisements carried
on various dates in from 15 to 72
newspapers, a series of ten 10-inch
advertisements carried in from 27
to 65 newspapers, and an 8-inch ad-

Survey of Clearing House

U. S. Chamber of Commerce

The following is the third article reprinted as an excerpt from the published
report of the survey of the Clearing House made by the United States Chamber
of Commerce. The report is "neither an endorsement nor a criticism of the
clearing house principle or this organization," the Chamber explains, but the
report unquestionably will be of interest to Florida citrus growers.

Page 3

November 10, 1930

vertisement placed once in three
In all, 1145 advertisements were
carried in 74 daily newspapers in 49
cities, having a combined circulation
of 12,638,000. Rotogravure adver-
tisements were printed-over 34,000,-
000 times.
The Clearing House issues occa-
sional press releases concerning its
activities or concerning matters of
interest to the Florida citrus indus-
try. These releases are mailed to
newspapers in the Citrus Belt.
The Association publishes the
Clearing House News, which ap-
pears twice a month and is circu-
lated to all grower and shipper
members. The News is the chief
point of contact between the Clear-
ing House and the grower members.
Another point of contact is the
monthly meetings of the Directors
Advisory Committee of Fifty. These
meetings are held in various parts
of the State and grower members
are invited to attend.


(Continued from Page One)
does not he is penalized for not do-
ing so.
The office of the collector of in-
ternal revenue at Jacksonville also
has advised the Clearing House of
the wisdom of this annual deprecia-
tion deduction. The collector's rec-
ommendation was incorporated in a
letter reading in part as follows:
"In the sale of depreciable prop-
erty the amount of depreciation
allowable is added to the selling
price for the purpose of arriving at
the taxable profit whether or not
the depreciation has been taken in
the taxpayer's prior returns.
"The return of depreciation on
any property is entirely a matter of
fact to be established by the tax-
payer and no set rates are allowed
by the government. However, in
ruling of the United States Board
of Tax Appeals in the case of Red-
lands Security Company, Docket No.
5703, promulgated December 30,
1926, it was agreed by the peti-
tioner and by the Commissioner of
Internal Revenue that the average
producing life of the orange grove
in question was thirty years and
that the average time between
planting and production was six
years. It, therefore, follows that de-
preciation was allowed in this case
at the rate of 3 1/3 of the cost of
the grove, exclusive of the land.
"It is believed that this ruling
may be taken as a guide in all ordi-
nary cases of a similar nature, but
as above stated each case must be
considered strictly on its own
"For his own protection an owner
of depreciable property should de-
duct the property amount of depre-
ciation each year in his income tax
return as this must be accounted
for in case the property is sold."

Paee 4

Prorating System

Stimulates Sales

Among Shippers

Bona Fide F. O. B. Orders Are
Encouraged -By Clearing
House Allotting

One duty that is distinctly and pe-
culiarly a Clearing House responsi-
bility is that of maintaining for its
members a properly regulated sup-
ply from week to week. It is this
reason that one of the most im-
portant things the Operating Com-
mittee members decide every Friday
night is what should be shipped the
next week. In reaching this decision
they take into account what prob-
ably will be moved outside the mem-
bership of the Clearing House and
then allot to the total membership
a figure which is prorated to the in-
dividual shipper members, beyond
which amount no shipper may go
without violating the order given as
well as the contract relations.
There is only one modifying con-
dition that applies to these individ-
ual allotments. It is a resolution
which was adopted a year ago joint-
ly by the Directors, Operating Com-
mittee and Committee of Fifty and
again approved this year by the
Operating Committee and the Board,
this resolution reading as follows:
"The Operating Committee may,
if it deems best, rule that in addi-
tion to the shipping allotments
given to the shipper-members for
any given period, such members
may be given the privilege of ex-
ceeding said allotments upon the
Association being furnished such
evidence of bona fide f. o. b. or-
ders as to make the original allot-
ment unduly restrictive."
At a meeting of the Operating
Committee, Oct. 31, an interpreta-
tion of f. o. b. orders was arrived
at. It was decided that the f. o. b.
orders in the clause quoted must be
bona fide orders at agreed upon
prices received PRIOR TO SHIP-
MENT of the cars applied on such
orders. Thus object of the prorat-
ing, namely to keep the number of
unsold rollers at a minimum, will be
maintained; at the same time good
salesmanship on the part of the
shippers will not be hampered. The
privilege relative to exceeding an
allotment by means of bona fide
f. o. b. orders is permissible, how-
ever, only where the shipper has an
abnormally small percentage rolling
unsold. In such an instance the man-
ager of the Clearing House is to be
immediately notified by telephone of
the necessity of filling such orders,
and the request is to be subject to
the approval of the manager after
the latter is informed of the circum-
Cars so applied (if shipped in ex-
cess of allotment) must be so iden-
tified as to permit checking against
the orders and dates when orders
were received, such data to be auto-

Page 4


matically and immediately furnished
in detail to the manager. The names
and addresses of the customers,
dates of orders, specifications, and
car numbers applied on such orders
are to be furnished in confidence tc
the manager.
Must Sell Allotment
The ruling does not permit a ship-
per to use his full allotment and in
addition thereto his f. o. b. orders,
unless his allotment is already ex-
ceptionally well sold. It does not
permit accepting orders for special
sizes or grades which would result
in excessive supplies of what re-
mains rolling unsold, especially in
cases where a shipper still has un-
sold rollers previously shipped.
Because of the quarantine re-
quirement forcing growers to pick
up their drops weekly, the pressure
to ship has been not only strong but
back of it has been a resentment
and irritation which brings protests
from the growers to their managers
in insisting upon moving the crop.
Usually, when the individual groves
are examined and actual count made
of the amount of fruit that has
dropped, it is found that the condi-
tion has been exaggerated. This is
only natural.
On top of this situation has been
the recognition on the part of every
one that we have a big crop to mar-
ket. On top of this, shippers gen-
erally prepared to market a big crop,
in some cases having additional
packing houses, in other places in-
creasing their equipment, with the
result that many of the individual
packing units resent most naturally
the fact that they cannot pack any-
where near to capacity.
Control Is Imperative
Under such conditions, everything
would be most chaotic if there wasn't
the control that is being exercised.
The Clearing House cannot control
shippers outside of its ranks but
they can know what its own mem-
bers will be shipping not only this
week but next. The problem is a
most difficult and delicate one be-
cause of the extreme pressure exist-
ing. Under such circumstances your
organization must have patience and
co-operation not only from its ship-
per members but also from its
grower members in working out the
strict orders that are necessary and
which of necessity must be firmly
complied with under the conditions

(Continued from Page One)
steps that may seem at first unduly
Two hundred and eighty-eights
and smaller are already reaching the
danger mark. These small sizes clut-
ter up the market. In the family an
orange is an orange. Just as much
effort is necessary to prepare a 288
or 324 to eat as a 176 or 150. To
quite an extent we double our sur-
plus problem when we permit large
quantities of such small off-sizes


November 10, 1930

reaching the consumer and we do
this with a product that brings prac-
tically no net returns to the grow-
ers. Our advertising is going to
specialize in endeavoring to arouse
consumer demand for small sizes as
fifty percent to sixty percent of our
crop is 250s and smaller. But re-
gardless of advertising effort we
may have to restrict severely the
free movement of our smallest sizes.
Plains or No. 3s should be taken off
the market entirely.
Mutual Understanding Needed
Under the trying conditions we
are forced to meet this year our
shipper members in the end will find
themselves in a much more comfort-
able position to be very plain in
their statements to their grower
members as to what they are getting
and what they expect to get. There
is always a hesitancy on the part
of any packing house manager to
tell his grower under tough market
conditions the unvarnished facts. He
is afraid that other shippers will not
be as frank and the grower will get
cold feet and ship through some one
who is more optimistic and less
truthful. If all of our shipper mem-
bers would take their growers into
their confidence there would not be
the disappointment in the final net
returns and the feeling of suspicion
on the part of growers towards
Confidence is not built by half
truths or by withholding disagree-
able marketing facts from a grower
until his fruit is secured because the
bare facts must in the end become
evident. It is a time for plain speak-
ing, for close relations between
grower and shipper and between
every shipper member with his fel-
low shipper in the combined effort
of the Clearing House to meet as ef-
fectively as possible the hard mar-
keting problem that is ahead.-By
A. M. Pratt.

Pink Grapefruit and Tem-
ple Oranges In Manatee

(Radio Address Over WRUF, Oct. 8)
By LEO H. WILSON, County Agent
Pink Grapefruit: There are only
two varieties of pink grapefruit
grown commercially in the world.
Both originated in Manatee County,
Florida, and were introduced by
Reasoner Brothers of Oneco, Flor-
ida. Foster Pink and Thompson Pink
Marsh are the varieties. The Pink
Shaddock, a coarse, pink fruit be-
longs to a different botanical species
with no commercial value.
Foster pink, a sport, from Wal-
ters grapefruit, originated on a sin-
gle branch of a Walters tree, dis-
covered by R. B. Foster, in the fa-
mous Atwood grapefruit grove, in
the winter of 1906. It was fruited
out by Mr. Foster and called to the
attention of E. N. Reasoner, who
introduced the fruit in 1911. Rea-
soner Brothers offered buds for sale
in 1914. Foster grapefruit is like
the Walters except it is a beautiful
pink color. It sizes large, fine tex-
ture, juice clear and abundant, with

a light purplish pink color. Eighty
thousand trees have been sold, most
of which have been planted in South-
ern Texas; some to Australia and
Africa, with a small planting in
Florida. We have a sufficient num-
ber of old bearing trees in Manatee
County to prove its value. Shipping
season starts in September and Oc-
tober and will last late in the sea-
Fruit True To Type
Thompson Pink Marsh grapefruit
originated in W. B. Thompson's
grove, joining Reasoner's Nursery
at Oneco. It was discovered by Mr.
Sam Collins of Oneco, in 1914. The
fruit came from a sport branch. on
a Marsh Seedless. The propagation
carried on by Mr. Collins proved the
fruit true to type. Reasoner Broth-
ers became interested and took up
its propagation in 1920. First com-
mercial offering was made in 1924.
Thompson's Pink Marsh is slightly
larger than Marsh Seedless and well
advanced in quality. The fruit car-
ries a fine pink colored flesh during
the winter months. One of its strong
points is its better holding and keep-
ing qualities; The marketing season
opens in January and runs through
July and August.
Both varieties of pink grapefruit
have been propagated on lemon,
sour orange and Cleopatra Manda-
rin root. Each stock has produced
fruit of fine quality when grown on
soils adaptable. From the prevailing
prices received by growers in Texas
and the ever increasing demand for
quality fruit, pink grapefruit looks
mighty good.
Quoting from a letter received
from the Texas Citrus Fruit Grow-
ers' Exchange, Mission, Texas, of
August 30, .1929, addressed to Royal
Palm Nursery, makes the following
statement: "Foster Pink and Thomp-
son grapefruit have brought from
$4.00 to $5.00 per box f. o. b. at
the packing plant on carload basis.
On special order by express as high
as $10.00 and $11.00 per box has
been received."
Net Is Over Dollar
A letter from W. N. Friend, Su-
perintendent of Agricultural Exper-
iment Station at Weslago, Texas,
August 12, 1929, to the Royal Palm
Nursery, says in part: "I find the av-
erage net price on Marsh Seedless,
all sizes and grades, $1.40 per crate,
for Duncan grapefruit $1.29 and for
Foster Pink $3.00 per crate."
These figures spell success for the
future propagation and develop-
ment of pink grapefruit. T. Ralph
Robinson, with the Bureau of Plant
Industry, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, says pink grapefruit are
demanding excellent prices from
high-class hotels, restaurants and
other exclusive trade. The exclusive
trade will always pay a fancy price
for fancy fruit.
Success in canning grapefruit and
the world-wide demand for citrus
fruit products gives further reasons
that pink grapefruit will, in the near
future, be grown to such an extent
that a large volume of this beauti-
ful colored fruit will find its way


into a fancy canned product used by
choice trade in all parts of the
world. Pink fleshed fruit is certain-
ly in a class by itself.
Temple Root Is Vital
Temple Oranges: By producing
Temple oranges or excellent quality
proves conclusively this orange has
not had a fair chance in Florida.
Temple oranges budded to rough
lemon root stock has proven a fail-
ure. Authorities admit this fruit
should be planted on sour orange
root and grown on soils adaptable to
this stock. Temple fruit, a kid glove
orange, belonging to the Mandarin
family, is a flat, roundish thin skin-
ned fruit, juicy, a deep red skin and
mesh, with a pronounced flavor you
Can't forget. The best Temple fruit
produced in Manatee County is
grown on sour orange rootstock and
planted on medium to heavy ham-
mock soils, soils rich in organic ma-
terial, dark, moist and underlaid
with chocolate and marl sub-soil.
Cleopatra is another promising root-
stock for Temple oranges.
Citrus growers are using less cul-
tivation in making quality Temple
fruit. The principal cultivating im-
plement is the mowing machine. The
disk harrow may be used occasion-
ally to cut the vegetation into the
top few inches of soil.
Care is being exercised in fertiliz-
ing. Sufficient fertilizer is used to
produce normal tree growth. Fairly
high amounts of potash is used at
regular intervals to produce quality

Lowering Citrus Producing

Costs In Ridge Section

(Radio Address Over WRUF, Oct. 8)
By LOUIS H. ALSMEYER, County Agent
Because profits from a business
depend upon the difference between
cost and returns, growers in the
Ridge section are paying more at-
tention each month to reducing the
cost and still getting as big if not
bigger crops of higher quality fruit,
The pruning bill generally has
been high and by only cutting out
the dead wood, which is practically
all that is necessary, this item often
has been reduced 55 percent. When
Sthe trees grow vigorously the dense
shade makes a more ideal place for
the friendly fungi to propagate.
Cover crops also tend to make more
humid conditions in the grove and
thus aid in the development of more
friendly fungi. This friendly fungi
often will keep whitefly and scale
insects under control under these
conditions and so we now have many
groves which have not been sprayed
with an oil spray in several years.
This reduction in the spray bill
often amounts to ten or fifteen dol-
lars per acre per year.
Cultivate Less And Save
The idea.that groves had to be
cultivated frequently to conserve
moisture has died hard, for when a
grower cultivates his grove less and
then compares it with his former
method, he is much impressed with
the saving in cost and the better

condition that his trees are in. The
plowing of a grove in the fall puts
the legume or grass cover crop at
a depth which gives the trees less
benefit from it than when it is
knocked down with a disc harrow
or rolling cutter. The latter imple-
ments allow the cover crop to lie
near the surface of the ground and
Only enough incorporated in the soil
to prevent having a fire risk. Plow-
ing costs three or four times as
much as discing. No further culti-
vation is given until spring. Then
the acme or disc harrow is used to
stir the surface slightly and destroy
weeds and grass to prevent loss of
moisture from such growth.
The use of legume cover crops,
and especially Crotalaria, has made
a big change in our grove practices.
Crotalaria often produces two or
two and a quarter tons of organic
matter per acre during the year.
This organic matter has 2.9 percent
ammonia when cut in the proper
stage. When figured on the basis of
present prices of organic nitrogen
fertilizers, a good crop of this le-
gume will yield $33 worth of plant
food per acre per year. This nitro-
gen is derived from the air and is
thus a big gain to the grower. Ex-
periments as to the benefits of cover
crops show Crotalaria to be the
best for our section, with beggar-
weed next, and cowpeas below that
of natal grass. Most growers have
reported that the quality of their
fruit was very much better after
they had used cover crops than it
was before, and none have reported
a decrease in quality.
Cutting Fertilizer Costs
Our fertilizer cost has been 55
percent of our cost of production
and it is the one which we are work-
ing the hardest to reduce at this
time. Our growers have found out
that when they have a good cover
crop they can get most astonishing
results from using inorganic ferti-
lizers. Many growers report that
with approximately the same total
amount of plant food derived from
an inorganic source they can get
better results than from an equal
amount from an organic source.
This is especially true in the fall and
spring applications. The inorganic
sources of ammonia such as nitrate
of soda, sulphate of ammonia, cal-
carea, and others are much cheaper
than the organic source such as
blood; tankage, bone, goat manure,
etc. By taking advantage of this
our growers were able to get better
results and make a big reduction in
They have started using double
strength materials such as 8-16-10
and 6-16-16. They have half as
much freight to pay, one-half the
cost of hauling to the grove, and
nearly half as much labor for
spreading. This big saving has made
it possible for many growers to
make two applications of the same
amount of plant food for the same
total cost as of one application of
commercial organic fertilizer which
they formerly used. Several of our
growers have been using the triple
and are now trying the quadruple

Thorough Job Must

Be Done in Heating,

Horticulturist Says

Lack of Fuel, Poor Thermom-
eters Are Factors Likely
To Undo One's Work

Old man winter is just around the
corner, and many citrus growers are
turning their attention to grove
heating as an insurance against
damaged fruit or injured trees. The
job is highly technical, and should
be done thoroughly or not at all, ac-
cording to Dr. A. F. Camp, horticul-
turist at the Florida Experiment
Most of the mistakes of grove
heating are due to carelessness or a
lack of understanding of the task.
Being out of fuel a few hours, hav-
ing too few heaters, or poor ther-
mometers may destroy all of the ef-
fects of grove heating. To heat a
grove properly one should never al-
low a large volume of air to go be-
low the danger point.
To save fruit the temperature
should not go below 27 or 28 de-
grees. To save the bloom 30 to 32
degrees should be maintained, while
to protect the trees 24 to 25 degrees
will be sufficient.
The heater used should be of a
type that will burn fuel cleanly, and
with no smoke. The idea that smoke
helps hold the temperature up has
been exploded, and smoke is termed
a waste and nuisance. The heaters
should be easily lit, and should burn
at an even rate. For a grove as large
as 10 acres Dr. Camp recommends
about 60 nine-gallon oil heaters per
acre, and for smaller groves from 80
to 100 heaters per acre. Coke heat-
ers should be used in proportionate
numbers depending on their fuel ca-
pacity. The heaters should contain
enough fuel to burn all night, as
night refueling is unsatisfactory.
By all means the grove should
have a number of specially cali-
brated and tested thermometers
scattered over it. These should be
placed on a stand about four or five
feet from the ground, and covered
with a small shelter. They should
be read with a flashlight, since
matches will heat them.
As to fuel, about 10 pounds of
coke, or 16 pounds of average wood
will equal one gallon of fuel oil in
heating value.

strength materials. When the pot-
ash is derived from muriate of pot-
ash instead of sulphate of potash
the same amount of plant food costs
about 24 percent less. Growers who
found they could make this change
have not found any difference in
tree or fruit response, and make a
saving of 24 percent in this part of
their fertilizer bill. Co-operative
buying of fertilizers by local or
county units has made a still further
reduction in cost and a bigger sav-
ing to the grower.


Advice Only Is All

Uncle Sam Can Give

In Rejection Cases

The United States Department of
Agriculture assumes no responsibil-
ity for the disposition of fruit in-
volved in a violation or complaint
of a violation of the perishable com-
modities act. Explanation of the De-
partment's position is made clear in
an official announcement issued re-
cently and which is reprinted here
for the benefit of Clearing House
The Department's announcement
reads as follows:
"In the enforcement of the Per-
ishable Agricultural Commodities
Act the department has no author-
ity to direct what disposition shall
be made of any lot of fruits or veg-
etables which is involved in a com-
plaint of violation of the act. Dur-
ing the preliminary investigation of
a complaint involving a rejected car
which is still on track it will be the
purpose of the department to as-
sist the parties involved in the con-
troversy in reaching a settlement
based on the terms of the contract.
This will be done through advising
the interested parties of the proper
interpretation of common trade
terms, grade specifications and tol-
erances, and court rulings on the
point of contracts under dispute.
"It is believed that most com-
plaints can be satisfactorily adjust-
ed by assistance of this kind. If such
-.ssistance does not result in an
amicable settlement the Department
of Agriculture can do nothing fur-
ther except receive the formal com-
plaint of violation of the act and
proceed as required by law. When
it becomes evident that settlement
cannot be reached by an exchange
of telegrams the owner should dis-
pose of the shipment in question ac-
cording to his best judgment with-
out awaiting any further action by
the department. Prompt action
should be taken in disposing of high-
ly perishable produce in order to
avoid unnecessary loss. A claim for
reparations for the loss sustained
may be filed with the department
along with the complaint of viola-
tion of the act.
"The department will make special
effort to handle promptly all com-
plaints involving cars on track. It
should be remembered however that
such cases frequently require con-
siderable time for collecting infor-
mation and exchange of telegrams,
and those making such complaints
must be prared, if such shipments
are not finally accepted, to assume
the risk of loss from deterioration
which may take place during the
time required for preliminary in-
vestigation. Whenever it is appar-
ent that a settlement cannot be
leached immediately, the products
in dispute should be disposed of and
the complaint filed for handling in
the regular Course."

November 10. 1930

Page 5


Net Returns

Auction Prices

All of our grower members have
available to them daily the actual
prices realized on Florida citrus
fruit at the various auctions. This
4s accurate information and covers
the actual net returns that Florida
growers will be getting as the result
of these daily sales.
Through Friday, Nov. 7, 1669
cars of grapefruit have been sold at
the various auction markets at a
general delivered average of $3.38.
One thousand one hundred nine cars
of Florida oranges have been simi-
larly sold at a general average of
$4.18 delivered. This means an av-
erage net tree return to the grow-
ers, all grades and sizes, of about
90c on grapefruit and $1.70 on or-
anges. During the past week the
auction average was $3.10 on grape-
fruit and $3.55 on oranges. This
means a net tree return of about
70c on grapefruit and $1.15 on or-
Nearly Half of Volume
These figures are important be-
cause they represent in grapefruit
slightly over 47% of the total ship-
ments and in oranges slightly over
44 %. The balance of the sales have
been what is known as private sales,
most of which were sold f. o. b. with
the average results from these pri-
vate sales being probably consider-
ably higher than the above auction
returns to date.

the crop by the daily auction infor-
mation which is furnished him by
the Department of Agriculture
through the courtesy of the Clear-
ing House. The amount to be de-
ducted to arrive at tree return va-
ries with each auction, with each
shipping point and, to a certain ex-
tent, with each grower, on account
of different picking and hauling ex-
penses. But an easy figure to use
as a differential is $2.50 as an ap-
proximate average that must be de-
ducted to arrive at the general net
tree return, this $2.50 covering
transportation, refrigeration, auc-
tion charges, marketing, packing,
hauling and picking, and varying
from possibly $2.25 to $2.75.
New York Is Best Market
On grapefruit the New York auc-
tion to date shows a general aver-
age of $3.50 delivered. Chicago
stand next at $3.34, then Boston
$3.27, Pittsburgh $3.25, Detroit
$3.24, St. Louis $3.23, Philadelphia
$3.22, Cincinnati $3.11, Cleveland
On oranges, New York also leads
with a general average to date of
$4.39 delivered, then Chicago $4.28,
Boston $4.22, Philadelphia $4.09,
Cleveland $4.06, Cincinnati $3.96,
Pittsburgh $3.90, St. Louis $3.79,
Detroit $3.69.
Those familiar with auction poli-
cies know that New York would
naturally have the highest average,
not because the market is higher on
the same grade and quality, but be-
cause a decidedly better than aver-
age grade and quality by custom
goes to New York, and the above
differences in seasonal prices to date
nret nt nopesanriliy a discrodi+ +n the

Our shipper members have assur- lowest priced market any more than
ed us that they are doing everything a credit to the highest priced mar-
possible to get the widest possible ket.
distribution and to make every pos-___
sible private sale, realizing as we all
do the necessity of maintaining auc- 1930-31 ADVERTISING
tion markets on as high a level as CAMPAIGN IN NORTH
supply and demand will permit be- GETTING UNDER WAY
cause these auction prices are public
property and tend to affect f. o. b. (Continued from Page One)
demand where the auction level is this means that every advertisement
lower than the private sale markets. published will be a direct sales ef-
For the purpose of maintaining fort. The advertising copy will not
an even supply of Florida citrus at be merely a "reminder" of the high
our leading auction markets, the quailty of Florida citrus, but will be
Clearing House has developed pro- a direct urge to the consumer to
rating committees at the most im- l'uy.
portant auction centers. These com- The copy from now until the mid-
mittees, appointed by the receivers die of December will stress the fact
or agents at destination, have been that there are available plenty of
authorized by our individual shipper small sized oranges reasonably
members and also by the Clearing priced which are excellent for juice.
House to prorate Florida citrus re- The copy will not contain any excess
ceipts in an even manner through- words but will be brief and straight
out each week. Daily wires are ex- to the point.
changed between the chairman of Conditions Will Help
each committee and the Clearing
House office, the chairman being in- Strategy, of course, is the basis
formed in detail of the number of of outlining the campaign in the
cars rolling to his particular market manner described above. California
by variety and by name of shipper oranges during the next six or seven
and this office being advised daily weeks will not be at their best for
the number of cars on track and they will be the first of the new
due, together with the number of navel crop, and as such will lack the
cars that will be offered tomorrow. flavor and sweetness which they will
How To Follow M gain later in the year. By convinc-
How To Follow Market ing the consumer during the next
Every grower has an opportunity six weeks that the Florida oranges
to know each day what happened are juicier and sweeter than any
the previous day on 40% to 50% of other orange on the market, it is

How Hernando Produces
Tangerines of Leading

(Radio Address Over WRUF, Oct. 8)
By J. H. LOGAN, County Agent
Hernando County is rightly known
as the "Home of the Tangerine" be-
cause in no other section of the
state do tangerines find a more suit-
able soil for their growth.
There is a strip of hammock land
about eight miles wide and eighteen
miles long running through the
county that is particularly adapted
to the growing of tangerines. The
majority of the soil is classed as a
Hernando Fine Sandy Loam. This
is underlaid with limestone and clay,
or a mixture of the two. The land
is all of a calcareous nature and has
a high mineral content. In a few
sections of the county the limestone
is so near the surface that it is nec-
essary to blast the holes with dyna-
mite before setting the trees.
Holds Moisture Well
This land has an abundance of
humus and plant food and holds
moisture well. This combination
makes for the production of quality
We are able to grow tangerines
and other citrus with very little
commercial fertilizer as compared to
other citrus sections of the state on
account of the natural fertility of
the soil and the nature of the sub-
About 98% of Hernando County
tangerines are Dancy tangerines,
budded on sour orange stock. Our
sour orange stock naturally pro-
duces fruit of a higher quality. The
tangerines are finer textured, have
less rag and are more juicy than
those grown on rough lemon stock.
They will keep on the trees and still
not become puffy until March, while
tangerines produced on rough lemon
stock usually have to be moved by
the first of January. Our surplus of
plant food and moisture produces
the larger sizes that always demand
a premium on the northern markets.
We have a natural growth of
cover crops in most of our groves of
beggarweed, crab grass and Mexican
clover that furnishes the necessary
amount of humus for the develop-
ment of the trees and fruit. A great
many of our groves are supplement-
ing these natural cover crops -with

hoped to obtain the support of the
consumer which will be retained
during the remainder of the season.
News and publicity articles, and
photographs which will be of inter-
est to newspaper editors throughout
the country, will supplement the ad-
vertising campaign. Last season the
publicity obtained-largely pictorial
-reached close to forty million
newspaper readers. Whether or not
this can be duplicated this year re-
mains to be seen, but N. W. Ayer &
Son, the Clearing House advertising
agency, has already begun work on
this important phase of the cam-

Crotalaria. One grower of the coun-
ty planted Crotalaria in his grove
four years ago. He has not used any
commercial fertilizer for two years
and is getting good crops of tange-
rines of excellent quality. His grove
is located on typical high hammock
land. He has cultivated very little
in that time and also has his grove
terraced to conserve his soil and
plant food.
Specialize In Tangerines
The growers of Hernando County
have been specializing in tangerines
for a long time and have been for-
tunate in having some outstanding
pioneer grove men to carefully se-
lect budwood and propagate from
their best trees, until we have gen-
erally what is considered the best
type of Dancy tangerine. This fact
is evidenced by the prices that we
have been getting for our tange-
rines. Hernando County tangerines
top the market 75% of the time.
According to the records of the
Florida Citrus Exchange, Hernando
County tangerines sold for 21 cents
more per box than the average of
the Sub-Exchange in which the
county is located.
We have what is considered the
champion tangerine grove of the
state, both as to quality and quanti-
ty of fruit produced and net profit
received. It is the grove of Hale
and Daniel, located seven miles
southeast of Brooksville. During the
season of 1923 and 1924 the fruit
from this 10-acre grove brought
$16,628.57 to the owners after pay-
ing picking, packing and hauling
charges. This is an all-time record
for a tangerine grove of the state.

Some Factors That

Effect Citrus Profits

(Radio Address Over WRUF, Nov. 8)
It is perfectly evident that profits
in the growing of citrus fruits con-
stitute the difference between cost
of production and marketing and
the income from sales. It is a long
step from the beginning of produc-
tion to the receipt of total monies
from sales and we know from sad
experience that many things can
happen during this interval. It is
my purpose to discuss some of these
things in a very brief way, realizing
that it requires volumes to cover
the subject completely. This discus-
sion is not based on any particular
statistics but is merely a statement
of facts that are evident.
The profit of the citrus grower is
determined by his savings in cost of
production as well as by his margin
from sales. We know that a "stitch
in time saves nine," but it is equally
possible to be "penny wise and
pound foolish." The grower can
carry his program of economy to a
point that ceases to be economy and
can be classed only as an expense.
Failure to spray when his trees are
being injured by insects or disease,
underfeeding, leaving deadwood in

Page 6

November 10, 1930




his trees and other forms of neglect
are practices that lower the yield of
good fruit and raise the production
cost per box.
A recent analysis of production
costs on more than 700 orange prop-
erties in California shows an aver-
age expenditure of $278 per acre in
1928 and $269 per acre in 1929.
These costs were up to picking. The
average yield of packed boxes on
these groves was 170 boxes per acre
During 1928 and 253 in 1929, mak-
ing the average production cost
$1.63 per box for 1928 and $1.07
for 1929. While no comparable data
are available it is safe to say that
the average production costs in
Florida for the same number of
groves and the same period would
Snot exceed $150.00 per acde and
the average cost per box would be
less than 75c.
With these figures before us it is
very evident that our cost of fruit
production as compared to that in
our sister state is very low, and
gives us a distinct advantage and
the necessity for rigid savings in our
grove operations to obtain profit or
prevent loss is not so apparent.
Now let us consider the profit as
represented by margin from sales.
The average sales price of our fruit
does not give us a satisfactory mar-
gin. In the same markets we see
the fruit from our sister state sell-
ing at a much higher average, al-
though we see some of our own fruit
bringing a very satisfactory price.
The question arises, "What are the
reasons for this wide variation and
low average?"
There are doubtless many reasons,
some of which are apparent and
others not so apparent. As the
speaker sees this situation, there is
a dual responsibility shared equally
by the grower and his sales agent.
The ideal situation is for the grower
to supply his sales agent with what
the market wants. Under these con-
ditions, the agent can get his price
for what he is selling. But if the
grower gives his agent something to
sell that the market does not want,
he must practice a degree of high
pressure, salesmanship .that we all
know from personal experience is
unsatisfactory and does not lead to
repeated sales.
It is very apparent that we as
growers have for quite some time
been supplying our sales agents'with
a grade of fruit that the market
does not want. We have been sup-
plying immature fruit. We have
been supplying fruit that is unat-
tractive in appearance and we have
been supplying fruit that shows
heavy decay and all of this has de-
veloped sales resistance.
A friend was staying at a board-
ing house in St. Louis. The lady in
charge served California oranges
each morning for breakfast. He
Sremonstrated and persuaded her to
buy Florida oranges. Before the or-
anges were used more than 20% of
them had to be thrown out on ac-
count of decay. The lady refused
to buy more Florida oranges on
this account.
Decays in Florida citrus fruits are

of two types. One arises from fungi
that get into the fruit while it is yet
on the tree, or comes from condi-
tions that exist in the tree. Stem
end rot, blossom end rot and an-
thracnose are examples of this type.
The other is caused by molds that
infect the fruit through minute in-
juries as a result of rough handling.
The first group is a responsibility of
the grower. Vigorous growing trees
free from deadwood do not harbor
these fungi. The second is the re-
sponsibility of the agent who picks,
packs and markets the fruit.
More than twenty years ago the
late Dr. Inman said: "Harvesting-
this is one of the most absorbing
topics of the day and demands the
most thorough and careful investi-
gation and thought followed by the
most energetic action upon the part
of every one engaged in the fruit in-
dustry. Our careless handling is
costing the state thousands, yea hun-
dreds of thousands of dollars each
year. I make the assertion that ful-
ly 90% of the Florida fruit that
arrives in the market in bad order
is attributed to careless clipping and
careless handling.
"All of us flatter ourselves that
we are taking extra pains and doing
better than our neighbors and if our
fruit does not reach its destination
in sound condition, the fault lies
with the transportation companies
and not with us. When if the truth
were known fully one-fourth of our
oranges are either punctured by the
clippers, scratched by the finger
rails or bruised by dropping, jam-
ming against the laddiers, pouring
into field boxes, the rough treatment
by teamsters and emptying and pil-
ing into the hoppers and falling
from the sizers into the bins."
From 1907 to 1910, the United
States Department of Agriculture,
through Floyd S. Tenny, now in Cal-
ifornia, and the late A. V. Stuben-
vauch conducted an intensive inves-
tigation of the causes of decay in
Florida fruit that resulted in a very
great improvement in the manner of
handling fruit by the growers and
shippers to prevent decay.
The- speaker believes that the
time is at hand for a repitition of
this work, making it sufficiently
broad to include a survey of all fac-
tors that prevent us delivering to
the market the high grade uniform
product that it demands and this
should be followed by "the most en-
ergetic action upon the part of
every one engaged in the fruit in-
dustry" to put the findings and rec-
cmmendations of this survey into
effect. With this accomplished the
work of our sales agents will not be
hampered and we can expect more
uniform and better prices that will
net the growers a profit.

In Need of Shoes
SNegro Rookie-"I'd like to have
a new pair of shoes, suh."
Sergeant-"Are your shoes worn
Negro Rookie-"Worn out! Man,
the bottoms of mah shoes are so
thin Ah can' step on a dime and tell
whether's it's heads or tails!"-Ex.

"Think For Ourselves"
Waverly, Fla.,
Oct. 18, 1930.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I have read several articles on ad-
vertising citrus fruits and have
heard a great deal of talk against
commodity advertising.
We are growing Florida oranges
and Florida grapefruit and we
should advertise as such. What is
better than a good ripe Florida or-
ange? It would be a credit to the
state also the industry to advertise
it as such.
I am in favor of at least 4c per
box through the Clearing House for
this purpose. The above 4c per box
to be spent when fruit is thoroughly
ripe, and none before, unless it is
spent to advertise green fruit.
If the shippers want to do any
brand advertising I'm sure there will
be no kick and will be money well
If we growers will stop for one
moment and think and not let the
other fellow think for us, it will be
but a short while before we will
have enough money to carry on all
the advertising that would be neces-
sary for this crop.
Yours truly,

Color And Quality
Crescent City, Fla.
October 31, 1930.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
I read with interest your recent
comments on mine with regards to a
25% color requirement on citrus
fruit, and while I agree with you as
to the different conditions here and
in California, I am still of the opin-
ion that we do not get the quality
in our fruit that we are continual-
ly kidding ourselves we have.
Take the conditions of the New
York market on Oct. 28: our aver-
age price was $3.82, California's
$7.80. Of course, our representative
men in the packing house interests
immediately tell us it is the small
sizes that are cutting our average.
California is shipping smaller
sizes than we are right at the pres-
ent time, and where our 324s are
bringing around $2.50 per box, their
344s are bringing near $6. It is
nothing but quality and the trouble
is we know what is the matter and
won't correct it.
For fifty years I have been a mer-
chant, and for forty I have had
more or less to do with citrus, and I
know that every merchant is wide
awake to the one fact, and that is,

you can't fool the public but once
on the same article.
The most ridiculous advertising I
know of is our continually advertis-
ing the superior quality of our pro-
duct, and then trying to market a
product that not one producer is one
hundred will eat himself or allow
his family to eat.
Just to show you how the public
feels about this I enclose a letter
from Robson & Son of Charleston
(reprinted below). It simply ex-
presses the sentiment of the people
of the whole United States.
I would like to have you give this
publication along with Robson &
Son's letter, and would like to have
comments from the 85% of mid-
season orange producers who are
not interested in packing house
Very truly yours,
(Signed) C. H. PRESTON.
Charleston, S. C.,
October 29, 1930.
Mr. C. H. Preston,
Crescent City, Fla.
Dear Sir:
Yours of the 28th duly received.
We note that your oranges are not
ready to ship just now. It would be
better to hold them back until they
are sweet, as there have been a good
many oranges shipped in here.that
really are not, and the trade is look-
ing for sweet oranges.
We wired you thinking you were
ready to ship, and would like to
have them as soon as the market is
in good condition. Good fruit is
bringing from $4.50 to $5.00 per
box, so you see that this kind of a
price would bring you out with a
good profit.
We will be pleased to have your
shipment whenever you are ready
to ship.
Yours very truly,
(Editor's Note-The Clearing
House will spend no money on ad-
vertising prior to Nov. 15, and that
only in the Southern markets. We
agree with Mr. Preston that Florida
growers must give quality much
more serious consideration before
Florida can compete with California
in color, brightness, freedom from
blemishes and general eye attrac-
tiveness. Florida's superior qualities
are hidden. California on the other
hand is shipping far sourer oranges
than Florida. California is not re-
quiring even the 8 to 1 test where
the fruit is not artificially colored,,
but the snappy cold nights together
with the warm days bring about
color which Florida never has early
in the season. It should be remem-
bered that auction prices are not
controlled by sales managers at this
/Continued on. Page Eight)

The Grower's Voice
Under this heading will be published communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who desire to voice opinions upon matters of
general interest to Florida citrus growers. The Association cannot, of course,
assume responsibility for the opinions expressed in these letters, but believes
growers should have the opportunity of expressing themselves if they are willing
to assume the responsibility. Communications should be as brief as possible-
preferably not more than 250 words in length-and MUST be signed with the
writer's name and address (although not necessarily for publication).

November 10, 1930 .

Page 7





Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control of dis-
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information daily.
Standardizing grade and pack through an impartial inspection
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and publicity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better understanding
among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters of com-
mon welfare.





t. Ogden
S Winter Park
Winter Garden
. Winter Haven
Mt. Dora


Grapefruit Canning
Problem Settled

The perplexing question of maturity of
fruit used in the early part of the season by
some of the canning plants has at last been
settled. Solution of the difficulty was arrived
at in a meeting of representatives of the Flor-
ida Grapefruit Canners Association, officials
of the Clearing House, Commissioner of Agri-
culture Nathan Mayo, O. G. Strauss, supervis-
ing inspector, and others, held at the Clear-
ing House headquarters Oct. 29.
The meeting was the result of considerable
agitation throughout the state, some of it be-
ing rather bitter, regarding leeway allowed
in handling grapefruit sent to the canneries.
The Committee of Fifty at its meeting in Or-
lando the latter part of October contended
that the maturity citrus law was being vio-
lated in that grapefruit was being sent to the
canneries direct from the groves and packing
houses without maturity inspection. The Com-
mittee of Fifty at this same meeting tele-
graphed Governor Carlton calling upon the
Chief Executive to see to it that the law be
enforced. This telegram resulted in the joint
Discussion of the problem at the joint meet-
ing finally revealed that much of the agita-
tion has been the result of misinformation.
Representatives of the Committee of Fifty at-
tending the joint meeting agreed that the
canners' attitude placed the matter in an en-
Stirely different light. Members of the Can-
ners' Association declared that they felt that

the present state maturity law covering fresh
citrus fruit has no real bearing on maturity
of fruit used by the canneries. It was further
brought out that the canning industry is dif-
ferent in that sugar is supplied to maintain a
uniform sugar content throughout the season,
and in addition the canneries are forced to
can fruit during the period when the flesh of
the fruit holds together solidly and does not
tend to separate or become mushy.
Judge S. L. Holland, counsel for the State
Agricultural Department, reviewed develop-
ments leading up to the creation of the pres-
ent law governing immature fruit. This was
done by a group known as the "Committee of
15" at a meeting in Orlando, March 9, 1929.
This committee made general recommenda-
tions and also laid out in detail many of the
ideas which later were incorporated in the
existing law. Of that Committee of 15 five
were members of the Clearing House Commit-
tee of Fifty, five were members of the Operat-
ing Committee, and five were grower-ship-
pers outside of the Clearing House selected
by Commissioner Mayo. At that meeting,
after formulating the basis of the new law, it
was recommended and agreed that nothing
be done then as to the scope of the law per-
taining to fruit going to the canneries.
Final action at the joint meeting was the
adoption of a motion that the joint committee
then in session go on record as backing Com-
missioner Mayo in continuing to handle the
cannery fruit problem as in the past. Among
those attending the joint meeting were: Com-
missioner Mayo, O. G. Strauss, supervising in-
spector; A. M. Turnbull, E. H. McDonald,
Judge Holland; Directors J. C. Chase, J. A.
Griffin and Dr. E. C. Aurin of the Clearing
House; Manager A. M. Pratt, A. H. Blanding,
L. P. Kirkland and L. Maxcy of the Clearing
House Operating Committee; J. C. Merrill,
W. F. Glynn, J. G. Grossenbacher and F. E.
Brigham of the Committee of Fifty; C. E.
Street, Bradenton, president; Alec Stott,
Clearwater; M. M. Slaton, Winter Haven;
Roy G. Lucks, Tampa; E. G. Pierce, all rep-
resenting the Canners' Association, and B.
Kilgore of the West Coast Fruit Co. Mr.
Alfred M. Tilden, president of the Clearing
House presided.

"Eat More Fruit"
The Atlantic National Bank of Jacksonville,
one of the state's strongest financial institu-
tions, carries the line "Eat More Grapefruit
:and Oranges" in all of its newspaper adver-
tising. The Atlantic National has set a splern-
did example for other business institutions to
follow. Florida should keep that thought
constantly before its citizens and the thous-
ands of visitors who come into the state every
winter.--Ocala Star.

First-Hand Data On

Florida Obtained By

Louisiana Officials
Louisiana's quarantine against
Florida, a restriction that affects at
least 75% of our shipments into
that state, may be lifted in the near
This was indicated last week when
a party of Louisiana growers and
state officials, headed by the Louis-
iana Agricultural Commissioner and
the State Entomologist, made a sur-
vey in Florida to determine whether
or not Florida is as free from infes-
tation danger as the federal govern-
ment has announced. The party ar-
rived at Gainesville Nov 6, and after
conferring with Dr. Wilmon Newell,
plant commissioner, and others, be-
gan a motor tour through the heavy
producing citrus sections. Primarily
the tour was to ascertain accurate-
ly how well the government's quar-
antine regulations relative to grove
clean-up are being obeyed. The
visitors indicated their satisfaction
with conditions as they saw them.
Ordinarily Louisiana uses only a
few hundred cars of Florida citrus,
last season's shipments being about
four hundred cars with an estimated
movement of about five hundred
cars for the current season. The
Louisiana quarantine includes some
fifteen parishes extending a little
north of New Orleans and east and
west of the same city. Baton Rouge
also lies within the quarantine area,
leaving Shreveport as the only
Louisiana market of any conse-
The Louisiana delegation was en-
tertained Nov. 7 at Winter Haven
by officials of the Clearing House,
as well as state officials who accom-
panied the visitors on the survey
trip. Included in the visiting dele-
gation were the following: H. D.
Wilson, Commissioner of Agricul-
ture; W. E. Anderson, State Ento-
mologist; Mr. Davis, Mr. Comman-
der, Mr. Shullenberg, Judge Perez.


(Continued from Page Seven)
end or what is thought of generally
as salesmanship. Auction prices rep-
resent the highest bids received
from the auction bidders, based on
what these bidders consider resale
value to their customers. Keeping
qualities is another important factor
in determining auction prices).

Agrees With Mr. Magley
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association,
I wish to say very emphatically
that Mr; H. L. Magley under the
caption "Halt the green fruit" in
your Sept. 25 issue, voices my sen-
timents exactly. I wanted to say
what he said but he knew how bet-
ter than I did.
Yours very truly,

November 10, 1930

Page 8

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