Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00042
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: June 25, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text


Scoo' o NcOS'
R n rn th an 10,000
oClkP' ooa .ngiC and Grapefruit N

Sec. 435%, P. L. & R.
U. S. Postage
Ic. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 11


Official Publication

of the


10 Cents a Copy JUNE 25, 1930 Volume 1I
$2.00 a Year JUNE 25, 1930 Number 18

Clearing House Is Aiding in State-Wide Eradication Program

Gov. Carlton


"In view of the optimistic an-
nouncement made recently by
Arthur M. Hyde, Secretary of Ag-
riculture, to the effect that he
Hopes to see the quarantine regu-
lations appreciably modified by
the end of the summer months, I
would like to take this opportuni-
ty of urging the citrus growers of
Florida to lend every possible ef-
fort to co-operate with the Fed-
eral forces to the end that we can
declare ourselves free of the Med-
iterranean fruit fly.
"I have just been informed that
the Florida Citrus Growers Clear-
ing House Association has under-
taken to use its many resources
to help make the eradication cam-
paign now starting one hundred
percent effective. The Clearing
' House has even gone so far as to
offer to distribute, free of cost,
the spray materials which will be
.used by the various county or-
ganizations formed for the pur-
1 pose of fighting the fly.
"In my opinion such an inten-
sive campaign as is now getting
under way is quite likely to re-
sult in the final eradication of the
-pest, and hence bring about the
lifting of all or most of the exist-
ing federal quarantines by next
'winter. I hope that every citizen
of Florida will put his shoulder
to the wheel in this movement
for, by so doing, I firmly believe
that we can bring this harrassing
era to an end, and by this coming
fall face a really bright future
'that will in actuality be standing
on our doorstep."


This issue of the "News" is the
long-anticipated Committee of Fifty
The Committee of Fifty has had
in mind, during the past several
weeks, the issuance of a special
number of the "News," the contents
of which would be prepared largely
by members of the organization, and
a number, at the same time, that
would treat of various phases of the
citrus industry and the Clearing
House as well, from the viewpoint
of the grower. And so here is the
Five of the articles contributed
are devoted to as many phases of
the production of citrus fruit, while
two other articles are concerned
with the Clearing House and some
of its activities. Mr. J. G. Grossen-
bacher, member of the Committee
of Fifty, living in Plymouth, and a
member of the original Committee
of Fifty that organized the Clearing
House more than two years ago, has
contributed an interesting article in
which he tells something of how to
produce quality fruit. Mr. Grossen-
bacher's article tells what quality
fruit is and also gives a brief de-
scription of the fundamentals in
fertilization and the control of
Dr. James Harris, of Lakeland,
also a member of the Committee of
Fifty and one of the incorporators
of the Clearing House, has written
on a subject that he is well qualified
to discuss. Dr. Harris' article is
entitled, "My Loyalty and Duty to
My Organization-the Clearing
House." This article briefly but
forcefully admonishes the grower-
members of the Clearing House to
bear in mind the importance of
their retaining the fundamentals in
the functions given the Association
to perform. Dr. Harris also points
out the importance of the selection
by the growers themselves of strong
and faithful members of the Com-
mittee of Fifty, which group hasthe

responsibility of nominating grow-
ers for the Clearing House Board of
Mr. F. M. O'Byrne, Lake Wales,
who like Mr. Grossenbacher and Dr.
Harris, has been a member of the
Committee of Fifty since its crea-
tion, has contributed an article on
stock and budwood selection. "Pat"
as he is popularly known, has had
a wide and varied experience in the
growing end, and he "knows his cit-
rus" from all angles. In this arti-
cle he tells of the variety of opin-
ions among growers in the matter
of selection of budwood, explaining,
also, the importance of selecting
nursery trees with great care and
with adherence to variety upper-
most in mind.
Mr. F. G. Moorhead, of DeLand,
a member of the Clearing House
Board of Directors and a member
of the original Committee of Fifty,
has contributed a rather pointed
article on the necessity of the
grower watching the details of his
picking. Mr. Moorhead's article has
a humorous touch to it, but it is
humor with a basis of common-
sense behind it.
R. H. Prince, the Terra Ceia mem-
ber of the Committee of Fifty, has
contributed an interesting article
concerning sub-irrigating in the
Manatee section. Mr. Prine has
grown citrus fruit in the Florida
Ridge Section, as well as in the
northern part of the state, and he
has accumulated no end of experi-
ence and information. What he has
to say about sub-irrigation, which
is an almost exclusive Manatee sec-
tion practice, is well worth reading,
for he describes in detail how the
work is done and what it costs. In-
cidentally, he concludes his article
with the terse comment: "and it is
worth it."
Mr. C. P. Zazzali, of Lakeland
member of the first Committee of
(Continued on Page Three)

Distributing Spray

Materials Free to

All Citrus Growers

Counties Are Being Organized
As Units, Committee of 50
Men Helping Agents

The Mediterranean fruit fly and
the quarantine regulations are
An intensive eradication cam-
paign through the Florida citrus
belt has just been started and prac-
tically every county in both Zones
2 and 3 has either organized or is
planning to organize immediately to
carry on the fight. The Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation, with the approval of the
Federal Fruit Fly Board, the State
Plant Board, and the State Exten-
sion Division, is helping in the or-
ganization work, and has even un-
dertaken to supply the new copper
carbonate bait spray material free
of cost to every grower in the state.
On County-wide Basis
The campaign being undertaken
will be made on a county-wide basis,
the county agent or some other
designated official supervising the
work. Considerable interest and
enthusiasm has been manifested all
over the state, Manatee County for
instance, although in Zone 3, being
the first county to organize. Several
other counties are giving Manatee
a run for her money. Lake County
also has organized and is ready to
receive the spray material, and Ma-
rion, Hillsborough, Volusia, Polk
and Brevard are now organizing
and will be ready to receive their
spray materials within a few days.
Decision to inaugurate such a
campaign followed closely the issu-
ance of a statement, the middle of
this month, by Arthur M. Hyde, Sec-
retary of Agriculture, who express-
ed the hope that the quarantine reg-
(Continued on Page Two)

Don't Forget The Annual Clearing House Meeting July 8th at Winter Haven


The Production

Of Quality Fruit

(Member of Committee of Fifty, in Plymouth)

Every citrus grower hopes to grow It is a well known fact that culti-
fruit of high quality, but as an actual vation stimulates growth of both
fact only a small percentage of us trees and fruit, and that an isolated
attain the desired results. There is or neglected tree produces fruit with
no doubt, however, that the highest eating quality far superior to that
quality always pays a good profit grown on a fully cultivated grove.
even in so-called "bad years." Those However, it is also true that the
with groves in zone one, the past yield on neglected trees is compara-
season, know what it is to be most tively light and if the soil is very
grievously disappointed in the mat- poor the production is extremely
ter of fruit quality. That forces the low. It seems to me that such ob-
statement that at times low grade servations, that may be verified by
fruit is produced even with the best any grower of citrus fruit, do point
efforts of a grower, to a lesson in growing fruit of un-
Yet there are methods of grow- usually high eating quality. My sug-
ing fruit that are more likely to re- gestion is to reduce the cultivation
suit in high percentage of good qual- in a bearing grove to a minimum or
ity than others. omit it entirely during the spring
and early summer. In groves where
Taste And Appearance the tree-spread covers nearly all the
It is of importance to keep in ground, irrigation is necessary, but
mind the fact that there are two younger trees do very well without
phases of fruit quality, the appear- it, and produce a good normal crop
phases of fruit quality, the ap every year if a little more fertilizer
ance and feel of the rind, and the e i customary with trees
flavor and character of the pulp. So is used than is customary with trees
flavor and character of the pulp. So intensive cultivation.
both the looks and the eating quality getting intensive cultivation.
of the fruit enter into the determi- Organic Ammonia Reduced
nation of its price in the market, After a grove has been run two
even though our packing house or three years with a minimum of or
grading is based wholly upon the no cultivation during the growing
character of the rind. .season, one can profitably reduce
Aside from the varietal character- the percentage of organic ammonia
istic, the appearance and feel of the in the fertilizer and thus save
rind depend chiefly upon the rela- enough on costs to overcome the
tive rankness of growth and free- slightly increased amounts per tree
dom from pest and mechanical dam- over that of a cultivated grove.
age. It is therefore evident that in However, non-cultivated groves need
order to produce fruit of the desired to be mowed from two to three times
rind quality the growth rate must per season, and be thoroughly tilled
not be allowed to be too rapid and in late fall to work in some of the
the pests and diseases affecting it in accumulated covercrop and elimi-
any way must be controlled and pre- nate fire danger.
vented as completely as that is prac- The rind of the fruit should be
ticable. The rate of tree and fruit fully protected from rust mite dam-
growth are dependent largely upon age and from melanose and scab
the type of soil, the relative avail- where these troubles usually occur.
ability of moisture, the amount and In addition trees should be treated
kind of fertilizer used, and the fre- for ammoniation or dieback when
quency of cultivation given during fruit or tree show distinctive indica-
the growing season, tion of the presence of this malady.
Ammoniation marks not only af-
Proportion of Bases fect the appearance of fruit but also
Since the ammonia used in the reduce its eating and keeping qual-
fertilizer has the most marked in- ity to a point where the per box
fluence on the growth rate, that price will show very little if any
should be most critically controlled. profit. Besides, after the disease has
That is the reason why I'm strong become serious the loss from split-
for the present fertilizer law that ting, rotting and dropping in the
would compel the manufacturers not grove often amounts to nearly half
only to state what materials are put the crop. The treatment for this
into a fertilizer mixture but guaran- trouble is simple and very effective.
tee the amounts of the various ma- It consists in spreading or sowing
trials used. In most high-pine bluestone widely around affected
groves the relative amounts of or- trees in amounts proportionate to
ganic and inorganic ammonia in a the size of the trees. A five- to eight-
fertilizer should be about equal, year-old tree should usually be given
while on the richer or lower soils about two pounds sown evenly in a
more inorganic materials can be circular band about four feet wide
used with profit. When trees have just outside the branches. Fifteen-
set a heavy crop it is especially im- year trees should have about three
portant that most of the inorganic pounds, larger trees from four to
ammonia in the formula be derived six pounds according to size. This
from nitrate- of soda -in .o6der- that treatment preferably should be
the sizes be as large as possible. given in late fall or early winter to

be sure to act on the next crop set
on such trees.
Easy To Control Rust Mite
The control of rust mite is very
easy and usually not expensive. It
consists of dusting the trees with a
finely ground or sublimed sulphur.
In this connection. it is well to keep
in mind the fact that it is the sul-
phur and not the foreign matter or
adulterant that does the killing, and
also that the degree of fineness de-
termines the amount of sulphur that
will adhere to the tree. The rate of
fuming on trees is proportional to
the temperature and the degree of
fineness of the dust. The presence
of lime in the dust reduces its fum-
ing rate.
Growers having a small acreage
of bearing grove, and having a
power sprayer find the use of lime-
sulphur solution most profitable, be-
cause one application of this solu-
tion diluted at the rate of one gal-
lon to about seventy gallons of water
protects fruit from rust about twice
as long as an application of sulphur
The first sulphur treatment should
be given in early May even though
the mite does not appear to be very
numerous at the time. That also
kills red spiders and some scale
crawlers that may be present, and
at the same time rains are not likely
to wash off the dust before it has
had three or four days action on the
pests. The second application of
dust should be given in late June,
while lime-sulphur spraying need
not be repeated until July. The dust
treatment in June must be repeated
within a week in case rain hits it be-
fore three full days have elapsed.
The repeated dose, however, gives
you the control even though it rains
again within a few hours.
The time for scab and melanose
prevention is past for this season
and therefore need not be discussed
Watch Underside of Leaves
The control of scale and white fly
is usually most profitably done in
fall with oil emulsions diluted about
one to fifty. The most important
point about this treatment is that
most of these pests are on the un-
derside of the leaves, and they are
not killed unless they are fully cov-
ered with the spray. To check up
your spray crew, turn up grapefruit
leaves to see what percentage are
wetted underneath. Unless they wet
ninety-five percent the job is not
worth doing. A good scale and white
fly control relieves trees of a strong
drain of vitality just like removing
ticks from cattle.
When your trees are loaded extra
heavy you can improve your grade
materially by thinning the crop in
July. By this procedure you rid the
trees of all scarred, mis-shapen and
scabby fruit and at the same time
lighten the load to such an extent
that your trees have a much better
chance to come back with a good
crop the following season. At it is
often difficult to obtain good sizes
in years of extra heavy yield thin-
ning will add materially to the per
box price on account of increased

(Continued from Page One)
ulations may be modified for the
movement of the coming crop. Sec-
retary Hyde further declared that
the success of the eradication work,
on which hinges any modification of
regulations that may be promul-
gated, will depend almost entirely
upon the degree of co-operation
given the federal forces by growe-s
and shippers of Florida. According
to Clearing House officials, this
means that Florida must bear prac-
tically the entire cost of all eradica-
tion work done; the federal forces
having funds sufficient only for in-,
spection work, with an emergency
appropriation held in reserve to be
used only in dangerous outbreaks of
Program Decided Upon
A meeting was held recently at
Orlando, attended by County
Agents, of many of the citrus pro-'
ducing counties, chairmen of the
Board of County Commissioners of
some of the counties, Executive
Committee members of the Clearing
House Committee of Fifty, and rep-
resentatives of the Federal Fruit
Fly Board and the State Extension
Division. It was at this meeting that
the bait spray program outlined by
the Department of Agriculture, was
endorsed and the decision reached,
to organize all of the counties in
both the eradication and zone three
areas. W. C. O'Kane, Chairman of
the Federal Fruit Fly Board, an-
nounced at this time that his board
was organizing a bait spray section,
whose advisory services would be
immediately available to the county
A statement issued by the Clear-
ing House and which has been dis-
tributed to the county agents and
other officials throughout the citrus
area, included suggestions for han-,
dling a state-wide spray program,
as well as suggestions for organiz-
ing county campaign groups. "The
Federal Fruit Fly Board suggests at'
the present time a minimum of two
spray applications," the Clearing
House statement says. "It may be
necessary to increase this number
if weather conditions are unfavor-
able or as new discoveries of infer-,
tation or other unforeseen events
occur. This state-wide bait spray-
ing program organized by the indi-
vidual county units meets with the
approval of the Federal Fruit Fly
Board, the State Plant Board of
Florida, the Extension Division and
with this endorsement, is cheerfully
sponsored by the Clearing House."
The plan of organizing individual'
county units as suggested by the
Clearing House, calls on members
of the Clearing House Committee of
Fifty to make of themselves thek
nucleus of the county committee.
The county committee, it is sug-

size alone. This operation is especial-
ly profitable for medium and small
bearing trees; and most particularly
for tangerine and pineapple oranges
on high-pine land:


Pare 2



June 25, 1930


They Were Forced Into This!

. .. ....

,. .--

v~- .* -

The Packing House Managers pictured above vention. Many of the Managers remained at the
were snapped by the Clearing House photographer convention headquarters, preferring to "chew the
while on their motor trip through the Ridge Section rag" with their new and old acquaintances to tak-
to the Bok Tower during the Clearing House con- ing a trip through a section long familiar to them.

gested, then obtains the approval of
their program from the county com-
missioners and in this way becomes
,the unofficial Plant Board of their
county. Division of the county into
districts is suggested with certain
points decided upon to which spray
,materials may be delivered. Many
of the local districts probably will
be organized around packing houses,
the packing house managers lending
their assistance to the committees
wherever possible.
Clearing House officials have ex-
pressed themselves as confident that
the program will be given whole-
hearted support throughout the cit-
'vus areas. Despite the fact that
there are many growers in the state
who have never believed that the fly
,existed, it is generally felt that
everything possible will be done to
force the federal government to
modify the quarantine regulations,
it was pointed out.

S (Continued from Page One)
Fifty, is convinced that it does pay
to irrigate in Florida. Mr. Zazzali
lends considerable weight to his ar-
gument by citing his own experi-
ences wherein irrigation paid him
-well. Some of his neighbors, upon
seeing his irrigation system, wanted
to know why it was necessary to in-
stall a "water works system." Mr.
Zazzali has found his answer, he
says, in healthy trees and good
.crops of excellent quality fruit.
Mr. W. H. Mouser, recently re-
"elected chairman of the Operating
aCommittee, presents some unusually
interesting facts relative to the dis-
tribution and sale of perishable
products. Mr. Mouser has been in
the selling part of the business for
many years, both in California and
,Florida, and his article will answer

Grower Supervision

Of Picking Gang

(Member of Clearing House Board of Directors, in DeLand)

After the average grower has
worked all the year to produce a
crop of fruit and reaches the place
where it is time to pick and ship his
crop, he naturally feels that he has
accomplished his purpose and then
his troubles are over and in a short
space of time he will be walking up
and down the shady side of easy
street. This is not altogether true
as in many cases his troubles are
just starting.
When the time to pick and ship
the fruit has arrived, he calls on the
packing house manager and is in-
formed that Mr. Jones and his gang
will be on the job at 7 a. m. the fol-
lowing day. If the weather is good
the men begin to come in any where
from 7 to 7:30 and generally get to
the grove where they are to work at
8 or 8:30. After reaching the grove
they unload the ladders and boxes,
and if the weather is cool they have

the questions many growers prob-
ably have asked themselves, their
neighbors, or their own packing
house managers.
Mr. John D. Clark, of Waverly,
also one of the original members of
the Committee of Fifty, has con-
tributed an article upon the neces-
sity of increasing consumer-demand
for Florida citrus by means of an
adequate advertising program. Mr.
Clark presents .the question in a
striking and forceful manner and
with many new angles

to build a fire and warm up for a
while. If the weather is warm they
park under a shade tree and get
some one to fan them for a while.
During all this time the pay of the
foreman is going on and if the
grower has his own team and truck
on the job they are only marking
time and using up money at the
grower's expense.
Now the gang foreman, while of
considerable importance, has no
power to start operations. The pick-
ers work by the box which is the
proper way to pick fruit and gen-
erally start and stop when they feel
so disposed.
After all the preliminaries have
been disposed of, the leading mem-
ber of the gang yells out a com-
mand, "Come on boys, let's cut 'em,"
and here is where the work of de-
struction begins. They slam the
ladders into the trees with such
force that much damage is done and
as they go up and down the ladders
they walk on the branches which
does some more damage, then, by
holding the branches from which
they are picking the fruit, some one
or two feet above the mouth of the
bag and clipping the fruit and al-
lowing it to fall from three to four
feet, a little more damage is done.
When they scramble back to earth
with a bag full of fruit, for fear it
might reach the market in good con-
dition, they place the end of the
bag in the box and jerk the bag with
all the power in their make-up and

send the fruit to the bottom with
such force that one must wonder
how fruit can stand such rough
handling and reach any market in
sound condition. In many cases it
does not, and the greater portion of
our losses are due to carelessness
and rough handling in the grove.
You also will find, if you remain on
the job, clipper cuts, long stems,
plugged fruits, and rotten drops in
some of the boxes and any where
from two to twenty plugged fruits
under most any tree you examine.
This, however, would apply to tan-
garines more than to other varie-
ties. When you find that you are
about to be put out of business on
account of improper work, you call
on the gang foreman for help,
which you generally fail to get,
since the foreman wants to be nice
to his men so that he can keep a
fairly good-sized gang, and when
any question comes up he generally
leans to the pickers and allows the
grower's interest to suffer.
During the past season when or-
ders were issued to clean up and re-
main so, and were in force, a fore-
man was known to allow men to eat
fruit in the grove and instead of
placing the refuse in a box as per
orders, they were allowed to scratch
a hole in the ground and bury them,
the worst thing that could be done
in case of the presence of flies.
We still have the teamster who
hauls in the boxes and hauls out the
fruit to the loading place where the
truck can get in. This member is
generally a big, husky chap who
cares for nothing except Sunday,
Saturday and pay day. First, he puts
on a wide, high load of empty boxes
and forces his way down the rows;
the sides of the load scrape the trees
and other branches drag on the top
of the load. The wheels run over
some of the low branches and scrape
the bark off of others, and when un-
loading the boxes he throws them
into the lower portion of the trees
and does all the damage possible.
Then in loading the fruit he finds
some boxes too full, and in many
cases does not attempt to place the
fruit so as to prevent mashing, which
to my mind is the greatest source of
damage we have to contend with,
and last but probably not the least
of the damage done, every time he
turns a corner he cuts in to the tree
at such places and does much dam-
age to branches in all cases and to
the roots where the same track is
used for a long time.
Now, Mr. Grower, if you disagree
with me on anything I have said,
please live in your grove during one
packing season and check up on my
statements and if you fail to find
just what I have found in following
my picking, I shall be glad to hear
from you. If your work is being
done in a better manner than out-
lined above, you are to be congrat-
ulated on efficiency. The grower is
the most important member of the
picking force provided he is one who
can lay down iron-clad rules and has
the courage to enforce them. If he
can do neither he should have a
guardian to take over his affairs,
who can protect his interest.

June 25, 1930


Paere 3

Page 4


Who's Going To Pay

The Bill This Year?

(Member Committee of Fifty. in Waverly)

Perhaps the most difficult part of
attempting to write an article is
getting it started, at any rate I find
it so now as I try to concentrate on
writing this little article on adver-
I am addressing this message, for
I hope it may turn out to be such,
to the citrus growers of our state.
It is quite an impressive audience
of some ten thousand men and
women, we are told, and I am quite
happy to add that while you are on
most occasions the "audience," still
it you choose you can also be a
court of final resort. This is true
because in the Exchange and the
Clearing House the growers have a
medium through which they can act
and speak.
I think it would be quite unusual
to expect a grower to write an in-
telligent article dealing with adver-
tising as a topic by itself; certainly
I do not consider myself competent
to attempt it but I do know, in com-
mon with every one else, that mod-
ern merchandising is impossible
without advertising, and I know fur-
ther if there is one thing Florida
needs above all else it is a modern
merchandising program for the mar-
keting of her citrus crop.
What a wonderful word merchan-
dising is. It is the chain linking
your grove with the consumers of
the nation. What kind of a chain
have we here in Florida linking us
with the markets of America? Are
there some links that are missing?
How many of them are built to
stand the strain of volume produc-
tion such as is facing us the coming
It doesn't take an expert to look
over our marketing machine to find
the weak spots; all you need is a
historian. Every time nature smiles
on Florida with a normal crop of
citrus the grower faces disaster. If
there ever was a challenge to the in-
telligence of a people it certainly is
aimed unmistakably at the citrus
growers of Florida.
Why is it a challenge? Because
we have a potential market for
every orange and every grapefruit
that Florida can produce, but we
haven't as yet demonstrated the in-
telligence to find that market or
even to take care of it after we
have found it.
I might devote the balance of this
article proving the truth of these
statements if they needed proof.
But any man who is trying to make
a living growing citrus in Florida
has had a very practical demonstra-
tion every time we have what we
call a good crop.
Most naturally you ask: what
breaks down about the machine?
What happens to the hundred and
more marketing organizations co-
operative and independent? Do

they give up and close their doors?
Well hardly; on the contrary they
generally at such times run to ca-
pacity and at a rate in fact that
staggers a market that they forgot
to enlarge and stimulate in antici-
pation of the volume they were
forced to handle, and demoraliza-
tion follows just as surely as night
follows day-and always will until
something is done about it before
it happens instead of talking about
it after the disaster.
Take the coming season as an ex-
ample, just what is being done now,
or what has been done so far by all
or any of these hundred or more
marketing agencies to prepare for
the job ahead? They are not for-
getting to provide several new pack-
ing houses, when we already have
more than necessary. If getting the
fruit packed was our problem we
might find room to thank them for
their forethought.
At such times our problem is try-
ing to get a fifteen or eighteen mil-
lion box market to absorb success-
fully a twenty to a twenty-five mil-
lion box crop and it cannot be done.
The remedy is either to pack and
ship what the market will success-
fully take and junk the balance, or
build a market for the crop you
have and intelligently regulate your
supplies to it.
In order to do these things you
must have an industry that is or-
ganized and, further, you must have
leaders to guide this organized in-
dustry so that the industry is made
profitable to the people who are
basicly interested, which in our case
is the grower.
While we are not yet organized
here in Florida as we should be, or
as we will be some day, still we
have the machinery to solve the
major problem of finding this mar-
ket and controlling it if we as grow-
ers insist or even suggest it be done.
Now we don't have to tell the
world about Florida fruit, we sim-
ply have to remind the world about
it. The world is very forgetful. It
can use something else and does if
you allow it to forget about Florida
How that word advertising is
abused. The printed page is only
one form. After what we have been
through the nation needs to be re-
minded sharply of Florida fruit and
the wholesale and retail machinery
of the nation must be retuned by
personal contacts. We have these
things to do if the coming crop is
to be marketed with profit to the
Advertising-how it scares some
people, and yet it is the very life
blood of business and always has
been even before there was such a
thing as a newspaper or magazine;
they simply furnish another means

for advertising and are wonderfully
effective if properly tied in with a
well rounded program of dealers-
service work and proper identifica-
tion of the product.
These leaders, so-called, who are
being paid to lead and paid well
should have advised you and me on
this subject; should guide us with
sound and honest advice. Have
they? In one quarter the air is
fouled by injecting the question of
brand advertising against commod-
ity advertising. In another we are
told the shippers will withdraw from
the Clearing House if the retain is
more than two cents per box.
I sometimes wonder how much
longer it is going to take to bring
to us the realization that one of the
greatest needs in Florida is capable
and fearless leadership in the citrus
Some way must be found to pro-
vide an adequate advertising fund
to help sell Florida fruit the coming
year. How large depends on the
size of the crop. But it must be
adequate. The job cannot be done
unless enough is provided to do it
The general average of prices
might be raised a dollar per box
next year, which would mean mil-
lions to growers of this state.
Florida fruit has never had a real
chance. It never has been ade-

quately or consistently advertised
and do you know in spite of the
large crop ahead less is being pro-
vided for advertising this year than
ever before?
As growers, should we remain
silent with price and market disas-
ter staring us in the face?
It is time we found our voice, and
that voice should be heard speaking
through our grower organization
with a broad vision that looks up-
ward and with fearlessness that
says, Onward!
Remember all Florida fruit must
be sold no matter who grows it or
who brands it, and whether or not
we are able to sell it profitably de-
pends on a national program of
merchandising, visioned to sell all
of Florida fruit, not simply one or
two brands of it.
Can it be done? Of course it can
be done. That is one of the prin-
cipal reasons for organizing the
Clearing House so this job could be
done. But it cannot be done on a,
two-cent retain. Make no mistake
about that.
If Florida fruit is advertised as
it should be the consumers of Flor-
ida fruit will pay for it. But if
Florida fruit is not advertised the
growers of Florida will pay for it.
That's history and it is going to re-
peat itself unless something is done
about it.

Does It Pay to Irrigate

Groves in Florida?

(Former Member Committee of Fifty, in Lakeland)

Yes, if you have the equipment
necessary to assure the required vol-
ume of water at the highest point in
your grove.
In the spring of 1922, after a dry
and warm winter, we had a very
good bloom on our citrus trees, but
as the spring advanced the dropping
of fruit kept increasing. I noticed
that on the trees of our home grove
in Lakeland, which we could reach
with a garden hose, the fruit held
well. But on trees in other groves
which I could not water in this way,
the dropping was very heavy.
I began to investigate and to ask
the advice of growers who had been
here long before I came to Florida.
To my surprise nine out of ten told
me that irrigation in Florida had
been a failure, that it is a waste of
money and time to install irrigation
Un-watered Trees Drop Fruit
But as the fruit kept dropping
from the trees not being watered,
and on the trees that were having
water from the garden hose the
fruit was holding well, I decided to
go ahead and install irrigation on
my Bowling Green grove of 80 acres
of the largest seedling trees of the
state, also on 30 acres of budded
trees on Crystal Lake, near Lake-
When I tried to find an engineer

or a contractor for the job, none
were available. So I began the work
myself. I bought two gasoline en-
gines in Richmond, Va., centrifugal
pumps in New York City, and hunt-
ed for some days for pipes, valves,
etc. Fortunately, I discovered that
the Daniels shipyards at Tampa,
which had been doing a lot of work
for the government, were being dis-
mantled. There I found all that I
needed to carry out my plans, and I
got laborers and went to work. In
ten days we had water on the grove
and the trees. This was eight years
My plant at Bowling Green pumps
60,000 gallons an hour to the high-
est point in the grove. The soil in
this grove is heavy. I use the fur-
row system and irrigate by gravita-
tion, and by having outlets every
150 feet it saves time and unnecesr
sary erosion.
The news of the installation of
this irrigation plant traveled fast,
and those who had advised me not
to put it in were surprised at what
they saw. "You have not installed.
an irrigation plant, but a city water
works," they said. They had ari-
rived at the very reason that other
plants had failed. They did not have
the equipment to carry the water
necessary to get results.
The first crop of my Bowling
Green grove after irrigation was one


June 25, 1930



(President W. H. Mouser & Co., Chairman Clearing House Operating Committee)

"Distribution" is a word frequent-
ly used by those concerned with the
welfare and advancement of any
perishable crop and a subject which
has come in for considerable discus-
sion in Florida.
In considering distribution, it al-
ways must be kept in mind that
good and proper distribution of a
perishable product is a far different
proposition from good and proper
distribution of a manufactured
This is because the real job of
the man directing the sales of a per-
ishable product is to market or dis-
tribute it in the way which will re-
sult in the highest average prices,
working under conditions which
mean fluctuating prices in different
parts of the country-conditions
over which he has no control-
weather being probably the most
On the other hand, the sales man-
ager handling the marketing and dis-
tribution of a manufactured article
works under definite and established
value or selling price and his job is
to dispose of the output of the fac-
tcry or to increase sales so as to
justify an increase of manufactur-
ing facilities.
In other words, the job in selling
or distributing the non-perishable is

of the best I had ever had, and the
increase over other conditions more
than paid for the labor and invest-
ment. My advice to those who have
this sort of thing in mind is to see
a good engineer, have him lay out the
plans and survey the lands so as to
have the outlets at the proper places
and sufficient volume of water to
reach the trees and the feeder roots
with ample moisture.
In lighter soil I believe the over-
head system might be better and
give more satisfactory results. After
any plant is installed, it should be
checked over at least once a month
to see that it is in shape to give the
service anticipated when needed.
I have plans and specifications for
irrigating my 50-acre grove at Polk
Lake and expect to have the equip-
ment in at an early date. I will be
very glad to give any of my fellow-
growers information about my ex-
perience in this department, for I
believe it ought to be a department
of every grove in the state.
The fine growth and healthy con-
dition of the citrus groves now, after
the ample supply of spring rains, is
incontrovertible evidence of the
great benefit of irrigation. Now
would be the best time to install an
irrigation plant because it could be
done at much lower cost and it
would be ready for next fall. You
may look for a day in September
and October when there will be a
fast rush for installations of irriga-
tion plants, and then there will be
delays of all kinds and higher costs.

simply to make sales, whereas in
selling or distributing perishables
the job is two-fold-to make sales
and to do so in the way which will
realize the highest prices possible
under governing conditions.
Changes Consumer Demand
Furthermore, the supply market-
ed by the perishable sales manager
depends principally upon nature;
after materially increasing the con-
sumer demand one year to take care
of a large crop, he may be obliged
to destroy a large part of this con-
sumer demand the following year
because of a light crop justifying
high prices and being insufficient to
supply all of the demand previously
To the contrary, the supply of the
manufactured article can be gov-
erned by the demand and can be in-
creased or decreased in line with the
demand, preventing accumulation or
lowering prices.
Many people have the idea that
distribution means simply sales in a
great many markets. This is true to
a certain extent but not entirely
true. Good and proper distribution
of a perishable product means the
realizing of the highest possible
price during the season that is per-
mitted by the law of supply and de-
Consequently, good and proper
distribution might mean sales dur-
ing the season in one hundred mar-
kets instead of in one hundred and
fifty. This is not an ideal situation
as it is not a good thing for an in-
dustry to be obliged to drop out of
certain markets this season which
were supplied last season. It is a
situation, however, which nature
causes the perishable sales manager
to face. It would be manifestly poor
judgment with a light crop of or-
anges in Florida and a heavy crop
in California, for Florida to force
sales of its oranges west of the Mis-
sissippi river in direct competition
with California's large supply and
its advantage of lower freight rates,
passing up the opportunity of real-
izing considerably higher prices in
eastern markets. This would mean
poor and improper distribution as
the Eastern markets would not be
supplied with the fruit they were
willing to pay a premium for. It
would be poor and improper dis-
tribution even though it meant wider
distribution and sales in more mar-
Sacrifice Price at Times
The above remarks must be prop-
erly interpreted as, while funda-
mentally, true distribution of a per-
ishable product is supplying first the
market which indicates a greater
need by being willing to pay a higher
price. I recognize the fact that it is
often wise for the sales manager to
keep a good customer using his
brand regularly even though local
conditions at the immediate time of

sale may not justify that customer
in paying the extreme price ruling
in some of the other markets. This
action, however, is justified as that
customer if using the brand regular-
ly will, on the average, pay prices
in line with the general situation;
otherwise, the sales manager would
not be justified in considering him a
regular customer.
I have heard people critcise the
marketing agencies because on a cer-
tain day forty cars were sold in one
market and only eight cars in an-
other market, entirely overlooking
the fact that the forty cars aver-
aged a higher price than the eight
cars, proving that supplies in the
hands of the retailers and jobbers,
weather or competitive product con-
ditions were such that it might real-
ly have been better if only three or
four cars, or perhaps none, had been
sold on that day in the one market,
while the other market might have
taken even more than forty cars.
Guide to Good Distribution
The space allotted to me will not
permit going into details, but it is a
fact that the Clearing House can
and does perform a very valuable
service to the Florida citrus indus-
try by co-ordinating the efforts of

the various shipper-members and
guiding the way to good and proper
It is also true that the operations
of our Clearing House aid in main-
taining and raising prices. How-
ever, in judging the work of the
Clearing House, both the grower-
members and the shipper-members
must consider general supply and
demand conditions, weather, com-
petitive crops and other things which
affect the market situation, as well
as merit or lack of merit of our own
crop as relating to quality and size.
The members should not judge
the value of the Clearing House
solely by the prices which prevail
during a season, whether high or
low, but largely by the way in which
the Clearing House meets and over-
comes unfavorable conditions. It
should be realized that if the gen-
eral situation is such that human in-
genuity cannot make possible a sea-
son's average of really good prices
that if it were not for the good.work
which the Clearing House can and
does do, that the prices realized
might and undoubtedly would be a
great deal lower than those received
without the aid of the Clearing

Benefits of and Problems

Attending Sub-Irrigation

Practices in Manatee

(Member of Committee of Fifty, in Terra Ceia)

Sub-irrigation land is high pres-
sure land; that is it is capable of be-
ing intensively cultivated. As to the
number of crops that may be pro-
duced in one year on "Subbed" land,
that is a matter of opinion as well
as of energy. However, taking into
consideration a period of years one
is almost persuaded that one crop
per year is the better plan.
In the Manatee section both vege-
table and grove lands are sub-irri-
gated. The material used in most
instances is three-, four-, five- and
six-inch terra cotta tile. In time
past a kind of cement tile was used,
but this practice has given away to
the use of the terra cotta tile, the
three-inch tile for the laterals and
the four-, five- and six-inch tile be-
ing used for drainage lines or out-
lets. For vegetables the laterals are
usually fifteen to twenty feet apart.
This is for the purpose of quickly
draining the soil when necessary, as
in the case of a heavy rain on toma-
toes When the proper moisture is be-
ing maintained. With land proper-
ly sub-irrigated it is possible to keep
more nearly the ideal growing con-
ditions, being able to supply plenty
of moisture when needed and quick-
ly draining the surplus moisture
when there is too much rain.
Soil that is very shallow and un-
derlaid with hard-pan almost always
has to be sub-irrigated to obtain sat-
isfactory cropping results.

For grove purposes sub-irrigation
laterals laid twenty to forty feet
apart seem to give excellent results.
More trees can be set to the acre
on sub-irrigated land. In some in-
stances groves have been set two
hundred trees to the acre. However
this is not the general practice. It
is also thought that sub-irrigation
will aid in the production of early
In groves that are "subbed"..care
must be taken not to get the soil
too moist; trees will stand more dry
weather than wet weather. It is
also very true that on "subbed"
lands quite a bit more fertilizer is
required to produce a crop than on
un-subbed irrigated lands. Most of
the sub-irrigated lands are in the ar-
tesian belt.
Cost Is Varieable
Just a word as to cost. That
naturally depends on the "lay of the
land." Only one who has had ex-
perience in surveying and installing
sub-irrigating systems can give best
results. Different lands have to be
handled differently. The slope
(natural drainage) and whether for
vegetables or grove purposes are de-
termining factors.
In preparing to sub-irrigate land
ditches, the width of a shovel, are
dug to grade. On the bottom of
this ditch the three-inch tile is laid.
(Continued on Page Siz)

June 25, 1930

Page 5


Stock and Budwood Selection

(Member of Committee of Fifty, in Lake Wales)

The question of the value of bud-
wood selection is a mooted one.
There are practical horticulturists
and scientists who believe that by
selecting buds from the most pro-
ductive limbs on the most produc-
tive trees in the grove that the pro-
ductivity of our groves can be great-
ly increased. This is a system which
works splendidly in animal breeding
and some scientists have performed
experiments which they believe
proves that the same process holds
good with plants.
There are other scientists and
many practical horticulturists, how-
er, who think this theory is erron-
eous. One scientist, for example,
h4idied.one hundred apple trees
from parent trees that were out-
standing as heavy producers and one
hundred others from parent trees
that were regular drones. All other
factors, save the bearing of the par-
ents, was kept constant and when
the orchard came into bearing the
hundred trees with low producing
parentage produced as much fruit
as the hundred trees from high pro-
ducing parentage.
Some experiments along this line
are being tried in Florida at the
present time with our citrus varie-
ties. We await a report on this ex-
periment with interest.
Nursery Wood Preferred
There is one point, however, on
which there can be no difference of
opinion and that is upon the desir-
ability of keeping very close to a

Professional budders prefer to use
budwood from nursery trimmings.
As a result the practice has grown
up of using budwood from nursery
cuttings over and over for long
periods. A budder wishing to bud
several thousand pineapple oranges
would simply go to the pineapple
block in the nursery, trim the trees
and use the trimmings for his buds.
If in some way a mistake had been
made in the past and some of the
trees in the pineapple block were in
reality something else, the mistake
would simply be perpetuated and
We know of one nurseryman who
voluntarily told the chief nursery in-
spector at one time that he had been
selling some variety of oranges for
years as pineapple and when he
fruited out some of his own pineap-
ples he found them to be a variety
of oranges with which he was totally
unfamiliar. Such mistakes were not
altogether rare. They are easily
perpetuated under the nursery trim-
mings method of securing budwood.
The only wonder is that there were
not more of such mistakes made.
To prevent such mistakes, at least
every other crop of nursery trees
should be grown with buds from
bearing trees, or at least with buds
from special propagatifig trees not
more than one generation from bear-
ing trees. The trueness of variety
of these propagating trees should be
very carefully guarded.
Three Root Stocks Available

heavy producing parent tree of high The matter of root stocks is a
quality fruit when getting budwood. much discussed question. There are
Every one knows that budwood of three root stocks which are widely
the proper use for budding can be used, two which have been used in
procured more easily and quickly in a limited way and-one which is now
the nursery than anywhere else. taking a bid for approval.
Citrus trifoliata is the one root
stock recommended for use in North
BENEFITS AND and West Florida. It tends to dwarf
PROBLEMS ATTENDING the variety budded onto it in most
SUB-IRRIGATION cases and makes it precocious. Trees
(Continued from Page Five) on this stock start to bear early and
The tile, being in one-foot lengths, produce out of all proportion to the
is placed end to end and concrete is size of the tree. Trees on trifoliata
poured over the tops of the joints stock start growth later in the spring
closing about one-half of the joint, than trees on other stocks and so are
Either shell, cinders or sawdust is not injured by late frosts. In this
used as a filler to the depth of two lies its value. It is recommended as
or three inches above the tile. Cin- the root stock for satsumas and all
ders make the best filler but are citrus varieties to be planted in
hard to get. In some recent projects North and West Florida.
a layer of sawdust has been put in Sour orange,was the original root
the bottom of the ditch and the tile stock first widely used in the state.
laid on the sawdust, with cinders or Originally brought to Florida by the
shell put next to the tile, then saw- Spanish it was scattered throughout
dust put on top of the filler used. the hammocks by the Indians. When
As sawdust is comparatively cheap, the first white developers of the
by mixing it with either cinders or state penetrated to the interior por-
shell the cost is lessened without les- tions they found large groves of
seeing the efficiency of the drain- sour oranges growing wild. These,
age. Cinders are hard to get and the they cut down and budded over to
better grades of shell are scarce, so commercial varieties. A great many
by mixing sawdust there is some say- of these old original groves are still
ing. The cost of sub-irrigating land in fine shape and producing regular-
is from $350 to $600'per acre, and ly. On strong soil, sour orange is
itis worth it. an ideal root stock making a rapid

growth and producing beautiful,
smooth, thin skinned fruit. It is im-
mune to foot rot and makes a very
healthy tree.
Don't Plant With Lemon
It is not as rank a feeder as rough
lemon and should never be planted
in alternate rows with trees or rough
lemons as this will bring out the
worst features of both varieties. It
over-emphasizes the slow growing
characteristics of the sour orange
and the tendency to make too rank
a growth of the rough lemon.
Rough lemon is a Florida product
and makes a rapid growth on soil so
light that it will not produce satis-
factory trees on sour orange root. It
is particularly suited to grapefruit
and valencias. Pineapples, on rough
lemon in light soil, have a tendency
to overbear and develop withertip.
They are an almost constant source
of annoyance and expense. Temple
oranges were propagated extensive-
ly on rough lemon and, with a few
exceptions, they have been failures
and have been replaced entirely.
Rough lemon is the only root
stock which will succeed on the rock
lands of South Dade County. Sour
orange is a failure there because of
its inability to stand the droughts in
that section. Where groves on these
two root stocks were planted in the
rock lands of South Dade those on
sour are dead or practically so, while
trees on rough lemon are doing nice-
ly. In the sand hills section the same
result has been noticed repeatedly.
Where there are Marsh Seedless
among the grapefruit on sour or-
ange they invariably out-grow and
out-perform the seeded varieties.
Trying Grapefruit As Stock
Grapefruit has been tried as a
root stock with indifferent success.
On some soils it makes a fine tree
and produces large quantities of fine,

smooth, thin-skinned fruit. In more
groves it does not bear well and
nothing seems to make them bear.
We know of many more groves in'
which it has failed than in which it
has succeeded. There is no denying
the fact that it produces high qual-
ity fruit. The original Temple or-
ange is on grapefruit stock.
Sweet orange has been used to
some extent, especially in the high
sand hills. Its susceptibility to foot
rot precluded its use on the heavier
soils. In the high sandy soils it grows
almost as rapidly as rough lemon
and produces a smoother, thinner-
skinned fruit which will hold its
juice longer. Valencjas on sweet or-
ange produce well and can be held
for a long time without drying out.
Cleopatra Mandarin is the latest
claimant for recognition. This stock
is claimed to grow rapidly on light
sandy soil, produce good crops of
high quality fruit. It looks promis-
ing but too little is known of it to
permit any one to speak with a great
deal of assurance. It is apparently
especially well suited to kid glove
oranges and by its use we may yet
be able to grow a satisfactory Tem-
ple in the hill sections.
In conclusion, we would urge
those on soil suited to either sour
orange or rough lemon stock to con-
sider the matter very carefully be-
fore deciding against sour orange.
Rough lemon will doubtless make a
larger tree and come into bearing
sooner, and for a number of years
may out-bear trees on sour, but in
time trees on sour orange will prob-
ably catch up and the quality of
fruit on sour will be better all the
time. In sections where the soil is
quite light the rough lemon has
proved its worth and if the proper
varieties are selected will produce
very satisfactory fruit in large quan-

My Loyalty and Duty to My

Organization---The Clearing House

(Member of Committee of Fifty, in Lakeland)

Although the Florida Citrus Grow- the Clearing House is built, and all
ers Clearing House Association has, of them are essential and necessary
during the two years of its existence if the Clearing House is to operate
proved of inestimable value to the with that success expected and in-
grower, it can and will accomplish tended by its incorporators.
a great deal more and prove of even Must Retain Fundamentals
greater benefit to the grower if it
receives from him that continued As I see it, we growers owe a duty
intelligent and loyal support which to both ourselves and the Clearing
it has earned and deserves. House to insist that none of the fun-
The growers of Florida organized damentals nor any part of them be
a Clearing House in order to stabil- cancelled or made inoperative. Fur-
ize the citrus industry and thereby thermore, it seems to me if we per-
receive a more adequate financial mit this to be done, there is great
return from the sale of their fruit danger that it would act as an en-
than was possible under methods tering wedge whereby the whole
existing prior to its organization. structure of the Clearing House
With this purpose in mind, certain would eventually be wrecked, and
principles or fundamentals were in- the only hope for an orderly mar-
corporated in the charter granted keting of Florida citrus fruit be for-
the Clearing House by the State of ever destroyed.
Florida. It is upon these funda- We judge the history of the fu-
mentals that the entire structure of ture, to a great extent, by the his-

June 25, 1980

PaLre 6

Pape 6

June 25, 1930

I have been asked to
as an observer. I shi
speak of the Clearing
organization but of th
of it in Florida and p
the citrus industry in
Organization, why it
happens to exist, whe
has justified its existe:
In order to talk al
I want to go back a
analyze the situation
in Florida just prior
nation of the Clearing
of you think back to tl

tory of the past, and
the past teaches us thr
indifference on the pai
terested in any move
certainly kill such n
matter how worthy or
may be; and, it beho
growers) to jealousl
Clearing House from a
can, by any possible
destroy its usefulness.
The members form
tors' Advisory Gomm
known as the Commit
are nominated by the
bers of the Clearing H
Careful Leadership
Since this commit
the candidates from
the growers elect the B
tors, its importance,
its power, to, in a great
" trol the future destinie
ing House, is self-appa
this, and to one of its
ing that of advising w
of Directors, it would
growers should exercise
care in their selection
for this committee, a
growers themselves i
committee, a failure
best available materis
able to the growers tl
my opinion, an ideal n
committee would be a
thoroughly sold on
SHouse, believes in its
and will use his influ
them operative.
Furthermore, it woi
ferable that he have
interests and has no fi
est in or through any
ganization; in short,
broad-minded and in
be uninfluenced by any
might prevent him usi
influence in making
fundamentals on whici
House is based and on
ture life depends.
No organization cai
ever has, unless it had
divided support of its

(Clearing House Legal Counsel)

speak simply Fruitman's Club. Some of you re-
all not try to member the agonies we had in 1926-
House as an '27 with the green fruit problem.
ie significance Some of you recall the tremendous
particularly in dread in connection with the arsenic
Florida as an problem, with the dry fruit prob-
exists, how it lem, and you will recall that there
other or not it was an almost universal demand for
nce. the industry to get together.
ong that line There was almost a universal de-
little bit and mand that some machinery be
that prevailed created whereby the industry could
to the organi- speak not as growers or operators,
House. Most not as one group or another, but as
he days of the a whole, and by which machinery
the industry could function as a
whole in handling the things that
the history of seemed almost insolvable. You will
at apathy and remember the committee which
rt of those in- worked on certain legal solutions-I
lent will most refer to the arsenic law, the green
movement, no fruit law, the dry fruit law. These
important it laws were put in not at the request
0oves us (the of any particular group, but from
y guard the the industry as a whole and from a
anything which committee which duly and fairly
ity, limit or represented the interests as a whole.
About that same time the Clearing
ng the Direc- House was formed and the Clearing
littee (better House really led in the formation
tee of Fifty), of that committee and the proper
grower mem- functioning of that committee.
house. I have already mentioned the so-
Selection lution of the green fruit problem
Sand I believe all of us realize that
ee nominates it has been more nearly solved than
among whom
oardofDirec- ever before, and there are other
oard likewise problems that need to be solved by
tand extent, legislation, but of course the bigger
st extent con- problems could not possibly be
s of the Clear solved in that way, but could be
rrent. Due to
functions be- solved only by whole-hearted co-
ith the Board operation within the group.
seem that the A Year of Testing

e the greatest
Sof members
nd, since the
dominate this
to secure the
al, is charge-
hemselves. In
member of this
grower who is
the Clearing
ence to make

uld seem pre-
no conflicting
nancial inter-
Sshipping or-
he must be
a position to
matter which
ng his utmost
operative the
ithe Clearing
which its fu-

n succeed, or
the loyal, un-

There were many who looked at
this last year as being the year of
testing wherein it would be discov-
ered definitely and permanently
whether or not the composite groups
which were established in the Clear-
ing House had equal interest, could
work together, and whether or not
there would be an unselfish effort
big enough to solve those problems
which seemed almost insuperable.
This last year would have been a
test year and vital year even with-
out the existence of the fruit fly
problem, but with the existence of
that problem at this particular time
it made the year a most vital one.
There are many in this room who
felt that this last year would pre-
sent problems even greater than the
Clearing House would be able to
solve with accuracy.
So I feel that the last year's an-
alysis shows whether the Clearing
House is big enough and so organ-
ized and so functioning as to be
solving the greatest problem that
has confronted the industry, the

Heard at the Convention
The following article is an excerpt from one of the talks given at
the convention of Packing House Managers June 10 and 11 at Winter
.Haven under the auspices of the Clearing House. Several of the talks
given were published in the previous issue of the "News," space not
permitting inclusion of all of them.



problem of the fruit fly. This prob-
lem shook the markets of this coun-
try from the very top to the bottom.
Here was a pest said to be the
greatest pest that the world knew.
Here was a quarantine that had us
so strangled that the normal rules
of distribution had to be absolutely
abandoned. Here was an insidious
threat against our produce, shaking
the confidence not only of the whole-
saler and retailer but of the ulti-
mate consumer. Here was a prob-
lem that apparently pointed to ab-
solute chaos in the markets unless
there be a solution of it sufficient to
overcome the loss of confidence and
gain the confidence to a greater de-
gree than ever before, because it
was necessary to market larger pro-
portions in the markets than ever
before. In the face of all these
handicaps the citrus industry last
fall knew that if it were to survive
through this year it was going to
have to create a greater confidence,
particularly in the markets of. the
Northeast, than had ever existed
there on Florida fruit. A problem
like that would have been insuper-
able without such an organization
as the Clearing House.
Let me as an outsider say that
I do not believe that the average
man, the average packing house
manager or grower, realizes the
tremendous importance of the
work that was done in the Clear-
ing House this last year in the
solving of that problem and in the
bringing of order out of chaos
and in bringing a year that was
relatively successful out of a
problem that seemed hopeless
when we were facing it. I think
we have been slow in recognizing
just what was done within the
Clearing House group this year.
In this year which was a year of
testing and of stress, it became nec-
essary for us to market vastly more
of our crop in the Northeast than
we had ever marketed there before,
and in spite of all the handicaps I
have just mentioned. I do not think
we can over-stress the fact that in
spite of that handicap the industry
was enabled by reason of extra ef-
fort and tremendous foresight, to
market a vastly larger proportion
of our crop in the Northeast than
heretofore, with even greater profit,
despite the handicaps and with a re-
markably greater profit than we had
marketed the crop just preceding.
Let us examine the figures. We
find that as a whole the Northeast
took 62% of our crop instead of
52% as in the year before. We find
that up to April 1 an examination
shows that we marketed more
grapefruit in the Northeast than we
had marketed the year before with
a vastly larger crop. Now we would
think with the handicaps which I
have mentioned and with the neces-
sity of marketing not only a greater
percentage, but more fruit, unques-
tionably we would have a decline in
price. Rather do we show an in-
crease of 73c a box. We got this
year an average of $1.73 out of our
grapefruit marketed in those same
auction markets, or an increase of

Page 7

73c per box on auction marketed
grapefruit in the Northeast, when
we were marketing there a greater
proportion by far and a greater
number of boxes by a little than we
had marketed the year before. We
were marketing under greater
stress, in less time, and with greater
competition on grapefruit from
Porto Rico and Cuba than we had
had before.
Well Qualified Machine
As to oranges, the volume sold in
the Northeast was slightly smaller
but a greater proportion was sold,
showing a profit up to April 1 of
approximately $1.00 a box more
than during the year preceding.
Those accomplishments show real
planning, real intelligent appraise-
ment of the problem, and I want to
say to you that the Clearing House
is a piece of machinery not created
as a matter of chance but as an in-
telligent effort of all shades of
thought. It is a piece of machinery
well, qualified to carry out-the-pur'
poses for which it was created.
There are other things which
have been accomplished in the past
year. I am thinking of the Medi-
terranean fruit fly problem. The
fact remains that the Clearing House
has staunchly taken a course look-
ing to the final solution of this prob-
lem and the interests of this state,
looking to the service of the state
and the industry and it has not been
allowed to be swerved from that
There are other things, such, for
instance, as the standardization of
grade and pack. Three or five years
ago an effort was made to handle
this with legislative action, but the
legislative means is not the proper
one, the co-operative one is the
proper one. There was an outstand-
ing demand, a need which was recog-
nized by the leaders. It was known
that our product was not being re-
ceived as it should be because those
who bought it could not have the
confidence they should have in it
with reference to uniform pack and
uniform quality which they had a
right to expect and demand. I want
to say to you that the co-operative
methods employed through this
great organization to bring about a
greater uniformity in grade and
pack are of immeasurable import-
There is now pending before the
supreme court in Washington a mat-
ter involving the Brogdex patents,
which is a matter which would ef-
fect any shipper represented here up
to the tune of millions and over many
years would affect the industry up
to the tune of many, many millions.
That is a matter which can only be
fought by the industrial group. It
affects all alike and of course the
Clearing House is up there doing its
very level best to aid in the solu-
tion of that problem and to see that
the citrus industry does not have
placed upon it additional handicaps.
There are many other things
from an industrial standpoint af-
fecting our welfare. I am thinking
of the effort which has been launch-
ed recently to get compensation in
(Continued on Page Eight)





JUNE 25, 1930

Published Semi-monthly by the FLORIDA CITRUS
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Florida.

Entered as second-class matter August 31, 1928, at
the postoffice at Winter Haven, Fla., under -the Act of
March 3, 1879.





Ft. Ogden
SWinter Park
xWinter Garden
. Winter Haven
Mt. Dora

S Manager

Per Year: $2.00 Single Copies: 10c

"Spray to Kill

The Quarantine!"

"Spray to kill the quarantine!"
This is the slogan growers and shippers of
Florida citrus have adopted for their second
summer's battle against the Mediterranean
fruit fly. While the slogan appears to be
directed more at the quarantine regulations
than at the fly itself, it is only an indication
of our growers' sense of humor and ingrained
optimism that has given to the campaign the
less tragic note reflected in the slogan.
The growers, or at least some of them, may
be taking the campaign in a comparatively
matter-of-fact manner but behind it all lies
the grim purpose that the state must be rid
of this fly incubus. Frankly, many of the
growers in the state, as well as other resi-
dents, never have believed, and possibly
never will believe that there was a fly in Flor-
ida, and in lending a helping hand in the
eradication program now being inaugurated,
they are not abandoning their ideas in the
matter. They are realizing that fly or no fly
the quarantine still exists and until such time
as Arthur M. Hyde, Secretary of Agriculture,
is satisfied that the fly has been eradicated,
that the state will be saddled with the quar-
antine regulations that have played havoc
with conditions generally.

Page 8

Don't Forget The Annual Clearing House Meeting July 8th at Winter Haven,

Encouraged by Secretary Hyde's recent
statement, indicating probability that quaran-
tine regulations will be modified this fall, the
Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Asso-
ciation immediately undertook to help launch
what is hoped to be the final offensive against
the fly. Organization of growers, shippers
and others in every county in the eradication
area, as well as in zone three, all under the
supervision of the county agent or other of-
ficial, is to be completed within the next few
days. To make the campaign still more prac-
ticable the Clearing House will distribute the
bait spray materials free of cost to all grow-
ers of the state, both members and non-mem-
bers of the Clearing House. This offer is no
idle gesture; the officials of the Clearing
House are determined to make Secretary
Hyde's expressed hope for quarantine modifi-
cations a reality.
It is up to every man, woman and child in
Florida to do his or her utmost in bringing
this campaign to a successful close this sum-
mer. No one knows whether or not the fly
has been eradicated, for funds for inspection
have not been available until recently. We
can ill afford to take a chance on going
through another year handicapped as we
were during the past season. THE FLY
The task before all of us is not only to join
whole-heartedly in this eradication campaign
but for every citizen in the state to see to it
himself that this work is done so effectively
that Uncle Sam will have no alternative this
fall but to pronounce us free of the fly.

Californians Alert
All of the watchfulness of the state and
county quarantine officials for the past year,
and the cost thereof, was fully justified in
the detection of live larvae of the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly in five mangoes which arrived
at Los Angeles, through the mails from Ha-
waii. Inspector House, one of Commissioner
Ryan's men, found the larvae in decayed
mangoes in a cardboard box, not labeled as
fruit. They had been sent to a friend in Los
Angeles. If the fruit had reached its destina-
tion it would doubtless have been thrown out
as it was decayed and the larvae might have
gone into the pupa stage in the ground, in a
few days, to hatch into flies. There were
enough larvae in the confiscated package to
have caused a general infestation in one
year's time over a large area, Mr. Ryan de-
clares.-California Citrograph.

. . .

Paee 8

8EJune 25, 1930

Nova Scotia Apple Growers
Troubled By Over-production
Nova Scotia apple growers are
having their troubles with over-pro-
duction, according to a brief sub-
mitted to the British Royal Come
mission by Manning K. Ells, promi.
nent apple grower of Nova Scotia.
"The general and progressive de-
pression of the apple industry in
Nova Scotia, which had its begin-
ning five years ago, cannot," stated
Mr. Ells, "be charged to any one
cause alone, nor is any one factor
of the many adverse conditions we
are laboring under responsible for
the position in which we find our-
selves today.
"Some of these conditions are
general, and affect all apple produc-
ing sections in North America. The
West is still suffering from the
over-planting of twenty years ago.
Ontario, once the banner apple-pro-
ducing province, now grows less
than 25 percent of the crop of the
early nineteen hundreds. New York
and the New England states all
record lessened production owing to
low prices and higher costs. Vn
ginia, our greatest competitor in the
English market, because of her pro-
duction being confined to a few va-
rieties that are very popular in Eng-
land, is able to export the percent-
age of the crop not needed at home,
and is the one commercial section
that is increasing her planting and
is comparatively prosperous.

(Continued from Page Seven)
such extent as shall be determined
for those growers who have suffer-
ed in the Mediterranean fruit fly
campaign. No one can predict what
the government of the United States
will do or what is the right thing to
be done, but we are all claiming
that there must be, or should be,
something done and that at least
the claims of the growers of the
State of Florida should be fully and
carefully and ably considered and
brought to the proper attention of
the department in Washington.
There is nobody that can do that as
well as an industrial group such as
this, the Clearing House. I have
called attention to this simply to
drive home this one point. The
Clearing House Association, because
of the deliberate demand on the
part of the industry as a whole, is
the logical medium by which and
through which -the industry prob-
lems as such can be solved in some
way for the good of the industry
and the state as a whole.
The Clearing House has justified
its purposes. It merits your ap-
proval and support. In going back
to your growers who have confi-
dence in you above everybody else,
I think one of the things which yoi
should take back is your confidence
in the Clearing House, which is not
selfish, but exists only to serve the
industry and can exist only so long
as it adheres to the purposes for
which it has been created.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs