Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00037
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: April 10, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00037
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
OFFICIAL BUSINESS.

PEuALTY FOR PRIVATE USE. $30.



U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Agricultural Economics,


8-4929


Washington, D. C.


'Library
ncprsaCiny 111 ,, 111 U 1v ., V I
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA


Northeastern States

. Show a $2,400,000

Gain for Season

And This In Spite of Larger
Volume Forced Into Area
By Quarantine Rules

By A. M. PRATT
(General Manager, Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House
Association)
A remarkable fact has been devel-
oped in the analysis of returns up
to April 1st; namely, that eastern
markets show a decidedly higher re-
turn per box on grapefruit, even in
the face of increased supplies to
these markets this year. The four
eastern auctions-new York, Phila-
delphia, Boston and Pittsburgh-
show a gain to the grower this year
over last year of 73 cents per box
on grapefruit up to April 1st. Four
thousand seventy-five cars of grape-
'ruit were sold at these four auc-
tions this year at a general average
of $4.13 delivered as compared with
4599 cars that sold last year at
$3.40. From these auction prices at
least $2.40 must be deducted to
;show-"the net return on the tree;
$2.50 or higher usually is the figure
deducted, but using $2.40 it would
mean that grapefruit sales in these
four auction markets up to April 1st
last year (which totaled $1,655,-
110.80) netted the grower $1.00 per
box on the tree. This year the
grower netted from these four auc-
tion markets an average of $1.73
on the tree on total sales of $2,540,-
833.20.
Returns Are Higher
Notwithstanding the fact that our
quarantine restrictions forced a far
greater proportion into these east-
ern markets (235 more cars) never-
theless the auctions returned to the
grower $885,722.40 more than for
the 524 more cars of grapefruit sold
at the same auctions in the same
period a year ago.
Our quarantine regulations forced
the Florida citrus industry into a
liighly disturbing distribution prob-


FLORIDA


,RING


H


NEWS


THE NEW BOARD

DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE
J. C. Chase _-------- --------------------- Winter Park
Lawrence Gentile .------------------- ------------ Orlando
J. A. Griffin -------------------------------Tampa
R. B. Woolfolk ----------------------------- Orlando

DISTRICT DIRECTORS
District No. 1


A. M. Tilden ...-----------


-_---------------- Winter Haven


District No. 2
James T. Swann ....._....----- ------------------- .----- Tampa
District No. 3
E. E. Truskett .. ------------------------------ Mt. Dora
District No. 4


F. G. Moorhead ...


Phil C. Peters .--- -------------------- Winter Garden
District No. 6
A. R. Trafford ..--------- ---------------Cocoa
District No. 7


E. C. Aurin


------------------------------ Ft. Ogden


Florida was unable, therefore, to
take advantage of'her short crop so
far as the eastern markets went. To
add to our difficulties Porto Rico
and Cuba put into these same mar-
kets 1190 more cars of grapefruit
than a year ago. Florida, as men-
tioned above, shows 235 cars excess
which added to Porto Rico's excess
makes a total increase of supplies of
1425 cars.
In this connection it is interest-
ing to note that although govern-
ment figures show a greater num-
ber of cars of grapefruit having
moved into the eastern states a year
ago, there was a somewhat smaller
number of cars of grapefruit sold at
auction showing decidedly good
work in pushing the f.o.b. business
in this territory. From the begin-
ning of the season the Clearing
House was insistent upon its mem-
bers zealously guarding against
over-supplying these auction mar-


lem. Passing Reports compiled by
the U. S. D. A. show that Florida
had to put about 4000 more cars
into the eleven northeastern states
up to April 1st than would have
been moved there based on the per-
centage shipped to those markets
the previous season, the exact ex-
cess figure of this season being 3971
cars. On the other hand, due to
the embargo in the south, and the
sterilization requirements in the
west and south, Florida was com-
pelled to ship 3164 cars less to the
south and 807 cars less to the west
than our normal movement, based
on a year ago percentage that mov-
ed into these markets.
Because the eleven northeastern
states were the only unrestricted
markets we find that from October
17th to April 1st this year 8123 cars
of grapefruit were moved into these
states as compared with 7888 cars
for the same period a year ago.


Sec. 435%, P. L. & R. '.
U. S. Postage
Ic. Paid
Winter Haven, Fla.
Permit No. 11






Official Publication of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION


kets because not only would it mean
low returns at auction but with auc-
tion prices being public property it
would materially depress-and lowe :.;
f.o.b. prices.
We all remember how the Clear-
ing House pulled up the auction
market on grapefruit $1.00 per box
the early part of the season by pro-
rating shipments and firmly taking
hold of the problem. Not only did
the Clearing House prorate its ship-
ments throughout the year to each
shipper member but the prorating
has been complied with. Not only
have we prorated our shipments for
each week but each of our shippers
has had forcibly brought to his at-
tention the exact number of cars
rolling to each auction market. On
top of this the Clearing House estab-
lished in each of the auction mar-
kets, a prorating committee com-
posed of leading receivers, with the
result that the auction bidders knew
that their interests were being safe-
guarded and the market being stabi-
lized. Each day the bidders .in.the

See Summary on Page .10

auction room had confidence that
they had never had before because
a committee of their receivers was
regulating the flow of supplies into
their own auction market and be-
cause the tearing-Holse':W~ 'rl ti-, -
lating the total supplies to all mar-
kets.
Business-like Operation
Instead of our forced proportion
of over-supply of grapefruit reduc-
ing prices, we have proven that
Florida exercising self-control, as it
has through the Clearing House and
running its business intelligently,
instead of letting business run wild
with no centralized organized. ef-
fort, has been able to get an aver-
age of 73 cents a box more or near-
ly a million dollars excess for a sim-
ilar amount of fruit actually offered
at auction, and this in the face of
nearly 1200 cars of additional for-
eign grapefruit that was offered in
these markets.
Now let's see a little different sit-
uation on oranges. Into these same
relatively congested eleven north-
eastern states we find the U. S. D.
(Continued on Page Three)


10 Cents a Copy APRIL 10, 1930 Number 13
$2.00 a Year


Centralized Control Produces Excess Returns of Millions


.------------- -------------- DeLand
District No. 5




Jage 2 FLORIDA CLEARING'


11fl





4 j
7-k .


-il A





FLORIDA CLEARING \JW HOUSE NEWS


CENTRALIZED CONTROL
PRODUCES HIGH RETURNS
(Continued from Page One)
A. passing records show we have put
13,538 cars of oranges this year as
compared with 14,923 cars for the
same period from October 17th to
April 1st last year or 1385 cars less,
p-about as many less oranges as
these states received more in grape-
fruit (including Porto Rico).
These same four auctions in the
East show 97 cents gain this year in
Florida oranges over last, or a lump
gain to the grower to the amount of
A$1,556,686.80 on simply the Florida
oranges sold at these four auctions.
We gained in these auctions over
one and one-half million dollars in
net tree returns this year on ap-
proximately three-fourths million
boxes less than sold at auction dur-
ing the same period at the same auc-
,tions last year. In contrast with our
grapefruit analysis, where more
fruit brought more money per box
this year, we now see in oranges less
fruit also netting the growers more
money.
Same From California
SWhy? Was it California's light
supplies? Here's another surprise.
Since Florida started shipping its
citrus the last week in September
we find that California has sold at
auction this year 8770 cars of or-
anges to April 1st as compared with
8258 cars for the same period the
season previous-512 more Califor-
nia cars this season. This at first
Seems unbelievable, but analysis
shows it was the heavy and very
late arrivals of California Valen-
cias that competed this season with
our new crop offerings and held us
back for several weeks at the be-
ginning of our season. It is also
surprising to find that California
,has sold in the four eastern auc-
tions 5638 cars this season com-
Spared to 5709 last, or within 71 cars
of a year ago. The western auctions
show 3132 Californias this year as
against 2549 or 583 more cars this
season. Since September 29th Cal-
ifornia has shipped to April 1st 24,-
.279 cars of oranges as compared
with 27,589 a year before ,or only
'3310 cars less since our new season
opened.
So, we have so far in our an-
alysis three-fourth million less
Florida oranges bringing one and
one-half million more dollars in
4-the four eastern auctions with
California having put more or-
Sanges on all auctions to April 1st.
Adding to the $1,556,686.80 in-
crease net returns in these four
auction markets on oranges, the
increased grapefruit returns of
$885,722.40, we have a total of
t $2,442,409.20 gain over last year
in simply these four markets.
SThe Western auction markets
naturally show a much greater gain
than the four Eastern markets. In
the Western auctions 1301 cars of
Florida oranges sold at a general
average of $4.41 compared with
1385 cars sold a year ago at $2.96
Sor a gain this year of $1.45 a box.
"Our eastern auction markets show
6221 cars of Florida oranges sell-


COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUITS FOR THE
SEASONS (1928-29-1929-30)
For the Period October 17th to March 31st, as Compiled From the Passings Records of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture (Includes Mixed Classified 2/3 Oranges, 1/3 Grapefruit)


EA
1928-29
Oranges --------14923
Grapefruit 7888
Tangerines ------ 1342
All Varieties ---.----- 24153
The 1929-30 crops distributed
on same basis as 1928-29
crop would be as follows ---

Showing changes in distribution

Distribution by percent 1928-29-
Distribution by percent 1929-30.


S
1


ing this year at $4.22 or 19 cents a
box less than the western auctions.
The eastern auctions a year 'ago
showed 8245 cars of Florida oranges
selling at $3.25 delivered as com-
pared with $2.96 in the western
markets a year ago. The eastern
markets last year having out-sold
the west by 29 cents a box during
the period analyzed.
In the western auctions this year
1350 cars of grapefruit, up to April
1st, sold at an average of $4.45 de-
livered compared with 1455 cars in
the same auctions a year ago -at
$3.18 delivered or an average gain
per box this year in western auc-
tions of $1.27. This year's western
auctions, therefore, show 32 cents
higher than eastern auctions. Last
year's western auctions showed 22
cents lower than eastern auctions
for the period covered.
The three western auctions this
year show that Florida sold within
193 cars of what it did last season
at auction. Private sale markets in
,he West and South were the ones
chat suffered the shortage due to
trade resistance to sterilized cars.
fhis year's western auction returns
compared with a year ago show a
gain to the grower of $588,070.80
on grapefruit and $662,295.60 on
ranges or a total of $1,250,366.40.
This added to our eastern auctions
additional returns makes a total of
$3,692,775.660-additional.nmogey to
the grower from the four eastern
auctions and the three western auc-
tions.
Movements Nearly Equal
Total passing records to the east
show 22,337 cars of Florida citrus
this year as compared with 24,153
last year. Notwithstanding our crop
being so decidedly short this year,
the above figures show we had to
put in 92% % as great a volume in
the east as a year ago. Add into
this year's supplies Porto Rico's in-
creased supplies into the east and
the total is only 624 cars short of
last year. Yet in the face of almost
an equal quantity of citrus fruit
from Florida and Porto Rico, as
compared with last year up to April
1st, we find that the auction mar-
kets alone in these eastern states
have returned the grower practi-
:ally two and one-half million dol-
lars more this year. Also during
this same period California has put


T WEST SOUTH
929-30 1928-29 1929-30 1928-29 1929-30
13538 4408 3230 7318 3420
8123 5446 3611 3110 1421
676 356 101 125 17

22337 10210 6942 10553 4858


18366

3971 More

53.8%
65.5%


7749

807 Less

22.7%
20.3%


in slightly more oranges in all the
auctions than it did up to this time
last year notwithstanding Califor-
nia's shortage in the present crop.
The four cents per box assess-
ment on the Florida citrus fruit that
sold in these four auction markets
cost the growers $148,262.40 in re-
turn for which we see additional in-
come of $2,442,409.20 or over
$16.00 return for every dollar in-
vested. Twenty per cent of this gain
realized simply from these four auc-
tion markets would more than cover
the entire money received in the
Clearing House this year on its 4-
cent assessment. Yet we know from
watching f.o.b. sales of our mem-
bers that the f.o.b. returns as a
whole will be equal to or slightly
higher than these auction returns.
No. 2 Fruit Included
We also must bear in mind that
this year we are compelled to put
in these four auction markets a vast
amount of No. 2 fruit, which nor-
mally would go into the Southern
markets. On top of this we know
that the spray used this past season
under quarantine requirements, so
seriously reduced the acidity of a
vast amount of fruit as to make it
extremely disappointing to the con-
sumer. This year's crop ran heavier
to seconds than probably any time
in the history of Florida. This was
due to a great extent to lack of
dusting and spraying a year ago on
account of our quarantine problem.
In the face of all of this haven't
we a right as grower-members and
shipper-members to rejoice in the
fact that we have shown that in the
same important markets and during
the same time, we have marketed
the same amount of fruit at 73
cents to 97 cents a box higher be-
cause of the citrus industry having
gotten together and intelligently
worked out its problem and run its
business instead of letting the trade
run it for them?
Our bloom indicates that we may
have another big crop next year. We
are cleaning up our entire citrus
crop by April 15th this year instead
of June 15th, as last year. We have
every reason to expect normal dis-
tribution privileges with quarantine
regulations greatly modified. If we
can get into the west and the south
without restrictions, having proven
what we can do in the east this


8022

3164 Less

23.5%
14.2%


TOTAL
1928-29 1929-30
26649 20188
16444 13155
1823 794
44916 34137


34137


100%
100%


year, we should now be able to
handle a crop as great as a year ago
and not mave to take the low prices
experienced a year ago.
The second year of the Clearihg
House has established in the minds
of the trade the fact that Florida
means business. That there is an
actual control. That our shippers
are working together and have con-
fidence in each other and them-
selves. We see no reason for being
down-in-the-mouth regarding next
year, nor for talking low returns.
We will get back our Southern mar-
kets. We will move our proper pro-
portion of the crop into the Western
states. Self-reliance exists instead
of fear on the part of industry lead-
ers. This self-reliance and the team-
work of eighty per cent of the grow-
ers and shippers of Florida will
demonstrate under a big crop year,
the effectiveness and earning power
of centralized control to even a
greater extent than this year has
shown.
We must do what we did this year
only do it still better the coming
season. In this connection we can-
not ignore two important contribut-
ing factors to this year's results,
which so far have not been men-
tioned; namely, standardization and
advertising. Regardless of having
one of the poorest looking crops
Florida has ever produced, the stan-
dardization of the .qlearign House
:shows under analysis of if_ s nspec-
tion files, a decidedly better record
for consistently complying with U. S.
standards than a year ago. Without
this disinterested control of our
grades in such a trying year there
would have been a greater tempta-
tion than usual to crowd the grades
with inferior fruit, to attempt to
fool the trade. This would have re-
sulted in not only destroying the
trade's confidence in Florida but
also destroying our confidence in
each other.
Advertising Concentrated
Another factor of most decisive
influence is the fact that the. money
invested in advertising was concen-
trated in those areas where the fruit
went in the greatest quantity. No
grower has seen any advertising in
magazines this year and bit little
evidence of Florida doing any ad-
vertising. Magazines were not used
(Continued on Page Four)


April 10, 1930


Page 3





Page 4


FLORIDA CLEARING


WESTERN AUCTIONS
Comparison 1928-29 and 1929-30 Seasons From Beginning of Season to
March 29th


Chicago ----.---
Cleveland --
Cincinnati -----



Chicago -
Cleveland -----
Cincinnati -----

1929-30 Season
Grapefruit .


Chicago ---
Cleveland ----
Cincinnati .....--



Chicago .-------
Cleveland ..-----
Cincinnati --- .-

1929-30 Season
Oranges ..------
1929-30 Season
Both Varieties


GRAPEFRUIT 1928-29
Cars Delivered Price Tree Price Tree Value
914 $3.40 $1.00 $ 329,040.00
348 2.83 .43 53,870.40
193 2.79 .39 27,097.20
1455 Avg. $3.18 Avg. $ .78 $ 410,007.60


GRAPEFRUIT 1929-30
Cars Delivered Price Tree Price
S778 $4.77 $2.37
359 4.15 1.75
213 381 1.41


Tree Value
$ 663,789.60
226,170.00
108,118.80


HOUSE NEWS


April 10, 1930

EASTERN AUCTIONS


Comparison 1928-29 and 1929-30 Seasons From Beginning of Season to
March 29th
GRAPEFRUIT 1928-29
Cars Delivered Price Tree Price Tree Value
New York ----- 2828 $3.60 $1.20 $1,221,696.00
Boston ....... 592 3.14 .74 157,708.80
Philadelphia --- 818 3.12 .72 212,025.60
Pittsburgh -..-- 361 2.89 .49 63,680.40


N
B


1350 Avg. $4.45 Avg. $2.05 $ 998,078.40 P

105 Less Cars *$588,070.80
1
ORANGES 1928-29
Cars Delivered Price Tree Price Tree Value
563 $3.16 $ .76 $ 154,036.80
424 2.82 .42 64,108.80
398 2.83 .43 61,610.40 N
B
1385 Avg. $2.96 Avg. $ .56 $ 279,756.00 P
ORANGES 1929-30 P
Cars Delivered Price Tree Price Tree Value
523 $4.81 $2.41 $ 453,754.80
348 4.16 1.76 220,492.80
430 4.13 1.73 267,804.00 N
1301 Avg. $4.41 Avg. $2.01 $ 942,051.60 B


84 Less Cars

193 Less Cars


*$ 662,295.60

*$1,250,366.40


More Tree Value.

INCREASE PER BOX IN TREE PRICE-1929-30 SEASON
Grapefruit Oranges
Chicago --------- $1.37 $1.65
Cleveland ------ 1.32 1.34
Cincinnati ------- ------ 1.02 1.30
NOTE-$2.40 deducted from delivered price to obtain price on tree.
Tree value figured on basis 360 boxes to car. St. Louis not included be-
cause figures for last season not available. California oranges (1928-29)
2549 cars, (1929-30) 3132 cars (includes St. Louis).


CENTRALIZED CONTROL
PRODUCES HIGH RETURNS
(Continued from Page Three)
because we would have had to pay
for circulation to fifty percent of
the United States where our volume
would have been so small as to make
such advertising a waste of money.
Our advertising has been hidden
from the eyes of our growers but it
has certainly been most effective in
the eleven northeastern states, in
particular, where it was highly con-
centrated, and in the auction mar-
kets of the west where most of the
balance of the advertising funds
were spent.
The season is not through. At
this writing we have another week's
shipments and our distribution and
marketing problem will not be
through for probably six weeks as
our members very wisely have
agreed with each other on the neces-
sity of putting into cold storage a
vast quantity of grapefruit to sys-
tematically release later in an or-
derly manner after we are through
shipping. Also several hundred cars
of Valencias have been stored. Here
again the Clearing House is show-
ing team work and self-control.
Without this we would have seen a


rapidly declining grapefruit market
instead of a steady to advancing
market. Prices for the balance of
the season will greatly add to the
comparative gain that has already
been shown to April 1st.
The basic facts of the above an-
alysis have been compiled from data
which has been furnished to every
one of our grower and shipper mem-
bers; namely, The United States De-
partment of Agriculture Daily Bul-
letin and the Daily Auction Returns.
The conclusions reached are most
accurate. They are not estimates.
They are facts. These facts you can
verify for yourselves and reach
your own conclusions, which I have
endeavored to interpret from the
following figures, given herewith in
detail.


Appreciates Work of
Board And Operators
And here's a voluntary word of
appreciation for the members of the
Board of Directors and Operating
Committee which speaks for itself-
the observation having been made
by Mr. Bert Roper of Winter Gar-
den, shipper member and member
of the Committee of Fifty at a


P
P

19
1!


ew York -----
oston ------
hiladelphia ---
ittsburgh -.-.----

929-30 Season
Grapefruit --.-


ew York -----
oston .....-----
hiladelphia ---
ittsburgh ---.-



ew York -----
oston .----.
hiladelphia --
ittsburgh .--.-

929-30 Season
Oranges --____-.
929-30 Season
Both Varieties


4599 Avg. $3.40


Cars
2293
505
769
508


Avg. $1.00


GRAPEFRUIT 1929-30
Delivered Price Tree Price
$4.37 $1.97
3.94 1.54
3.88 1.48
3.63 1.23


4075 Avg. $4.13 Avg. $1.73
524 Less Cars


Cars
4383
969
2275
618


ORANGES 1928-29
Delivered Price Tree Price
$3.46 $1.06
3.07 .67
3.03 .63
2.80 .40


$1,655,110.80

Tree Value
$1,626,195.60
279,972.00
409,723.20
224,942.40
$2,540,833.20

*$885,722.40

Tree Value
$1,672,552.80
233,722.80
515,970.00
88,992.00


8245 Avg. $3.25 Avg. $ .85 $2,511,237.6.0
ORANGES 1929-30
Cars Delivered Price Tree Price Tree Value
3385 $4.46 $2.06 $2,510,316.00
786 4.16 1.76 498,009.60
1357 3.90 1.50 732,780.00
693 3.71 1.31 326,818.80
6221 Avg. $4.22 Avg. $1.82 $4,067,924.40


2024 Less Cars

2548 Less Cars


*$1,556,686.80

*$2,442,409.20


INCREASE PER BOX IN TREE PRICE-1929-30 SEASON
Grapefruit Oranges
New York -- $ .77 $1.00
Boston....--.........-------- .80 1.09
Philadelphia ---.----- .76 .87
Pittsburgh -- .74 .91
NOTE-$2.40 deducted from delivered price to obtain price on tree.
Tree value figured on basis 360 boxes to car. Porto Rican and Cuban
Grapefruit (1928-29)-577 cars (1929-30) 1767 cars. California Oranges
(1928-29) 5709 cars, (1929-30) 5638 cars.
SUMMARY
Eastern and Western Auction Comparison Showing 1929-30 in
Relation to 1928-29


Grapefruit ______-
Oranges ------------

Grapefruit and Oranges

Grapefruit ------....
Oranges --- ---

Grapefruit and Oranges


EASTERN
524 less cars
2024 less cars

2548 less cars
WESTERN
105 less cars
84 less cars

189 less cars


$ 885,722.40 more tree value
1,556,686.80 more tree value

$2,442,409.20 more tree value

$ 588,070.80 more tree value
662,295.60 more tree value

$1,250,366.40 more tree value


EASTERN AND WESTERN
2737 less cars $3,692,775.60 more tree value


meeting of shippers hear in Winter
Haven, March 28th.
"I want to say that I appreciate
the way the Directors of the Clear-
ing House have worked, driving
lcng distances, and working late at
night without pay; and the shipper
members, or those who direct the
business of distribution, allottment,
etc., who have had to meet regular-
ly-I believe every week-and so
far as I know also have worked
without pay, who certainly have
given a great deal of time, who
have worked hard-not for your
own good alone but for the good of


the entire industry and the whole,
state.
"And I will say further that each "
shipper and each grower in the state
has gained by your hard work and
your untiring efforts, meeting reg-
ularly and figuring out these things
and giving the information back as
early as you could the next morn-
ing. It has helped. You have done
it for nothing, and I certainly think "
you should have the praise of not
only the Clearing House shippers
but of the growers all over the state.
I would just like to tell you how
much I appreciate it."


A Long Pole With A Hook on One End Will Help Get All Those "Shiners"


Pave


I





April 10, 1930 FLORIDA CLEARING


Association's Advertising

Campaign Following Those

Of Successful Pioneers


Florida citrus growers now have
the satisfaction of knowing that
their effort to increase consumer de-
mand for oranges and grapefruit is
beginning to produce results despite
the fact that it always is difficult to
place a value in dollars and cents
upon returns from advertising.
When the Clearing House was or-
ganized there was some question as
to whether or not a commodity ad-
vertising program for Florida could
bring the results that might be pos-
sible if the Association had a slo-
gan or trademark-something sim-
ilar, for example, to the trademark
"Sunkist" used by the California
Fruit Growers Exchange. Today, in
the face of results and after two
years of continuous and persistent
use of the name "FLORIDA," there
appears to be little doubt of the ef-
fectiveness of the campaign.
Factors in Returns
This issue of the News contains
an analysis of the increased returns
from our fruit in the Northeastern
markets. Obviously part of this in-
crease is due to the Association's
control of distribution. Part of it
must be credited to our greatly im-
proved grade and pack. There is
little question but that our adver-
tising program likewise has had
much to do with this impressive
showing.
The Clearing House has not done
any "experimenting" in the adver-
tising field. Its efforts have been
directed from the first along the
lines laid out by other and success-
ful advertisers. This being the case
and with the unquestionably high
quality of our citrus together with
the returns to the growers as evi-
denced in the northeastern markets,
it goes without saying that the pro-
gram has been a sound one as well
as profitable.
" Trud'it is that lack of funds and
newness in the field have not per-
mitted as comprehensive a campaign
as it is hoped to have in the future
-perhaps even next season. Dealer
service for instance, used extensive-
. ly by the California Fruit Growers
Exchange, is an important factor
being given serious consideration by
the Clearing House.
Trademarks and Slogans
Contrary to the impressions held
by some the California Sunkist ad-
vertising campaign is regarded as a
commodity campaign. In other
words the trademark "Sunkist" is
not a brand but merely represents
several hundred brands that are sold
under the sponsorship of the word
"Sunkist." In fact the trademark
"Sunkist" corresponds to the em-
blem which was used by the Clear-
ing House during the past season.
The Clearing House emblem and the
repeated use in the advertisements


of the word "FLORIDA" are not
brands. They merely have served
to sponsor the many brands under
which Clearing House fruit was
marketed by the various organiza-
tions affiliated with it. The same
point could apply to the advertising
of one of the Clearing House mem-
bers, this organization marketing its
members' fruit under a trademark
and slogan with the respective
brands of its individual members
serving as the actual name by which
the fruit is purchased in the mar-
kets.
The list of successful advertisers
who have sold their products by
means of a commodity advertising
campaign is a long one. The Clear-
ing House in making a study of the
advertising investment made by its
growers has obtained the records of
several of the largest advertisers
throughout the country who have
sponsored commodity programs. A
brief history of these organizations'
work in commodity advertising, to-
gether with the results obtained, are
given as follows:
California Fruit Growers' Ex-
change: The initial appropriation
twenty-two years ago was $6,000.
Since 1916 the annual appropria-
tion has ranged from $185,000 to
nearly a million and three-quarters
spent last season. The Californians'
original objectives, widening of
basic markets, caring for increasing
production, increasing of consump-
tion and increasing preference for
California oranges and lemons, par-
ticularly Sunkist, have remained un-
changed. California's supply of or-
anges and lemons has increased 153
percent from 1907 to 1927, while
the population increase of the
United States for the same period
has been only 35 percent. As a re-
sult of their continuous advertising,
this increased supply has been con-
sumed without a corresponding de-
crease in price levels to producer
and still the Californians are invest-
ing less than Ic per year per con-
sumer for advertising and merchan-
dising.
National Association of Ice Indus-
try: The appropriation of this or-
ganization seven years ago was $60,-
000. In 1929 the appropriation was
$250,000. The results of their ad-
vertising has been to reduce com-
petitive attacks, which in recent
years have been tremendous because
of the competition from electric re-
frigerators, has increased confidence
both inside and outside the indus-
try, has lengthened the domestic ice
season, has improved refrigerators
and has increased ice sales.
Association of Hawaiian Pineap-
ple Canners: Advertising by these
canners was started eight years ago
when they were confronted with the
problem of getting the public to ac-


HOUSE NEWS

cept crushed pineapple. Anticipa-
tion of an increase in pack also was
a factor in launching an advertising
campaign. The original appropria-
tion was about $250,000. This later
was increased to about $450,000 per
year. As a result crushed pineapple
was established as a product fully
equal in popularity to the sliced.
The one result was that despite the
fact that the pack was doubled in
five years the consumer demand
kept pace with production.
California Walnut Growers Asso-
ciation: This association started
advertising because production was
increasing more rapidly than con-
sumption. The original appropria-
tion in 1916 was $15,000. It now
averages over $200,000. The per
capital consumption has more than
doubled in the past ten years where-
as consumption of other nuts has
remained practically stationery.
Though the association's output nor-
mally was increasing twenty percent
annually, prices now are compara-
tively higher than before the adver-
tising was undertaken and remain
at practically double pre-war levels.
Copper and Brass Association:
Appropraition in national magazines
from 1922 to 1928 averaged less
than $40,000 per year. Since the
campaign was started the copper
surplus has been entirely absorbed
and today there is an actual copper
shortage. Consumuption in the
United States has increased more
than 100 percent during the past
six years.
Canners League of California As-
paragus: Constantly increasing as-
paragus packs with consumption at
a fixed level has resulted in annual
carry-overs and weakened the price
situation for the League's growers.
With the increased popularity and
consumption $300,000 was appro-
priated for advertising in 1926-27.
The following year $325,000 was
spent. The result of this start has
been a thirty-seven percent increas-
ed consumption with reduced carry-
overs and with prices more favor-
able. In 1928-29 $140,000 was con-
sidered sufficient to accomplish the
purposes since the canners' floors
were cleared by the work of the two
previous campaigns. The current
season's schedule will cost $174,090.
Industrial Alcohol Manufacturers:
This organization stopped its adver-
tising in 1926 but began again in
1928 to offset competition of glyce-
rine manufacturers and Prestone.
The organization spent $350,000 in
1928 and $750,000 last year.
Oak Flooring Manufacturers' As-
sociation: This organization was
confronted with the problem of
combatting linoleum and other floor-
ing material and expanding the
natural market for oak flooring. The
original appropriation was about
$50,000 per year. It now runs about
$125,000 per year. During the past
twenty years consumption of oak
flooring has increased over 1200
percent, the national advertising
campaign being credited largely
with the progress made.
Evaporated Milk Association: This
organization spent $269,000 in


Pare 5


1927; $400,000 in 1928 and this
year will spend $200,000, the de-
crease being due to the fact that
the campaigns of the two previous
years so increased the sales of evap-
orated milk that the organization
felt they had accomplished their ob-
jectives.
Japanese Tea Promotion Commit-
tee: This organization a few years
ago viewed with alarm a decline in
consumption and in 1927 launched
an advertising campaign to increase
consumption $61,000 was spent that
year and the results were immedi-
ately noticeable for consumption
climbed that year five percent, or
one million pounds.
In addition to the above, other
organizations that have profited by
commodity advertising campaigns
include the California Lima Bean
Growers Association, Coffee Asso-
ciation with headquarters in Brazil,
Automotive Wood Wheel Manufac-
turers, Terra Cotta Society, Indiana
Limestone Association, Mahogany
Association, Laundryowners Nation-
al Association, National Kraut Pack-
ers Association, Switzerland Cheese
Association.
Committee Does Good Job
A casual glance at the summary
of the Association's advertising
campaign is enough to show the
reader what has been done. A more
careful study of the summary to-
gether with a study of the review
of the marketing results will reveal
considerably more In short it
should be pointed out that the As-
sociation's Advertising Committee
together with N. W. Ayer & Son,
Inc., the agents which handle the
Clearing House campaign, has done
a remarkable piece of work and the
members of that committee are to
be congratulated on the effective-
ness of the campaign. Due to the
limitation of funds, large advertis-
ing space and "flashy" advertise-
ments in colors were out of the
question. However, the Associa-
tion's largest piece of advertising
copy-measuring 80 column-inches
of a newspaper page-which ap-
peared in several rotogravure sec-
tions of metropolitan newspapers
proved tremendously effective.
These large advertisements of
course dominated the page on which
they appeared and were surround-
edwith human interest photographs
which served to increase the attrac-
tiveness of that page.


NOT GUILTY
Judge O'Flaherty: "Haven't you
been before me before?"
Prisoner: "No, y'r honor. Oi
nifer saw but wan face that looked
like yours an' that was a photo-
graph of an Irish king."
Judge O'Flaherty: "Discharged!
Call th' nixt case."-Exchange.

Not With Florida's
Holland leads the world in per
capital consumption of oranges.
Question: What product of Holland
mixes with orange juice?-Wash-
ington Post.


Pae


o- -




Page 6


Florida

Oranges and Grapefrui

Bask in Radiant Sunshine and
Store UpL Golden Sweetness for You!

You can recognize them by their
weight for size, flavor and thin peel
FLORIDA and nature are partners in ire pre.
duction of oranges and grapeirut Fl,,rdl.
oranges and grapeiruit grow in a I *nd o
friendly) sunshine, a sod l ewed b) maor
lakes and sureams than an) sctl in ih.
union. made richly fertile by regular. soin
warm sho.ers. Picked full rape, packed
and shipped the same day. these glorious
d come fasr and siroignm lo yoar mrke,
They have more jiice, more sweetness and
more flavor-the finest oranges and grape-
fruit grown! If you want the best in oranges
and graprait, call for "Florida." Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House.Associa-
rion, Winver Haren. Florida.


Nzzzlrr


Today, more than ever before in the history of the industry, the people of America have an.
appreciation of Florida Citrus products!
Advertising and publicity of the Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association has
impressed the public with the quality of Florida oranges and grapefruit, with their juicy gooaF
ness and health-giving properties, and with their presence and easy obtainability in the markets.
During the 1929-80 season advertising of the Association was published in leading America*
newspapers, in strategic centers, with a combined circulation of 12,687,8271 Seventy-seven news-
papers were used in all, fifty-seven in the North and twenty in the South. Each was chosen,
because Florida Citrus Fruits had distribution in its territory . . had achieved a reputationI
of superiority there!
Following the established practice of outstanding national merchandisers and advertisers,
consistent sales effort was carried on through these publications, timed in volume with volume
arrival of Florida Citrus Fruits in each market. "If you want the best in oranges or grapefruit
say 'Florida'l" This was the keynote of the advertising campaign.
In four markets alone New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh Florida Citrni
'Ii


FLORIDA CLEARING ( HOUSE NEWS April



Carefully Directed Advertising and Widely Ex

and Increased Accept





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


ided Publicity Have Created Greater Demand

ice for Florida Citrus


9..- .,. -!
'a''- I:4" I'-


S7


Ltd better uses for Florida Citrus
or rotogravure sections, and aa-
Jand adstributed by the Clearing
of the scores of publicity releases
d in hundreds of newspapers
:y. Complete records are on tile
headquarters.


Sun-Sweetened
m and juicy r7pe,.. ,

ia Oranges and Grapefruit

.Are Here!
-, If you can't come to Florida this
.winter... let Florida come to you
FLORIDA is paradise of growing things.
blooming and ripening under the friend.
liest condidons of nature. Florida oranges,
Sand grapefruit are the finest product of
Sr land! They are heavy with P*r.
Straight from golden
II ,,-'


' -I


Growers received an increased return of $2,400,000! And keen competition exists in each of
these markets.
Deliberately prepared to emphasize Florida Citrus Fruits in the public mind and to stimulate
interest in additional uses, publicity material distributed by the Association has already been
published by over 800 publications, with a combined circulation of 35,000,0001 Clippings from
these are on record at Association Headquarters; new ones are being constantly received. Except-
ing preparation and distribution costs, this valuable and widely-printed publicity has been an
Association bonus to Florida Growers.
The Association is dedicated not only to improvement of conditions in the industry but to
the development and extension of markets-and has effectively utilized advertising and publicity
to this end.
As a member all this should interest you, because as a grower it benefits you!
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION,
Winter Haven, Florida.


I


Palre 7


Pare 7


y-~


''' '

-






FLORIDA CLEARING(& HOUSE NEWS


Nine Members Of Present Board Returned To Directorate


Over 3,000 Growers

Cast Vote April 1

In Second Election

Gentile And Trafford Are New
Directors-Committee of
50 Also Selected

Nine members of the present
Board of Directors with two new
members, were returned to 'the
Clearing House directorate in the
Association's second annual election
held Tuesday, April 1. More than
three thousand grower-members of
the Clearing House took part in the
8lction,-,;,
The two new members of the
board are Lawrence Gentile, Orlan-
do, and A. R. Trafford, Cocoa, the
former elected from the state-at-
large and the latter from District
Six. Mr. Gentile succeeds Allen E.
Walker, Winter Haven, one of the
incorporating directors who served
the Association last season as presi-
dent and as treasurer during the
season just closing, and who asked
that he not be nominated again.
Mr. Trafford succeeds Col. R. E.
Mudge of Fellsmere, also one of the
pioneers of the organization, who
enjoys the record of not having
missed one meeting of the Board
in his two years despite the great
distance he has had to travel from
his East Coast home to the Clearing
House headquarters at Winter
Haven.
New Members Well Known
Lawrence Gentile, of the Gentile
Brothers Company, one of the larg-
est independent shipping and grow-
er agencies in the state, is an ex-
perienced shipper and grower and is
well known throughout the state.
His presence on the Board will be
valuable for he has a practical
knowledge of marketing problems
as well as those of growing and ship-
ping.
A. R. Trafford, formerly a mem-
ber of the Committee of Fifty, has
been one of the most enthusiastic
workers for the Clearing House on
the East Coast. He is an experienced
grower, having extensive grove hold-
ings of his own, and is thoroughly
familiar with the problems confront-
ing his own territory as well as the
state as a whole.
The task of counting the votes,
practically all of which had been
mailed in to the Clearing House
headquarters, required the services
of a committee of a dozen growers
who worked throughout the entire
day. James C. Morton, chairman of
the Association's election commit-
tee, was in charge of this work.
Counting of the ballots was done by
districts, a special stamp used iden-
tifying each ballot as that from a
bona fide member of the Clearing


Voting for State-at-Large Directors
(Balloting By Districts)
Nominees 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Non-Res. Total
J. C. Chase____- ---------- 690 236 303 347 365 229 247 350 2767
J. A. Griffin.__---- 609 240 274 309 302 196 237 311 2478
R. B. Woolfolk .-----------.-- 465 159 204 269 304 158 151 232 1942
Lawrence Gentile ------ 358 133 188 236 260 134 103 235 1647
J. H. Treadwell -- 318 107 124 127 116 95 193 116 1196
0. F. Gardener---.....-------.. 282 76 92 94 73 129 64 140 950
D. H. Lamons .....----------. 152 65 57 97 63 56 112 85 687
Total Votes Cast ..._.-----. 2874 1016 1242 1479 1483 997 1107 1469 11,667

Voting for District Directors
(Balloting for Nominees)
DISTRICT No. 1 DISTRICT No. 4
Dist. Non-Res. Total Dist. Non-Res. Total
A M T W n T F. G. Moorhead, DeLand ---- .251 12 263
A. M. Tilden, Winter Haven ... 566 190 756 E H. Williams, Crescent City 124 4 128
C. P. Zazzali, Lakeland ---...---- 164 35 199
DISTRICT No. 2 DISTRICT No. 5
Dist. Non-Res. Total
Dist. Non-Res. Total Phil C. Peters, Winter Garden 216 15 231
James T. Swann, Tampa ---... 162 10 172 J. P. Holbrook, Orlando..----..... 153 20 173
J. H. Letton, Valrico ---.....-. 60 2 62 DT T N
J. A. Walsingham, Clearwater 33 6 39 DISTRICT No. 6 N .
Dist. Non-Res. Total
DISTRICT No. 3 A. R. Trafford, Cocoa..-----..... 232 28 260
Dist. Non-Res. Total DISTRICT No. 7
E. E. Truskett, Mt. Dora---- .. 150 17 167 Dist. Non-Res. Total
R. D. Keene, Eustis ._--------- 95 16 111 Dr. E. C. Aurin, Ft. Ogden --- 219 6 225
James Mountain, Trilby -....-- 75 3 78 R. W. Reynolds, Fort Myers .. 66 3 69


BALLOTS CAST BY DISTRICTS when I say that this election reflects


District No. 1 ----
District No. 2---
District No. 3 ---
District No. 4 ---
District No. 5 ---
District No. 6 ---
District No. 7. ---
Non-residents ------..--


Total


---- 742
---- 259
---- 325
---- 385
--- 378
-- 309
289
---- 382

------ 3069


House. Close to one hundred grow-
ers, formerly not members of the
Association, added their tonnage to
the Clearing House by signing con-
tracts which were mailed out to
some two thousand non-member
growers prior to the election, thus
earning the right to take part in the
election.
The committee which counted
the votes, the members serving vol-
untarily, included the following: F.
I. Harding, Frostproof; E. Winton
Hall and Dr. James Harris, Lake-
land; Theron Thompson, Lake Ham-
ilton; John D. Clark, Waverly; D.
R. Bundy, J. D. Guthrie, W. R. Hill,
C. F. Lathers, Jay Stull and C. H.
Thompson, all of Winter Haven.

Vote Reflects Interest
Chairman Morton, who is also
Chairman of the Committee of
Fifty, expressed his gratification at
the size of the vote cast, declaring
that it indicated an unquestionable
interest and enthusiasm in the work
the Clearing House is doing for the
industry. "I think I can speak for
the growers," Mr. Morton said, "and
I know I can speak for the Commit-
tee of Fifty which has the responsi-
bility of selecting nominees for the
Association's Board of Directors,


unquestionably the genunie spirit
of co-operation among the grower-
members. Those who have cast their
vote cannot help but feel pleased
that their support of the Clearing
House is echoed in the minds of
their fellow growers."
Along with the voting for new
directors, the growers likewise are
adding three amendments to the As-
sociation's By-Laws. The proposed
amendments do not alter any funda-
mental of the Clearing House other
than to simplify the manner of hold-
ing the annual election of officers
and to change the date the new of-
ficers assume their posts from July
1 to June 1. Passage of these
amendments is a certainty although
the total number of votes cast will
not be known until all signed
amendments have been received.

Committee of Fifty
Election of the members of the
new Committee of Fifty was accom-
plished at the same time as for the
new Board, the growers having nom-
inated the fifty members at regional
meetings held last month. The
names of all members of the Com-
mittee of Fifty had not been re-
ceived at Clearing House headquar-
ters when this issue of the News
went to press, but will be published
in the April 25 issue.
The marketing affiliation of the
new Board members as of the sea-
son just closing, is as follows:
J. C. Chase, Exchange; Lawrence
Gentile, Gentile Brothers Co.; J. A.
Griffin, Exchange; R. B. Woolfolk,
American Fruit Growers; A. M. Til-
den, Exchange; James T. Swann,
Exchange; E. E. Truskett, Ex-


MOW COVER CROP AND
LET LIE TO PREVENT
LOSS OF PLANT FOOD
Studies on the decomposition of
green manure crops, conducted by
the Chemistry Department of the
Florida Experiment Station, indi-
cate that citrus growers should
make a greater use of the mower
and a lesser use of the plow.
In these tests, decomposition took
place rapidly when the green man-
ure crop was mowed and plowed un-
der to a depth of four to six inches.
Especially in deep sand, the decom-
position released nitrates plant
food-so rapidly that much of them
was lost by decomposition before
the trees were able to utilize them.
Where the cover crop was mowed
and left on top of the ground, de-
composition took place more slowly,
and a better use of the released
nitrates was obtained.
Since one of the chief objects in
growing green manure crops is to
supply additional plant food to the
trees, it would seem from these pre-
liminary tests that simply mowing
the cover crop and letting it lie re-
sults in a better utilization of the
plant food, especially on sandy soils,
says Dr. R. M. Barnette, associate
chemist, who had charge of the ex-
periments.

CHERISHED HOPE
"Will your people be surprised
when you graduate?"
"No, they've been expecting it for
several years."

change; F. G. Moorhead, Exchange;
Phil C. Peters, Exchange; A. R.
Trafford, American Fruit Growers;
E. C. Aurin, sells on tree.


Page 8


-----------------------


April 10, 1930





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Citrus Exports


The following figures, furnished
by the United States Department of
Commerce, show the grapefruit and
orange exports from New York,
Miami and Jacksonville for the
weeks ending Feb. 15, 22, March 1,
8, 15 and 22:
Week Ending Feb. 15
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London ..... ----- 3,386
New York-Liverpool .....---- 3,225


Jacksonville-Liverpool ------
ORANGES
New York-London .-- ..------
Week Ending Feb. 22
GRAPEFRUIT
New York-London -.-.....----
New York-Liverpool ---.. .....
New York-Glasgow .- ..-
New York-Southampton -..-..


Jacksonville-Glasgow
(Canned) --------
Jacksonville-Bristol
(Canned) --.- ----


New
New


Week Ending March 1
GRAPEFRUIT
York-London-_- .-----
York-Liverpool ---------


6,611
8,618

126

Boxes
6,116
2,998
1,562
723

L1,399
Cases
6,018

300

6,318

Boxes
7,009
3,432


New York-Southampton --.-. 1,470
New York-Hull------ ------- 600

12,511
Jacksonville-Liverpool ------ 8,896
Cases
Jacksonville-Liverpool
Canned) ---.--------.---.--- 684
Jacksonville-Hull (Canned) 300

984
Tampa-Toronto, Canada
(Canned) -------_--------- 1,025
Week Ending March 8
GRAPEFRUIT Boxes
New York-London 4,354
New York-Glasgow ---- 971
New York-Southampton --..- 894
New York-Liverpool --.----- --2,605
New York-Bristol --- ----- 56

8,880


Jacksonville-London


7,562


Cases
Jacksonville-London (Canned) 2,750
Jacksonville-Hull (Canned) 75
Jacksonville-Newcastle
(Canned) ---- .....--. 75
Jacksonville-Southampton
(Canned) ... __2-----........ 25

2,925


Los Angeles-Liverpool
Los Angeles-London


Boxes
---- 5,200
-- 4,151


ORANGES
New York-London --

Los Angeles-London ._--------
Los Angeles-Liverpool _-----


Week Ending March 15
GRAPEFRUIT
New York-London --
New York-Liverpool .-...-..
New York-Southampton --.--


Jacksonville-Liverpool .------

Jacksonville-Liverpool
(Canned) -----
Jacksonville-Manchester
(Canned) .-----------.-.....


Week Ending March 22
GRAPEFRUIT
New York-London ....---
New York-Glasgow .-----
New York-Liverpool ....-..
New York-Southampton -----


9,351
Boxes
140

1,050
27

1,077

Boxes
3,876
1,328
350

5.554
5,410
Cases

175

375

550

Boxes
2,361
1,002
770
307


4,440
Los Angeles-Liverpool ---_--. 5,250
Los Angeles-London --._. .... 6 500

5,750
Cases
Tampa-London (Canned) ...._ 7,801
ORANGES Boxes
Los Angeles-Liverpool -- -- 525


TREATMENT OF GUMMOSIS

AND PSOROSIS OF CITRUS

By ARTHUR S. RHOADS cases by a bark-scraping method of
(Associate Plant Pathologist, Florida treatment, provided they or other
Experiment Station) causes have not seriously weakened
Since gummosis and psorosis the vitality of the trees. However,
usually have not yielded to the hap- the ease of treatment and likelihood
hazard methods of treatment for- of cure are decreased when they
merely used by growers, many grow- have been allowed to go unchecked
ers simply have become resigned to for several years. In order to be
the occurrence of these bark dis- effective, the method of treatment
eases and consider it useless to at- recommended must be administered
tempt to control them. Recent ex- carefully, thoroughly and intelli-
perimental work, however, demon- gently and be followed by supple-
strates that both of these diseases mentary treatments as necessary. It
can be cured fairly readily in most is largely a waste of time and ma-


trial to. attempt to cure trees af-
fected by either gummosis or psoro-
sis by merely removing the loose,
scaling bark, perhaps cutting out a
few gum pockets, and applying car-
bolineum, paint or other prepara-
tions without first doing a thorough
job of bark scraping, as has been
the general practice in the past.
Moreover, many fine bearing trees
are killed annually by growers
through the promiscuous use of un-
tested carbolineums.
Method of Treatment
The trees to be treated should
first be pruned of all dead branches
and those badly weakened by the
disease. All gum masses should be
cut off and all loose, scaling bark
should be removed. The principle
governing the treatment of both
psorosis and gummosis is the elimi-
nation of the invaded outer bark
tissue without interfering with the
production of new, healthy bark
from the cambium, or growing layer.
This is accomplished by scraping off
the outermost layer of diseased bark
and applying some good disinfectant
paste or wash, such as lime-sulphur
paste or wash or Bordeaux paste, as
soon as each tree has been com-
pletely scraped. This allows the re-
maining outer corky layers of bark
to dry out and checks the develop-
ment of the disease. This part of
the bark will slough off later in
flakes or scales of variable size. The
slight exudation of gum from sea-
son checks in the freshly scraped
bark surfaces is no indication that
the treatment will not be successful,
as this is bound to occur.
The scraping should be just deep
enough to remove almost all of the
green layer that is found immediate-
ly beneath the outermost dark col-
ored corky tissue and should never
extend deeper than about one-third
the way through the bark; other-
wise the bark may die. The outer
bark should be scraped thus not
only over all the affected parts but
also less deeply for a distance of
from at least four to six inches
above and below and from three to
four inches beyond the lateral mar-
gins of the lesion in case it does not
extend more or less completely
around the trunk or limb. Discolor-
ed areas that appear when the bark
is scraped about the gumming cracks
in the case of gummosis or at other
points in the case of psorosis should
be disregarded unless the bark is
dead down to the wood or has been
loosened by gum formation beneath
it, in which case the dead bark
should be cut out carefully. Where
the bark over the gum pocket has
died and cracked loose in the case
of gummosis the dead bark need
only be trimmed back to the edge of
the callus formation developing be-
neath. All exposed wood surfaces
should be painted with some good
water-proof wound dressing to pre-
vent the entrance of wood-boring
insects and decay-producing fungi.
The application of a fungicidal
paste or wash to the scraped bark is


of value in checking the develop-
ment of the organism causing the
disease, in preventing subsequent
infection and in stimulating the dry-
ing up and scaling off of the outer
layer of scraped bark. Of the va-
rious disinfectants thus far tested,
the lime-sulphur or lime and sulphur
compounds appear to be the most ef-
fective in stimulating the bark scal-
ing process while thick carbo-
lineums, paints and other prepara-
tions that exclude the air retard it.
Within a period of from six months
to a year from the date of treat-
ment, depending upon the vigor of
the tree and the fungicide applied,
the outer bark will crack loose and
be shed off, exposing the new and
usually healthy bark. The loosened
bark may be rubbed off later with a
wire bristle brush or even with the
hand.
All trees treated for either gum-
mosis or psorosis should be inspect-
ed at intervals of a few months,
especially during the spring and
early summer when these bark dis-
eases develop most rapidly. In case
the bark was not scraped sufficient-
ly far in advance of the disease to
check its development or new infec-
tions have developed, an additional
area should be scraped and treated
as before. Growers cannot expect
an infallible cure in advanced cases
of either gummosis or psorosis by a
single treatment since a second, and
sometimes even a third, supplemen-
tary treatment is required. The im-
portance of scraping the bark well
in advance of the margins of the
lesions and of the follow-up treat-
ments where the development of the
disease has not been checked can-
not be too strongly emphasized.

1,000,000 ORANGES A DAY
CONSUMED IN PHILADELPHIA
At the rate of 1,000,000 a day,
Philadelphia hung up a new orange
eating and drinking record in 1929,
which is quite some record when it
is pointed out that the consumption
last year was nearly 2000 carloads
greater than in 1928. The greatest
number of cars unloaded in the Phil-
adelphia markets in any previous
year was 4317 in 1924........
A detailed report just issued by
the Philadelphia Market News Serv-
ice of the United States Department
of Agriculture shows carlot ship-
ments in 1929 were 5415 against
3449 in the previous year. In single
pieces 5415 carloads would be ap-
proximately 340,000,000 oranges,
there being 360 boxes to the car.
The grapefruit fans did pretty
well with 1185 carloads against 902
in 1928. However, the record year
for grapefruit in Philadelphia was
1924, when 1195 carloads were con-
sumed.
Oranges led all other fruits in car-
lot shipments, 60 percent or more
than 3000 of them, coming from
Florida. All of the tangerines and
all the twelve hundred cars of grape-
fruit came from the same State.


Don't Overlook Those Non Commercial Fruits in Cleaning Up Your Grove


isQSC^ ~"^^^^==s^^^^^^^^^=


Pa- 9


April 10, 1930


Pnag 9




Page 10 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS April 10, 1930




Clearing House Control
In
DOLLARS AND CENTS

Herewith is a summary of an analysis of this season's Clearing House
shipments and auction sales up to April 1st. The net return to Clearing
House growers from the northeastern markets alone amounts to $2,442,-
409 MORE than was received last year in these same markets!
Control of supplies into these auction markets-an exclusive Clearing
House operation-plus the Association's prorating of shipments, improve-
ment of grade and pack and increase in consumer demand through adver-
tising, are the UNANSWERABLE reasons for this showing.


Possibly you didn't know it, but-
More grapefruit was moved into the northeastern states this season
than during the same period last season;
The orange movement into -this territory was practically the same as
it was last year;
Last season's grapefruit in the four northeastern auctions averaged
$1.00 net on the tree;
This season's grapefruit in the same markets averaged $1.73 net on
the tree;
Last season's oranges in these markets averaged 85c;
This season the oranges averaged $1.82;
Last year California sold 5,709 cars of oranges in the northeastern
auctions and ONLY 71 fewer cars this season;
Nearly as many Florida oranges and grapefruit were sold in the west-
ern auctions this season as were sold there last season;
This season California put 3,132 cars of oranges into western auctions
and last year ONLY 2,549 cars.
Florida oranges in the western auctions averaged 56c net on the tree;
This year in the same auctions our oranges averaged $2.01;
Last year Florida grapefruit in the western auctions averaged 78c;
This year our grapefruit averaged $2.05;
To obtain the $2,442,409, GAIN in the northeast auctions, Clearing
House growers paid $148,262.40 in 4-cent assessments;
This means that for every four cents invested by the growers general-
ly in the Clearing House, they were returned 64 cents!





FLORIDA CLEARING \JW HOUSE NEWS


The Grower's Voice

Under this heading will be published
communications from grower members
of the Clearing House Association, who
desire to voice opinions upon matters
of general interest to Florida citrus
growers. The Association cannot, of
course, assume responsibility for the
opinions expressed in these letters, but
believes growers should have the op-
portunity of expressing themselves if
they are willing to assume the respon-
sibility. Communications should be as
brief as possible-preferably not more
than 250 words in length-and MUST
be signed with the writer's name and
address (although not necessarily for
publication).

Hopes For More Control
Plymouth, Fla.,
March 29, 1930.
Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Sirs:
According to my observation, the
Clearing House has done a very fine
job during the present season and
I hope that it will be given even
more control next crop.
Have been working for more than
a dozen years to get our State
legislature to pass a fertilizer law
like the one referred to on page 6
of the "News."
(Signed) J. G. Grossenbacher.

"With Best Wishes"
Oak Hill, Fla.,
March 24, 1930.
Officers of Fla. Citrus Growers
Clearing House Assn.,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Dear Members:
We feel sure that the Association
has done exceedingly well consider-
ing the difficulties that it has had to
Contend with the past season and
trust that this coming season that
it may so demonstrate its value to
the growers that all who are not al-
ready members shall join the Asso-
ciation before the beginning of an-
other season.
Am confident that those managing
the marketing of the crop of this
season have proven their ability
that they can get better prices for
our fruit through the methods of
our Association than through the
old haphazard way of shipping to
which ever market that our fancies
may dictate.
So with best wishes for each mem-
ber of the Association and the com-
ing season we are,
Respectfully,
(Signed) Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Null.

New Baiting Method
"An ordinary pie tin with a hole
in the center just large enough to
insert a short piece of 14-guage
wire. Double one end of the wire
back to prevent slipping clear
through. Insert wire in hole of tin
from top side, bend other end of
wire into a hook to hang on limb of
tree. This leaves the pie tin hang-
ing bottom side up. Mix the poi-
son bait to about the consistency of
thick syrup and apply with a cheap
paint brush on lower side of tin as


often as necessary (probably not
oftener than once a month) for
rains cannot wash the bait off and
it will be constantly present.
"I believe that the poison bait has
been a real factor in helping to
eradicate the Mediterranean fly but
has seriously injured the trees and
fruit and rendered the work of
years and the spending of millions
of dollars in building a reputation
for Florida fruit a loss which will be
very difficult and very costly to re-
trieve.
"The use of sponges for holding
the poison has been suggested and
would, perhaps, cause less damage
than spraying, but rains would carry
the poison from the sponges to
lower branches, and to the ground
to be taken up by the roots. The
sponges would be more costly than
the method which I have suggested,
and, unless placed under cover, lit-
tle better than spraying method."
(The above is an excerpt from a
letter written by M. C. Gray of
Apopka. In the light of recent de-
velopments in the matter of bait
spraying, according to the under-
standing of the Clearing House, the
new spray probably may be applied
with much less chance for injury to
the trees or fruit).


Basis For Compensation
(The following is an excerpt from
a letter written by N. R. Roberts of
Lake Helen which Mr. Roberts sent
to members of the Florida delega-
tion in Congress and to various
newspapers in the north and Flor-
ida) :
"Any citrus grower of wide ex-
perience knows that the citrus tree
is one of the most delicate trees
with which we have to deal, in the
horticultural world. In the fall of
1928-29 the writer's sixteen-acre or-
ange and grapefruit grove, which is
thirty-eight years of age, produced
4,000 boxes of fancy fruit. This
fruit sold readily on the trees at
$1.15 per box. For the 1929-1930
season the writer had a yield in the
same grove of 346 boxes! These
facts should give the reader an idea
of the delicate condition of an or-
ange gro.ve=-and .also demonstrate
clearly the results of one season of
mismanagement. Trees have been
killed in some groves.
"The thing that I request is some
immediate action in compensating
the growers for the damages done to
the citrus groves. Compensation
also should be allowed for fruit
destroyed. In the past our govern-
ment has been very generous to
those who owned real estate in the
path of any government enterprise
or project. Just recently Calvin
Coolidge dedicated Coolidge Dam at
Globe, Arizona. The Indians, who
were forced to leave their lands on
account of this national project
were compensated to the amount of
$156,000. Our citrus groves mean
just as much to us, and are just as
important to our economic welfare
and, in the attainment of a liveli-


Active
Abbate Co., The Chas ----- Orlando
Adams Packing Co., Inc _Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc.
___-- ---------- ------ ----Beresford
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
___- ______. _____ -__-..Orlando
Bilgore, David & Co --Clearwater
Browder-Fowler Packing Co.
------------ ----- Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc.____ ---Plant City
Dixie Fruit & Produce Co... Tampa
Emca Fruit Co ........---Crescent City
Eustis Packing Co., The---- Eustis
Fields, S. A. & Co.__- ..Leesburg
Florida Citrus Exchange .....-Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co--... Plant City
Florida United .Growers, Inc. .
----- Winter Haven
Fosgate, Chester C Co.---- Orlando
Gentile Bros. Co O---- Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co....--... Leesburg
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
--------- ---Davenport
Keen, J. W._ _-- .------- Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co. .M--------- Eustis
Lamons, D. H...----------------- Ft. Myers
Lee, J. C., Sr..... -----------Leesburg
Lovelace Packing Co-Winter Haven
Maxcy, Gregg ---- Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc. -- Frostproof
Merrion & Dodson -- Winter Haven
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co., Inc.
------ --- St. Petersburg
Mitchell, J. M..--. .Elfers
Mouser, W. H. & Co..--.-.. Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc.. -------.. Oviedo
Okahumpka Packing Co.
--------------- ------- .-- -Okahumpka
Overstreet Brothers .---... Palmetto
Orange Belt Packing Co. _--_ Eustis
Richardson-Marsh Corp.--- Orlando
Roe, Wm. G. ------Winter Haven
Roper, B. H. ------- Winter Garden
Stetson, John B. Est. of .--_ DeLand
Sullivan, C ...----- ------- Frostproof


hood, as any lands the Indians may
own, or might have owned.
"I suggest that the growers be
compensated at fair prices for the
fruit destroyed-and also compen-
sated at base rates for trees dam-
aged in Mediterranean fruit fly con-
trol work. A fair basis of compen-
sation would take the following fac-
tors into consideration: 1. Age of
trees and, 2 Amount of damage
done thereto. I suggest a value of
50c be placed upon a five-year-old
tree damaged 50%. Further that
this allowance to reach a maximum
of $3.00 in case of a tree thirty
years of age; trees less than thirty
years of age to be compensated for
in proportion to damages done
thereto. This amount of reinmburse-
ment will enable the growers to pay
taxes, purchase fertilizer, cultivate
groves-and return to a normal
working basis. This compensation


Sunny South Packing Co_ ..Arcadia
Symonds, A. D. & Son .-- Orlando
Tampa Union Terminal Co.___ Tampa
Taylor, C. H._.___--------_--.Wauchula
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
_____---------------------------Arcadia
Associated With Other Shipper-
Members
Armstrong, F. C.--_--___.-___.- Palmetto
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn.
_- --_ ----____- .Babson Park
Blake, Ellis G..___----- Lake Helen
Campbell & Mixon.-St. Petersburg
Cartledge; W. C. ---- Crescent City
Chase & Co..-----.... ----- Sanford
Citrus Grove Dev. Co., The
-__--______- .-- -Babson Park
DeLarid Paciii ng Co .. .DeLand
Fellsmere Growers, Inc....-Fellsmere
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co
___.__ .__-______ ..... Davenport
Indian River Fruit Co. Wabasso
International Fruit Corp. Orlando
Johnson, W. A ------------ Ft. Ogden
Lakeland Co. Inc., The .. Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
-____-_-.........__.._..--- ---Lake Wales
Mammoth Grove, Inc. ...Lake Wales
Middleton, W. D.....-. Isle of Pines
Ulmer, H. D.-..-..--.------Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc...--__... Valrico
Vaughn-Griffin Packing Co.:Howey
West Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co.-___.- West Frostproof
Less Than Car Lot
Lyle, J. P. ..-------------San Mateo
Pinellas Fruit Co. Inc.
_.__-.._....... ---_St. Petersburg
Ufco Packing Co ...-------Ft. Pierce
Not Operating This Season
Flesch Brothers ..---------. Auburndale
Ft. Meade Packing Co.....-Ft. Meade
St. Johns Fruit Co...--------... Seville
White City Fruit Co. ...- White City


mentioned will not cover more than
one percent of the damage done,
and the growers will be more thah
grateful to receive this recompense
at this particular time. It will do a
great deal to relieve economic con-
ditions in our great commonwealth."


FACING THE FACTS
Pat was over in England working
with his coat off. There were two
Englishmen working on the same
railroad, so they decided to have a
joke on the Irishman. They painted
a donkey's head on the back of Pat's
coat and watched to see him put
it on.
Pat, of course, saw the donkey's
head on the back of his coat, and
turning to the Englishman, said:
"Which of yez wiped yer face on
me coat?"-Exchange.


Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of this organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House, as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to join and ship through one of these operators.


SClean Up Every One of The Drops And "Shiners" in Your Grove Before April 15


April 10, 1930


Page 11






Page 12 FLORIDA


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE

NEWS

APRIL 10, 1930

Published Semi-monthly by the FLORIDA CITRUS
GROWERS CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Florida.

Entered as second-class matter August 31, 1928, at
the postoffice at Winter Haven, Fla., under the Act of
March 3, 1879.


E. C. AURIN
J. C. CCHASE .
J. A. GRIFFIN .
F. G. MOORHEAD
R. E. MUDGE .
PHIL C. PETERS.
JAMES T. SWANN
A. M. TILDEN
E. E. TRVSKETT
ALLEN E. WALKER
R. B. WOOLFOLK
J. A. GRIFFIN
A. M. TILDEN
ALLEN E. WALKER
E. E. TRUSKETT
ARCHIE M. PRATT


DIRECTORS








OFFICERS


Ft. Ogden
Orlando
Tampa
S DeLand
Fellsmere
Winter Garden
Tampa
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora
Winter Haven
Orlando
SPresident
Vice President
Treasurer
S Secretary
fnnoral Manager


SUBSCRIPTION RATES
Per Year: $2.00 Single Copies: 10c

Responsibility of
Leadership In Industry
By A. M. PRATT
(General Manager, Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House
Association)
Having been in business most of my life as
a shipper, and now directing the affairs of the
Clearing House, composed of many competi-
tive interests, I am impressed as never be-
fore that great responsibility rests upon the
shoulders of our shipper-members together
with those few growers, who are so keenly
interested as to naturally lend themselves to
leadership in their respective communities.
Our Clearing House is "grower-owned and
grower-controlled." It is organized under
the Capper-Volstead Act. Its structure is
sound. However, the spirit in its ranks will
depend, as it must in every co-operative move,
in every industrial democracy, upon leader-
ship.
View-Point As Influence
The shipper-members of our organization
were recognized prior to the formation of the
Clearing House as logical industry leaders.
They did not then and cannot now avoid this
responsibility. They know that the grower-
members of our organization, whose fruit
they handle as individual shipper-members,
are decidedly influenced by themselves as
leaders and shippers in their view-point to-
wards the Clearing House. If the shipper-
members, from a competitive standpoint, are
luke-warm or somewhat antagonistic to the
industry purposes as recognized in the Char-
ter and By-Laws of the Clearing House, the
growers doing business with that shipper-
member'will reflect the same attitude. If the
shipper-member by habit is continually


CLEARING HOUSE NEWS

seeing and feeling the broad industry prob-
lem, instead of his immediate personal prob-
lem in the industry, the grower-members will
reflect the same big view-point that that ship-
per holds.
No matter how much we talk about this
being a growers organization, this co-opera-
tive, like every other co-operative, is actually
a grower organization only so far as there
exists live grower interest, or its leaders
sacredly protect that interest from a high
sense of duty and honor. If the shipper-
members of the Clearing House fail to see
clearly their duty to the industry, which can
be carried out only in such a move as the
Clearing House, under our present competi-
tive conditions, our Clearing House venture
can be easily diverted from the splendid pur-
poses which gave birth to its organization.
Like everything in life, this organization
must stand the test of indifference. An or-
ganization is only made up of individuals and
the temptation of every individual is indiffer-
ence to certain fundamental purposes in his
life. There always exists the tendency to-
wards the "'what's-the-use" thought to con-
trol and dissipate life from its inspiring pur-
poses that in our best moments we know
should be held firmly in mind.
Purposes Are Sound

There is no question as to the soundness of
Clearing House purposes. There is no ques-
tion as to the business ability of our grower
and shipper members to carry out those pur-
poses. The test that must always come, how-
ever, where disinterested leadership is neces-
sary, is the test of character and unswerving
integrity in clearly analyzing one's own mo-
tives when the individual is formulating his
attitude on matters where there may be some
conflict between broad industry needs and his
immediate competitive requirements.
Every shipper-member in the Clearing
House today holds a position of trust. The
shrug of a shoulder, the lifting of an eye, the
tone of the voice, as well as words and more
definite actions, each have their effect with
the growers that are depending upon their
shippers as the ones who should know more
regarding industry matters than themselves,
-as the ones who should more clearly under-
stand the Clearing House problems than
themselves. It usually is easier to damn by
faint praise than by open opposition, as open
opposition stimulates a sense of self-protec-
tion. Faint praise disarms such a sense.
The Clearing House has no self-perpetuat-
ing machine-control. The Committee of Fifty,
empowered as they are with the privilege of
nomination of directors, is a safe-guard
against business politics that tend to creep
into an organization of our size. In the ab-
sence of active enthusiastic interest upon the
part of the grower-member, any industrial co-
operative is terhpted to exercise control
through cliques or quiet affiliations. In our
organization, however, the competitive rela-
tions themselves existing between our ship-
per-members has so far had a wholesome ef-
fect in precluding factional control. "Equal
privilege to all, special privilege to none"
must not only be the thing this organization
professes but actually continues to execute.


Auril 10. 1930


Growers Feel Need

Of Closer Contact

With Association

In the last few weeks Clearing
House representatives have had the
pleasure of coming in contact with
many growers where informal dis-
cussion took place in the annual re-
gional meetings. At many of these
meetings growers suggested the ne-
cessity of closer contact between
the Clearing House and its grower-
members. One grower said "when p
you talk with any one of the ship-
pers of the Clearing House they 1
talk about two things particularly-
my fruit and that shipper's own bus-
iness. The shipper does not talk
about the Clearing House and we
do not have any chance to talk over
and argue about the Clearing House &
with people that we can meet per-
sonally."
After all we must realize that
personal contact has a great influ-
ence. The grower usually sells his
fruit to or through that man with
whom he is in personal contact. Our
shipper-members are in frequent
contact-by one means or another
-with our grower-members but
these men representing the shippers
are paid to represent the shippers
and not the Clearing House of which
the shippers are members.
The Committee of Fifty are con-
tact men for the Clearing House but
they are not paid for their time as,
all other contact men with growers
are. The only contact the Clearing
House has of any comprehensive na-
ture is through the Clearing House
News. At one of the meetings a
grower made a valuable suggestion
that each Committee of Fifty man
meet with the growers in his com-
munity at least once a month. The
fact remains, however, that general-
ly speaking the grower is without
means of personally chatting over
Clearing House problems like he
should like to, whereas, his mind is
being diverted by personal contact
to many other matters.
Therefore our Clearing House
movement requires more than the
usual amount of genuine interest
and loyalty on the part of its grow-
er-members to insure its carrying on
the fundamental purposes for which
it was organized. Unconsciously we
are being constantly influenced
every day in our life by the many
viewpoints which become known to
us, either through personal contact
or by carefully prepared propagan-
da, by advertising, by radio, by
movies, etc. Our growers should
therefore guard most zealously,
those fundamental things for which
the Clearing House stands.


THE TURN IN THE ROAD
"Is your wife having any success
in learning to drive the car?"
"Well, the road is beginning to,
turn when she does."- Toronto
Goblin.


General Manager




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