Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00033
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: February 10, 1930
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00033
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

i TiE
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R're'ienting more than 10,000 OFFicial Publication of the
,G'owri'pf Or'anges and Grapefruit .l FLORID-A CITRUS G ROW E R'V

lr""i "" -- *Volume II-
Sa.opy. BRUARY 10, 1930 Number 9

SProving Coopertio as as Cash. Association Leads
VI6difig *.ove o FI
.luig .N ee to Defeat Fruit FlyMoe for AidtI
Down Fruit Prices DeState Represented
Dr. Wilmon Newell Declares
Restrictions Forcing Us To (Excerpts from Talk Delivered Growers' Day at Florida Orange Festival, Winter Haven, Need forAppropriation and
Ship More Heavily Into Jauary 24) Modifications Shown in
Auction Markets A doubt has been expressed by United States Supreme Court that Review of Fight
___ many that the Federal. Government in any matter pertaining to the reg-
Ss would continue its quarantine on ulation of interstate commerce, the A ii a i i
Grower-memers of our Clearing host fruits and vegetables from States themselves are perfectly freevinc impressive mass
House are entitled to and should Florida if perchance Congress to act, in the absence of Federal of evidence supporting a request
know about what is being ac- should not make an appropriation regulation in connection with the from the state as a whole for erad-
complished this year in marketing. to continue the eradication work to same subject, and that is particular- ication funds and quarantine modi-
In the back of the minds of most a completion. There are some au- ly true in the case of those meas- fications, has just been presented to
,of us, at the beginning of the sea- thorities which can be quoted on ures necessary to protect the lives the newly-created Federal Fruit Fly
son especially, the thought :that subject. I would direct your and health or property of the citi- Board. The request, made by rep-
that Florida had specially short attention, first, to the special mes- zens of any given State. The right resentatives of practically every in-
crop, and California did, and we sage of the President of the United of quarantine is a right expressly terest in the state was led bythe
should therefore see wonderful States to Congress on December reserved to the States under the Clearing House in two important
prices but these wonderful prices 9th. This is Document 145 of the Constitution of the United States. coerences held with members of
do not seem to have materialized. Seventy-first Congress, in which the the Board on Feb. 6th and Feb. 8th
oiohat's the d difficulty? Seventy-first Congress, in which the States Aren't Bluffing in Orlando.
What's the difficulty? President recommended an appro- States Aren't Bluffing in Orlando.
The most self-evident answer is privation be made for continuing the And now the statement has been Preparation for the two confer-
given in the table of comparative fruit fly eradication work. In that made that those States that have ences was short-in fact only three
auction prices this year and last. message the President transmits the said that they would place quaran- days' notice had been given the
Instead of putting thirty to forty report and recommendation of the tines on all Florida products in the committee. The Clearing House
ent less number of cars in the Secretary of Agriculture and the absence of Federal regulations were however, by virtue of the informa-
auction markets in accordance with Bureau of the Budget, and among merely bluffing. I have in my hand tion it had on hand, was able to
reduced crop over last year, this other things, .they said, over the here telegrams from fourteen of compile the data necessary and
table shows that we have sold President's signature, on December the Southern and Western States- made the briefs and exhibits so com-
9,194 cars of oranges and grape- th, these words: every one~ f these telegrams stating plete that the Fly Bo
fruit as against only 9o,4s cars mdst emphatically, by their appro- a remarkably comrensi B.
'during the same period last year. Exhaustion of Funds private and authorized officials, that of the entire fly situation. Repre.
In other words, there *ere only 351 "All funds available for the con- if the Federal quarantine is taken sentatives of. state interests other
cars less sold at auction this year trol and eradication of the fruit fly off of Florida host fruits and vege- than citrus were quick to show their
than a year ago. Last year up to will be completely exhausted about tables before the fly is eradicated, commendation of the Association's-
the same time we had shipped 7,200 December 15th, and unless addi- those States will place their own fast work in compiling the statistics
cars more. tional funds can be provided it will quarantines, or perhaps embargoes. and frankly pointed out this one ac-
Quarantine Responsible be necessary to dismiss the person- Some of them go even further and complishment as adequate proof of
., The reason of this heavy propor- nel and discontinue all work. Such state that if the eradication work the value of such a representative
tion qf cars being forced into auc- action, viz., the dismissal of the per- does not proceed satisfactorily and organization as the Clearing House.
"tion was because of our quaran- sonnel and the stopping of all the rapidly, they will put on quaran-
tine restrictions which kept us out work, would mean that much of the tines anyhow, whether Uncle Sam At the first conference, which
entirely from the southern states fruit, a valuable crop receipt to has any on it or not. was given over largely to a review.
for quite a long period and then Florida, would, under Federal quar- of the eradication fight to date and
restricted the movement of most antine be denied- movement from Claim Other Reasons the reasons for the Federal govern-
of our crop into the southern and the State." Now, this is true, as I have just ment appropriating funds to con-
icentral states to that fruit which The statement also has been made stated, that so long as the Federal tinue te work, Governor Carlton
was processed, from various sources that if the Sec- government does not establish a personal urged thaa t modifications
At first the trade took hold of retary of Agriculture and the Gov- quarantine on account of the Medi- of the quarantine regulations be
these processed cars quite eagerly ernment of the United States did terranean fruit fly, no State has any made, although, he s~id, "we do not
as the appearance generally was not continue. its quarantines and legal basis upon which to establish wnt a modification of the rules at
not injured but after sufficient took them off on Florida host a quarantine on account of the Med- the peril of spread of the fly. We
time had elapsed to get the con- fruits and vegetables, that some iterranean fruit fly; but here is the believe the fly can be destroyed."
sumer reaction Florida experienced States themselves would place their situation: There are a great many The committee which appeared
Xa drop in the demand and antagon- own quarantines. It has been clear- subjects on which the Federal gov- before the Board Feb. 6th, was
S (Continued on Page Six) ly established by decisions of the (Contimned on Page Eight) (Continued on Page Five)

a 9

Pare 2


An Intimate Glimpse Into Marketing

Have you thought what a unique
thing a Clearing House is-our
Clearing House, of which you are
a member? Fifty odd shippers, or
is it sixty odd? Anyway there's a
big number. Each one is working
like blazes and each man takes
himself seriously. Each sales man-
ager struggles with his own tele-
grams-his special cars that are
his to sell-some of which he knows
by name because he has wired on
those particular cars so many times
that he need not verify the num-
ber. He's "got their number" and
he wonders if that particular car
he is studying on is going to be a
"hoodoo car." Maybe on the car
in question he has overplayed his
hand, the sizes are against it, and
b' '"s~oild have taken that offer
instead of trying to get a dime
more." Maybe it's showing some
decay. Maybe the first place he
thought he had it sold "kicked" it
over and he thought the customer
unreasonable in demanding an al-
lowance. He offered to compro-
mise at fifteen cents allowance but
the fellow didn't answer and he
Hoodoo Is On
He looks at the auctions. He
can't divert to Chicago where it's
high. This car isn't sterilized. It's
headed in the wrong direction any-
way. It won't do to put in New
York. They're too blame critical.
It isn't New York quality. He's got
to sell it. He shoots some more
wires. Meantime other wires come
in and he is relieved to make some
sales of other cars. But all the
time in the back of his brain, this
"hoodoo car" keeps rolling right
along and bothers him. It's been
stopped once and he doesn't want
to delay it more. "Why in hek
don't some of those fellows answer
on that blame car anyway? They
act as if they didn't get a wire."
He requests answer by telegraph
and draws a blank. The car ar-
irives. at Potomac Yards. Nobody
interested. Can't get a decent
Passings to Philadelphia are
fairly light and the auction today
not so bad. It's got to be sold. "All
right-Philadelphia for you." Tele-
graphs his Philadelphia agent,
"must have special effort -go
limit-important-give personal at-
tention." Tomorrow or next day
comes. Among the wires he comes
to this hoodoo car-"Only 3.10!
What the --.. -." He looks at the
sizes. He remembers the slight de-
cay report. He kicks himself for
not knuckling under to that fellow
in Richmond who wanted a dime
more allowance. He hears what
the grower will say. But it's set-
tled. Another tragedy. Nobody
will appreciate what he tried to do.
But it's over and he jumps into
his next lot of wires.
That's just a glimpse of market-
ing of one man. Multiply it fifty
times or more and you get what's

going on with all our shippers. Not
that all cars are "hoodoos." Some
are Lucky Strikes and some Old
Golds. But these bad ones-how
they do bore in!
Human Struggle in Cold Terms
In the wires tonight we get a
prosaic summary of all this human
struggle devoid of all emotion.
"Shipped today so many-sold so
many from to average
- Rolling unsold- Rolling
to auction ." We tabulate it.
In the morning on each of these
salesmanager's desks, we show the
result of the previous day's effort.
The high prices are the ones that
keep the boys perked up, the low
ones that depress, unless he sees
that he wasn't the lowest. Some
one had a worse break than he did,
and he feels relieved. The average
he must make or exceed. He sizes
up the number of cars rolling un-
sold, the number of rollers to each
auction. He sees that the average
is a little higher on the FOB's. The
auction rollers not so heavy and
the unsolds a little lighter, and he
knows that only 900 cars of oranges
and 450 cars of grapefruit will be
leaving this week from the bunch
in the Clearing House. So he
makes a fresh start. "That one
hoodoo car won't get me. I'll play
the game. I can pull up on prices
a little, especially on oranges." So
he again starts his new day and is
believed and happy. The wires are
working right and he is just selling
enough to know he's getting the
limit. He knows his prices are at
least as high as his competitors and
he feels in balance with the whole
A Drawback Somewhere
That's marketing and rather a
personal interpretation maybe. But
it's what every fellow in the game
goes through. If he plays safe and
sells or tries to sell every car be-
fore he ships, he is confronted with
the possibility of selling sizes that
don't materialize except by getting
up a junk car of off sizes or off
grades that his customer won't
take. Or maybe the market picks
up and he finds he sold too low by
the time the car has been shipped.
No selling scheme but what has its
The Daily Spur
Now let's come back to this
Clearing House idea. The Clearing
House gets the bare facts. We
compile them. Each man knows
whether he is high, low or average.
He knows whether he is selling
more or less than the average both
as to price and volume. He knows
what to count on in shipments. He
has by immediate wire today's auc-
tion -results in the eight different
auctions (and this represents about
fifty percent of.the sales), the gov-
ernment figures on shipments and
passing and the Clearing House
(Continued on Page Three)


February 10, 1930

Minutes of Meeting of

Committee of Fifty

A meeting of the Committee of
Fifty was held January 24, 1930,
at the Williamson Theater, Winter
Haven, Florida, 10:30 A. M.
Present: J. C. Morton, Theron
Thompson, James Thompson, F. E.
Brigham, Frank I. Harding, John
D. Clark, F. M. O'Byrne, Chas. F.
Lathers, Dr. James Harris, E. Win-
ton Hall, A. F. Pickard, C. A. Free-
man, W. D. Yonally, W. J. Ells-
worth, Howard V. Lee, F. J. Alex-
ander, J. B. Nordman, T. S. Car-
penter, Jr., J. G. Grossenbacher,
C. A. Garrett, M. O. Overstreet, W.
M. Reck, R. R. Gladin, A. R. Traf-
ford, R. K. Thompson, R. H. Prine,
D. S. Boreland, Rupert Smith,
Henry G. Murphy, Vet L. Brown,
W. S. Bryson, J. C. Merrill.
Minutes of meeting of December
19th were read and approved. Min-
utes of the Executive Committee
meeting of December 31st were
read as a matter of information.
Speech by Mr. A. M. Tilden on
the Mediterranean fruit fly Situa-
tion and the resulting financial
situation. He urged a comprehen-
sive program supporting the offi-
cials while reserving the right to
differ with the officials when you
consider that they are wrong.
The Publicity Committee re-
ported the results of their various
meetings as follows:
After considerable discussion of
the ways and means of stimulating
grower interest in the work of the
Committee of Fifty and of the
means to be used to increase
grower attendance at the meetings
of the Committee of Fifty, the fol-
lowing tentative dates were set for
future meetings: January 24, Win-
ter Haven; February, Arcadia;
March, Cocoa; April, DeLand; May,
Apopka. It was further suggested
that there be a question box at fu-
ture meetings, that there be of-
ficial publicity in the local papers
of the meeting, the publicity to
include the name of the Director in
that district and the lotal district
members of the Committee of Fifty.
It was suggested that it would be
enlightening to the growers to have
a discussion at each meeting of
real importance to the growers. It
was further suggested that there
be local meetings in each district
prior to the monthly meeting of
the Committee of Fifty of the Di-
rector and the Committeemen of
that district, these meetings to be
called by the Director and the Exe-
cutive committeeman. A motion
was made and seconded that the
report be accepted and ordered
Resolution of the Executive
Committee of Dec. 31st was read
as follows:
"Whereas, the Federal Govern-
ment through the Department of
Agriculture has required that all

Florida fruit shipped into the
Southern states shall be sterilized,
"Whereas, they have further re-
quired that all fruit from the ma-
jority of the citrus area of Florida
shipped into the Central Western
States shall be sterilized due to the
infestation of the Mediterranean
Fruit Fly, and,
"Whereas, the Mediterranean
Fly has not been found in any form'
except in one isolated case since
August, and,
"Whereas, the Fly has never
been found in any form in a large
portion of this territory, nor ever
in wild hosts, and,
"Whereas, under this method of
sterilization it is well nigh impos-
sible to market to advantage any
of this sterilized fruit because of
the changed character of the fruit
and the destruction of its splendid
eating qualities, and,
"Whereas, apparently the citrus
growers of Florida have been dis-
criminated against in the imposing
of this sterilizing process, and,
"Whereas, if this method of
treatment should be continued the
value of the citrus crop of Florida
would be seriously impaired be-
cause of the unfavorable reception
of this fruit by the trade and the
consuming public; and,
"Whereas, we feel that it is abso-
lutely impossible for the fly to live
in a territory north of the citrus
section of Florida, because during
the height of the infestation and
immediately prior, (April, 1929)
to the discovery of the fly, a large
volume of citrus fruit which must
have been infested because it con-
sisted largely of cull fruit from the
later infested territory was sold
throughout the southern states,
having been shipped there by thou-
sands of truck loads, and,
"Whereas, a rigid and continuous,
inspection of that territory has
failed to reveal a single infestation
and would indicate that this fly
cannot live north of the citrus belt
of Florida, arid,
"Whereas, we believe this ster-
ilization method is absolutely un-
"Therefore, we feel that the very
life of the industry requires that
the present sterilization method
should be dispensed with, that the
citrus growers of Florida may live,
"Therefore, Be It Resolved, that
we, the Committee of Fifty, in reg-
ular session this 24th day of Janu-
ary, 1930, at Winter Haven, Flor-
ida, do urge and demand that the
Board of Directors of the Florida
Citrus Growers Clearing House As-
sociation do immediately take such
steps as may be necessary to con-
vince the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture that the pres-



ent sterilizing be dispensed with
and that there be substituted there-
for a system of grove and packing
v house inspection to protect the agri-
cultural interests of the other
states as well. as for the protection
of the citrus growers of Florida."
Motion was made and seconded
that the meeting be opened to any
grower to discuss the above reso-
lution. Motion carried. In discus-
sion, Mr. Kirkland stated that pro-
cessed fruit could not be eaten and
that health authorities of Lorain,
Ohio, had condemned a car of pro-
cessed fruit as not fit for human
consumption and discussed the
general' non-saleability of pro-
cessed fruit. Mr. Serdgenian dis-
Scussed the importations of infested
fruit from European countries
which were not processed. Mr. Mc-
Leod stated that sterilization was
still experimental and that instead
of being antagonistic we should en-
deavor to get together. Mr. Garrett
called attention to the substitution
of grove and packing house inspec-
tion for sterilization. Mr. Schultz-
man spoke of the adverse reaction
on processed fruit. Motion was
made and seconded that the com-
mittee approve the resolution. Mo-
tion carried.
The following resolution was
submitted by Dr. James Harris:
"Since the advent of the Secret
Service men in Florida, to investi-
gate activities relative to the eradi-
cation of the Mediterranean Fly,
there have been persistent rumors
'of their having secured informa-
tion of improper activities-some
of them criminal in their nature,
and same are in possession of Wm.
R. Wood, Chairman of the Commit-
tee on appropriation of the House
of Representatives, Washington,
D. C.:
"Be It Resolved: That the Di-
rectors Advisory Committee of 50
respectfully request that Honor-
able Wm. R. Wood make public any
information in his possession, show-
ing any criminal acts on the part
of any person connected with the
eradication work and place proof
of same in the custody of the De-
partment of Justice and use his in-.
fluence in promptly initiating crim-
inal action and in securing proper
punishment for any person who has
been guilty or contributed to any
criminal action in connection with
the eradication work."
Motion was made and sec-
onded that the resolution be
adopted. Motion carried.
The Chairman next read a letter
from Mr. Choate. Motion made
and seconded that the above letter
be referred to the Executive Com-
mittee of the Committee of Fifty.
Mr. Harry Askew of Bartow
spoke on the bad publicity being
put out by the Department of
Motion made and seconded that
thanks be extended to Mr. William-
son for the use of the theater and
to Mr. Tilden for the enlightening
talk, to the City of Winter Haven
for arrangements for the meeting
to be held at this same place this

(Continued from Page Two)
members' destinations with volume
rolling to each of the key markets.
He is not struggling in the dark.
He has the benefit of joint coun-
cils on the crop yet to go. He
knows he will know as' soon as any
one, any chance of lifting of quar-
antine restrictions. He knows the
average sizes leaving Florida and
whether his particular car is larger
or smaller and what the differen-
tial on sizes is, in the appraisal
placed thereon by auction bidding
and he is pretty well satisfied that
the rest of the boys like himself'
are doing the best they can with
this knowledge.
Is that complying with the pur-
poses for which the Clearing House
was organized? What was laid
down in the beginning as to pur-
"To provide the facilities
and agencies through which
Florida citrus fruits produced
by its own member-growers
may be marketed advantage-
ously through establishing a
stable and systematic flow and
distribution of such fruit."
"To promote an effective
method of advertising."
"To improve quality, grade
and pack."
"To promote a more ade-
quate method of regulating
and stabilizing the citrus fruit
"To develop a more thor-
ough understanding of mutual
interest among growers."
The above purposes are quoted
from the Charter which created the
Clearing House.
The growers of Florida less than
two years ago organized this
Clearing House and laid out its
purposes. Over six thousand grow-
ers by direct contact had a voice in
it. Uncle Sam helped them. It
was the first big cooperative move
in Florida that represented the big
majority of grower interests. It
was organized under the Capper-
Volstead Act, with the special priv-
ileges granted grower-controlled
cooperatives and we are now in our
second year with at least eighty
percent of the citrus volume repre-
sented in our membership.
Stable Flow Established
By this move, "To provide facili-
ties and agencies through which
Florida citrus fruits may be mar-
keted advantageously by establish-
ing a stable and systematic flow
and distribution of such fruit" we
have secured for our grower mem-
bers the packing "facilities" of our
shipper-members and the market-
ing "agencies" of those shipper
members. We are prorating and
regulating our supplies by a "sys-
tematic flow and distribution" to
the markets.
The Clearing House itself does
not sell the fruit. Its shipper mem-
bers do. In this regard we are dif-
ferent from the California Fruit

Growers Exchange to which we
pointed out in a previous issue of
the Clearing House News similarity
of structure by contract. That or-
ganization clears all its wires
through the Central Office and on
the commonly accepted understand-
ing of the word, "markets" the
crop of its members under the gen-
eral guidance of its central office
with the consent of its sub-ex-
changes. In fact the Central Ex-
change, because of confidence of
its sub-exchange managers and
members, assumes quite rightly di-
rection and decision in many mat-
ters that are not openly delegated
to this central body by contract.
Shippers Do the Marketing
Our Clearing House does not
similarly assume the duty of detail
marketing direction. Each of our
shipper-members individually does
so, as above outlined. Our growers
who set-up this organization have
afforded themselves the privilege
of selection each year of that ship-
per-member of our organization
through whom, or to whom they
prefer their crop shall be marketed
or sold, and our shipper-members
agree to abide by the rules and
regulations of the Association "in
the sale and distribution for the
purpose of regulating the market-
ing and distribution and obtaining
prices therefore that are fair to con-
sumers and growers in view of crop
and market conditions."
The Clearing House Is in exist-
ence because as an industry prior
to its inception we had disorderly
marketing and distribution. Some
step was necessary that would be
representative of the entire indus-
try. Our divergent interests had to
be brought together for the salva-
tion of the citrus industry. The
Clearing House cooperative move
is non-denominational. It recog-
nizes through its various schools of
thought what good exists in each
of its shipper-member's policies.
The habits established of competi-
tors working together is breaking
down many of the unfounded pre-
judices or fears previously exist-
ing. It is not a perfect organiza-
tion. It may be possibly but a step
in the progress o6f Florida's de-
termined effort for betterment but
it is performing in its regulating
of shipments and its prorating at
auction, a service worth more than
its entire cost. In the information
given to its members it is again
worth its full cost. In its stand-
ardization of grade and advertis-
ing it is worth the full cost. It
has put all its shipper-members on
their toes.
Progress Necessary
Because the Clearing House
move is an insistent obvious de-
mand from the rank and file of the
growers of Florida for the elimina-
tion of unnecessary waste, and for
orderly marketing, our shippers
recognize that the cooperative
move of its grower-members must
be met by service that corresponds
with purposes for which it was or-
ganized. We have through the

Clearing House group action of the
growers. It is natural that there
should be further group action on
the part of our shippers, and any
step that will insure through prac-
tical means and logical growth and
progress, better results to the in-
dustry as a whole, must be taken
by the Clearing House for that is
the spirit and purpose of its whole
In a previous issue of the Clear-
ing House News an editorial from
the Los Angeles Times on Coopera-
tion was published. It mentioned
the mortality of cooperative ef-
forts. The Clearing House is
young, less than two 'years old.
Only four to five percent of the
cooperative efforts in business
lasted twenty years or more. One
of our members that comes under
the "cooperative classification has
already placed itself in this excep-
tional position. It has passed the
age test. Whether the cooppratiey
Clearing House idea here in Flor-
ida likewise will pass this test de-
pends on the many points men-
tioned in that article that deal with
business mortalities.
If we can contribute only for a
few years to Florida's greatest
good we should be happy. If we
can adjust ourselves to the con-
stantly shifting conditions of bus-
iness wherein the Clearing House
shall prove itself Florida's trusted
and tried servant in the citrus in-
dustry, we shall be still happier.
Our one aim can be only that of
betterment. Survival laws in the
struggle for existence, operate just
as surely as the laws compelling
the elimination of the unfit and op-
erate on all alike.
The Curse of Indifference
The organization that you as
grower-members have set up is
under test. It is yours to watch
-to criticise-that it may more
truly fulfill the purposes-yours to
watch zealously that those purposes
be not perverted and that it may
represent the greatest good to the
greatest number. It is yours to see
that neither politics, inattention
nor partisanship play any perman-
ent part. It is yours- to control
and direct through the directors
you elect and through the shipper
you select to represent .you in
marketing, and through the Com-
mittee of Fifty, representatives in
your territory. Its success is de-
pendant upon your interest. It de-
mands this attention. It demands
team work and occasional sacrifice
of the individual for the good of
the whole and some patience and
tolerance, but nothing damns any
cooperative move more surely than
indifference. Criticism, especially
when unkindly or prejudiced is not
pleasant but is far more wholesome
than the habit of completely ignor-
ing that which you created for your
own betterment. For indifference
is and has always been the big
stumbling block in the way of co-
operative progress in agriculture.

Page 8

February 10. 1930


Bait Spray Committee's Report

On account of the intense interest
which has been manifested by citrus
growers and others in the use, by
the United States Department of
Agriculture and Florida State Plant
Board, of a "bait spray" for the de-
struction of the Mediterranean fruit
fly in citrus groves of central Flor-
ida, of the effect of such spray on
trees and fruit and the question of
whether the use of this spray was
justified by the end to be attained,
this question has been quite thor-
oughly investigated by a committee
consisting exclusively of citrus
This committee commenced its
work on December 3, 1929, and in
the course of its investigation visit-
ed and examined a large number of
grovesin.,Polk, Highlands, DeSoto,
Hillsb'odir'igh, Pinellas, Lake, Ma-
rion, Orange, Putnam, Volusia and
Brevard counties. Some of these
groves were within the eradication
area and some outside of it. Some
groves had been sprayed; others had
not been.
The committee completed its work
on January 22 and has just now
completed its report, a summary of
which, together with the conclusions
reached by the committee on this
matter, is published as follows:
The amount of injury caused by
the "bait spray" can easily be, and
often has been, exaggerated. Many
of the groves that have been spray-
ed fourteen or more times show no
injury to trees that can be detected
and but little, if any, injury to
fruit. This is generally true of trees
twelve or more years old that were
in a healthy and vigorous condition
when the spraying began, and were
not allowed to suffer from hunger.
Where trees of this age have been
allowed to suffer from hunger it is
usually not possible to determine
how much, if any, the "bait spray"
may have contributed to their im-
paired vigor.
Injury has sometimes resulted in
groves less than twelve years old
ranging all the way from slight to
severe. Here again the condition of
the trees when sprayed is a very im-
portant factor. If healthy and well
fed the harm resulting to trees of a
particular size is likely to be much
less than when the trees have been
weakened by hunger or other
causes. Vigorous, well grown trees
from eight to twelve years old
usually show but slight evidence of
injury. Younger trees are in much
greater danger of harm from the
spray and serious injury has often
resulted. Where the trees have been
weakened by hunger or other cause
the injury has often been severe.
.Where injury has resulted it is
manifested by the weakening and
gradual death of the twigs and
smaller branches which have been
repeatedly struck by the spray. In

. the most severe cases the foliage on
the living portions of the tree is
sparce, the leaves are small, faded
and lifeless in appearance. New
growth, if any, is weak and un-
The injury has been much more
severe, in groves where injury has
occurred, where the spraying has
been done by power sprayers than
where knapsack sprayers were used.
The damage is much more pre-
valent on trees grown on light,
sandy lands than those on heavier
sandy loams and hammock lands.
The. smaller the tree the more sus-
ceptible it is to injury from the
Pineapple orange trees seem more
subject to injury than other varie-
ties observed. Valencia orange trees
are also injured. Dancy tangerines
are resistent but not immune.
Grapefruit trees, while not immune,
are very resistent.
No injury has been observed
where the trees were sprayed only
four times.
Fruit has matured at least a
month earlier than usual this year,
and there has been an abnormally
heavy drop. This has occurred in
all parts of the State, in sections
where no spraying has been done, as
well as where the "bait spray" has
been used.

Injury to fruit is manifested by
loss of acidity and consequent flat-
ness of taste. It is greatest where
trees have suffered most, and least
where trees have suffered least.
Some fruit has been burned by the
spray; but this injury is not very
In conclusion the committee
wishes to make the following state-
The presence of the Mediterran-
ean fruit fly in the State is a very
serious menace to the citrus indus-
try. Those who assert that it has
been with us for a long time should
prove their assertion. This commit-
tee does not believe it to be true.
If the industry is to live the fly
must either be eradicated or con-
trolled. If control, rather than
eradication, measures are adopted,
all States that have reason to fear
the fly will quarantine against all
Florida products that are hosts of
the fly. This, of course, if the Fed-
eral Government does not do it for
them. These quarantines will con-
tinue until the fly has spread into
all of these States and they have no
longer any reasons to fear invasion
from Florida. It is possible then
that the time may come that un-
ceasing and expensive control meas-
ures and the introduction of para-
sites may bring the fly under com-
mercial control. This condition will
not be reached for many years.
Meanwhile, the industry will have
perished for want of a market and
will have to be started all over
again when the readjustment is
completed. This is not a pleasant
prospect for the present generation
of growers.

Nearly 0S years old is this home and it's still a mighty comfortable and attractive
place. Inset shows the owner, Mat E. LaFollette of DeLand, who came to Florida when
he was-well, he was quite young to be a Florida pioneer, and he arrived here in '81.
The home was built shortly afterward. Mr. LaFollette's grove is not a large one but
his trees are in excellent condition. He has 300 young tangerine trees that he's nurs-
ing into a state of satisfactory production as well as the usual run of oranges and
grapefruit. Obviously the freeze of '95 didn't discourage this citrus grower and his
grove is well worth visiting.

Spray Was Effective
The committee believes that the
present favorable progress toward
eradication is largely due to the use
of the arsenic "bait spray." Nothing
was known that could be substituted
for it and there was no time to
search for a substitute. Its use was
-herefore justified and wise. It was
known that damage to trees and
fruit might result from its use; but
there was no reasonable alterna-
tive. This committee believes that
the beneficial results of the "bait
spray" far outweighs the damage
that has occurred. To blame the
National Department of Agriculture
and the State Plant Board for using
the arsenic spray the committee be-
lieves to be unwise and unjust.
While the "bait spray" was being
used, investigators have been search-
ing for a substitute, and one has
been found containing no arsenic
which there is reason to believe will
prove equally effective. The com-
mittee hopes that this may prove to
be true and the use of arsenic can
be discontinued.
The committee has tried, in this
report, to state the facts as it finds
them, and at the same time not to
lose sight of the peril that confronts
the horticultural interests of the
Respectfully submitted,
William L. Drew, Chairman; John
S. Taylor, Rupert Smith, A. R.
Trafford, Sam Harris.

Committee of Fifty

To Meet in Arcadia

The February meeting of the
Committee of Fifty will be held
Feb. 13, at Arcadia in the city hall
at 1:30 o'clock.
The meeting will be the regular
meeting for District Seven com-
prising Manatee, Sarasota, Hardee,
DeSoto, Charlotte and Lee coun-
ties, and is expected to attract a
large number of citrus growers par-
ticularly from these counties.
The program will be largely edu-
cational in nature, according to
Chairman James C. Morton. Dr. E.
C. Aurin, member of the board of
directors of the Clearing House,
and resident of Fort Ogden, is ex-
pected to make a short talk. Harold
Crews, in charge of the Clearing
House inspection department, prob-
ably will tell the growers some-
thing of the work his department
has been and is doing in the effort
to standardize the grade and pack
of Florida citrus. While there prob-
ably will be some discussion of the
fruit fly situation, nothing definite
in the matter has been announced
for the program.
The executive committee of the
Committee of Fifty will meet at
ten thirty o'clock in the morning,
and members of the Committee of
Fifty of District Seven also will
meet with Director Aurin. The af-
ternoon session, will as usual, be
open to all growers, Whether mem-
bers of the Clearing House or not,
as well as the public generally.

What a Home of the '80's Can Be

February 10, 1930



Speech by Commissioner Nathan Mayo
(Excerpts from Talk Made Growers' Day at Florida Orange Festival, Winter Haven,
January 24)

Despite the hardships which the
citrus industry has encountered this
past year, it is the general concen-
sus of opinion that real prosperity
Sis ahead if we meet our problems
intelligently and courageously.
Even though quarantine regula-
tions have greatly limited the dis-
tribution of this season's crop, mar-
keting conditions this year are ex-
ceptionally favorable. California,
like Florida, has an unusually small
Scrop, and the general expectation is
that even under quarantine regula-
tions our growers will receive $1
or more per box for their fruit this
Year than they got last year, and
that dollar margin means the dif-
ference between success and failure
for many a grove.
Quality Production First
The grower's basic interest must
lie in quality production, and not
in mere quantity. The lack of this
in the past, can be proven by the
fact that gross returns in small crop
years, more than equal the gross re-
Sturns of large crop years, which of
course means smaller returns to the
grower. The markets must be sup-
plied with only the amount and
quality of fruit which will be ab-
sorbed at a profit to the grower.
The grower certainly has no ob-
ject or desire to ship a class or
k quality of fruit on which he does
not make a profit. This does not
necessarily mean that we have over-
production, but no industry can
ship all its fruit at a profit. Control
of shipments can best be accomplish-
ed by making it unprofitable to
everybody to over supply the mar-
kets. It is highly important that the
canning industry be encouraged to
Expand so that it can take care of
grades and sizes which cannot be
marketed at a profit. The need for
additional canneries becomes more
and more apparent as we attempt to
solve "the many problems of our
growing citrus industry.
Eradication Work Halted
The present situation with regard
to the work of eradicating the fruit
fly is more or less disturbing. The
appropriation made by Congress for
this purpose has been expended. The
million dollar appropriation recent-
ly made will- care only for the quar-
antine work. Unless the eradication
program is continued it is entirely
possible that the States in which
favorable conditions for propaga-
tion of the fly exist will undertake
to place an embargo against Florida
citrus fruits. I would like to call
your attention to this fact because,
if there had been no eradication
program last year, very little fruit
could have been shipped from Flor-
ida from this season's crop, and not-
withstanding the losses sustained
and the inconvenience to which peo-
ple have been put, the fact that you
could ship fruit at all must be cred-
ited to the eradication work that
was carried on.

We Must Carry On
Those who insist upon dropping
the whole program fail to realize
that this would mean the destruc-
tion of the industry commercially.
We cannot control the quarantine
regulations of other States. We can-
not ignore their prerogatives in this
matter. Our only recourse is to
have the Federal Government as-
sume this duty, and it will not as-
sume it without the ultimate re-
newal of the eradication program
as a basis for quarantine.
In the matter of reimbursement,
I realize the difficulty of ascertain-
ing just what the damage has been,
both to the crop and to the groves,
but all such damages have to be ap-
proximated and it can be done in
this case as well as in others. When
the foot and mouth disease attacked
the livestock of California the Gov-
ernment and State went 50-50 in
the expense of eradication, and also
in the matter of reimbursement.
The finances of the State of Florida
are such as to render an arrange-
ment of this kind impossible. How-
ever I believe the Federal Govern-
ment will take cognizance of the sit-
uation and ultimately this matter
can be satisfactorily worked out.
Federal Government aid is very es-
sential to restore Florida industries
to the condition in which they were
when the quarantine authorities as-
sumed control, even if it takes more
than the fifteen million dollars
which is under consideration.
Reimbursement Justified
It is perhaps not generally known
that the grapefruit containing the
first Mediterranean fruit fly infes-

station was picked from trees grow-
ing in the experimental plot of the
United States Department of Agri-
culture, Bureau of Entomology, lo-
cated in Orlando. The Federal au-
thorities took over the handling of
the eradication work, and in experi-
menting with the new situation and
with the characteristics and habits
of an insect concerning which their
previous knowledge was largely
theoretical, enormous losses were
brought upon the growers, the cit-
rus industry and the State as a
whole. The growers have co-oper-
ated and up to the present have
taken their losses in a very gener-
ous spirit, but we feel that we are
justly entitled to ample Federal aid
for the purpose of reimbursement.
But Tell the Truth
It has been broadcast from the
housetops that we have millions of
flies, that whole crops of grapefruit
around Orlando have been destroy-
ed by this pest, and photographs of
the Hamlin grove have been dis-
tributed widely as typical of the
ravages done to Florida orange
grove properties. As a matter of
fact, the Hamlin grove is old, has
been neglected, suffered from lack
of proper cultural methods, and it
is believed that most of the drop-
page of fruit was due to the ex-
treme dry weather that prevailed
in Florida last spring. No cause
was ever injured by telling the
truth, and we feel that we should
now make every effort to put forth
the true picture.
Spray Proved Injurious
The use of arsenical sprays was
forbidden before the Mediterranean
fruit fly was discovered because it
damages both fruit and tree, but
this ban had to be lifted under the
emergency and the law to that ef-
fect was passed at the special ses-

Home of a True Cooperator

Captain F. A. Bizzell, one of DeLand's most prominent citrus growers, is a firm
believer in cooperative methods-and with good reason. Captain Bizzell saw North
Carolina strawberry growers, for instance, lift themselves out of the marketing mire
through nothing else but genuine cooperative method-and where results have been
produced, you know, it's difficult (even though one desired) to say that cooperative
methods don't pay.
The attractive home pictured above is that of Captain Bizzell and is one of the
many beautiful homes in the DeLand section. Mrs. Bizzell, it should be mentioned,
is just as good a cooperator as her husband and is keenly interested in the citrus
industry. ..

sion of the last legislature. The
reports which we have from our in-
spection force show unmistakably
that the fruit loses its acidity pre-
maturely from the use of arsenical
spray and when the application of
this chemical is made successively
for a number of years the trees are
seriously damaged, both as to con-
dition of the tree and quality of
fruit produced.
For purposes of comparison we
averaged the ratio of oranges in-
spected by our field force this sea-
son in a district where arsenical
sprays were used in eradication
work and in one where no eradica-
tion work was carried on, and it
was found that the average ratio of
oranges in the unsprayed territory
was 11.65 as against an average
ratio of 27.03 from the groves
where spraying was carried on. This
undoubtedly accounts for some of
the unsatisfactory shipments of
fruit which went on the market.

*(Continued from Page One)
headed by Governor Carlton, Presi-
dent J. A. Griffin of the Clearing
House, J. C. Chase, E. L. Wirt and
C. C. Commander of the Exchange;
C. G. Ware, Leesburg, president of
the State Chamber of Commerce;
W. R. O'Neal, president of the State
Banking Association; B. L. Hamner,
representing the State Realty
Board; John S. Taylor, Largo; R.
M. Shearer, president of the Florida
Citizens' League; Allen E. Walker,
Clearing House director; James C.
Morton, chairman of Committee of
Fifty, and others.
The report presented the Board
by this committee declared a tre-
mendous economic importance was
attached to the task; branded as
false reports that politics had en-
tered into the work or that "the fly
is being planted by officials of the
eradication organization to keep
their jobs going," and asked that
additional appropriations be made
by congress, and the quarantine
rules be modified.
Apprehension Expressed
In reviewing the eradication work
since the pest was found last April
and citing funds already appropri-
ated by congress but which. now
have been exhausted, the report
said it was with "great apprehen-
sion" that growers, shippers and
business men of Florida learned
that the house appropriations com-
irittee "was unwilling to appropri-
ate any additional funds for eradi-
cation work until further develop-
nient of the situation and additional
It was brought out that approxi-
mately $5,000,000 appropriated by
congress already has been expended
in the work, as well as $500,000 ap-
propriated by the state. The report
stated that President Hoover al-
ready has estimated $15,381,000
will be necessary to carry on the
work, and quoted him as saying in
(Continued on Page Seven)

February 10, 1930

Pare 5

Page B


Page 6

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, General Manager, Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association)

Florida Oranges Shipped -------
Florida Grapefruit Shipped ----
Total____a ... ....
Florida Tangerines Shipped-....-
Total____ ___- -
Florida Mixed Shipped---------
Total_____ -
California Oranges Shipped --.-

Feb. 1

Jan. 25

Feb. 1,1929

Florida Oranges Auctioned -- 512 450 526
Average___--------- $4.00 $4.05 $2.92
Florida Grapefruit Auctioned_ 262 266 268
Average __.___.........---..... $3.70 $3,85 $3.07
Florida Tangerines Auctioned _.. 54 63 77
Average ___....... _ $4.20 $4.10 $3.70
California Oranges Auctioned 262 212 321
':" iA ag--___...--_.---. $4.75 $4.75 $4.12

Oranges No. Is Oranges No. 2s
Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Last week ---_---. 177 72 $3.49 345 143 $3.01
41% 41%
This week ...--.. 151 55 $3.54 268 127 $2.98
36% 47%
Difference -_ -.._ -26 -17 +.05 -77 -16 -.03

Grapefruit No. Is Grapefruit No. 2s
Shipped Sold Avg. Shipped Sold Avg.
Last week _----- 129 38 $3.44 158 68 $2.85
29% 43 %
This week -------. 132 63 $3.52. 218 83 $2.81
48% 38%
Difference _------ +3 +25 +.08 +60 +15 -.04.

For Week. Ending Est.
23 30 7 14 21 28 4 11 18 25 Week
Oranges .. 663 737 833 1337 851 317 916 898 776 799 700
Grapefruit. 424 415 413 474 271 144 400 522 462 497 525
Mixed .... 296 365 433 735 601 175 362 502 414 408 400
Tangerines. 50 44 63 153 67 47 103 67 47 36 25
California.. 622 1234 1654 1108' 712 561 722 616 305 549 825
Texas..... 183 154 228 304 231 73 192 308 323 176 100


Last Year
Last week_ 1119
This week_ 1086
Next week 1092

Last Year
Last week_ 1089
This week_ 1013
Next week 871

Last Year
Last week_ 662
This week_ 820
Next week 685

Last Year
Last week_ 395
This week_ 386
Next week 393

Florida Oranges
1927-28 1926-27 1925-26
510 599 666
624 1087 662
438 1018 734
California Oranges
1927-28 1926-27 1925-26
815 1168 945
964 1210 647
988 852 824

Florida Grapefruit










Florida Mixed




1924-25 1923-24
117 No Record
166 No Record
199 No Record


Again-What's Left
During the past week we have
been busy endeavoring to get a still
more accurate estimate of what is
left. We have received detailed es-
timates from shippers in Polk, Sem-
inole, Osceola, Orange, Pinellas,
Highland and Manatee counties
which total 4800 cars Valencias and
600 cars of mid-season oranges or
5400 cars of oranges and 7000 cars
grapefruit. This is the estimate as
of the week ending January 25.
Polk County estimate on grapefruit
was 5450 cars. It was generally felt
that this was probably an over-esti-
mate. Polk County estimate on Val-
encias was 3070 cars.
The Operating Committee went
over the above figures and then took
up the comparative picking experi-
ence of this year's crop as com-
pared with last. Where crops have
been picked the experience in no
way indicates the estimated fruit
left. From our picking experience
it would indicate only 7000 cars of
oranges are left in the State and
only 3500 cars of grapefruit where-
as, the county figures received from
all packers in or out of the Clearing
House would indicate around 10,000
cars each of oranges and grapefruit
left in the State. This every one
recognized was impossible.
After further careful analysis
there was a consensus of opinion
that the total orange movement in
carload lots from the State would
be not over 21,000 cars and the to-
tal grapefruit movement not over
16,000 cars, making a total citrus
movement of 37,000 cars. Estimat-
ing the mixed as containing one-
third grapefruit and two-thirds or-
anges we have shipped to date 12,-
250 cars of oranges which would
leave 8750 cars to.move commenc-
ing Sunday, February 2, or an aver-
age of about 1094 cars per week.
Including one-third of the mixed
as grapefruit we have moved 9600
cars of grapefruit which would
leave 6400 cars to 'move from now
on or 800 cars per week. However,
the majority seemed to figure that
this grapefruit estimate was prob-
ably higher than would be realized
and that 700 cars per week would
undoubtedly move the crop in the
eight weeks left under our present
quarantine restrictions.
Possibilities Modifications
Informal reports received from
many sources indicate a greater
likelihood than heretofore of Wash-
ington lifting until April first steri-
lization requirements with the ex-
ception of the Southern and far
Western States. Also, on account
of the big proportion of late bloom
Valencias and grapefruit there is a
greater hope of a two weeks exten-
sion period in which case 875 cars
of oranges and 640 cars of grape-
fruit per week would have to be
moved on the above estimate.
Our Grower Members Should
Realize Situation
It was recommended that the
facts as above outlined and the dif-
ficulties of moving our crop under
the quarantine restrictions existing

should be handled by each shipper-
member with his growers so that
they would not be expecting far
more than the limits which are pos-
A lifting of sterilization require-
ments and an extension of time will
create a very different situation and
every pressure is being used to-
:wards that end in the belief that it
is perfectly safe for the rest of the
United States effected and the ex-
tension necessary on account of late
bloom fruit being unfit to move
until a later date, and that this late
bloom is the least susceptible of any
citrus to the possibility of infesta-
Prorating Necessary
The Operating Committee limit-
ed our members' shipments to 900
cars of oranges and 450 cars of
grapefruit for the coming week. If
we ship our proportion this would
mean 1150 cars of oranges and 575
cars of grapefruit for the State.
During the week just closed, includ-
ing the mixed cars, the industry has
shipped practically 925 cars of or-
anges and 675 cars of grapefruit.
Comparative Prices
Your attention is again called to
this year's auction prices as com-
pared with a year ago. 672 cars of
oranges sold this week at a general
average of $4.00 as compared with
only 526 cars a year ago at $2.92,
or over a dollar higher this year.
262 cars of grapefruit averaged
$3.70 as compared with 268 cars a
year ago at $3.07, or 63 cents
higher this year and in both cases
practically the same volume was
sold at the same auctions.
These general average figures for
the week include, it is true, Indian
River fruit. During the week 77
cars of Indian River oranges sold
at $4.90; 435 cars of regular or-
anges sold at $3.85, or a dollar less,
yet those 77 cars only raised the
total average 15 cents; namely to
$4.00. Likewise in grapefruit 42
cars of Indian River grapefruit
averaged $4.65; 220 cars of regular
grapefruit averaged $3.55, or a
$1.10 premium on Indian River, yet
those Indian River grapefruit cars
only raised the general average 15
cents; namely to $3.70.

(Continued from Page One)
ism in many places to Florida
fruit, such as had never been ex-
perienced in the history of the in-
dustry. Therefore, instead of hav-
ing a reduced crop to market we
have had practically the same vol-
ume of fruit to market as last year
in the limited area to which we
could move under normal condi-
There has been one surprisingly
good feature that should not be
ignored i. e. regardless of the fact
that week after week-if you will
go over this table-you will see
that we have put in practically the
same number of cars into the auc-

February 10. 1930

February 10. 1930

tions as a year ago yet the aver- kets b
age on oranges has been seventy- them w
seven cents higher and the -average Go (
on grapefruit sixty-six cents detail
higher than last year. In grapefruit what h;
you will notice we have sold 271 the ora
more cars in these markets than out bad
for the same time a year ago and given b
yet averaged sixty-six cents per due to
box more. fornia
S Have Trade's Confidence we wel
The reason for the better prices which
for this year can be explained by which
the confidence of the trade as well C
as the confidence of our own ship-' Any
pers. We took hold of this prob- auction
Slem vigorously; our shipments were over pr
regulated, the trade knew they eral co
Were being regulated and were ercise
not fearful of being flooded unex- It is th
Spectedly with supplies that would make p
Spring about serious losses to them only wi
on their purchases. Not only did plies at
we regulate our supplies from week lines t!
to week by prorating but our sup- lowed;
plies to the auction markets were ments
regulated. Prorating at auction rating
has been highly beneficial to the various
trade as well as our growers be- Clearin
cause of the stabilizing influence than th
of our prorating committees and is wort
the fact that for the first time per bo)
Florida-in most of the auction which
markets-was steadying those mar- brought
Season Season
1929-1930 1928-1929
Week Ending Cars. Avg. Cars. Avg.
Sept. 14 ----.........--- ....-- -- ----
Sept. 21 --------- ------ -
Sept. 27 --. -----
Oct. 5 1 2.15 -
Oct. 12 -- --- -
Oct. 19 -- 6 2.90 21 3.38
Oct. 26 ---- 27 3.45 85 3.73
Nov. 2 -.---- 72 3.15 71 5.30
Nov. 9 ..----. 124 3.25 300 4.25
Nov. 16 ------- 140 3.35 507 2.99
Nov. 23 ------ 256 4.25 497 3.15
Nov. 30 ------- 321 4.00 325 3.10
Dec. 7 ------ 434 3.65 337 3.05
Dec. 14 447 4.00 387 3.23
Dec. 21 634 4.10 565 3.42
Dec. 28 ---- 302 4.25 342 3.58
Jan. 4 ---- 313 4.70 274 3.64
Jan. 11 _--- 549. 4.45 573 3.28
Jan. 18 ------- 575 4.10 575 3.18
Jan. 25----- 450 4.05 400 3.06
Feb. 1 512 4.00 526 2.92

Totals ....----.. 5,163


5,785 3.29

(Continued from Page Five)
a special message to the house that
With exhaustion of funds already
made available "there would be
grave danger that the infestation
would increase" unless additional
Funds were made available imme-
The report said that the number
of flies in Florida already had been
k so reduced that only one infestation
had been found since Aug. 27, last,
and none since Nov. 16. Those
figures compared, the report added,
with 364 infestations in April; 378
in May; 185 in June; 64 in July and
eight in August up to Aug. 27.
a Questions At Issue
"It seems clear to the committee,"


y systematically supplying
ith an even flow of fruit.
>ver the following table in
nd see with your own eyes
as happened each week. In
nge comparisons we started
ly from the record herewith
ut we all know that this was
abnormal supplies of Cali-
late valencia oranges that
e competing with, with the
rily poorly colored cars
had to be shipped so early.
control Only In Groups
shipper selling his cars at
has practically no control
ices. There is only one gen-
ntrol that the seller can ex-
and that is in group action.
.e total supplies offered that
rices go up or down and the
ay to regulate the total sup-
auction has been along the
he Clearing House has fol-
namely, by regulating ship-
to start with and then pro-
those offerings in the
auction markets. If the
g House did nothing else
is it has done something that
h many times the four cents
Invested in the purpose for
the Clearing House was
t into existence.
Season Season
1929-1930 1928-1929
Cars. Avg. Cars. Avg.



4,031 4.22 3,760 3.56

the report stated, "that the only
material questions which are of in-
terest to the house appropriations
committee in considering the re-
quest of the President for an appro-
priation to continue the eradication
campaign, are 'what is the economic
importance of the menace afforded
by the presence of the Mediterran-
ean fruit fly in Florida?' And 'is
there any reasonable probability of
the accomplishment of eradication,
and if so can it be accomplished at
a cost justified by the seriousness
of the problem?'
"To the State of Florida, as well
as to the entire nation, the economic
menace presented by the presence
of the fly is tremendous, almost in-
calculable. Failure in the campaign
of eradication might be expected to
bring financial disaster of the first
magnitude to the State of Florida
and its citizens, as well as later to

Ferury10 13


the other fruit producing states of
the south and west, and in the sum
total, calamitous losses upon the en-
tire nation.
Big Economic Problem
"A tremendous economic problem
is involved. Even casual considera-
tion of this problem brings home
the positive advisability of contin-
uing, so long as there is a reason-
able chance of success, the cam-
paign of eradication, as by all means
the cheapest course in the long run
and the only course offering any
final relief. For, if once there be
the assurance of eradication suc-
cessfully completed, all the loss is
stopped. The only hope, indeed, for
return to normalcy lies in the com-
pletion of eradication.
"So long as the Mediterranean
fruit fly is a dangerous insect pest,
not widely prevalent or distributed
in the United States, and so long as
there remains any infested area,
less than general in scope, it may be
expected that Federal quarantine
shall remain in force against such
infested areas. In the event of en-
forced abandonment of the eradica-
tion program from lack of funds,
lack of co-operation on the part of
Florida or her citizens, or for any
other reason than the occurrence of
a general infestation, the probable
attitude of the Department of Agri-
culture would be to place an abso-
lute embargo on Florida.
"Not only is the fly problem one
of grave economic importance be-
cause of the immensity of the inter-
ests involved, directly and indirect-
ly, and because of the attitude of
the Federal government and of the
several southern and western states
with reference to quarantines and
embargoes, but there is the possibility
of ruinous foreign competition in
the fruit and vegetable markets of
our nation from areas whose pro-
ducts are now excluded and have
been for years under the Federal
quarantine against the Mediterran-
ean fruit fly.
Federal Problem
"The very fact that the Secretary
of Agriculture and the President
have addressed to congress their re-
quests for additional large appropri-
ation for eradication work is posi-
tive proof that the government sci-
entists have strong confidence in the
success of the effort. There is strong
proof that the people of Florida un-
derstand the gravity of the situa-
tion and are thoroughly convinced
that the problem now confronting
them is a Federal problem for the
solution of which an adequate ap-
propriation of Federal funds is an
imperative necessity.
"It is wholly futile to engage in
argument touching on the amount
of money required for finishing this
job. "When the economic problem is
as vital as it is, and when eradica-
tion seems almost within grasp, an
expenditure of funds largely in ex-
cess of the amount requested by the
President would be wholly justified
if required. This committee con-
tents itself with expressing its will-
ingness to stand back of the figures
set by the Secretary of Agriculture


Page 7

and approved by the President.
The request for quarantine modi-
fications, as presented to the Board
Feb. 8th, was based primarily upon
the proposal to do away with pro-
cessing of fruit for the middle west,
in that this has been a commercial
failure despite an earnest and stren-
uous effort by shippers of the state
to comply with this regulation.
Chairman W. C. O'Kane of the
Board, in replying to the commit-
tee's statement, expressed the opin-
.ion that unsatisfactory results in
processing had been caused by im-
proper methods, stating also that
Florida should not lose sight of the
fact that our most important job
is that of eradication of the fly.
The committee's report, read by
Spessard L. Holland, attorney for
the Clearing House, was supple-
mented by data compiled by Judge
Holland and General Manager A. M.
Pratt and follows in part:
"It seems clear to this committee
that the removal of the handicap im-
posed by sterilization requirements
for shipment to the mid-west will un-
doubtedly have an important bear-
ing in actually contributing to the
probability of early completion of
the eradication effort. In the first
place, such action would permit the
marketing of all of the fruit now on
the trees to financial advantage, so
as to enable the growers to partially
recoup their losses and to continue
more easily their existence as pro-
ducing factors. Such a situation
would, of course, enable them to
continue their co-operation hereto-
fore whole-heartedly given in the
eradication effort in a way which
will be impossible if they become
too greatly impoverished. This point
may be properly made not only with
reference to the prices of fruit to
be received during the balance of
this season, but also in the consider-
ation of the market conditions
which should be expected in future
seasons. From all prospects at the
present time, the industry must look
forward to a very large crop for
next season, bringing problems
much greater than those presented
in the marketing of the present
"It would be of tremendous ad-
vantage to have regained -some of
the lost markets and some of the
lost good-will before the close of
the present season, so as to be able
to begin the disposal of the much
greater anticipated crop of next
year, free from some of the handi-
caps now existing. To those who
are inclined to think that. the re-
moval of the sterilization require-
ment for shipment to the middle
west would be of little practical ef-
fect this year, because of their be-
lief that the principal reason for the
attitude of the market towards ster-
ilized fruit has been 'abnormality
resulting from the bait spray, it
should be pointed out that almost
all of the crop now remaining to be
marketed is free from any extreme
effect of the bait spray campaign.
Of the approximately 16,000 cars
remaining, according to the esti-
mates of the Clearing House which
are carefully compiled from all

Pare 8


available sources, there now re- Modification Requested Is
mains in the state for shipment Reasonable
some 7,000 cars of grapefruit and "In view of the situation as dis-
9,000 cars of oranges. It should be cussed hereinabove it appears to
remembered with reference to this committee that it is by all
grapefruit that there has been no means desirable and even impera-
serious claim made anywhere amidst tively necessary, if justice is to be
all the troubles of the current sea- done, that the sterilization require-
son that grapefruit has been seri- meant for shipment into the mid-
ously affected either as to taste or west be abandoned at this time, if
to other selling characteristics, by such can be done without doing vio-
the effect of the bait spray alone. lence to the probability of success
Minimum Damage Done of the eradication campaign. In this
"Turning to the 9,000 cars of or- connection this committee desires
anges left, it is particularly encour- to call attention to the fact that it
aging to note that from all esti- is not asking for the opening up of
mates about 60% or more, of these the south at this time because it
oranges are in the Polk and High- considers that such a request would
lands County districts where little be untimely and unreasonable. It
harmful effect of the spray has been does feel, however, that the situa-
observed because of the fact that tion in the eradication campaign is
there was very limited spraying now so favorable that it is reason-
done in those localities. Taking the able to urgently request and to con-
remaining oranges as a whole, it fidently expect the opening up of
appears that close to three-fourths the mid-west. The record of accom-
oi;themare free from harmful ef- plishments in the eradication pro-
fects by the spray, so as to enable gram is so impressive as to lead to
the Florida shippers, if they be al- the conclusion that the restriction
lowed to go into the mid-western which was perhaps reasonable at a
Markets with this fruit in its natural former stage of the campaign is
condition, to regain much of the lost now no longer reasonable.
confidence and good-will. In the "This committee desires in this
opinion of this committee this would connection to reiterate and approve
be of tremendous benefit in dollars the statement of the Governor of
and cents for this year's crop, but Florida made to this Board on the
of even greater benefit because of occasion of the former hearing,
its permanent influence upon the strongly supporting the reasonable-
situation in the mid-west. ness of the requested modification
"The second particular in which at this state of the campaign. In
this committee feels the probability the former brief of this committee
of eradication would be surely en- attention was directed to the fact
hanced by the granting of this re- that as the program has developed
quest has to do with the morale of many amendments of the quaran-
the growers. Generally speaking, tine regulations have been granted,
the growers of the state are con- all because of the progress that was
versant with the tremendous advan- being made. The present quaran-
-tage which would be given to them tine and the regulations in connec-
by the opening of the mid-western tion therewith are vastly different
markets. Generally speaking, the from the original quarantine regu-
growers likewise consider that it is lations solely because of the tre-
reasonable to open these markets at mendous progress made thus far.
this time and that the splendid re- Since December 2nd, however, there
sults obtained in the campaign in has been no appreciable ameliora-
which they have whole-heartedly co- tion of the regulations, and in fact
operated, entitles them to the addi- there has been no major modifica-
tional consideration which is now tion since November 27th, on which
being asked. This committee feels date heat sterilization was approv-
that the major cause of the irrita- ed and authorized as to oranges,
tion and vexation which has mani- tangerines and satsumas. This com-
fested itself in many quarters mittee feels that the fact that more
among the growers would be re- than two months have elapsed from
moved with the opening of the mid- said date, coupled with the fact that
west and that the growers would be no trace of the fly in any stage has
vastly strengthened in their deter- been found in said period, coupled
mination to proceed with the eradi- with the further fact that the fly
cation at all costs by the extension has been found only once since Aug.
of the relief requested. 27, and on no occasion since Nov.
"The third particular in which 16, creates an extremely favorable
this committee feels that the gen- situation justifying and requiring
eral program of eradication would progressive modification at this
be largely served by the granting of time. It must be noted as well that
this request is that which has to do the efficiency of the quarantine in-
with the positive necessity as viewed section has been steadily advanc-
by this committee of creating a real ing so that it is undoubtedly more
host-free period by the earliest time efficient at the present time than it
possible and with the greatest cer- has ever been heretofore.
tainty obtainable. This committee
feels that the opening of the mid- Market Expansion Necessary
west would create such a sure op- "In conclusion this committee de-
portunity for advantageous conver- sires to call clearly to the attention
sion of all the remaining crop into of this Board the end which is so
money that the fruit would be strongly desired not only by this
cleaned up in a measure which can- committee but by the citrus indus-
not be otherwise so easily or so per- try and the business interests of
fectly attained. Florida and, without doubt, by this



Honorable Board itself. This end is
to move with greatest certainty and
the greatest speed possible and at
the best prices obtainable all of the
remaining citrus crop in Florida.
This committee is strongly of the
opinion that the best means avail-
able to accomplish this end is to
open up the mid-west as herein
strongly requested. It is apparent,
however, that other alternatives are
available which might possibly ac-
complish entirely or in part the de-
sired purpose. These alternatives
number among others the extension
of the time limit for shipping, the
cutting down of the eradication
area so as to omit therefrom all of
the previous Zone 2 territory and
possibly much of the previous Zone
1 territory in which there was never
any heavy infestation, or, third, the
pressing of the present arrangement
with full knowledge that much fruit
may not be moved by the expiration
of the time limit, which will involve
possibly removal and destruction of
said fruit by public agencies and
possible demands for compensation
"As stated above, this committee
reiterates that it considers the open-
ing of the mid-west as by all means
the reasonable course to pursue and
the one which promises the most ef-
fective and satisfactory results in
every particular. In the event this
Honorable Board decides that one
or the other of the alternatives offer
a more perfect solution of the prob-
lem, this committee will not only
bow to the decision but will co-
operate as heretofore. But this com-
mittee feels itself impelled in good
conscience to assert its own strong
conclusion on this subject and to
earnestly and insistently request
that the Board may see fit to rec-
ommend the immediate opening of
the mid-west."

(Continued from Page One)
ernment has not undertaken to reg-
ulate the interstate movement of
fruits and vegetables, and these
States can place an embargo upon
our citrus fruits, peppers, tomatoes,
eggplants or any other host fruit or
vegetable, or non-host fruit or veg-
etable, on the ground of there being
some other pest in this State. The
State of Texas has a quarantine on
our products today on that basis,
regardless of the fact that the Fed-
eral Government has regulation of
the movement, and the legal basis
for that Texas quarantine is abso-
lutely solid.
Add Cost of Control
Let's look ahead a little bit fur-
ther. If we keep the fruit fly, our
growers will have to stand the cost
of controlling that insect. Now,
whether that cost of control is much
or little, it is going to be added to
our cost of production. Consequent-
ly, the cost of production goes up
and competition in our markets in-
creases. There is a point beyond
which we cannot increase cost and

February 10, 1930

decrease revenues without coming
to the point where we cannot sur-
vive at all.
Some people say that since the
fruit fly has not been found in Flor-
ida but once since August 27th, and
not at all since November 16th, it is
gone; or else claim the fly has dis-
appeared of its own accord. We
would perhaps.be inclined to think
that way if it were mosquitoes or
potato bugs or some of these insects
that have been with us a long time.
What we are after here is not the
control of this insect, but its eradi-
cation. Eradication means extermi-
nation, and that means getting
every lost living fly in the State of
Florida so that there can be no fur-
ther flies after that.
"Needle in Haystack"
You say your inspectors have
searched the eradication area and
all the State of Florida time and
time again during these last few
months and have found no flies.
True,-but now let's see: We have
680 inspectors looking for the fly
throughout the State of Florida
right now. If you were to take 680
of the most intelligent, active,
brightest men you could find and
tell them to go over the 54,000
square miles in the State of Florida
and find every cow and every pig,
how long do you think it would
take them to do it? A pig or a cow
is a whole lot easier to find than a
tiny insect smaller than a house fly,
and it is perfectly silly and ridicul-
ous to say that 680 or 6,800 or any
other number of inspectors can
comb all of the woods and groves
and places in the State of Florida
closely enough in four or five
months to be able to say "We have
looked and can't find a fly any-
where, and we know it is gone." It
is silly, and would be silly.
Found in Clean Grove
One infestation was found west
of Orlando on November 16th. It
was an accidental finding-it was
f ankly admitted the infestation
consisting of four fruit larvae in
one orange, and after it was found
a most careful and exacting search
failed to reveal any more, and no
pupae were found in the soil be-
neath the tree and no adult flies
could be found by dusting the trees
with cyanide with blankets spread
beneath the trees to catch the flies.
The four larvae were all that could
be found.
What is the significance of this
little infestation which was found
on November 16th? It was found
in a grove that was well cared for,
had been thoroughly cleaned, and
had been gone over time and time
again by the owner and inspectors
to get every possible fruit that re-
mained there of last season's crop.
That grove had been sprayed; the
wild host plants had been cleaned
up very thoroughly in the edge of
the woods and along a little stream
near it, and yet, despite all of that,
some how, some way, at least one
Mediterranean fruit fly got through
all those sprayings and all that
cleaning up and deposited eggs in


an orange of this season's crop.
Now, then, if that happened there
you might as well recognize the fact
that it happened elsewhere in this
area where there were plenty of
flies this spring. It has--it pos-
sesses-a sinister significance which
we cannot afford to overlook.
Especially Co-operation
Can we regulate the fly? The
' progress that was made from a con-
dition where there were millions of
fruit flies over rather large areas
last May to one in which no fly
could be found in four months
ought to be evidence that if we con-
tinue in general the same methods
that we have used we will eventual-
ly get every fly in existence, wheth-
er that fly is ever found or not. Of
course, one thing is necessary. The
work of eradication cannot be car-
ried on without money. The amount
of money necessary is more than
the State Government of Florida
Scan possibly supply; therefore, the
National Government has been ask-
ed for funds and if that money is
forthcoming from Congress there is
one thing more that is necessary if
we are to eradicate this fly, and that
is the desire on the part of the
growers and citizens of Florida to
complete the eradication of the in-
sect. The co-operation and support
and active work of the people is
necessary. I have said from the
very beginning that the people of
Florida could defeat the eradication
effort at any time, and I am saying
it still today, and I will continue to
say it until this battle is won or lost.
Now, I have sufficient confidence in
the metal of the men in the citrus
and vegetable industries in Florida
to believe that they won't lie down
and quit when they have already
gone over the top and there is noth-
ing left to do but to keep up.
Hesitated to Use Spray
There has been considerable dis-
cussion about using arsenic spray.
Now, then, let me say this to you,
that there wasn't any one connected
with the United States Department
of Agriculture or the State Plant
Board of Florida that ever wanted
to put arsenic on those trees. The
necessity for doing it was recog-
nized with fear and trembling, but
here was the situation: In all the
world-in all the countries where
the fruit fly is known to occur, the
only agent that had ever been found
effective in killing adult flies was a
spray containing lead arsenic. It
was therefore a question of either
spraying with arsenic solution and
killing off the flies, or not spraying
and letting the fly stay with us. The
Department of Agriculture and the
State Plant Board chose the lesser
of two evils, and I think any intel-
ligent grower, on mature considera-
tion, will agree that that was the
wise course to pursue.
New Spray Found
The research work conducted by
the Department of Agriculture,
under Dr. A. C. Baker's direction,
at Orlando, during which every
known insect pest was tested, dur-
ing the past summer, has resulted

in the finding of two or three cop-
per compounds which seem to be
just as effective when used in the
sugar and water spray. Therefore,
should it be found necessary to
carry on spraying for the fruit fly
in the future-and I am not saying
whether it will or not; that is a
question that will have to be passed
on by the new Fruit Fly Board-
but I am saying to you that appar-
ently the necessity of having to use
arsenic in spraying for fruit fly no
longer exists; something else can
and will be found in the future
whenever such a thing is necessary.
But Control Costs
Somebody has said that we ought
to control this fly and not try to
eradicate it. Well, I guess we have
controlled it this summer. It has
cost four and a quarter million dol-
lars to control it for six months.
Now, then, it is quite certain that
Uncle Sam wouldn't continue fur-
nishing money at that rate. We
know the State Treasury couldn't
do it, and I am not sure, but I don't
think the growers could stand that
kind of a bill; and when somebody
tries to tell you about control of
the fly instead of eradication, just
think about that.
Somebody has proposed that you
just let this fly have his own way
and get in some parasites here.
Parasites are a good thing to en-
courage. Parasites have been im-
ported from foreign countries and
have been coddled and nursed and
once in a while we succeed-once in
a while we get a parasite to the
point where we find it increasing to
the point where it is a very helpful
medium. Now, in Hawaii, where the
Mediterranean fruit fly made its ap-
pearance in 1910, they set to work
right away to introduce a parasite,
and I understand that after fifteen
years of effort and after the loss of
practically all of their fruit crops,
they have gotten the parasite fairly
well established. I don't think that
here in Florida the citrus industry
can very well afford to linger
around with quarantines and embar-
goes for fifteen years waiting for
a parasite to get a death grip on the
At the Fork in the Road
Let me reiterate this: We have
come now to the fork in the road in
this fruit fly business. One road is
the eradication road, and down that
road a little way is the abolition of
all quarantines, and a little way fur-
ther a return to normal conditions
which we enjoyed before the fruit
fly was ever found. Down this other
road, there are quarantines just as
far as we can see, and we know
that when we go down that road far
enough maybe twenty-five years
in the future-to get beyond the
quarantines when the pest has
spread to the other States, we can
still see tremendous expenditures
necessary for keeping this fruit fly
under control and we can see in-
creased foreign competition in our
If Congress makes that appropria-
tion, the choice between the two
forks of the road is yours, and when

Abbate Co., The Chas-___ ....Orlando
Adams Packing Co., Inc__Auburndale
Alexander & Baird Co., Inc.
-_------_ -.____--________ Beresford
American Fruit Growers, Inc.
Bilgore, David & Co.......Clearwater
Browder-Fowler Packing Co.
_-- -- ____-___-_____.__---__-._ Arcadia
Burch, R. W., Inc. ---__- Plant City
Dixie Fruit & Produce Co.....Tampa
Emca Fruit Co. .........-Crescent City
Eustis Packing Co., The _--.--- Eustis
Fields, S. A. & Co...--..---. Leesburg
Florida Citrus Exchange--____- Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co._- Plant City
Florida United Growers, Inc.
------ -- Winter Haven
Fosgate, Chester C Co. ...- Orlando
Gentile Bros. Co ----- Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co.......--- Leesburg
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
__-- -___ ---____ ---_.. Davenport
Keen, J. W._ ------. Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co.. ----__---_Eustis
Lamons, D. H. ....---------Ft. Myers
Lee, J. C., Sr. .....--------- Leesburg
Lovelace Packing Co Winter Haven
Maxcy, Gregg.. --------Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc.. ----_-----Frostproof
Merrion & Dodson -- Winter Haven
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co., Inc.
_--__ -_ St. Petersburg
Mitchell, J. M. __---------Elfers
Mouser, W. H. & Co ..--..-. Orlando
Nelson & Co., Inc. ---- Oviedo
Okahumpka Packing Co.
-___-.._.________.__.----- Okahumpka
Overstreet Brothers ----....Palmetto
Orange Belt Packing Co.-..... Eustis
Richardson-Marsh Corp...... Orlando
Roe, Wm. G._.------.--. Winter Haven
Roper, B. H.__ .------ Winter Garden
Stetson, John B. Est. of .--- DeLand
Sullivan, C.__........------- Frostproof
Sunny South Packing Co __Arcadia

you have once had the opportunity
as you have it now to go down this
eradication road you will never get
that opportunity again, for the op-
portunity to eradicate this fly is not
one that is going to continue. It
must be considered now, when we
have this death grip on it, when we
have already gone over the top and
got it reduced practically to the fin-
ishing point. Yours is the choice.
There will be no turning back.

Time Extended for

Shipping Into South

Sterilized Florida fruits may be
shipped into the Southern and West-
ern States until and including Feb-
ruary 28, 1930, according to the
Plant Quarantine and Control Ad-
ministration of the United States
Department of Agriculture which
announced that the Secretary of Ag-

Symonds, A. D. & Son-.....-Orlando
Tampa Union Terminal Co.....Tampa
Taylor, C. H.............. -------Wauchula
Welles Fruit & Live Stock Co.
------- -.- -----Arcadia
Associated With Other Shipper-
Armstrong, F. C..____..._..Palmetto
Babson Park Citrus Growers Assn.
.--------------. ----Babson Park
Blake, Ellis G......-- ------. Lake Helen
Campbell & Mixon-__St. Petersburg
Cartledge, W. C.........-Crescent City
Chase & Co..... ---......-- ..Sanford
Citrus Grove Dev. Co., The
.----.-.-.-------------Babson Park
DeLand Packing Co...........-DeLand
Fellsmere Growers, Inc.__Fellsmere
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co
Indian Rivet Fruit Co-.......Wabasso
International Fruit Corp. Orlando
Johnson, W. A..----........._Ft. Ogden
Lakeland Co. Inc., The-....Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
-----------Lake Wales
Mammoth Grove, Inc.....Lake Wales
Middleton, W. D.---. Isle of Pines
Ulmer, H. D.........--- ...-----Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc...........-Valrico
Vaughn-Griffin Packing Co.-Howey
West Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co..... West Frostproof
Less Than Car Lot
Lyle, J. P. -----------San Mateo
Pinellas Fruit Co. Inc.
__-.____... St. Petersburg
Ufco Packing Co-......___ Ft. Pierce
Stone, Forrest B.......--- ---... Maitland
Not Operating This Season
Flesch Brothers ..----......Auburndale
Ft. Meade Packing Co. -- Ft. Meade
Roberts Bros. & Co. Inc. Avon Park
St. Johns Fruit Co. --.-----Seville
White City Fruit Co.... White City

riculture has approved an extension
of the period from January 31.
Under an order issued November
18, 1929, movement of such fruits
into the States south and west of
and including North Carolina, Ten-
nessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New
Mexico, Utah and Idaho, was au-
thorized during the period from No-
vember 21, 1929, to January 31,
1930, inclusive.
In the opinion of the Department
of Agriculture, the shipment of host
fruits under sterilization can be
continued until and including Feb-
ruary 28 without involving the dan-
ger of introducing the fruit fly into
the Southern and Western States.

The Texas Citrus Fruit Growers
Exchange has applied to the Fed-
eral Farm Board for a $1,000,000
facilities loan to finance construc-
tion and equipment of citrus fruit
packing plants in the lower Grande
Valley.-U. S. Daily.

Shipper-Members of Association
The shippers named herewith are members of the Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association and they are the ONLY members of this organization.
In fairness to these shippers who are supporting the Clearing House, as well as
helping to build the organization, grower-members should urge their neighbors
to join and ship through one of these operators.

February 10, 1930 ,

Page 9


. bruary 10, 1930




FEBRUARY 10, 1930

Published Semi-monthly by the FLORIDA CITRUS
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Florida.

Entered as second-class matter August 31, 1928, at
the postoffice at Winter Haven, Fla., under the Act of
March 8, 1879.



Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora
Winter Haven

Vice President
General Manager

Per Year: $2.00 Single Copies: 10c

Larger Citrus Output Seen
The United States Department of Agricul-
ture has announced the crop outlook on citrus
fruit at this time to be as follows:

The 1930 outlook indicates, as did those of
the four previous years, a considerable in-
crease in the bearing acreages of oranges and
grapefruit. Many trees now in bearing have
not reached the age of maximum yield and
a large increase in production may be expect-
ed in years when favorable growing weather
prevails. The bearing acreage of lemons has
not shown any pronounced change since
1921; a slightly downward trend is now indi-
cated, but production is on a high level and
the industry still is confronted with difficult
marketing problems.
Of the total shipments of oranges in the
United States about 66 percent move from
November to April, inclusive. Practically all
of the crop except the California Valencias
move during this period. Assuming an aver-
age of 70 trees per acre, total orange acreage
in Florida is estimated at 195,000, of which
about 15 percent is non-bearing. Under more
favorable conditions than have prevailed in

may be expected. Texas with an acreage of
18,.900 has only about 25 percent bearing. As
contrasted with the situation in Florida and
Texas, California Navel production has prob-
ably reached its peak. Only 3 percent of the
.100,500, acres of Navels are classified as non-
bearing. A further increase in bearing acre-
age and production of California Valencias is
expected. Of the total acreage of 112,200
acres of 20,900 acres, or 19 percent are class-
ified as non-bearing.
Florida with a tot.al.grapefruit acreage es-
timated at 80,000 acres has approximately 95
percent of bearing age. Texas with approxi-
mately 70 percent of the acreage of Florida is
estimated to have only about 20 percent of
bearing age. The California bearing acreage
is reported as 9000 with a forecast of 11,800
bearing acres for 1932. Porto Rico with an
acreage estimated at 3800 has not fully re-
covered from the damage resulting from the
hurricane of 1928. It is reported that it will
be another season before Porto Rico is again
shipping as heavily as it was previous to the

There are good prospects for a continued
expansion in the foreign markets for grape-
fruit. In 1929 Great Britain took more grape-
fruit than ever before but the per capital con-
sumption is still far behind that of the United
States or even of Canada. Porto Rico is sup-
plying an increasing share of the British
grapefruit imports. Continental European
countries are showing a greater interest in
grapefruit and the outlet there will undoubt-
edly expand particularly if organized efforts
are made to acquaint consumers with the
merits of this fruit.

The canning of grapefruit offers another
marketing outlet. During the last season 957,-
000 cases were packed as against 455,100 in
1927. In addition canners put up 202,000
cases of grapefruit juice.

In view of the prospective increase in pro-
duction, especially of grapefruit, during the
next few years, and the consequent probable
depressing effect on prices, only those with
the background of wisdom and skill in pro-
duction that come from successful experience
or adequate training should contemplate new
acreages even for replacement purposes. The
outlook with respect to the Mediterranean
fruit fly in Florida is much more encouraging

recent years a material increase in production I than was anticipated last spring.

Page 10



Proper Equipment to

Heat Grove Necessary,

State Expert Declares

Successful grove heating is a job
that calls for a lot of care and the
use of correct equipment, stated Dr.
A. F. Camp, horticulturist of Florida
Experiment Station. It is perhaps
true that more failures in grove
heating have resulted from improper
methods than have occurred from
anything fundamentally wrong with
the heaters, he said.
Many growers who have purchas-
ed heaters have failed to secure
plenty of good thermometers adapt-
ed to grove heating work, and many
others have failed to mount their
thermometers in the right way. The
best type thermometer for this use
is that which has a minimum record-
ing device. It is also important that
it be accurate at temperatures be-
low 32 degrees.
Protect Thermometers
In mounting thermometers in the
grove protect them from direct ex-
posure to the sky, as this is likely to
cause them to register a lower tem-
perature than the actual air tem-
perature due to losses of heat by
radiation. A suitable shelter may
be made for the mounting by con-
structing a box with top and bot-
tom but no sides.
Thermometers are the guide to
proper grove heating and should be
read frequently and the readings
utilized in adjusting the heaters. In
reading the thermometers an elec-
tric or flash light should be used in-
stead of matches to prevent raising
the temperature. The reading should
be made as quickly as possible to
prevent changes in temperature due
to heat from hands or breath of
Oil heaters are more quickly
lighted and brought to a rapid rate
of burning than either coke or wood,
he said. This fact should be remem-
bered if either of the latter types
are used. Where severe cold is ex-
pected it is best to light most of the
heaters immediately and allow them
to burn slowly rather than attempt-
ing to hold the temperature with a
few heaters burning at a high rate.
A Few Warnings
For the benefit of beginners, Dr.
Camp gave a few warnings to be
followed in operating' heaters. The
lighting torch commonly used has a
brass guaze in the spout to prevent
back firing and in no case should
this be removed, as it might result
in the explosion of the torch. Most
oil heaters are difficult to light the
first time and frequently the firing
of the low stack type of heater for
the first time may be simplified by
placing a small piece -of lightwood
in the stack when it is first filled.
Above all, grove owners should do
a lot of figuring and get their help
organized. Heaters call for ther-
mometers, fuel, good judgment and
eternal vigilance.

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