Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00025
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: October 1, 1929
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00025
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text



jireau of Arig. 0n34T7,
.S. Dept. 9ArLg.t
~Mg1~i1'tE. f. 0.


CLEAR


Representing more than 1.0,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA


L-: '---- -



LONRID D 9. ,;




SING HOUSE


NEWS


groves L
30.
;t Non-
ireas mr
--.<--a
*

Official Publication of the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION


10 Cents a Copy OVCTOBER 1, 1 9 2 9 ume 1
$2.00 a Year Marketing of Crp Number 1



Profitable Marketing of Crop Is Likely, Col. Knight Says


Cold Sterilization Method- Officially O. K'd


Termed Commercially

Practicable by U. S.,

Is Simply Precaution

Process Not Means of Author-
izing Movement of Infest-
ed Fruit, Marlatt Says

Practicability of the cold method
of sterilizing fruit suspected of har-
Sboring a fruit fly egg has been offi-
cially admitted by the United States
Plant Quarantine and Control Ad-
ministration. A bulletin explaining
the working method of the process
has just been issued by Dr. C. L.
Marlatt, chief, and is reprinted here-
with in part.
"It should be understood," the
bulletin states, "that sterilization is
not being considered as a means of
authorizing movement of infested
fruit. All infested fruit will be
promptly destroyed. The require-
'm net of sterilization therefore- ap-
plies to areas believed to be entirely
free from the pest with the object
of eliminating any residual of risk,
Seven after intensive inspection. In
issuing the revised regulations, it
was realized that the general adop-
tion of sterilization would involve
Time for the full commercial appli-
cation of methods and for necessary
Adjustments. Pending such deter-
minations and adjustments, pro-
vision has been made in the regula-
tions for movement under certain
destination, limitations. The tests
and demonstrations necessary to
place sterilization on a sound com-
mercial basis have been and are be-
ing pushed to the utmost and have
.reached such a stage of progress as
to make it possible to issue an order
Authorizing at least one type of ster-
ilization, namely, by refrigeration.
S"The probable availability of two
Methods of sterilization of fruits
and vegetables had been worked out
(Continued on Page Seven)


Means Expected To Be Found

To Move All of Florida Crop


What is probably the most com-
prehensive and most encouraging
news yet given out concerning the
movement of citrus fruits from
Florida in the coming season was in-
corporated in a letter addressed to
Senator Duncan U. Fletcher by Dr.
C. L. Marlatt, chief of administra-
tion of the plant quarantine and
control administration of the United
States Department of Agriculture.
In this letter Dr. Marlatt makes
the following statement:
"There is no reason to believe
that the products will be injured by
the sterilization methods worked
out. The treatments thus far have
not injured the fruit under test and
as rapidly as the new crop comes to
maturity larger scale tests can be
made. As you have doubtless noted
from regulation 3 of the revision of
the quarantine recently issued, the
sterilization is made an absolute re-
quirement only with respect to fruit
produced within a mile of infested
properties.
"Since the revision was issued
there has been some change in
the situation and consideration is
being given to the authorization
of the movement of unsterilized
fruit from the areas heretofore
known as infested zones to the
northeastern States. It is in fact
the expectation that means will be
provided for the shipment of all
Florida fruit of this coming crop,
even though there may be some
of the crop for which no steriliza-
tion facilities are available.
"Your correspondent's question:
'Why process products on suspicion,
when no infestation exists or can be
found at time of packing?' relates
presumably to the requirement that
fruit produced in the vicinity of in-
festations be sterilized, even when
no flies can be found in the fruit


itself. With respect to this question,
you are advised that the depart-
ment has had considerable experi-
ence with the detection of the Medi-
terranean fruit fly larvae, both at
*ports of entry and also in Hawaii.
This experience shows definitely
that any attempts to cull out indi-
vidual infested fruit in packing
houses and elsewhere could not be
successful as in many instances the
infestation cannot readily be de-
tected by an exterior examination
of the fruit itself.
"With respect to the reference to
the exclusion of vegetables 'from
some of the important profitable
markets,' possibly your correspon-
dent does not realize that Florida
products are under very serious sus-
picion in all Southern States and
that even if the Federal Department
should authorize their movement to
southern points, the States them-
selves, by one method or another,
would in all probability, prevent
such shipments. Later, if it becomes
clear that every possible hazard has
been removed, it is anticipated that
broader markets can be opened for
Florida crops.
"In the meantime, the only safe
course for the vegetable and citrus
growers of Florida to follow is to
carry out the necessary eradication
program in every detail. The re-
strictions themselves, both those re-
lating to eradication and those gov-
erning interstate movement, are
very lenient in comparison with the
total embargo which might have
been placed by the Department and
which public sentiment in many of
the States would have fully sup-
ported. The Department has been
continuously in touch, as to all the
details of the regulations, with Flor-
ida growers, packers and shippers as
(Continued on Page Six)


Federal Officials

0. K. Statements on

Fruit Fly Situation

Clearing House Attitude As
Represented By Tampan,
Helpful to Florida

The Clearing House Association,
as the only medium available
through which the growers could
voice their desires, early took a
hand in the task of adjusting the
problems confronting them in the
matter of the fruit fly .quarantine
regulations. In May the Clearing
House sent a committee to Wash-
ington, there to confer with the Sec-
retary of Agriculture, Arthur M.
Hyde, and his assistants. The com-
mittee performed its work well and
laid the ground-work for the modi-
fications now hoped for.
Several weeks ago conditions be-
gan to change for the better, and
with the disappearance of the fly as
reported by the State Plant Board,
confidence that we would win the
battle rapidly increased. Govern--
ment officials, long familiar with
fruit pest depredations, were un-
able to satisfy themselves as to a
one hundred percent clean condi-
tion, and hence set about to pro-
vide precautions in the handling of
the coming crop.
At this juncture, the Clearing
House again stepped into the breach.
Casting about for a representative
of the growers, the Association re-
quested aid of Colonel Peter O.
Knight, prominent attorney of Tam-
pa, and well known and admired
both in Florida and out of the State.
Col. Knight willingly consented to
represent the Clearing House, and
after conferring with President J.
A. Griffin, General Manager A. M.
Pratt, Director J. C. Chase and
others, immediately entered upon a
series of conferences in Washington
with governmental officials, includ-
ing President Hoover. The result
(Continued on Page Four)





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Information received from Cali-
fornia would indicate that the Pa-
cific Coast State will ship about 40,-
000 cars during the coming season.
I wouldn't be surprised to see it
reach the 45,000-car mark. Recent-
ly the estimates have been coming
up. My own thought is that Cali-
fornia probably will have around
45,000 to 48,000 cars the coming
season.
Tulare County, or central Cali-
fornia, will have a bigger crop in
proportion than southern California.
Sizes are coming fine and the esti-
mates are being raised considerably
on these early navels.
How much California ships for
the. season -now closing is now de-
pendant upon how small sizes the
trade will take without getting too
red ink. If they ship 75,000 cars of
oranges, they will have to move 10,-
000 cars from September 15th on.
If California continues moving
about 200 cars per week-day or
1200 cars per week, by November
3rd they would have seven weeks or
8400 cars shipped. My own guess is
that they will be moving'about 7500
cars by November 1st and 2500 cars
after November 1st. Frank Moore
of the Elephant Orchards thinks
there will be about 6500 cars mov-
ed from the 15th of September to
November 1st and 2500 cars there-
after.
At any rate, California has 2%
times as much fruit to move from
now on than they ever shipped be-
fore. From the middle of Septem-
ber on, the Pacific Fruit World
Records show the total carlot orange
shipments from California as fol-
lows:


1925-26, 4110; 1924-25, 1415;
1923-24, 3229.
The interesting thing is that Cal-
ifornia has about three times as
much to move as they had a year
ago, 2 % times as much as last year
and three times as much as they had
in the year 1923-24, when we had
such low prices. Considering all
these things, California is getting
mighty fine money and we cannot
but conclude there is a most won-
derful consumer capacity for citrus
fruit.
Now as to Florida's problem in
moving our very early oranges. Per-
sonally, I think it would be a mis-
take to move our Parson Browns or
any other extremely early variety
at this time with California ship-
ments twice as heavy as a year ago.
It is true that California shipments
will not get much less until No-
vember but our own fruit will get
decidedly better color. We will be
getting into cooler weather and we
will not have the bad combination
of decay and pale, sickly color re-
sulting from artificially coloring
green colored fruit that passes the
maturity test. The one thing that
might possibly warrant shipping our
Florida oranges now is our better
sizes. But, generally speaking, I
think we should go mighty slow on
oranges and work as fast as we can
in grapefruit.
We understand there will be
about 18,000 boxes of Porto Rico
and Isle of Pine grapefruit offered
this coming week and about 30,000
boxes for the week ending October
5th. There seems to be a strong
demand at $5.00 to $5.25 f. o. b.
for U. S. No. 1 and general confi-
dence felt that $5.00 should be the


1927-28, 3596; 1926-27, 4074; minimum for the coming week.



The Clearing House Plan, or

The California Plan


Florida's citrus industry market-
ing has undergone a dual develop-
ment. In early days crops were mar-
keted by individuals. Then came the
day of the packers who were grow-
ers and packers whose principal bus-
iness was the buying and selling of
fruit. Later there arose the grower-
controlled co-operative movement as
embodied in the citrus fruit ex-
change. Gradually the Exchange idea
developed until it controlled approx-
imately one-third of the entire cit-
rus volume of the State. For this
next season by merging of certain
interests with the Exchange it could
control between 40 and 50 per cent
of the crop, according to C. C. Tea-
gue, member of the Federal Farm
Board. "These certain interests,"
we presume, include the United
Growers, a late-comer in the co-
operative field.


A little better than a year ago.
growers only produced approximate-
ly 70 per cent of the annual crop,
packers and growers about 30 per
gent. Part of the growers only mar-
keted co-operatively, part through
privately owned and controlled
packing plants, selling direct to
these plants at so much a box on the
tree.
SIt had come,to pass that the grow-
er-co-operative could not control a
sufficient volume to insure proper
marketing and distribution of Flor-
ida citrus fruit. Neither could the
independent packers. Markets were
glutted temporarily while other mar-
kets were not well supplied; All suf-
fered, including everybody in Flor-
ida who does business; for, when
prices are not what they might be
for a large-volumned crop, the effect


Page 2


Jacksonville-


Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
April
April
April
May
May
May
June
June


11-Liverpool _____-
11-Liverpool
9-Liverpool ---
28-Liverpool ...--...-
27-Liverpool ------
28-Liverpool -.-----
5-Aruba, D. W. I.----
11-Liverpool --
23-Liverpool ----
2-Aruba, D. W. I...--
12-Liverpool -----
21-London... --------. -
25--Liverpool ---
15-Liverpool ---------
20-London---- -
23-Liverpool
11-Liverpool --.-
13-Liverpool ---
27-Liverpool ----
11-Liverpool ---
11-London ---
29-Liverpool ---.
15-Liverpool.. ---
24-Liverpool ------


Jacksonville Total-
Tampa-
Feb. 1-Liverpool --
Mar. 14-London ----------
April 15-Liverpool ----
May 11-London ----........
June 7-London ----

Tampa Total -------


Grapefruit
(Boxes)
2,618
2,294

5,851
15,133

4,723

10
6,479
14,461
15,203
6,421

----------
6,262
8,556
15,035
5,832
3,125
11,171

2,247

125,421

5,738
9,310
6,350
13,820
14,743

49,961


reaches beyond growers and mar-
keters.
Faced in 1928 with a bumper crop
in California and a bumper crop in
Florida, recognizing that if there
were not better co-ordination of
marketing the bottom would drop
out of the market, the Clearing
House was formed. This is an or-
Tanization composed of growers
only and growers who are also pack-
ers and shippers. The Clearing
House seemed the only way out, as
packers and growers had millions
'ied up in investments which they
-ould not afford to turn over to an
exchange and which no exchange
had the money to purchase, even
had there been a disposition to sell.
With the merging of certain in-
terests in 1929, the Clearing House
claims to control for the coming sea-.
son approximately 90 per cent of
the Florida citrus crop. If such is
the case, under normal conditions
we cannot for the life of us see why
the Clearing House plan which is
applicable to Florida cannot func-
'ion as efficiently as the California
plan which is not applicable to Flor-
.da; that is, provided the Clearing
House gets its executive branches
to functioning efficiently and there
is no reason why they shouldn't.
But the fly in the ointment has
proven to be the Medfly. Large ex-
penditures are necessary to equip
packing houses with processing
equipment to sterilize fruit so that
it can be shipped under the pro-
visions of the Federal Quarantine
Regulations. The Federal Farm
Board agreed to make a loan of


Oranges
(Boxes)

----------

800
1,167
40
1,854
26

S360




1,497

728

4,750
2,029

13,251


Tangerines
(Boxes)










1,000
500
250









1,750
1,750 --


770


1,848.

2,618


$300,000 for the equipping of co-
operative packing plants, but made
it plain that any future loans were
conditioned upon Florida establish-
ing a grower-owned-grower-controll-
ed co-operative marketing system
controlling the majority crop vol-
ume. Indeed, the $300,000 loan was
made with the understanding that
there should be better co-ordination
as the Federal Farm Board sees co-
ordination.
The Federal Farm Relief Act was
based on the California marketing
idea. The members are "sold" on
that principle. C. C. Teague, Fed-
eral Farm Board member, is looking
for a merging of interests that will
place the Exchange in a stronger
position so that instead of controll-
ing from 40 to 50 per cent of the
annual Florida citrus crop it will
control a large majority, somewhat
like the California co-operative.
. The Clearing House idea is the
logical way out for Florida. The
Farm Board is forced to look at
things from a California co-opera-
tive angle. Due to the Medfly situa-
tion, a battle waged for ourselves
and for the nation, the Florida cit-
rus industry needs adequate loans.
We are convinced, we know, that
the Federal Farm Board is sympa-
thetic and desires to be helpful. On
the other hand, we are convinced
that the only possible solution for
the Florida citrus situation is the
Clearing House; and this organiza-
tion is not a pure grower Co-opera-
tive and cannot in the nature of the
case be one. There is the Gordian
knot. Its red tape cannot be untied.
The only way out is to cut it with


Iket Condition Summary
By A. M. PRATT, General Manager
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association


Not
Segregated
Mostly Gft.


13,302
15,329



10,187




8,413
15,523








62,754


Total Citrus Fruit Exported From Florida

During the Season 1928-1929


October 1, 1929


---------- ----------
---------- ----------
---------- ----------
---------- ----------
---------- ----------


:T






Oc e 1 2Pae 3


one slash of the executive sword.
Otherwise, we of Florida are
faced with the necessity of doing
our own financing. We have two
elements in the Florida citrus indus-
try as the result of our dual devel-
opment. Each element has its in-
vestments and its rights. To crucify
either of them upon the cross of tem-
porary need would be unjust. In-
deed, such action would constitute
a grossly unfair economic crime if
the two elements consolidated in a
Clearing House can control 90 per
cent of the citrus crop, a sufficient
volume and more than sufficient, for
a degree of co-ordination in distri-
bution and marketing that will bring
as good result as have been obtain-
ed under the California plan which
was given birth to and was devel-
oped under radically different con-
ditions.
We are for the growers, for the
packers; for a square deal to both
and for a chance for them to work
out the Clearing House principle to
full success. If we are wrong, we
are willing and anxious to be shown
our error and a better way if it is
one adaptable to basic conditions
and suitable to present needs. Mean-
while we do not believe the Florida
conditions can be warped to fit Cali-
fornia theories so far as the cit-
rus industry is concerned.-Orlando
Sentinel.


Damage to Citrus

By Winds Is Less

Than Two Per Cent

Damage to Florida's citrus fruit
crop by the wind the last week in
September is probably less than two
per cent, reports to the Clearing
House Association indicated, and of-
ficials expressed themselves as great-
ly relieved at the favorable reports
Received.
"Dade County unfortunately got
the brunt of the wind," General
Manager A. M. Pratt said, "but for-
tunately from a citrus standpoint,
Dade County produces less than one
per cent of the State crop, last year
this county producing only five hun-
dred thirty-three cars, heavy as was
the crop.
"It was at first thought that Lee
County was hit pretty hard but it is
found that the damage is not so
serious as some early sensational re-
ports indicated. DeSoto County ap-
pears to come next in the matter of
damage, but both DeSoto and Lee
counties are finding, by careful es-
'timate, that the first reports were,
ar usual, exaggerated. Manatee and
Pinellas counties got by with almost
negligible damage.
"After compiling confidential
figures given the Clearing House
for computing the loss that may
have occurred, as a State we should
rejoice in the knowledge that pres-
ent reports indicate less than two
per cent loss from the wind, taking
the State as a whole. This, of
course, is a preliminary report and
is only approximate. It is quite pos-
sible that later reports may reduce
'this estimate still further."
he


Digest of Rules and Regulations


Applying to Packing Houses
United States Department of Agriculture Plant Quarantine and Control
Administration Co-operating with the State Plant Board of Florida.

REVISED QUARANTINE No. 68.
Effective Sept. 1, 1929.


Pac k i n g Houses All packing
houses must be inspected and certi-
ed before they begin operations.
Packing Houses-Will be requir-
ed to file application for inspection
and give a list of the groves from
which they expect to pack fruit.
Mark i n g Requirements-Each
crate, box or container of host fruits
or vegetables must be plainly mark-
ed with the name and address of the
consignor and have attached a Plant
Quarantine and Control Adminis-
tration Permit (sticker), when ship-
ped interstate.
Permit s-Each packing house
will be numbered, certified and is-
sued permits (sticker). The number
of the certified packing house will
be printed on the permits. If a house
expects to ship fifty thousand boxes
of fruit, it will be issued fifty thous-
and permits.
Master Permits-The Master Per-
mit or Car Release will be issued by
the inspector and must be attached
to the bill of lading, along with the
car cleaning requirement card.
Issuing Permits-Before permits
can be issued for the movement of
host fruits and vegetables from the
eradication area the inspector will
have to know that the host-free
period has been maintained on the
property, that the grove has been
sprayed several times according to
regulations that the grove or truck
2rop has been inspected and ap-
proved, that all host plants that
bear fruit during the host-free
period have been removed from the
property, that all drop fruits and
ripening host vegetables are being
destroyed semi-weekly, and that the
packing house where the fruit or
vegetables are to be packed has
been inspected and certified.
Cancellation of Permits-Permits
may be withheld or cancelled if
either the grower or packer fails to
comply with all of the conditions
and requirements of Revised Quar-
antine No. 68.
Truck and Bulk Shipments-Host
fruits and vegeatbles are prohibited
interstate shipment by truck, auto-
mobile, mail or in bulk. Must be
packed in standard crates and ship-
ped by rail or boat.
Host Free Period Maintained-
Permits may be revoked and a pack-
ing house closed if fruit is packed
from a property, located within the
eradication area, on which the host-
free period has not been maintain-
ed, and host fruits and vegetables
allowed to remain during the sum-
mer months.
Destroy Host Plants All host
plants in the eradication area, wild
or cultivated, which fruit during the
host-free period must be destroyed.
(If conditions warrant, exceptions
may be made for grapes and possi-


ble other commercial crops of fruits
and vegetables, but the non-com-
mercial host plants must be de-
stroyed).
Host Fruits-All fruits, wild and
cultivated, except t, watermelons,
pineapples, strawberries, cocoanuts
and other nuts.
Host Vegetables Peppers (ali
kinds), tomatoes, lima and broad
beans and eggplants.
Spray Trees-All host fruit trees
located in the eradication area must
be sprayed with poison bait several
times before permit for movement
of fruit can be issued. This spray-
ing is to be done by the grower or
owner.
Cleanup Drops -All host fruit
drops in eradication areas must be
picked up and destroyed semi-week-
ly and crop remnants destroyed
after harvest. All ripe host vegeta-
bles must be picked off semi-weekly
and crop remnants destroyed imme-
diately after commercial crop is re-
moved.
Sterilize Fruit--All host Fruits
grown in infested areas (Zone No.
1) must be sterilized before ship-
ment, (either by heating or refrig-
eration or other approved treat-
ment). This sterilized Infested Area
fruit may be shipped to any point
except the eighteen Southern States
and Western States.
Host fruits grown in eradication
areas (Zone No. 2) other than in-
fested area, may be shipped north
of Potomac Yards without steriliza-
tion. If sterilized, it may be ship-
ped to any point except the eighteen
Southern and Western States.
Host fruits grown outside the
eradication area (Zone No. 3 and
West Florida area) may be shipped
to any point except the eighteen
Southern and Western States, with-
out being sterilized.
Sour Limes-If grown in Dade
and Monroe counties, may be ship-
ped anywhere, any time under per-
mit. Limes from other parts of the
State take the same rating as othei
citrus fruit, and are not permitted
into Southern and Western States.
Host Vegetables-All host vege-
tables must move under permit.
Peppers, Broad and Lima Beans
-If grown in eradication areas
must be shipped north of Potomac
Yards. If grown out side of eradi-
cation area (Zone No. 3) may be
shipped to any point except the
eighteen Southern and Western
States.
Tomatoes (green) and Eggplants
-May be grown anywhere, and
may be shipped to any point except
the eighteen Southern and Western
States.
Host Free Period-Citrus Fruit-
All citrus fruit in entire State must


be harvested and groves cleaned up
before April 1, 1930.
Non-Citrus Fruit Non-citrus
fruits in eradication areas must be
cleaned up by April 1st. Outside of
eradication areas there is no time
limit.
Host Vegetables-Host vegetables
in eradication areas must be har-
vested and field cleaned up by June
15, 1930. Outside eradication areas
there is no time limit.
Nursery Stock Nursery stock,
including all kinds of plants and
plant roots must be shipped under
permit.
Distribution-Host fruits and veg-
etables of the Mediterranean fruit
fly, grown anywhere in the State of
Florida, are prohibited shipment
into the eighteen Southern and
Western States.
NOTE-This summary is based
on Rules and Regulations applying
to packing house operations and is-
suing of permits only. It is not a
complete digest of .the... Federal
Quarantine No. 68.


Propagation of Trees

in the Nursery

Described

Most woody plants in nature re-
produce themselves by their seeds.
Since ancient times, however, man
has employed grafts and cuttings as
well as the natural means of propa-
gating plants and trees.
Information for the ordinary
planter who wants to propagate
fruit trees and shrubs by any of the
artificial means is contained in
Farmers' Bulletin 1567-F, Propaga-
tion of Trees and Shrubs, just is-
sued by the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture.
There is no reason, according to
Lhe bulletin, why any one with a
general knowledge of trees can not
propagate them, provided he will
Learn the easily understood manipu-
lations and give the plants the nec-
essary care and attention.
Seeds very often offer the readiest
and least expensive means for the-
reproduction of species. Seedlings,
however, usually vary more or less
in their characteristics; hence de-
pendence cannot be placed on them
to furnish plants which are exact re-
productions of their parents.
Cuttings are used to reproduce
like plants of many varieties of or-
namentals, also some of the fruits.
For practical purposes the plants so
reproduced are similar in all re-
spects to the mother plants, al-
though bud variants or "sports" ap-
pear occasionally.
Layers are useful in propagating
many woody plants, especially when
only a small increase is required.
Grafting and budding are means ex-
tensively employed for the propaga-
tion of varieties that do not root
easily from cuttings.
Copies of the bulletin may be ob-
tained free as long as the supply
lasts by writing to the United States
Department of Agriculture, Wash-
ington, D. C.


October 1, 1929


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Page 3






Pae 4. FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Californians, Stirred by


Clearing House Rebuke, Are

To Make Personal Visit Here


Our last Clearing House News
came out in pretty straightforward
language outlining policies officially
followed in California,' which were
against the interests of Florida in
connection with the quarantined
States.
Aside from the facts published in
the News, which were rather discon-
certing to California, some of the
clippings were taken up direct with
officials connected with the Depart-
ment of Agriculture and we were as-
sured that Mr. G. H. Hecke, State
Agricultural Director and Dr. D. B.
Mackie, State Entomologist, would
be getting a true picture of Flor-
ida's present condition.
We are now advised, and we hope
that it is true, that Dr. Mackie is on
the way to Florida. He will find a
vastly different picture, one that we
must grant could not have been be-
lieved at a distance. We want to
welcome him to Florida, and the
more thoroughly he digs into the
actual facts, the more thoroughly
will he recommend a right-about-
face attitude on the part of Califor-
nia in its leadership with the East-
ern States as well as the Southern
in bringing about such modifications
as will permit Florida enjoying its
usual markets in the Southern
States.
Washington, in its Bulletin PQCA-
246, officially authorized steriliza-
tion and officially stated that "re-
sults of investigations conducted by
the Department between May and
August have shown that a tempera-
ture of 28 degrees for five hours
followed by holding for about five
days at 30 degrees, may be fatal to
the eggs or larvae of the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly. Tests on refrigera-
tion have been conducted on a suf-
ficiently large scale to demonstrate
that the required low temperature
may- be-given without injury to the
food and that this method is com-
mercially practicable."
The Clearing House does not ap-
prove the necessity of sterilization
but if sterilization is required by
the regulations we cannot see logi-
cally, in the face of the above of-
ficial declaration, how the officials
in the Southern States can further
maintain that there is any reason
for embargoing sterilized citrus
fruits, especially when those fruits
are inspected and reinspected in the
grove and packing house, and then
sterilized as a double and official
measure to kill the hypothetical lar-
vae that quarantine inspectors could
not find.
We are expecting great good from
Dr. Mackie's visit and we hope his
decision and recommendations will
not come too late as the Southern
States use 65% of their citrus re-
quirements prior to Christmas and
we should start moving our fruit
into these Southern States at once.


California never has supplied
these Southern States in any appre-
ciable quantity until Florida was
through. It will mean a difficult re-
adjustment on California's part to
attempt to force distribution of Cal-
ifornia Navels instead of Florida
oranges and grapefruit into the
South. It will mean Florida's forc-
ing more than her normal propor-
tion of distribution into the eleven
northeastern States where Califor-
nia has always competed. This will
be a handicap to California as well
as Florida. Our interests are com-
mon in it being desirable that we
get back to normal in our marketing
problems.

PROFITABLE MARKETING
OF CROP IS LIKELY,
COL. KNIGHT SAYS
(Continued from Page One)
of the conferences was that the Gov-
ernment assured Col. Knight that it
"stands ready to go the limit to en-
able the Florida citrus crop to be
profitably moved and at the same
time protect the remainder of the
States from any fruit fly infesta-
tion."
Since then (the conferences hav-
ing taken place early last month)
Col. Knight has issued several pub-
lic statements in which he has told
of the Government's eagerness to
help the citrus growers. These state-
ments have met the official approval
of Dr. C. L. Marlatt, chief of plant
quarantine; R. W. Dunlap, Assist-
ant Secretary of Agriculture, and
Dr. Wilmon Newell, Plant Board
Commissioner in charge of eradica-
tion work. Such approval, Col.
Knight assures us, is of the utmost
importance, for it reflects accurately
the Government's kindly feeling to-
ward Florida and promises sincere
and hearty co-operation from the
Government -for the growers and
shippers in working out the prob-
lems confronting them in moving
their crop. Dr. Marlatt, in particu-
lar, went to some length in com-
mending Col. Knight for the able
manner in which he has handled the
situation as a representative and
spokesman for the Clearing House
Association as well as the State. Dr.
Marlatt, in one such letter to Col.
Knight, wrote as follows:
"Mr. Peter O. Knight,
% Knight, Thompson & Turner,
Tampa, Florida.
Dear Mr. Knight:
"I have received from you a
series of letters-one dated Sep-
tember 17, two dated September 19,
and one dated September 20. I re-
gret that there has been any delay
in the acknowledgment of these as
they were all received with appre-
ciation and read with much interest,
together with the clippings which
accompanied them.


"With respect to the latter I find
much to approve and practically
nothing to criticise.
"I am glad to get Mr. Bennett's
data on the matter of precipitation
at Tampa during the four months of
the rainy season for a series of
years, and I note that while there is
to date an excess of approximately
4% inches over normal this excess
is very much less than frequently
occurs.
"The rainy season has a particu-
lar interest because of its reaction
on insect life as injecting into the
present situation a partial explana-
tion of the disappearance of the
Mediterranean fruit fly along with
the similar disappearance of the
common house fly. We believe, how-
ever, that the disappearance of the
Mediterranean fruit fly has been
largely brought about by clean-up
and control operations but on the
other hand we shall not be able to
feel absolutely secure of our posi-
tion until there has been a month
or two of weather more favorable in
general to insect life. Certainly,
however, if the fly was maintaining
itself in any numbers our numerous
inspection forces and the. overhaul-
ing of wild and cultivated fruits
throughout the last six weeks would
seem to have made the discovery
of the fly, if at all generally pres-
ent, a frequent occurrence.
"Very truly yours,
"C. L. MARLATT,
"Chief of Administration."
Dr. Wilmon Newell likewise ex-
pressed approval of Col. Knight's
public statements as well as the
Tampan's explanation of the Florida
grower's viewpoint. Dr. Newell, in
writing Col. Knight, said in part:
"Please permit me to express my
hearty appreciation of your letters
of September 16, 17, 18 and 19, to-
gether with clippings enclosed. Your
articles are unquestionably going to
have a very fine stabilizing influence
upon the growers, shippers, and the
public at this time, and I wish to
congratulate you upon their con-
servative and sensible tone."
Col. Knight recently declared that
he is confident the Agricultural De-
partment will unhesitatingly recom-
mend to the Congress when the
lower house convenes the middle of
this month) that an appropriation
be made sufficient to insure com-
plete eradication of the fly. "I am
satisfied," Col. Knight said, "that if
conditions in Florida continue as at
present (and they are becoming bet-
ter daily) that the territory into
which Florida citrus fruits can be
freely moved will be so enlarged
that the entire citrus crop may be
sold at a profit to the growers.
"The Agricultural Department
stands ready to go the limit to en-
able the Florida citrus crop to be
profitably moved and at the same
time protect the remainder of the
States from any fruit fly infesta-
tions. Conditions are materially dif-
ferent now than they were when
quarantine regulations were first
formulated and officials of the
Southern States are now consider-
ing whether they will request the
Federal Government to so modify


the present quarantine rules as to
permit df the free shipment of fruit
into their States during December,
January and February.
"California has a fifty percent
crop and Florida a sixty-five percent
crop. If common sense -is used in
the distribution of the Florida fruit,
it may be moved at a considerable
profit to the grower. The thing for
the Florida people in this emergency
to do is to continue co-operating
whole-heartedly with the Govern-
nIent and be patient."
Enthusiastic approval of Col.
Knight's leadership and his handling
of the situation was given him per-
sonally by a formal motion passed
at a joint session September 25th of
the Clearing House Board of Direc-
tors and Operating Committee.
Director F. G. Moorhead, DeLand,
made the motion that the Board
give Col. Knight a vote of thanks
and confidence for the work he has
done. Judge Allen E. Walker, in
seconding the motion, said that he
knows of no one better fitted to
handle the situation. President J.
A. Griffin also warmly commended
Col. Knight for his assistance and
interest, assuring him that his work
to date already has earned the grat-
itude of every citizen of Florida.
Col. Knight told the Directors
and members of the Operating Com-
mittee that he plans to return to
Washington before the lower house
convenes, to continue the work he
is doing. "I am delighted to be able
to handle this work," he said, "and
I expect to stay with the situation
until it is concluded."


Manufacture of Orange
Marmalade in Paraguay

The largest outlet for Paraguayan
oranges has always been Argentina,
according to information received
in the Jacksonville District Office of
the Bureau of Foreign and Domes-
tic Commerce, that office reports.
At the present time much 'anxiety
is felt because of Argentine restric-
tions as to the wrapping and pack-.
ing of imported oranges; it is gen-
erally believed that the Argentine
regulations as to wrapping and box-
ing will be so difficult to comply
with that the Buenos Aires market
will be closed to Paraguayan or-
anges. Oranges in Paraguay are un-
believably cheap. A company which
would establish a marmalade fac-
tory in Paraguay and ship the pro-
duct to Europe in large tins for re-
packing there, would be practically
assured of large profits. Some such
scheme was proposed a year ago,
but it is understood that it broke
down for lack of capital.


FLORIDA'S ADVANTAGE
IS INSECTS APPEAL t
California has not as yet been in-
vaded by the Mediterranean fruit
fly, which is bringing marked atten-
tion to Florida. Is it possible that
the Western oranges have no insects
appeal? Florida's advantage is in-
sects appeal.


F~ORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


October 1. 1929-


Pagn 4.





October 1 1929


Commissioner Mayo

Enlightens Chiefs

Of Southern States

The action of agricultural com-
missioners of several Southern
States, now embargoed against Flor-
ida citrus, meeting in Memphis,
Sept. 16, in refusing to lift the bans,
was not without benefit to Florida,
minutes of that meeting reveal.
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Ag-
riculture, appeared before the south-
ern commissioners and presented a
fair and accurate picture of condi-
tions in this State. The beneficial
effects upon Florida's part, lie in the
correction of ignorance as to condi-
tions here, Commissioner Mayo giv-
ing his neighbor commissioners con-
siderable information which they
obviously had not had prior to his
talk to them.
An excerpt from Commissioner
Mayo's talk will be of interest to
Floridians, and is reprinted here-
with, as follows:
"There were shipped from infest-
ed areas, during the 1928-29 season
in Florida, 34,141 cars of citrus
fruits, 8,384 cars of which moved
from Orange County, the seat of
infestation.
"There were 18,632 cars of cit-
rus fruits moved from territory
which was partly infested. A total
movement by rail from infested and
partly infested territory of 52,773
cars of citrus.
"In addition to the 52,773 cars of
citrus from partly or wholly infest-
ed areas, we shipped 28,970 cars of
vegetables, making a total of 81,-
743 cars.
"Approximately 75% of this ton-
nage was moved before we knew we
had the fruit fly. We also moved ap-
proximately 1,500,000 boxes by
truck to North Florida, Alabama,
Georgia, South Carolina and other
nearby States, last season, much of
which was drops. The greater pro-
tion of which came from the north-
ern portion of the fruit belt, which
Sis .now the infested area.
"We also sent out hundreds of
carloads in bulk, dozens of open car-
loads on the side tracks of Jackson-
,-ville and other Southern cities, from
which fruit was sold in open pack-
ages and carried all over the coun-
try in autos, and hundreds of car-
loads were shipped by express to all
the Southern States as well as the
SNorth and East.
"Tourists and visitors carried
:'fruit daily in autos. Yet we have
had no infestations from all this
'movement of fruit in any other
Southern State or in North Florida.
"We believe we have had the
fruit fly for three years, perhaps
4 more. We must have moved 25,000
cars from infested area during the
lw1927-28 season, and not less than
15,000 during 1926-27; or during
the past three seasons we have
moved not less than 92,773 cars of
A citrus from infested areas. During
these three seasons the total move-
Ament by truck has been 2,300,000
poxes of citrus fruit, and the total
1^


How Fly Affects Citrus Industry

The following table, compiled by J. E. Turlington of the State Plant
Board, gives a "bird's-eye" view of the Florida citrus industry in its rela-
tion to the fruit fly quarantine restrictions. The table shows the land
area, number of farms, number of citrus trees (bearing and non-bearing);
carlot citrus shipments from the 22 counties in the eradication areas,
estimates for Zone 1 and the eradication areas, estimates of the number
of grove properties (not including small lots in cities with trees for home
use only) and the daily car capacity of packing houses.


Item
Acres of land.____-.---
Percent of State--......
Number of Farms......
Percent of State ---.
Bearing Citrus Trees
Percent of State-.......
Bearing and Non-
Bearing Citrus Trees
Percent of State -------
Carload Shipments
3-Year Average
25-26, 26-27, 27-28_-
Percent of State........
Carlot Shipments
6 Yr. Avg. 1920-25-
Percent of State ---.---
(a) Grove Properties
(Estimated) -
Percent of State_____-
(a) Daily Car Capacity
of Packing Houses_-
Percent of State......


State
35,111,040
100
69,217
100
17,685,000
100


Estimates for Erad. Area(a)
22 Counties Zone 1 E. Area
12,006,320 974,500 10,145,200
34 2.7 29
25,976 _---- 23,054
44 39
12,672,768 4,821,000 12,652,604
72 27 72


22,026,714 15,855,944 6,240,000
100 72 28


15,829,042
72


39,356 31,904 13,230 31,904
100 81 34 81


38,952
100


28,391 11,530 28,391
73 29 73


21,000 16,000
100 76
1,180 900
100 76


6,650 *15,600
L 74


(a) Estimates made by J. E. Turlington as of August 31, 1929.
There are more grove properties in Lake, Orange, Pinellas and Polk
than there are farms because there are a large number of absentee
owners with no barn or center of operations on their grove property.
A number of the other counties have this kind of properties also.


carload movement of both fruits
and vegetables from infested area
has certainly not been less than
156,743 carloads, and in the face of
these facts there have been no in-
festations, although North Florida
and the border States have had hun-
dreds of inspectors looking for fly
infestations.
"There have been 7,000 fly traps
constantly set and 6,000 men direct-
ed by from 200 to 300 trained ex-
perts, and no flies have been found
since August 7th, and very few in
the last sixty days.
"No doubt there are far less flies
in Florida now than at any time
during the past three years, and
possibly five years.
"So far there has been no infesta-
tions found in any vegetable fields,
or in any wild plants, although 400
square miles of wild territory have
been covered by inspectors.
"The scientists have determined
in accordance with revised quaran-
tine rule 68, that none of our vege-
tables are host vegetables, with the
possible exception of peppers, toma-
toes, eggplants, lima beans and
broad beans. There is even a grave
doubt in their minds that these veg-
etables can become host vegetables
in field operation.
"With over 6,000 men in the field
cleaning up the entire territory, not
a single field infestation has been
discovered. The five above men-
tioned vegetables have been infest-
ed only in the laboratory under
forced conditions.
"At the beginning of our eradica-
tion period, for the sake of caution
and the protection of your people,
practically all fruits and vegetables


were classed as hosts, investigation
has eliminated all but the above
mentioned five, which are still ques-
tionable.
"In the face of the fact that we
moved last season 8,384 cars of cit-
rus fruit from the known infested
area of Orange County, and 81,702
cars of fruit and vegetables from
the infested and partly infested
area, 75% of which was moved
without any precautionary measures
on our part, or by the States receiv-
ing these products, and with 1,500,-
000 boxes moving into adjoining
States by truck, and 156,000 cars in
the past three seasons, without any
caution whatever, being from in-
fested areas, in view of these facts
there has not been found an infes-
tation in North Florida or in any of
the Southern States, in any of your
products, nor anywhere else in the
United States.
"Now, gentlemen, we are with
the United States Department of
Agriculture whole-heartedly in their
fight until the last fly is eliminated,
and we hope that you and your rep-
resentatives in Congress will sup-
port the Department in their re-
quest for appropriation to carry the
fight to an ultimate victory. How-
ever, in view of the marvelous clean-
up by the Department and the loyal
citizens of Florida, and in view of
the strict Federal inspection rules
and regulations at shipping points
this season, it is certain that any
car of fruit or vegetables shipped
under government inspection and
certification is free of any possible
infestation, and would be safe to ar-
rive in your State at any time, and
especially during the winter months,


when your climate is too rigorous
for the fly to live.
"Therefore, we trust that you
will lend your aid in impressing
Washington with the need of our
fruit for your people."


Meat Packers' Advent

Into Fruit World Meets

California Opposition

The chain store problem is one of
the problems all of the shippers are
giving special consideration to these
days. It is, therefore, interesting to
note that the Mutual Orange Dis-
tributors of California, working di-
rectly with the Atlantic and Pacific
Tea Co., in a good number of mar-
kets, are strongly opposing the en-
trance of the national menit"'paMer's
into the fruit world. Whether the
Mutual Orange Distributors is op-
posing this because of fearing their
own chain store connection will be
handicapped or whether it is being
done on the basis of the fear of
packer domination, is a question
that possibly may arise in the minds
of those who note the Mutual Or-
ange Distributors' position.
It will be recalled that in 1920
the great national meat packers had
largely entered into the retail busi-
ness, their activities extending not
only to the operation of retail shops
for meats but in the wholesale dis-
tribution of grocery products in no
way related to meats. This practice
was stopped by consent of the pack-
ers after congressional investiga-
tion.
Now that it is desired to resume
this method of distribution there is
a storm of protest from many quar-
ters. The objection of the Mutual
Orange Distributors was vigorously
argued that "concentration of these
privileges in the hands of financially
powerful non-producers defeats the
agricultural program and would
lead to food trust domination, ex-
tremely injurious :t" the:vconsuimer
and would spell economic disaster-
for the producer."

REMOVE SOIL FROM CROWN
OF TREE WITH FOOT ROT.
Removal of soil from around the
crown of citrus trees infected with
foot rot is recommended by Erd-
man West, mycologist of the Flor-
ida Experiment Station. Answering
an inquiry recently on this subject,
he says:
"It is a good plan to remove the
soil so that the foot rot lesions are
exposed to the air. Removing dead
bark with some sharp instrument
also is good practice. The wound is
painted with some safe disinfectant,
such as Bordeaux paste, a weak lime
and sulphur mixture, or carbo-
lineum. This must not be caustic.
This treatment should be delayed
until all danger of frost is over.
After the wound shows signs of
healing, the soil may be replaced.


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


October 1, 1929


Pare 5






Page 6FLRACLANGHUENWOcoe1,92


Citrus Costs Increase for Californians


The accompanying table showing
cost of production for the Califor-
nia orange grower, during 1927 and
1928, doubtless will prove surpris-
ing to Floridians who may have
been under the impression that pro-
duction costs in this State exceed
*those of our western friends.
The figures were compiled by the
California Citrus League and are
collected and tabulated each year by
that organization. For ease in com-
parison, costs are shown for both
Valencias and Navels as well as the
combined average cost of the two
varieties. The Navel and Valencia


figures reveal that although the cost
per acre for Navels exceeds that
of Valencias, owing to a greater
production per acre, the per box
cost for Navels is considerably less.
Compilation of the figures was
based upon examination of 790 ac-
counts, representing 17,683.85 acres.
It will be noted that the per acre
cost for 1928 over 1927 is increased
and, because of lower production
per acre, the per box cost also is in-
creased.
The cost per acre for oranges in
1928 is $278.145 as against $258.28
in 1927. The production in packed
boxes in 1928 is shown as 169.9 per


acre as compared with 204:1 boxes
per acre for 1927. The cultural cost
for 1928 hence is $1.637 per box as
against $1.265 per packed box in
1927. Fertilizer, irrigation expenses
and pest control are three items
showing the principal increased
costs. The cost of fertilizer for 1928
compared with the cost of 1927
shows an increase for 1928 of from
$67.768 per acre to $78.513. Irriga-
tion costs which of course are not
the problem in Florida that they are
in California, are declared to be the
highest ever reported to the League,
due it is thought to the decreased
rainfall.


COST OF PRODUCTION


-ORANGES-


Cultural Cost Per Acre 1927
Commercial fertilizer ...-----.._-.........$31.687
Barnyard fertilizer----.______-------_ 34.848
Spreading fertilizer ---__- __---------- 1.233


1928
$34.934
41.954
1.625


$67.768 $78.513


Water--__ --- ..---- __ __- $27.684
Fumigating materials and labor --.- $14.861
Spraying materials and labor ------- 9.925
$24.786
Frost protection materials...-.-- ----- $ 3.300
Frost protection labor------_..-------. 1.092


$30.520


- NAVELS -


*-1927
$35.972
34.157
1.184


1928
$40.366
41.650
2.080


$71.313 $84.096
$30.141 $34.337


-VALENCIAS-


1928
$28.592
41.753
1.090


1927
$27.858
33.682
1.425


$62.965 $71.435
$24.899 $25.972


$12.770 $13.811 $ 9.684 $16.238 $15.964
14.505 9.869 14.479 9.816 14.589
$27.275 $23.680 $24.163 $26.054 $30.553


$ 4.740
1.201


$ 4.392 $ 5.941
Cultivating labor. ___.-----------_ $47.919 $49.542
Irrigating labor ...-___ -_- 2.602 2.766
Team expense --._._- - __----- 3.780 3.297
Team hire- ______--- .257 .437
Tractor expense _------- 9.251 9.591
Tractor hire ..._ .------.----------.----- .435 .611
$64.244 $66.244
Pruning-____ ----- $ 8.762 $ 8.446
Individual tree care ---------- 1.785 1.770


$10.547
Other materials---_____........ _$ 1.137
Other labor.. ---------- 1.517
$ 2.654
General Expense-----...... ----------- $ 8.353
Tiat .-_:. !:____ ------- -21.585
Insurance......-- ------------ 1.264
Maintenance and repairs----- 4.090
Depreciation Bldg. and Equip --__--. 12.115
Superintendence--.....-......----------. 5.899
Administration-----..........----------- 2.899
$56.205
Grand Total (per acre) ___ $258.280
Number of accounts...-----...----- 826
Number of acres......-------__........... 18322.06
Packed boxes per acre --........-----. 204.1
Cultural cost per packed box (up
to picking) --. ----------$ 1.265

Cost Per Packed Box
Cultural cost $------------------ $ 1.265
Handling costs: Picking ---------- .127
Hauling .---------- .046
Packing .-------- .556
$ .729
Selling and advertising................------ $ .118
F. O. B. cost, including selling.... $ 2.112


$10.216
$ 1.317
1.041
$ 2.358
$ 7.091
22.439
1.489
3.569
12.903
4.506
5.081


$ 3.502 $ 4.415
1.077 .915


$ 4.579
$48.725
2.572
3.696
.105
8.230
.233
$63.561
$10.389
1.287


$11.676
$ .940
1.209
$ 2.149
$ 8.346
19.080
1.333
4.076
11.633
6.089
3.477


$ 5.330
$48.706
3.478
3.242
.141
8.786
.347
$64.700
$ 9.300
1.923


$11.223
$ 1.255
1.329
$ 2.584
$ 6.623
19.904
1.582
3.723
12.259
4.531
6.214


$ 2.987 $ 5.222
1.103 1.477


$ 4.090
$46.911
2.451
3.772
.436
10.475
.760
$64.805
$ 6.975
2.111


S9.086
S1.388
1.899
S3.287
S8.378
24.456
1.180
4.125
12.755
5.815
2.182


$ 6.699
$50.101
1.997
3.288
.275
10.903
1.001
$67.565
$ 7.671
1.564


$ 9.235
S1.362
.752
$ 2.114
$ 7;644
25.088
1.375
3.333
13.513
4.431
3.896


$57.078 $54.034 $54.836 $58.891 $59.280
$278.145 $261.133 $281.269 $254.077 $272.853


790
17683.85
169.0

$ 1.637



$ 1.637
.124
.047
.576


$ .747
$ .132
$ 2.516


533
9838.27
205.7

$ 1.270



$ 1.270
.127
.046
.556


$ .729
$ .118
$ 2.117


497
9128.78
187.1

$ 1.504



$ 1.504
.124
.047
.576


.747
.132
2.383


607
8127.10
201.5

$ 1.261



$ 1.261
.127
.046
.556


.729
.118
2.108


578
8128.53
150.4

$ 1.815



$ 1.815
.124
.047
.576


$ .747
$ .132
$ 2.594


Proper Handling of

Gas in the Coloring

Room Prevents Decay

The use of gases in the coloring
of citrus fruits may lead to serious
losses from stem-end rot, or surface
blemishes unless the process is prop-
erly handled. H. R. Fulton and H.
E. Stevens, senior pathologists of
the United States Citrus Disease
Field Laboratory, Orlando, Florida,
have made extensive investigations
along this line, and offer the fol-
lowing suggestions:
Fruits from certain groves decay
more readily, thus making it advis-
able to run coloring test on fruits
from unknown groves. If a large
percentage of rot appears in any
grove the fruit in that grove should
be allowed to color on the trees.
The fruit to be colored should be
well along toward full maturity.
Green fruit colors slowly and poor-
ly, and the longer the fruit is in the
coloring room the more likely it is
to develop rot.
The room should be ventilated so
that the air completely changes dur-
ing the period of an hour before
each dosage is applied. Fruit should
not be crowded in the room for
treatment; at least four inches
should be allowed between each row
of boxes.
Do not exceed the standard dos-
age of one cubic foot of ethylene
gas per 5,000 cubic feet of room
space.
Ninety to 95 degrees is the most
favorable temperature for stem-end
rot development, and if the fruit is
gassed at this temperature, rot is
greatly increased. The temperature
should be even through the room,
and kept down to 80 or 85 degrees.
A humidity of about 85 % should be
maintained throughout the process.
As soon as possible after coloring
the fruit should be packed and well
cooled. The fruit should be moved
to the consumer as rapidly as pos-
sible after cooling, as the warm
weather of the early shipping season
is very favorable to stem-end rot
development.


MEANS EXPECTED TO
BE FOUND TO MOVE
ALL OF FLORIDA CROP
(Continued from Page One)
well as with representatives of the
railroads concerned in movement,
and every possible attempt has been >
made to adopt the restrictions to'
the needs of the producers so far as
that could be done consistent with
the accomplishment of extermina- A
tion of the insect and with safety to
the other parts of the United
States."


- -- ---


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Page 6


w


October 1; 1929





......... 1...FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS .


Eustis Packing Co.

Joins Clearing House;

2 Million New Boxes In

The addition of another new ship-
per-member, the Eustis Packing Co.,
of Eustis, to the ranks of the Flor-
ida Citrus Growers Clearing House
Association, has brought the total
volume of new fruit signed up this
season to close to 2,000,000 boxes.
The Eustis Packing Co. signed a
shippers' contract with the Clearing
House late last month.
The company is one of the largest
operators in Lake County and is
also among the oldest. According to
Sa recent estimate of the coming sea-
son's business, made by the com-
pany, they expect to handle 500
cars of fruit this year.
A. W. Barnett, president of the
company, in signing the shippers'
contract, declared that he and his
associates are convinced that the
Clearing House has a most definite
and valuable place in the State's
citrus industry.
"We watched the Association's
work last year very carefully," Mr.
Barnett said, "and now are confi-
dent that we have taken the right
step, and the only step practicable,
Sin adding our support to this move-
ment. Much work remains to be
Done toward bettering the citrus in-
dustry's conditions and in removing
some of the many problems con-
fronting us. It is obvious that the.
SClearing House Association is the
logical medium through which real
Progress can be made and a satisfac-
tory objective achieved.
"There are problems facing all of
us this season that are decidedly un-
usual and difficult. Only by a big
majority of the interest pulling to-
gether can we hope to overcome
these obstacles and be able next
Spring to look back upon the season
as having been a satisfactory one.
This is not a time for individual-
ism or selfish aloofness. Petty dif-
ferences must be forgotten and the
greater good ever borne in mind. I
cannot help but feel that if we do
this, no matter how difficult our
problems may prove, we will learn
_something that will be of inestim-
able value to all of us."
In addition to the Eustis Packing
Co., the other new concerns which
have joined the Association this sea-
son are: Gentile Brothers, Orlando;
W. G. Roe, Winter Haven; H. D.
Ulmer, Clearwater; A. D. Symonds
.& Son, Orlando, and the Tampa
Union Terminal Company, Tampa.

COLD STERILIZATION
METHOD IS O.K.
(Continued from Page One)
as a result of investigations con-
nducted by the Department between
May and August. This work has
shown (1)' that a temperature of
28o0 for five hours followed by hold-
ing for about five days at 300, or
(2) that a temperature of 1100 for
Aight hours, are fatal to the eggs or
rvae of the Mediterranean fruit


Carlot Citrus Shipments for 1928-29
(Prepared from Report of the Florida State Marketing Bureau) by
Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association


County


Alachua -
Brevard --
Charlotte -
Citrus ---
Dade ---------
DeSoto --
Flagler ---
Hardee -----
Hendry ---
Hernando -----
Highlands
Hillsborough --.-
Indian River -------
Lake ------.
Lee -.......--...
Manatee ---
Marion ------
Okeechobee
Orange ------.
Osceola ----
Pasco
!Pinellas ------
Polk ----
Putnam ..-----
!St. Johns .----------
St. Lucie --
:Sarasota ---
Suriter ---
'Seminole ---
Volusia ........-


Total---.------ 32,415
NOTE-Mixed shipments in


Oranges
216
1,574
1
17
7
962
55
941

243
526
1,487
112
3,463
269
608
1,634
2
5,781
305
544
1,123
7,320
1,088
59
154
40
131
1,175
2,578


elude 2,498


Grapefruit
11
586
12
4
525
704
4
208
2
130
447
931
366
999
875
1,987
312

1,441
139
409
2,611
8,387
49
1
143
96
19
186
206

21,790


Mixed
13
400
5
5
1
485
6
625
3
19
145
930
76
1,288
251
223
128

1,162
54
280
.. 447
2,134
138
2
77
13
1
135
422

9,468


Total
240
2,560
18
26
533
2,151
65
1,774
5
392
1,118
3,348
554
5,750
1,395
2,818
2,074
2
8,384
498
1,233
4,181
17,841
1,275
62
374
149
151
1,496
3,206
63,673


cars Tangerines.


%
.38
4.02
.03
.04
.84
3.37
.10
2.79
.01
.62
1.75
5.26
.87
9.03
2.19
4.43
3.26
.00
13.18
.78
1.94
6.5&6
28.02
2.00
.10
.59
.23
.23
2.35
5.03


Adams Packing Co. .-- Auburndale
Alexander & Baird, Inc..- Beresford
,American Fruit Growers -. Orlando
Armstrong, F. C......... Palmetto
Bilgore, David & Co. Clearwater
Blake, Ellis G....------... Lake Helen
Burch, R. W., Inc.. ---_ Plant City
Cartlege, W. C.------- Crescent City
Chase & Co.....--...---_--------Sanford
DeLand Packing Co. .--.....- DeLand
Emca Fruit Co. .....--. Crescent City
iEustis Packing Co. --- __Eustis
Fellsmere Growers, Inc. Fellsmere
Fields, S. A. & Co...--.--- Leesburg
Flesch Bros...........-----. Auburndale
.Florida Citrus Exchange _--_- Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co..___ Plant City
Florida United Growers, Inc.
-_.. ----- -- Winter Haven
Fosgate, Chester C., Co .-- Orlando
Ft. Meade Packing Co..... Ft. Meade
Gentile Brothers Co...--- Orlando
Herlong, A. S. & Co. ........ Leesburg
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
S...--Davenport
Holly Hill Grove & Fruit Co.
--- Davenport
indian River Fruit Co..-..-..Wabasso
international Fruit Corp....Orlando
Iohnson, W. A. .....-- ..-_Ft. Ogden
keen, J. W. ...........------Frostproof
Keene, R. D. & Co. .......----- Eustis
Lakeland Co., Inc., The -....Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
-i ...........----------.- Lake Wales


Oy. Both the maximum and mini-
inum temperatures referred to can
be obtained by modification of the
existing practices in the handling of
citrus fruits.
. "Tests on refrigeration have now
been conducted on a sufficiently


Lamons, D. H.. ..-..------ Ft. Myers
Lee, J. C., Sr............ Leesburg
Lovelace Packing Co. Winter Haven
Lyle, J. P.--_____--....-----. San Mateo
Mammoth Groves, Inc...-Lake Wales
Maxcy, Gregg---......-------- Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc... __------- Frostproof
Middleton, W. D. ---- Isle of Pines
Milne-O'Berry Pkg. Co., Inc.
-----___________ St. Petersburg
Mitchell, J. M--.......---------..... Elfers
Mouser, W. H. & Co ........--- Orlando
Okahumpka Packing Co.
----------___ Okahumpka
Orange Belt Packing Co. .--__ Eustis
Pinellas Fruit Co......St. Petersburg
Richardson-Marsh Corp. --Orlando
Roberts Bros. & Co., Inc...Avon Park
Roe, Wm. G.......---- Winter Haven
Roper, B. H..._-------Winter Garden
Stetson, John B., Est. of.-. DeLand
St. Johns Fruit Co .------.---.Seville
Stone, Forrest B .. ----. ... Maitland
Sunny South Packing Co .-.Arcadia
Symonds, A. D. & Son -.......-Orlando
Tampa Union Terminal Co. ...Tampa
Taylor, C. H. Co.__..------..Wauchula
Ufco Packing Co._ .----..... Ft. Pierce
Ulmer, H. D..........--- -----. Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc ............Valrico
Welles Fruit & Livestock Co.
___ .......____.....------- Arcadia
W. Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co....-- W. Frostproof
White City Fruit Co ..--- White City


large scale to demonstrate that the
required low temperature can be
given without injury to the fruit
and that this method is commercial-
ly practicable. The experimental
tests with heat, while indicating the
probable availability of this method,


Shipper-Members of Association


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Pare 7


October 1 .1929


have not yet been conducted on a
sufficiently large scale to fully
demonstrate commercial practic-
ability but it is hoped that in the
very near future sterilization by
this method can receive the full en-
dorsement of the Department.
The following method of steriliz-
ing citrus fruit is authorized:
"Cooling until the approximate
center of the fruit reaches a tem-
perature of 280 F. and holding the
fruit at that temperature five hours;
then raising the temperature of the
fruit not higher than 300 F. and
holding until a total period of five
days has elapsed from the time the
temperature of the approximate
center of the fruit reached 280 F.
"To make it possible to take im-
mediate or early advantage of the
wider movement authorized under
such treatment pending the devel-
opment of adequate facilities within
the eradication area and other parts
of the State, such treatment is now
authorized either in Frlpda,,or, in
designated cold storage approved
by the Plant Quarantine and Con-
trol Administration in the District
of Columbia or the States of Ken-
tucky, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, Mas-
sachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania
and such other northern States as
may later be approved. Fruit to be
treated at localities outside of Flor-
ida must be graded, packed in stan-
dard commercial containers and
shipped under special permits is-
sued by the Plant Quarantine and
Control Administration. Such per-
mits will authorize movement only
under ice in refrigerated cars and
to designated cold storage.
"To provide necessary safeguards
for movement to and handling at
approved cold storage, those con-
cerns designated to sterilize fruit at
points outside the infested State
will, prior to such designation, be
required to file an application and
complete a written agreement with
the Plant Quarantine and Control
Administration. The administration
will approve only those plants which
are adequately equipped to handle
and sterilize the fruit and will main-
tain at designated plants outside of
the State of Florida the same su-
pervision which will be given to-S.0 i
storage within the said State.' ;,
"No fruit which has been sent to.
designated storage for sterilization
will be permitted to leave such cold
storage except under permit issued
by the inspector detailed to *the
plant concerned, and the issuance'
of such permits will be conditioned,
upon the sterilization of the fruit to
the satisfaction of the inspector. in
manner and method authorized
above.
"Railroads are authorized to move
fruit, under permits for such move-
ment, issued to the shipper, from-
any part of an infested State to
designated cold storage under the
usual storage-in-transit provisions.
of the railroad tariffs, but shall not
transport such fruit from the said
plants until a permit has been issued
as provided in the foregoing para-
graphs.
"C. L. MARLATT, Chief, Plant
Quarantine and Control Ad-
ministration."






Page 8 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS October 1, 1929


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE


NEWS

OCTOBER 1, 1929
Published Semi-monthly by the FLORIDA CITRUS
GROWERS CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Florida.
Entered as second-class matter August 31, 1928, at
the postoffice at Winter Haven, Fla., under the Act of
March 3, 1879.


E. C. AURIN
J. C. CHASE.
J. A. GRIFFIN
F. G. MOORHEAD
R. E. MUDGE
PHIL C. PETERS.
JAMES T. SWANN
A. M. TlLbEN
E. E. TRUSKETT
ALLEN E. WALKER
R. B. WOOLFOLK

J. A. GRIFFIN
A. M. TILDEN
ALLEN E. WALKER
E. E. TRUSKETT
ARCHIE M. PRATT


DIRECTORS
Ft. Ogden
.Orlando
Tampa
.DeLand
.Fellsmere
Winter Garden
.Tampa
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora
Winter Haven
Orlando
OFFICERS
President
Vice President
Treasurer
Secretary


SUBSCRIPTION RATES
Per Year: $2.00 Single Copies: 10c

Eliminate Ignorance
Florida citrus growers generally remain in
the dark as to what the morrow may bring
forth, in the matter of quarantine regulations,
despite indications that modifications are pos-
sible, such as the State Plant Board's request
for relaxation of shipping rules, Dr. C. L.
Marlatt's expressed belief that all of our crop
will be moved and the official authorization
for low temperature sterilization.
Our condition at present is somewhat un-
comfortable, to put it mildly. There are, ap-
parently, signs in the southern embargoed
states revealing an increasing appreciation of
Florida's clean situation as far as the fruit
fly's presence here is concerned. That alone
means considerable to us in simplifying our
marketing problem, but, expressed in cold
facts, no modification from these states has
been made. We can't live long on mere hope.
Boiled down, our chief difficulty appears
to rise from a general ignorance of our real
situation. We were assured last Spring that
the Government itself would endeavor to
counteract the harmful publicity in the North
occasioned by the discovery here of the fruit
fly. Whether or not this is being done, we
do..not know. Apparently it is not, for we
find in.the southern embargoed states, as an
example, woeful ignorance of our excellent
condition. Florida's Plant Board, we are in-
formed, has periodically supplied the ento-
mologists of the southern states with official
reports of fruit fly infestations. Copies of
these infestation reports, not being dis-
tributed generally in Florida, however, lead
Floridians to wonder whether these reports
are supplemented by explanations showing
how infestations have decreased and how the


State generally is commercially free from the the project, to-wit,-absolute erad-
fly. ication and elimination of the fruit
Vice-President A. M. Tilden of the Clear- fly pest., and
ing House, spoke of this ignorance of Flor- "WHEREAS, From the best ex-
ida's conditions, existent in the southern pert information at the command of
the State Plant Board, it appears
states, at the joint meeting of the Directors there is no likelihood of establish-
and Operating Committeemen on Sept. 25th. ing Mediterranean fruit fly infesta-
Mr. Tilden said that State officials of the tion at points in the United States
southern states had even asked him (at the north of the north boundary line of
meeting in Memphis, Sept. 16th) how many the States of North Carolina and
of our groves had been cut down on account Tennessee and extending westward-
of the fly! ly to the Rocky Mountains, between
October 1st and the following April
Such a lack of information-not to mention 1st, and
the existence of mis-information-is the one "WHEREAS, It would greatly ex-
thing most hurtful to Florida's cause. If this pedite the movement of fruit from
situation could be remedied, in other words, the State of Florida during the com-
if the bad publicity could be officially coun- ing season not to require the pro-
teracted, our lot would be much easier for cessing or sterilization of Florida
unfavorable prejudice would immediately fruits moving to points north of the
vanish TheClearingHousehasendeavored boundary line aforesaid when it ap-
vanish. The Clearing House has endeavored pears after careful inspection to be
to correct this condition of ignorance. It has free from fruit fly infestation.
replied to requests for information from the "NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT
North; it has corrected erroneous and harm- RESOLVED,
ful newspaper and magazine articles through- "1. That- this Board respectfully
out the country and in short has done all in requests the Honorable Arthur M.
its power to paint a fair and accurate picture Hyde, Secretary of Agriculture, to
of conditions here. But the Clearing House relax and cause to be modified reg-
probably is regarded by officials of the south- ulations now in eadfect requiring
fruit, from the eradication area and
ern states, as being biased in its viewpoints, moving into points north of the
For this reason, the campaign to counteract boundary line aforesaid, to be pro-
harmful publicity MUST come from official cessed.
sources. "2. To permit said fruit to move
Our State Plant Board, no doubt, will into said territory when it appears
handle this entire situation. The eradication from careful inspection immediate-
ly prior to the shipment of fruit
work has been marvelous and the task of that there is apparently no infesta-
making the job a well-rounded-out piece of tion in the points from which said
work (by complementing the eradication fruit may move regardless of
work with an educational campaign) should whether said originating point is
place the Florida Plant Board in the nation's within or without the eradication
scientific hall of fame. As its own share in area."
the program, the Clearing House again is
sending representatives into the southern em- LONDON BRANCH FOR AYER
bargoed states to help spread the good word N. W. Ayer & Son, Inc., the ad-
of Florida's condition among those officials. vertising agency selected to handle
Armed with official facts and figures showing the Clearing House Association's na-
the rapid decrease of fly infestations, data on tional advertising campaign this sea-
conditions of climate and territory distasteful sen, are planning to open a London
to the fly and other valuable information, the bounced. Douglas Meldrum, who
representatives will undertake to convince has been manager of the San Fran-
the officials of the embargoed states of the cisco office, will be manager of the
need for lifting their ban against Florida new London office.
citrus.
The State Plant Board, alert to the neces- AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
sity of advising the country of our clean con- BEHIND
edition, already has formally requested the Agricultural research, in the
Government to relax its provisions regarding broad meaning of the term, has in:
certain sterilization regulations. This action no wise kept pace with the amply
was taken at Tallahassee Sept. 16th, the fol- financed search for new facts and
principles which has been the basis
lowing motion incorporating the Board's at- of modern invention and develop-
titude: ment in the chemical, electrical, en-
"WHEREAS, The Florida State Plant gineering and other industrial fields.
Board has this day adopted regulations con- The research which has been the
sistent with rules and regulations of Federal foundation for vast profitable ex-
Plant Quarantine and Control Administra- pension in these industries has been
tion,-Notice of Quarantine No. 68 (revised), carried out by corporations amply
able to finance such studies. Agri-
effective September 1, 1929, relating to the culture divided into more than. 6,-
Mediterranean fruit fly quarantine, and 000,000 farm units is obviously un-
"WHEREAS, The progress made in the able, through its own resources, to
campaign to eradicate and eliminate the Med- establish and maintain institutions
iterranean fruit fly in the State of Florida to able to pursue elaborate technical
date has been most encouraging and more studies. The benefits to be gained
effective than the most optimistic at first thereby are nation-wide'in scope.
deemed possible, and One of the heaviest charges in agri-
culture today-and it is a charge in
"WHEREAS, The State Plant Board is fully large measure passed on to the con-
cognizant of the fight that must be made to sumer-is for individual farm ex-
arrive at what it deems a proper solution of periments.


. enera anagr


Page 8


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


October 1, 1929




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