Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00023
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: September 1, 1929
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00023
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

Florida Clearing 9 .ls

Library Comp. ,
Bureau of Arig. Ecotn. Official Publication of the ? '''' i
Was8 g1 'tOft, D Representing More Than 16000 Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit

10 Cents a Copy
$2.00 a Year


Official Recognition of Eradication Success Fully Expected Now

,Revision of Rules

SGoverning Season's

Shipments, Issued

Control of Distribution and
Shortening of Time are
Features of Mandates

A general revision of the Mediter-
'ranean fruit fly quarantine and reg-
ulations, effective September 1st,
was issued last month by Secretary
of Agriculture Arthur M. Hyde,
which gives the conditions under
which Florida may ship its citrus
'fruit, vegetables, nursery stock and
other restricted articles into inter-
state commerce during the coming
In a large measure, the revision
of the regulations follows the recom-
mendations made by the advisory
committee of specialists appointed
by the Secretary to investigate the
fly situation in Florida. The com-
mittee's report, which was published
the latter part of July, recommend-
ed the continuation and expansion
of the eradication program and in-
cluded authorization of shipment of
citrus under methods of sterilization
4 which research work by the Depart-
ment of Agriculture had indicated
Sto be effective and economically
All infested fruit is required to be
destroyed but destruction of host
fruits and vegetables over consid-
erable areas surrounding the infest-
ed fruit will be discontinued. The
Government has pointed out, rela-
tive to this last policy, that such
Wholesale destruction of commercial
fruits as was practiced last Spring
within Zones 1 areas, is regarded as
unnecessary because of the inten-
sive eradication effort Florida has
made during the last four months,,
as well as the Government's plan to
sterilize the fruit and hence elimi-
i nate the theoretical risk of carrying
In addition to these safeguards,
distribution of the crop is to be con-
r trolled, that is, fruit from certain
areas is to be shipped only to cer-
(Continued on Page Four)

Situation Governing New Crop

Changes So Rapidly That Rules

Become Out-of-Date Over-Night

Conditions surrounding the movement of the coming cit-
rus crop are changing so rapidly these days that it is difficult
for the growers and shippers to keep abreast of them or to
visualize clearly the true extent of the quarantine regula-
tions. Secretary of Agriculture Hyde, a week or ten days
ago, issued the revised quarantine regulations governing the
movement of the new crop, the regulations to'become effec-
tive Sept. 1st. Even since these pronouncements were made,
there has been another change announced, namely, the per-
mitting of the movement of fruit from eradication areas prior
to October 1st.
At the time Secretary Hyde issued the new regulations,
Florida was rejoicing because of the recent realization that
the State now is commercially free of infestation. The news
is wonderful and has been the cause, naturally, of mounting
enthusiasm generally. The success of the eradication work
has been surprising and gratitude and praise for the Govern-
ment's efficient program has been freely expressed. More
than six thousand fly traps, placed at strategic points,
claimed not one fly during the past month-a story-quite
unlike that of two and three months ago.
Official Washington, like Florida, also is finding it difficult
to "keep tab" on the Florida situation. Federal scientists,
working day and night, are learning considerable about the
Mediterranean fly, its habits and its weak points, and with
almost each fresh discovery, a new light is thrown upon the
situation which may well alter the entire complexion of
things before the new season develops.
In the meantime, the State has received the new regula-
tions. Confidence is growing that the regulations will be mod-
ified to correspond with the splendid condition the State is in,
especially as some of the-impracticable features of the new
rules become more evident and their significance becomes
appreciated. The research work, which covers every conceiv-
able angle of the situation, is expected to determine what
lines of endeavor are practical and necessary; hence all
groups are working toward the same end. Those in charge
of this research work, appreciate just as fully as do our ship-
pers, the difficulty, for instance, of applying the heat treat-
(Continued on Page Three)

Scientists Working

On Heat and Cold as

Processing Methods

Low Temperature Method
Better Understood, Both
Effective, Baker Says

Experiments being made by sci-
entists of the United States Depart-
ment- of Agriculture as to the com-
mercial feasibility of sterilizing cit-
rus fruit as a safeguard against fly
infection, reveal the fact. that only
the low temperature method is re-
garded as entirely satisfactory. The
use of the high temperature method
is at present demanding the atten-
tion of the entomologists and ex-
periments so far conducted show
much promise, according to Dr. A.
C. Baker, principal entomologist in
charge of the tropical and sub-trop-
ical plant insects division of the
Bureau of Entomology.
Dr. Baker has just written the
Clearing House concerning the ex-
periments being made as to the pro-
cessing methods, and his letter is re-
produced here for thjeenefit of
Clearing House members aniid others'
interested in this most important
aspect of the quarantine regula-
tions. The letter follows:
"In view of the fact that shippers
of citrus fruits must soon decide
what method of sterilization to se-
lect for Zone one fruit, it appears
advisable to indicate the trend of
experimental results so far obtained.
"Of the many procedures used in
attempts to devise methods for posi-
tively insuring fruit free from living
larvae, two only have proved satis-
factory, namely the use of low tem-
peratures, and the use of high tem-
peratures. Both of these methods
have invariably given complete mor-
"It should be remembered, how-
ever, that these two methods have
one decided difference. The use of
low temperatures has been a com-
mercial practice for many years. Its
limitations are well understood. The
(Continued on Page Six)

Volume I
Number 23


Floridians Winning

Fight Against Fly,

Californians Learn
Californians are being informed
by one of their own entomologists,
Dr. H. J. Quayle, that Florida is
winning her fight against the Medi-
terranean fruit fly. Dr. Quayle, a
member of the Riverside Citrus Ex-
periment Station in California, who
served on the special commission ap-
pointed by Secretary of Agriculture
Hyde which surveyed the fruit fly
eradication work here last month,
reported to his fellow Californians
recently that the destruction of the
fly is being pursued successfully
without the loss of the valuable
grove properties. He also revealed
the fact that within the last three
weeks (including the last half of
July.) no-trace of the pest had been
foifid in Orange coiiity..
"Through the method adopted as
a result of the report submitted by
the commission it is now possible
for growers to kill the insects where
found and at the same time, through
treatment, the fruit can be per-
mitted to ripen, can be harvested
and shipped," Dr. Quayle said.
"The method now being followed
in the afflicted districts differs radi-
cally from the original plan in that
much of the valuable growth can be
saved. The fly can be destroyed in
every stage of development and
through sanitation in the groves and
the spraying of orchards these
groves will once more be available
for the growing of healthy crops."
So safe has the new method of
treatment proved to be that the em-
bargo on the Florida fruit is being
raised in many eastern States and
new regulations are soon to be put
in effect through the United States
Department of Agriculture. In the
meantime the same rigid inspection
of the product of the groves is be-
ing maintained.
That the tension of the economic
situation has within the last few
weeks-t e'engreatly relieved d that
the outlook of the citizens of Flor-
ida is much more optimistic, is the
statement of Dr. Quayle.
"The pest has already been prac-
tically eliminated in some districts
and with the acquisition of more
funds the entire State will be rid of
the pest, according to the predic-
tions of those nearest to the situa-
toln," Dr. Quayle said. The wild
growth and uncultivated areas are
also said to be proving unexpectedly
free from the fly, Californians have

Trying this and trying that, grop-
ing blindly for a better way, has
been conservatively estimated to
amount up to $100 per farm. Gov-
ernment agencies adequately fi-
nanced to study farm problems
could bring more effective results
at a small per cent of the cost.-
Arthur M. Hyde, Secretary of Agri-
culture, The Country Gentleman,

Growers Should Assume Burden

Of Bait Spraying Costs, Hyde

Thinks, Bureau Chief Reveals

Explanation of the Government's
attitude toward the eradication
spraying, is interestingly set forth
in a letter received by Mr. A. M.
Tilden, Vice-President of the Clear-
ing House, from Dr. C. L. Marlatt,
chief of the plant quarantine and
control administration of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. The let-
ter is in reply to a telegram sent Dr.
Marlatt by Mr. Tilden requesting in-
formation on the subject and in ef-
fect it reveals the point that the
Government thinks the growers
should bear this expense.
The letter in full, is as follows:
Mr. A. M. Tilden,
Vice-President, Clearing House,
Winter Haven, Fla.
Dear Sir:
Your telegram of the 9th instant
on the subject of spraying for the
fruit fly duly received.
No formal decision on this sub-
ject has been made by the Secre-
tary, but he has clearly indicated
his belief that spraying is one of
the minor elements of cost which
the growers can and should assume.
The cost of such spraying will prob-
ably amount to only a small percent-
age of the expenditures which grow-
ers normally put into fertilizers and
probably will be less even than the
cost of orchard clean-up during har-
vest and the clean-up of trees and
ground and premises at the conclu-
sion of the shipping period. Further-
more, unless and until the fruit fly
is eradicated, spraying must needs
be a continuing factor in fruit pro-
duction in line with spraying for
rust mite, etc., and with cultivation,
fertilizing, etc.
The requiring of owners to as-
sume the spraying of their commer-
cial groves would seem to be fully
justified by the fact that they are
now -going to be able to market
their crops and, therefore, receive
whatever returns these crops may
An even more important reason
is that the Government expenditures
as estimated by Dr. Newell and his
assistants for the balance of this
fiscal year, approximate $30,000,-
000. The securing Administration
and Congressional approval for any
such sum will not be easy at best
and if we get it at all it will be on
our ability to emphasize that the
State and the people of Florida are
rendering full self help. The mem-
bers of Congress are thoroughly
familiar with ordinary orchard
spraying practice and it will be very
difficult to persuade them that the
simple type of spraying for the fruit
fy is work which the owners cannot
properly undertake and, with their
present, or with easily available,
equipment and at much less cost
than under Federal operation.
The effort to include such grove
spraying in the Government bill may

well jeopardize the securing of
Government aid to conduct work
which, in the present condition of
the State finances, the Government
must carry alone.
The Federal burden now tenta-
tively accepted by us includes the su-
pervision of all spraying, and the
undertaking of spraying not done by
growers, as for example, town spray-
ing, spraying of wild lands, road-
sides, etc. In addition to this 50%
share of the spraying, the Govern-
ment burden includes fruit and veg-
etable cleanup, other than of com-
mercial groves, inspection through-
out Florida and other States, certifi-
cation of products, supervision of
sterilization, etc., totaling the $30,-
000,000 as above estimated.
I am perfectly willing to admit
that the Government, if permitted
could do all the phases of work
which are now requested of the
growers better perhaps than the
growers could do them-but at a
very greatly increased cost. This
would apply not only to spraying
but to orchard sanitation, handling
of sterilization, all removal of minor
host plants, etc. If we were to take
that course and exclude the people
of Florida from material co-opera-
tion, the failure of eradication would
be certain. If the miracle happens
and eradication is achieved it will
be because such a spirit of co-opera-
tion has been developed that every
person in interest will render aid to
the utmost in all phases of control
work. Wherever, therefore, there is
ability to aid it should be accepted
and utilized. Where there is abso-
lute inability, the work will have to
be provided for.
As to spraying, we have received
assurances that this can in large
measure be done by growers-not
by all, but by fifty or seventy-five
per cent of them. Most growers
have and regularly use, spraying
equipment, and for small plantings
have apparatus serves the purpose
very well. We are now using in our
Federal work some hundred or more
such hand sprayers. Spraying for
the fruit fly is the simplest sort of
operation. It does not require com-
plete covering of the tree, as in ap-
plications for the rust mite or for
scale insects, but means placing a
very little poisoned bait on a portion
of each tree so that the fly can find
it and be killed. As to cost, I have
been advised by one of the largest
handlers of citrus groves that he can
do this work at 30c an acre per
spraying, or for ten sprayings, $3.00
for the season, with apparatus which
he now has and counting into the
cost the investment in equipment. I
have already indicated that pro-
vision is made in the program for
Federal supervision of all such
spraying, and to this may be added
the furnishing of the spray mixture.

I think I appreciate the situation-
in Florida and the need that many
grove owners be helped-and steps,
to that end are, I am advised, being
seriously considered-but the spray-
ing is not the big item' of cost. It is
one of the minor items. The ferti-
lizer bill is the big expense, as I
understand it, and after that, the'
cost of harvesting and preparing the
crop for shipment. But as already,
indicated, spraying is one of the
things that will be looked upon as a
normal feature of orchard practice,
and hence the difficulty of persuad- '
ing the authorities here and Con-
gress that it is necessary that that"
item should be assumed by the Fed-'
eral Government in a campaign
where the Federal Government may
be called upon to appropriate funds
in amounts which have never before
been considered in connection with
any crop or animal pest.
I have written you very fully on
this subject because it seems clear.
to me that there is a concerted ef-
fort in Florida to try to force the
hand of the Department in the mat-
ter of spraying, and it is desirable
that you and others should know
that any such campaign is ill-advised
and likely to result in most unfortu-
nate reactions. The most helpful
thing would be just the opposite of
such effort, namely, what I have
stressed so much-the necessity of
co-operation and willingness to aid,
and even to make heavy personal
sacrifices. The latter will come in.,
particularly when it comes to the
elimination of alternate host trees
and shrubs, action which is abso-
lutely essential, in my judgment, to,
the eradication of the fly. This
necessity for tree and shrub elimi-
nation is not being educationally
pushed as it should be, and it takes
a lot of education and a lot of devel-
opment of public spirit to put over
a campaign of that sort.
I shall be glad to enlist you as an
intelligent grower and leader to get
this idea to the people of Florida.
We are thoroughly aroused as to
the gravity of the situation and are
bending every effort to bring about
a combination of Federal, State and
individual co-operation which will
result in the curing of this tremen-
dous blight which has fallen upon
the State of Florida, but we have a
very clear realization that our ef-
forts can be rendered of little avail
by demanding too much.
Yours very truly,
Chief of Administration.
P. S.-This whole discussion of
the enlarged program including the
spraying throughout the eradication
area, from the standpoint of Fed-
eral performance is still more or less
academic. There are no Federal
funds available to carry out the en-
larged program or any part of it.
We started in this fiscal year, July
1, with a balance of about $3,000,-
000 applicable to the fruit fly work.
We are spending this now, along old
lines, at the rate of between $600,-
000 and $700,000 a month; in other
words, without any enlargement at
a rate which will exhaust the fund
about the first of November.

September 1, 1929


Pdre 2

September 1, 1929 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS Page 3

The enlarged program, as esti-
.mated for the Secretary's Commit-
tee by Newell and his assistants,
calls for an expenditure at an aver-
age rate for the year of $2,500,000
a month, but in point of fact should
involve much larger expenditures
for the summer period with corre-
sponding reduction for the winter
-,period. On the basis, therefore, of
these estimates, the work should
,now be so enlarged as to call for
an expenditure of $4,000,000 or $5,-
000,000 a month.
It is not possible to secure any
such sum by any readjustment of
Department funds. Such monies do
Dnot exist. Favorable action by Con-
gress, if secured, is necessarily sev-
eral months distant.
From the above' statement it is
obvious that if the commercial or-
chards in the eradication area are to
be sprayed this work will have to
.be undertaken largely by the own-
ers. Under this situation it is im-
,possible for me to conceive that
owners of commercial groves will
not themselves do this work so es-
sential to their own protection as
) well as to the eradication effort. In
fact we are advised that this is be-
,ing done to a very considerable ex-
tent, and that is the type of sup-
Aport which indicates interest and
co-operation and predicates success.
Undoubtedly such spraying by own-
ers would be general except for the
-hope that has been raised that the
Federal Government could be in-
duced to take it over.
Co-operation to the fullest extent
-by owners in such spraying-and
there would seem to be no important
" reason why this should not hereafter
apply also to Zone 1-will make it
Possible to utilize the available Fed-
eral funds to undertake the spray-
ing of town and country residential
properties, not commercial, and un-
improved and wild lands, as well as
to enlarge as far as possible with
,available funds, pending action by
Congress the other equally vital
phases of work which should be car-
ried out immediately, such as scout-
ing to determine spread, and the su-
pervision of, and participation in,
-the elimination of minor host plants.
The spraying and the eradication of
'minor hosts are within the possible
performance in large measure of
Sthe citizens of Florida. The scout-
ing work cannot well be delegated,
and the Federal funds will have to
go as far as they will in that field.
-I am not mentioning State aid be-
cause it is well known the State's
fund of $500,000 which has been ac-
tually appropriated is available only
'to a small amount. We should all
look this state of affairs squarely in
the face and base our actions ac-
cordingly and not rest on any illu-
sion that Federal funds are avail-
able or promptly can be made so.
C. L. M.

Crotalaria has passed the experi-
mental stage as a summer cover crop
for groves. Growers in Highlands
county planted nearly 10,000 acres
in Crotalaria this summer and would
,have planted more if seed had been


10 Little, 9 Little, 8 Little---

10 Little Medflies south of Georgia line,
1 found in Orlando, then there were 9.
9 Little Medflies scattered o'er the state,
PlAnt Board got busy, then there were 8.
8 Little Medflies thought they were in Heaven,
Along came the Clean-Up Squad, then there were 7.
7 Little Medflies up to funny tricks,
The government joined in the fight, then there were 6.
6 Little Medflies, healthy and all alive,
The grove sprayers came along, and then there were 5.
5 Little Medflies inside a sedan door,
Stopped at a spraying station, and then there were 4.
4 Little Medflies climbing up a tree,
Stopped to sip arsenate of; lead, and then there were 3.
3 Little Medflies resolved to die or do,
Did some rotten headwork, and then there were 2.
2 Little Medflies thought the day was won;
Which it was-for the growers-and then there was 1.
1 Little Medfly raising hell around,
She's the one we're after and she'll soon be found!
-Tarpon Springs Leader.

(Continued from Page One)
ment to the fruit to safeguard it.
They realize also just how inade-
quate are Florida's facilities for
treating the fruit by the low tem-
perature method.
There is no question as to the ef-
fectiveness of either treatment.
Both methods absolutely extermi-
nate the larvae. But the question
that is looming larger and more
pressing, touches upon the necessity
of the treatments. The State's free-
dom from infestation, the crystalli-
zation of the public mind toward
giving Florida a clean slate, and the
suggested and practical solution of
processing only fruit of groves near
new infestations and destruction of
infested fruit and fruit nearby that
possibly might be infested, all are
important phases of the situation
that notably affect the need for a
policy of more general processing.
The paradox of the present situa-
tion lies in the fact that the Medi-
terranean fruit fly is so scarce in
Florida today, as to be more than
worth its weight in gold. This is be-
cause live specimens of both fly and
larva are greatly needed for experi-
mental and research purposes. It
should be pointed out here that this
is the time of the year when the
Mediterranean fruit fly breeds most
flourishingly. Its scarcity, conse-
quently, is the more remarkable and
The above conditions of course
are the results of eternal vigilance
and a complete eradication undoubt-
edly will result because of the re-
newed courage of all and the gen-
eral observance of the wonderful re-
isults so far accomplished. A most
rigid inspection with a vastly in-
creased inspection force is antici-
pated and desired by the growers
and shippers. Many are insisting
that the inspection forces be so in-

creased as to absolutely assure the
rest of United States that all Flor-
ida fruit offered is unquestionably
free from the remotest trouble.
This would be much preferred and
far more practical in safeguarding
the public than the policy of steriliz-
ing a large volume of fruit in which
larvae exist only hypothetically.
As to the curtailment of the ship-
ping season, this likewise may read-
ily be modified. Last April, Florida
shipped out 9,000 cars of citrus. In-
festation conditions during that me-
morable month were highly danger-
ous. Compared with the current
month, the two periods are as night
is to day. Yet with all the known
and suspected dangers inherent dur-
ing last April, those 9,000 cars roll-
ed to their markets without a sem-
blance of trouble. The fly did not
spread. But this coming April, under
the revised regulations, is to be a
fruitless month. Shipments are to
be completed, or halted, at least by
April 1st. Last April's fruit went
into the warm southern States by
truck and by bulk (a privilege now
denied for any month in the year).
No infestations in growing native
host fruits or vegetables developed
then. So in the light of this angle,
Floridians feel it reasonable to ask
and expect modification of the ship-
ping season.
It is fair and just that our proven
freedom from contaminating infes-
tation be recognized by the Govern-
ment. It would not be asking too
much to request the Government,
for instance, to consider as infested
areas, only those properties in which
infestations are found from this
time on. Such- areas, too, could be
limited in accordance with the de-
gree of infestation determined.
Eradication areas likewise could be
determined upon the same basis, in-
stead of recourse to extremes that
may have been necessary when erad-
ication was first started. Adoption
of this policy would enable the State
to move the crop before it is too

late and so allow the non-host period
requested a chance to be effective.
With the exception of -the fruit
involved under new infestations, as
outlined above, all other citrus fruit
and host vegetables might well be
shipped without restrictions except
as to the most rigid inspection and
under certificate after havihg passed
such inspection. If these modifica-
tions could be made, Florida then
could move her crop efficiently
;and profitably and with every safe-
ty to the rest of the United States.
Official Washington's attitude
rightly is a firm one and necessarily
exacting in its requirements. Never-
theless, the Department of Agricul-
:ture has been open-minded at all
times and so Florida, happier in her
:present freedom from infestation,
confidently expects recognition of
;our improved situation to be reflect-
ed in modifications along these
lines. Then we will be out from
under the bonds that are so disturb-
.ing. The rest of the country will. e.
'absolutely secure from any troubles
'that might have originated in Flor-
ida, because we are today commer-
cially free from the fly. Yet the
inspection service .will be more se-
vere, the forces will be doubled or
quadrupled, and every box will be
permitted to move only after the
grove, the fruit in the grove and
again in the packing house is in-
spected. Such fruit then will pass
its final searching test.

International and

Lucerne Subsidiary

Merge With F. C. E.

The International Fruit Corpora-
tion and its subsidiary, the Lucerne
Park Association, merged their in-
terests with the Florida Citrus Ex-
change last month, it was announced
recently by officials of the organi-
zations. The International, which is
one of the biggest grower-shippers
in the State, will add a considerable
tonnage to that controlled by the
Exchange, the total volume of the
combined three organizations run-
ning approximately 35 per cent of
the State's crop, it is estimated.
C. C. Commander, general mana-
ger of the Exchange, in comment-
ing upon the merger, said:
"The first step in the unification of
the Florida citrus industry has been
taken. We hope to effect other sim-
ilar agreements in the near future,
which will build up the marketing
program of the State's crops, in
order to conform to the Federal
Farm Board's stipulations to qualify
us for financial relief from that
W. A. Blackman, vice-president
of the International and Lucerne
Park Association, said:
"An understanding which is sub-
ject to the ratification by directors
of respective parties has been reach-
ed between officers of the Florida
Citrus Exchange on one part and
the International Fruit Corporation
and the Lucerne Park Association
on the other part, for the two latter
companies to become affiliated with
the former company."

September 1, 1929


Page 3


Americans generally-and partic-
ularly Americanettes-are seriously
and determinedly going out after
true physical perfection these days,
if numerous magazine and newspa-
per articles are to be believed. The
famous Eighteen-Day Diet, which
has enthroned the juicy and vita-
min-giving orange and grapefruit,
has become a national habit. Thous-
ands, if not millions, of persons are
striving enthusiastically to become
what they are not; the fat ones diet
to become slim, sleek and svelt while
the latter, disdaining the ambitions
of the hefty, are doing all they can
to achieve avoirdupois.
The thing about the Eighteen-Day
Diet that is of most interest to Flor-
ida citrus growers is that the diet
in question calls for at least one
grapefruit or orange every day. At'
least a half grapefruit or a whole
orange is used at every meal, with
the exception that no citrus fruit is
eaten after breakfast on the tenth
day nor for dinner on the seven-
teenth day.
All told, the diet calls for con-
sumption of 37 grapefruit and six
oranges-a box of fruit approxi-
mately. Obviously one box of fruit
spread over eighteen days is not
what could be termed voracious con-
sumption but when that one box is
multiplied by the thousands now en-
gaged in the eighteen-day quest for
"perfection," the diet immediately
assumes pleasing aspects to. Florida
growers. Florida's hat or hats is or
are off to the Mayo Brothers, of
Rochester, Minn., who are reported
to have inaugurated the Eighteen-
Day Diet. For the benefit of Flor-
idians who might like to consume
part of their own crops in order to
emulate those not so fortunate as
to be able to pick their own diet,
the menus for the eighteen days are
given herewith:
Drink of Water 2 Hours After Meals
All breakfasts alike, % grape-
fruit, 1 slice of toast, coffee, little
milk and a little sugar.
..First Lunch-% grapefruit,-1 egg
any way but fried, 6 slices cucum-
First Dinner-2 egg, 1 tomato, %
head of lettuce, % grapefruit, tea
or coffee.
Second Lunch-1 orange, 1 egg,
% head lettuce, 1 slice of toast, tea
or coffee.
Second Dinner-Broiled steak, %
head of lettuce, 1 tomato, % grape-
fruit, tea or coffee.
Third Lunch-% grapefruit, 1
egg, % head of lettuce, 6 slices of
cucumbers, tea or coffee.
Third Dinner-% grapefruit, 1
lamb chop, 1 tomato, head of let-
tuce, 2 olives.
Fourth Lunch-1 grapefruit, 1
slice of toast, pot cheese, 1 tomato.
'Fourth Dinner Broiled steak,
water cress, % grapefruit.

Fifth Lunch-1 orange, 1 lamb
chop, % head of lettuce, tea or cof-
Fifth Dinner-- grapefruit, %
head of lettuce, 1 tomato, 2 eggs.
Sixth Lunch-1 orange, tea.
Sixth Dinner-2 poached eggs, 1
toast, 1 orange, tea.
Seventh Lunch-- grapefruit, 2
eggs, % head of lettuce, 1 tomato,
2 olives.
Seventh Dinner-% grapefruit, 2
lamb chops, 6 slices of cucumber, 2
olives, 1 tomato, % head of lettuce.
Eighth Lunch-- Grapefruit, 1
broiled chop, % head of lettuce, tea
or Coffee.
Eighth Dinner-- Grapefruit, 2
eggs, asparagus, plain spinach, 1
slice of toast.
Ninth Lunch--% grapefruit, 1
egg, 1 tomato, beet salad, tea.
Ninth Dinner-Same as lunch.
Tenth Lunch Cinnamon toast,
Tenth Dinner-Broiled steak, cel-
ery, olives, 1 tomato, tea.
Eleventh Lunch-- grapefruit, 1
lamb chop, % head of lettuce.
Eleventh Dinner-Same as lunch.
Twelfth Lunch-% grapefruit, 1
lobster, crackers, coffee.
Twelfth Dinner-1 'orange, 2
broiled chops, cold slaw, 1 tomato,
Thirteenth Lunch-% grapegruit,
1 egg, 1 slice of toast, coffee.
Thirteenth Dinner-Broiled steak,
grapefruit, head of lettuce,
celery, coffee.
Fourteenth Lunch-- grapefruit,
1 egg, 1 slice of toast, coffee.
Fourteenth Dinner-Broiled steak,
1 tomato, % grapefruit, coffee.
Fifteenth Lunch-- grapefruit,
1 egg, 1 toast, coffee.
Fifteenth Dinner-2 lamb chops,
1 tomato, grapefruit, coffee.
Sixteenth Lunch-- grapefruit,
1 egg, 1 tomato, coffee.
Sixteenth Dinner-1 orange, broil-
ed steak, plain spinach.
Seventeenth Lunch-- grape-
fruit, 1 lamb chop, head of let-
Seventeenth Dinner-B r oi 1 e d
steak, tomato and celery, 3 olives.
Eighteenth Lunch-- grapefruit,
1 egg, 1 tomato, coffee.
Eighteenth Dinner grape-
fruit, broiled fish, plain spinach.

The Famous Eighteen-Day Diet

(Continued from Page One)
tain areas in the north, elaboration
of which is given elsewhere in this
explanation of the new regulations.
Briefly, the new rules, presented
in concrete form, show the follow-
ing chief points:
Restrictions on Movement of Fruit
All fruit produced within one mile
of points of infestation must be
sterilized. (This may be termed
Zone 1 fruit).
Zone 1 fruit, sterilized, may be
shipped into any State other than
the eighteen embargoed southern and
western states, that is, into either
Marketing Districts Two or Three.
Sterilized fruit produced in erad-
ication areas (substantially equiva-
lent to Zones 1 and 2) likewise may
move under permit to any States
other than the embargoed States. In
other words, sterilized fruit from
Zones 1 and 2 may be shipped only
to Marketing District Two (the
eleven northeastern States) and
Marketing District Three (States
other than the embargoed States ahd
District Two States).
Unsterilized fruit from Zone 2
may be shipped only to District
Fruit from Zones 3, whether ster-
ilized or not, may be shipped either
into District Two or District Three.
Sterilization Methods
(1) 110 Degrees F. inside fruit
for eight hours with humidity at 90
per cent.
(2) 28 Degrees F. inside fruit for
five hours with a total period of five
days at 30 Degrees F. or less.
Shipment Time Limits
Fruit from all zones must be ship-
ped by April 1st.
Marketing Districts
Embargoed States-Alabama, Ar-
kansas, Arizona, California, Geor-
gia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Nevada, New Mexico, North Caro-
lina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South
Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah
and Washington or. the Territory of
Porto Rico.
District Two-Connecticut, Dela-
ware, District of Columbia, Maine,
Maryland, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Potomac Yards in Virginia, Penn-
:sylvania and Vermont.
District Three-All other States.
Final Judgment Pending
The Department of Agriculture
has announced relative to the meth-
ods of sterilization, that while they
are regarded as commercially prac-
ticable, final judgment as. to the
:complete availability of the methods
must necessarily await the demon-
strations which can be made only
when the new crop begins to move.
In the meantime the Government,
working with growers, packers and
carriers, is continuing the experi-
mentation upon a larger scale so
that if possible the benefit of such
control can be made more generally
available before the heavy shipping
season opens. The Government also

has admitted that it realizes that
sterilization may not be possible for-
all packing houses or other estab-
lishments or to make the changes ,
and installations necessary for ster-
ilization by the time the season
Pending these determinations,
provision has been made in the reg-
ulations for movement of host fruits-
and vegetables under safeguards
similar to those required at the close r
of the last season; namely restric-
tions as to destination areas.
The territory termed "eradica-
tion areas" by the Government, con-
stitutes roughly Zones 1 and 2 and
includes the following counties:
All of Brevard, Citrus, Flagler,
Hernando, Hillsborough, Lake, Ma-,'
rion, Orange, Pasco, Pinellas, Put-
:nam, Seminole, Sumter and Volusia
counties, and parts of Alachua,
Bradford, Clay, Duval, Levy, Osce- <
ola, Polk and St. Johns counties.
In addition to the limitation of.
.-shipment destinations and the steri-
lization safeguards, the Government
'has prescribed the maintenance of a
host-free period throughout the
:eradication areas, extending from,
April 1st until October 1st for citrus
:and from June 15th until October,.
:1st for vegetables. Spraying and
cleanup measures are to be required
rand the handling of the crop gen-
erally is to be "under conditions sat-
isfactory to the United States De-
partment of Agriculture."
All citrus fruits, as soon as ma-
ture, should under these regulations, ,
be moved as soon as possible. No
'fruit should be held in the mistaken .
impression of "complying with a
:host free period." To have a "host ,
free" period, the mature fruit must
:be non-existant. That means ship 1
quickly before it has reached ,a sus-
*ceptible stage of maturity for the
Zones one, two and three fruit i
may and should be moved at the ear-
liest possible date. There is no re- -
:striction, except our State maturity
law, as to earliness of movement.

SString beans have been released''
from regulation under the Mediter-
$ranean fruit fly quarantine applied
to Florida and near-by States.
Lifting of the restrictions on
string beans is made possible by the
total absence-of fruit fly infestation
in this crop, and the failure, thus
far, to force infestation experimen-
The Federal Government is re-
taining the quarantine regulations
'affecting lima beans and broad
(flava) beans.

George E. Farrand, former gen-
eral counsel for the California
Fruit Growers Exchange, has been
'appointed in the same capacity for -
:the Federal Farm Board. Mr. Far-
rand was counsel also for the Cal-
ifcrnia Walnut Growers Associa-
tion, the Milk Producers of South-
ern California and many other agri-
'cutural cooperatives and producer


September 1, 1929

Pape 4


Because Fruit Breathes, It's

Important That It Be Stored

Only Under Ideal Conditions

Charles A. Moore, of Minneapolis,
well known ventilation and refrig-
eration engineer, discusses the ques-
tion of storage of perishable pro-
ducts in an interview recently grant-
ed the PACKER. The NEWS feel-
ing that Florida citrus growers un-
questionably will be interested in
Mr. Moore's statements, the inter-
Sview is reprinted herewith as fol-
"Perishable products are living or-
ganisms and carry on respiration,
whether in or out of storage, func-
tioning by absorbing oxygen and
giving off carbon dioxide gas, the
chief gas that vitiates atmosphere.
The extent of such respiration de-
pends upon the percentage of rela-
tive humidity, degrees of heat and
the conditions of the atmosphere in
which the perishable products are
enveloped. It is essential for better
respiration of the perishable pro-
ducts to maintain a uniform per-
Scentage of relative humidity and de-
grees of heat that are normal to the
product and to establish a constant
internal, convective and diffused cir-
culation of live atmosphere.
"Heat is a condition in products
and not an element. Air and water
are composed of elements and since
the major part of the more highly
perishable products consist of water,
it is basic and good reason to con-
sider the importance of maintaining
the natural, normal percentage of
moisture that is contained in the
perishable products to be condition-
ed in a refrigerated state. It is also
advisable to recognize the necessity
of maintaining a normal percentage
of relative humidity in conditioned
live atmosphere enveloping the per-
ishable products so that the rela-
tive humidity in the air will equal
or balance the moisture contained in
the products. Too high relative hu-
'midity in the air causes absorption
and develops fungi, rot and decay
in the products; too low relative hu-
midity increases shrinkage by evap-
oration, therefore, the normal per-
centage of relative humidity should
be established in conjunction with
uniform degrees of temperature
that are normal to the products
under fresh conditioned live atmos-
"When perishable products are
exposed to too high relative humid-
ity and a vitiated atmospheric con-
dition, such state promotes decom-
position by excess absorption of
moisture and develops abnormal res-
piration, causing diseases to which
the products are susceptible, while
too low or subnormal percentage of
relative humidity will develop excess
evaporation, shrinkage in moisture
content and loss in weight, flavor,
appearance and volume of the pro-
"The maintenance and preserva-
tion of uniform condition relative

humidity and degrees of heat that
are normal to the products are most
essential in conjunction with a cir-
culation of live atmosphere.
"Variation in degrees of tempera-
ture causes fluctuation in percent-
age of relative humidity. At near-
freezing temperatures when high
relative humidity is required the
range in degrees of temperature
change is very narrow and satura-
dion or dew point will occur if the
perishable produce is of a lower
temperature than that of the air, the
result being that excess moisture in
the air will deposit on the exterior
of the product. This condition is
caused by the lower degrees of tem-
perature in the product setting up a
convective circulation around it,
bringing in contact with the product
:he air containing the high percent-
.age of moisture and heat, equaling
the temperature of the product with
that of the atmosphere and condens-
ng the excess moisture in the air on
the exterior of the product, thereby
sealing it with a film of water. This
film of water which is deposited on
he exterior of the product absorbs
the gas given off in the respiration
:and tends to prevent the proper
amount of air from taking its place
'in the cells vacated by the gas. A
part of the gas thus given off by the
product and absorbed by the con-
densation is precipitated on the sur-
face of the product. Such treatment
:s severe and reduces the vitality
and appearance of the product.
"Humidity is water in vapor form
sustained by atmosphere and is
lighter than air. Carbon dioxide gas
given off in the respiration of per-
:shable products is heavier than air.
*Air is a natural and life sustaining
vehicle, expanded and contracted ac-
cording to the degrees of heat with-
,in the atmosphere, rendering air
more or less capable of sustaining
:and conveying moisture which ab-
sorbs gas. Humidity and gas content
'of the air may be maintained with
more or less precision in conjunc-
tion-with a refrigerant of uniform
:degrees of temperature properly in-
troduced to establish, through nat-
'ural gravity, internal, convective and
diffused circulation of ventilated at-
"Gas given off in the respiration
of perishable products being heavier
than air, would naturally occupy the
lower strata in a room. Therefore,
it is important to carry on ventila-
tion in conjunction with an inter-
nal, convective and diffused circula-
tion of air which is constantly mov-
ing in natural gravity formation,
propelled and directed by the design
and arrangement of the regrigerant,
whereby a film of conveying atmos-
phere is established adjacent to the
interior surfaces of the room. The
moisture or humidity in the air
takes up the vitiating gas and heat

expelled by the product, also the
heat penetration from the exterior
surface of the room in a conveying
circulation to the ceiling above the
refrigerant at a point where it is
ventilated to the exterior, thus re-
moving the highest percentage of
humidity, gas and degrees of heat.
Such ventilation relieves the refrig-
erant of the duty of dissipating such
humidity, gas and heat and at the
same time provides a regulated sup-
ply of fresh conditioned atmosphere,
the same being allowed to flow by
gravity into the room through a
passageway which equalizes and
balances the atmospheric pressure
in the interior of the room to corre-
spond with the fluctuating barome-
tric pressure of the exterior and
which reduces air filtration through
the insulation and holds the insula-
tion intact. Further, heat leakage
through the insulation is picked up
and carried by the film of air mov-
ing along the interior surfaces of
the room and is conveyed by venti-
lation to the outside, thus flaking'
the interior non-conductive to the
"Air is a basic element, has no
substitute, and cannot be infringed.
Conditioned atmosphere established
in a natural convective and diffused
circulation is a most important fac-
tor in sustaining life and vital forces
in perishable products."

Co-operation Shown

By Florida Growers

Pleases Officials
Appreciation of the high degree
of co-operation which residents of
Florida have to date given to the ef-
fort of the Federal Government to
eradicate the Mediterranean fruil
fly, is evidenced in the following ar-
ticle appearing in the August 1 is-
sue of The Official Record of the
United States Department of Agri-
culture, which circulates to the
thousands of employes and members
of that vast organization in every
part of the country:
"The regulatory work of the De-
partment of Agriculture is essential-
ly a service to the community, and
so well is this recognized by the pub-
lic that the regulatory laws admin-
istered by the Department are prac-
tically never attacked in principle,
though their details may occasional-
ly be criticized," said Walter G.
:Campbell, director of regulatory
work of the Department, in a recent
radio address.
Meet Little Opposition
"Some of the most important ac-
tivities of the regulatory service en-
counter practically no opposition,"
he said. "Take, for example, the
work now being done to resist the
ravages of the Mediterranean fruit
fly. This fly, the world's worst fruit
pest, is, as you know, a recent in-
vader of the United States. That it
did not gain entrance into this coun-
try years ago, by the way, is due to
the strict regulations enforced by
the plant quarantine workers, as it

has long been a destructive pest in
several other parts of the world. Im-
mediately upon its discovery in Flor-
ida last April the plant quarantine
office took measures to stamp it out
and to prevent its spread. Since
these regulations were issued no in-
fested fruit is known to have left
"In carrying out these regulations
it has been necessary so far to de-
stroy more than half a million boxes
of citrus fruits. But despite these
heavy losses to farmers and dealers
the most cordial aid has been given.
It certainly says much for the in- -
telligence and public spirit of the
people in those sections that for the
ultimate good they accept without
complaint the restrictions it is nec-
essary to place on shipments of or-
anges, grapefruit, peaches and vege-
tables. They realize that the losses
sustained now are extremely small
in proportion to those that would re-
sult if the fruit fly were to win.
SAim at Education
"So general is the disposition to
:co-operate with the Department in
its regulatory work that most viola-
tions of the laws result not from il-
legal intent but simply from ignor-
ance as to what is required. Hence
the Department lays great stress
'upon educational methods in its law
enforcement work. It takes an ad-
visory rather than an arbitrary atti-
tude and seeks to carry out the in-
tentions of Congress in a spirit of
co-operation with trade agencies.
"The regulatory laws are not class
legislation in any sense. 'They exist
for the protection of the entire pub-
lic. It is in the public interest that
they should be impartially and con-
tinuously enforced. As this becomes
more and more realized the task of
enforcement becomes more and
more simplified."

Pick Up Windfalls

Even Though Green,

Plant Board Advises

Citrus growers should now .turn
attention to keeping their. -groves
clean of all drops or windfalls, ac-
cording to word given out a few
days ago by the State Plant Board.
It is pointed out that such drops
and windfalls constitute a menace
to the grove owner through provid-
ing possible sources of fresh infes-
tations by the fruit flies. Even
though fruit on the trees right at
this time may be immature to an
extent which assures it immunity
from fly infestation, the softening
of drops and windfalls upon the
ground may provide material to' the
liking of the flies, it is said.
Uncertainty as to the exact extent
of the area in which living flies may
exist is held to be warrant enough
for active interest on the part of
.all growers in keeping the ground
beneath their trees thoroughly
cleaned of fallen fruit. Insofar as
the eradication areas are concerned
(all of the territory comprised with-
in Zones 1 and 2) the new Federal

September 1, 1929


Page 5


quarantine regulations just issued
from Washington, which went into
effect on September 1, provide for,
"the cleanup of drops and windfalls
at semi-weekly intervals during the
ripening and harvesting period," by
the growers. However, even if there
be no legal requirements upon those
owners of properties in Zone 3 terri-
tory, authorities at headquarters are
confident there is sufficient incentive
to warrant growers everywhere in
keeping their properties clean even
though located outside the eradica-
tion area.

(Continued from Page One)
procedures necessary are familiar to
many operators in the State. The
use of high temperatures, on the
other hand, is new and at present
untried commercially. There is no
bakgroiid' "f experiencec. From
the viewpoint of economy, however,
heating has a considerable appeal.
Data available indicate the use of
high temperatures to be as funda-
mentally sound as the use of low
temperatures. But of necessity,
much must be learned before it can
be regarded in the same light as
the commercially proved method of
pre-cooling and cold storage.
"Experiments so far conducted
show much promise. While many
trials have proved satisfactory from
the point of view of the fruit, some
have not. The causes remain to be
determined. There remains also the
question of the capacity of our sev-
eral varieties growing under differ-
ent conditions of soils and cultiva-
tion to withstand this treatment.
Necessarily, opportunity for tests
on all of these varieties has been
lacking since the method has been
developed during the past few
"In approaching any new and un-
tried practice from the commercial
viewpoint, considerable caution is
always advisable. The present case
is no exception. While we feel safe,
therefore by reason of years of
demonstraEtion in unreservedly rec-
oinmending the use of low tempera-
tures, the lack of any background
of experience with high tempera-
tures makes necessary continued ex-
perimentation before this method
can be endorsed as a general prac-
tice. In the meantime, however,
every energy will be expended to
place the use of high temperatures
on as safe a commercial basis as
that of low temperatures."

The Mediterranean fruit fly is said
to be practically blind. Probably got
that way monkeying with grape-
fruit.-Arkansas Gazette.

Statistical studies show that for
every dollar invested in agricultural
research there has been an annual
return of $500-U. S. Daily, July

Many growers feel the necessity
of cutting expenses wherever possi-
ble, and naturally, in cutting ex-
penses you do not want to jeopard-
ize your future profits from your
groves. As fertilizers are one of the
largest items of expense let us see
if we cannot reduce this expense.
As all of you know, the organic
forms of ammonia or nitrogen cost
about twice as much as the inor-
ganic or mineral sources. In other
words, if you buy your ammonia in
tankage you will have to pay about
iwice as much as you would if you
buy it in nitrate of soda, sulphate of
ammonia, or leunasaltpeter. Is it
necessary to use this high priced
source of nitrogen?
At Lake Alfred at our Citrus Ex-
periment Station, we have an exper-
iment where we are comparing
nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammo-
nia, dried blood and a combination of
these three materials. For eight
years certain blocks of these trees
have received all of their nitrogen,
or ammonia from each of these
sources. That is, Plot 1 receives all
of its nitrogen from nitrate of soda
three times a year; Plot 2 all from
sulphate of ammonia; Plot 3 from
dried blood, and Plot 4 from a com-
bination of all three. In addition all
of the plots received the same
amounts of superphosphate and sul-
phate of potash. To date we have
been unable to find any difference
in favor of the combination of or-
ganic and inorganic materials which
we might term as the general prac-
tice in fertilizing groves. The nitrate
of soda and sulphate of ammonia
plots have to all appearances made
just as good growth with just as
good quality of fruit as the combi-
nation of organic and inorganic ma-
terials. Therefore, stop buying the
high priced organic and change
over to the lower priced inorganics.
Another way by which you can
save money is in applying all of
your phosphoric acid and potash at
one application, applying only am-
monia for the balance of the appli-
cations. I offer this merely as a
suggestion at this time for we have
no experimental data to back it up.
We have some experiments under
way testing out this theory but they
have not been conducted long
enough to give results.
The fact that phosphoric acid is
washed from the soil in very small
amounts and potash in only slightly
larger amounts, it seems possible
that putting these two fertilizers on
once a year will be sufficient. The
question then arises at what appli-
cation shall the complete fertilizer
be applied. To me it would seem
logical to make this application in
the fall after the rainy season. If
made at this time there is little
danger of any being lost through

leaching until the following sum-
mer as we seldom get heavy enough
rains during the winter and spring
months to cause leaching. However,
as I stated before, this whole ques-
tion is yet to be solved, but I think
it is well worth a trial by any of
you who like to do a little experi-
menting yourselves.
I hesitate somewhat in making
the following suggestions because
some of you may follow it when you
ought not to, and then you will
blame me for the results. If you
have been fertilizing your grove
with complete fertilizers for the
past year, giving it a1l1 that it need-
ed and your trees are now in good
condition, I believe it will be entire-
ly feasible and safe to make your
next application nitrogen or am-
monia alone except where you have
a heavy crop of fruit, in wrich case
it might be advisable to also add
some potash. I would suggest that
you put on just as much ammonia
or nitrogen as you would put on in
a complete fertilizer. For instance,
if you would normally ppply 10 lbs.
of a 3-8-8 fertilizer, I would apply
1% lbs. of nitrate of soda, or 1 V
lbs. of sulphate of ammonia pei
tree. If you have considerable fruit
on your trees, you could apply in
addition to the above about 1- 1 %
lbs. of sulphate of potash. I do not
believe that the potash will be neces-
sary in the majority of groves. You
cannot, of course, continue apply-
ing only nitrogen or ammonia,
especially in the ridge section. Sim-
ple mathematical figuring will show
you that your trees would soon suf-
fer from a lack of potash. All citrus
fruit is rich in this element and our
light sandy soils are very low in it.
Roughly, the sandy soils contain
just about enough potash for four
or five years of fruit averaging five
boxes per tree.
In addition to the above you will
eventually be able to cut down your
fertilizer costs if you will follow a
rational system of green manuring
or cover cropping. It does not make
so much difference what cover crop
you grow as long as you grow one.
Of course, a legume makes a better
cover crop than a non-legume for
it will add nitrogen to your soil as
well as organic matter. Cover crops
increase the available plant food in
two ways. In decaying, the organic
acids formed dissolve some of the
insoluble plant food in the soil.
Many cover crops are deep rooted,
the roots going down much farther
than your tree roots. These deep
rooted plants bring up plant food
from the lower layers of soil and use
it to make their growth. When the
plants are plowed under this be-
comes available to your trees. In-
creased organic matter will also
make for a more uniform feeding

Reducing the Cost

Of Fertilizing Citrus
(Abstract of Talk Delivered by R. W. Ruprecht, Chemist, Florida Experi-
ment Station, at Farmers' Week)

of your trees for the organic matter
will hold the plant food until the
tree needs it instead of allowing
rains to wash it out of the root zone.
There will be additional organic
material available this winter. Due
to the danger of the fruit fly breed-
ing in cull piles, such piles will not
be permitted. All packing houses
will probably be required to chop up
the fruit as you saw in the pictures
of the fly work last evening. This
will make excellent organic material
for your groves. Probably the cheap-
est way to use it would be to haul
it to your grove as it comes from
the machine. I have been assured
that there will be no danger of the
material becoming reinfested with
fruit fly maggots. This material
should analyze approximately as fol-
lows, if derived from oranges:
Ammonia.--.--. 0.15
Phos. acid ----.. 0.04
Potash -----... 0.20
We were unable to get a sample.
of this material this year, but hope
to get one this fall and will publish
the analysis as soon as we can. Com-
pared with stable manure this con-
tains considerably less plant food.
This material could, of course, be
fortified with various materials to
increase its fertilizer value. How-
ever, in general it has been found
that trying to do this with material
that could be used without the addi-
tion is not a paying proposition. It
costs money to mix anything with
the material and in general, I believe
it will be found cheaper to apply it
as it is and add your other fertilizer
materials separately to your trees.
While some of the recommenda-
tions made above may seem rather
radical, I feel sure that you will be
entirely safe in following them.

Florida Orange Festival

To Be Held January 21-25

The Florida Orange Festival, one
of the mid-winter feature events,
will be held the coming winter, ac-
cording to Association officials after
a conference with Federal ahd State
quarantine forces.
Due to uncertainty brought about
by the Mediterranean fly situation
the Association had virtually agreed
to cancel the festival, believing it
inadvisable because of lack of fruit
and restrictions preventing the dis-
play of fruit. However, with the
visit of Secretary of Agriculture
Hyde, some weeks ago, the situation
began to clear up and the Associa-
tion decided to go ahead with the
festival plan.
After a conference with Plant
Commissioner Newell officers' of the
Association are now advertising the
event for January 21 to 25, inclu-
sive. During last year's festival
there were 49,750 paid admissions.
Four large buildings were required
to house the 200 exhibits of which
75 were citrus displays. This was
said to be the largest display of cit-
rus fruits and by-products in t4e .
history of Florida.


September 1, 1929

Page 6

After irreparable damage has
been done by regulations entirely
too drastic by the Federal Govern-
ment, as to the raising and handling
of Florida fruit and vegetables,
these regulations have been greatly
modified. At first it was announced
that Florida would not be able to
permit any fruit to be ripened prior
to December 1. Now the revised
regulation changes this to Septem-
ber 1 and makes a good many other
betterments in the regulations.
In addition to the radical regula-
tions in regard to citrus fruit, farm-
ers were not allowed to produce
many kinds of vegetables, such as
tomatoes, beans, peas, eggplant and
many other varieties, even for their
own family use. The result was that
the whole agricultural business of
Fiblida wgas practically placed under
an embargo, not only against ship-
ment to other States but actually
for home uses. All of this was done
not simply to destroy the Mediter-
ranean fly in Florida but to prevent
Sits spread to other parts of the coun-
try. Even Florida fruit then located
*,in other parts of the country was
forbidden to be shipped to other
In the whole history of the coun-
try no such drastic regulations were
ever before issued against the pro-
ducts of any one State. If when the
corn borer attacked the corn of the
West the Federal Government had
decreed not an ear of corn should be
raised in the entire West for 12
months while the corn borer was be-
ing fought, it would not have car-
ried out so drastic a plan as that
which it undertook in Florida. Or,
if, the Fbderal Government had is-
sued a decree that 'for 12 months
not a pound of cotton should be
raised in the South, nor even the
foodstuffs needed for the susten-
ance of the people on the farms, its
action would have been more far-
reaching at large, but would not
have been more drastic on the South
as a whole than the regulations is-
sued in Florida in the fight against
the Mediterranean fly.
As these drastic regulations by
the Federal Government were for
the protection of other parts of the
country, in order that the fly might
not spread beyond Florida, the
whole country should bear the bur-
den of the loss inflicted upon Flor-
ida. If the Federal Government
were to pay into that State $50,-
000,000 to $100,000,000 as a free
gift to re-establish the financial in-
terests that had to suspend because
of its unwise activities in its quar-
antine regulations, and pay to the
Growers their losses, it would not do
more than would be fair and just
to the. State. The modification-
which has just gone into effect-of
the former drastic regulations is in
itself a proof that the Department
of Agriculture acted too hastily and
without due consideration of the ef-
'feet on business interests of its
quarantine against the production
oz shipment of Florida fruit or veg-


Adams Packing Co..___Auburndale
Alexander & Baird ..- .Beresford
American Fruit Growers .-.Orlando
Armstrong, F. C ..-. ..-Palmetto
Bilgorq, David, Co. __.. Clearwater
Blake, Ellis G.-.-------Lake Helen
Burch, R. W., Inc.___. Plant City
Cartlege, W. C ._--..Crescent City
Chase & Co.---.........-...--------Sanford
DeLand Packing Co.---- DeLand
Emca Fruit Co...... -.. Crescent City
Fellsmere Growers, Inc._Fellsmere
Fields, S. A. & Co.----- -Leesburg
Flesch Bros.___ ---. Auburndale
Florida Citrus Exchange ..- _-Tampa
Florida Mixed Car Co. _Plant City
Florida United Growers, Inc.
__--------_ ------_Winter Haven
Fosgate, Chester C., Co._-_Orlando
Ft. Meade Packing Co._-Ft. Meade
Gentile Brothers ---------Orlando
Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.
-_______ Davenport
Indian River Fruit Growers
________ Wabasso
International Fruit Corp... Orlando
Johnson, W. A.__ -Ft. Ogden
Keen, J. W. -----Frostproof
Keene, R. D., & Co.---- Eustis
Lakeland Co., The -....Lakeland
Lake Wales Fruit Packers, Inc.
___._____Lake Wales
Lamons, D. H..----_....------ Ft. Myers

Lee, J. C._ Leesburg
Lovelace Packing Co. Winter Haven
Lyle, J. P._. .-- San Mateo
Mammoth Groves, Inc.-Lake Wales
Maxcy, Gregg, Co.-- -- -Sebring
Maxcy, L., Inc. Frostproof
Milne-O'Berry Packing Co.,
S__t. Petersburg
Mitchell, J. M.__ _--- Elfers
Mouser, W. H. & Co--..-. Orlando
Okahumpka Packing Co.
Orange Belt Packing Co._ __ Eustis
Pinellas Fruit Co...-St. Petersburg
Richardson-Marsh Corp ..-Orlando
Roberts Bros. Co., Inc.. -Avon Park
Roe, Wm. G ..-- .. _-Winter Haven
Roper, B. H.._. Winter Garden
Stetson, John B., Estate of
St. Johns Fruit Co.__..-... Seville
Stone, Forrest B.__..._.Maitland
Sunny South Packing Co._-Arcadia
Symonds, A. D. & Son ...---Orlando
Taylor, C. H. __- _Wauchula
Ufco Packing Co _-- Ft. Pierce
Limer, H. D.__ -----------Clearwater
Valrico Growers, Inc. --..... Valrico
Welles Fruit Co.__--.-.. Arcadia
W. Frostproof Packing &
Canning Co...-- W. Frostproof
White City Fruit Co.. __ White City

tables. Scientific men adopted these
regulations, doubtless without study-
ing the whole business problem or
giving a fair degree of attention to
the facts that could have been pre-
sented by leading business men of
the State on the whole subject. Now
that the Department of Agriculture
has largely reversed itself one can
easily see what a blunder was made
by the first regulations.
Florida will immensely benefit
from this complete modification of
the former drastic regulations of
the department, but great losses al-
ready have unwisely been inflicted
upon that State.-Manufacturers

Florida's recent financial difficul-
ties have not attracted the nation-
wide attention that attended the
collapse of the real estate boom be-
cause the trouble has not been so
widespread or on the same scale,
and also because fewer people from
this section of the country have
money invested there. But the sit-
uation is extremely serious as re-
flected in the wholesale closing of
banks, and while the State needed a
readjustment from the reckless in-
flation of a few years ago, it cannot
stand repeated hammerings.
The balance of the country may
be only mildly interested in Flor-
ida's dilemma, but it cannot escape
the responsibility of having con-
tributed to it. In order to combat
the depredations of the Mediterran-
ean fly, the Federal Government has
placed an embargo upon fruit ship-
ments, and the orange and grape-
fruit crops are two of the State's
chief sources of wealth. Money

What Others Say I Shipper-Members of Association

loaned on the expectation of these
crops has been called-and obvious-
ly could not be paid. The growers
face an almost impossible situation
and have carried many of their
banks down with them.
No one will question the Govern-
ment's right-or duty-to place a
quarantine on Florida fruit in order
to protect orchards and farms
throughout the country. But on the
other hand it was hardly in accord
with the American sense of fair play
to condemn the fruit and allow no
compensation for it. It is not a ques-
tion of lack of foresight on the part
of the Florida growers since they
had no warning. When Pennsylva-
nia, in the interest of health, de-
manded. a tuberculin., est of dairy
cows, it provided partial compensa-
tion at least for each animal that
was slaughtered. The Federal Gov-
ernment should have admitted its
responsibility and adopted a similar
policy in this instance.
Florida has good reason to feel
that it has not been dealt with en-
tirely justly. Pittsburgh Post-Ga-

Education in character is one of
the things now most needed in the
United States, according to John J.
Tigert, president of the University
of Florida and former United States
Commissioner of Education, writing
in the current issue of the National
Republic. In his comment on the
subject, Dr. Tigert says in part:
"No imagination can conceive
what tomorrow will bring forth. It
is, nevertheless, evident that man's
capacity to apply the principles of
science has outrun his ability to

develop character and the human re-
lationships which must inevitably
control the adjustments of machin-
ery if civilization is to advance
rather than decline. Whatever mira-
cles may be wrought by science in
the annihiliation of time, space and
distance, it will never be able to pro-
duce a Messiah. The issue is clearly
before us, the lines are drawn, the
opportunity is ours, and the respon-
sibility cannot be evaded.
"In his title book on the 'Funda-
mentals of Prosperity,' Roger Bab-
son draws a pathetic picture of the
man of wealth depositing his stocks,
bonds, securities and other worldly
goods in a great steel vault protect-
ed by various electrical and mechan-
ical devices but apparently oblivious
of the fact that the poorly paid
hump-backed clerk could thwart all
this paraphernalia of protection
with a duplicate key to the renter's
box. In the last analysis his risk
depends upon the character of the-
man who controls the machinery. In
fact, he well points out that the
stocks, bonds, securities, deeds and
mortgages are all valueless minus
the element of human integrity-
the integrity of lawyers, clerks and
stenographers who draw up the pa-
pers, the integrity of the courts and
judges who enforce our claims, the
integrity of the community which,
in the last analysis, determines
whether or not the orders of the
courts and officials will be executed
and respected."

Ranks of Clearing

House Strengthened

By Tampa Terminal

The Tampa Union Terminal Com-
pany, operators of a large packing
and cold storage plant in Tampa,
joined the Clearing House last
month, the action being taken at
the meeting of the Operating Com-
mittee held August 23 at Winter
The new members will add con-
siderable tonnage to the Clearing
House volume and equipped as they
are with cold storage and pre-'cool-
ing facilities, will aid materially the
Association shippers' ability to com-
ply as a whole with quarantine reg-
ulations this coming season.
The Clearing House Board of
Directors had previously referred
the matter of the Tampa Union Ter-
minal Company joining the Clearing
House, to the Operating Commit-
tee. The latter body met with
Messrs. Clyde Perry and Kenneth
McKay, officers of the Terminal
Company, with the result that the
Committee recommended that the
concern be made a member of the
Association. Action will be confirm-
ed by the Board probably at the
next meeting.
The Tampa Union Terminal Com-
pany moves a large percentage of
its fruit by water and in fact is tak-
ing a leading part in the State in the
move to ship by water.


September 1 192g


Page 7

NSetember 1. 19Z9

SEPTEMBER, 1, 1929
Published Semi-monthly by the FLORIDA CITRUS
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Florida.
Entered as second-class matter August 31, 1928, at
the postoffice at Winter Haven, Fla., under the Act of
March 3, 1879.





Ft. Ogden
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Mt. Dora
Winter Haven

Vice President
General Manager

Per Year: $2.00 Single Copies: 10c

Growers in Zone Two who declined to ob-
serve the host free period requested by the
State Plant Board in its fight against the fruit
fly will not be permitted to market fruits
grown on property that went without this
protection. It is doubtful if the arbitrary at-
tuned expected a back-slapping of this nature
yet they have no one to blame but themselves.
This ruling, according to information given
out at Orlando, will be rigidly enforced.
The regulation will work a hardship on
some grove owners but will teach them a les-
son. In spite of the fact that the Federal Gov-
ernment moved its agents into the State and
appropriated big sums of money to resist the
invasion of the fly there were many who de-
clined to take the matter seriously and per-
mitted fruit to remain on the tree, holding
that they were within their rights in this con-
nection. Opposition to the county plant boards
that asserted itself in the various counties
proved that these boards were without any
real authority which was a victory for the
protestants yet later developments in some
cases at least show it to be an empty one.
YForitunately Manatee County citrus grow-
ers wisely fell into line with all instructions
that were issued. Our reward is found in the
fact that the county is still fly-free, our fruit
is maturing beautifully and growers are look-
ing forward to one of the best markets in the
history of the industry. Unless unforeseen
developments arise our fruit will be included
in the first to move to market which should
: ean county-wide prosperity. Bradenton
'- Herald.



September 1. 192.9


Tnr.. S

The following letter from J. M. Gillespie, Maturity of Fruit
of this city, appeared in the Newark, (N. J.)
News of a recent date: Are Given Approval
To the Editor of the News:
The new rules and regulations
Sir-Being a reader of the News for six governing the marketing of the com-
years in Florida and a previous thirty-five ing citrus crop, based upon the new
fruit law passed by the last Legis-
years in your neighborhood, Arlington, who lature, were approved by the Oper-
has at times appeared in your columns as a eating Committee August 2. The
regulations, submitted by Commis-
correspondent and as news, I know your repu- sioner of Agriculture Nathan Mayo,
were, with but two or three minor
station as the fairest and most independent changes, regarded by the Associa-
paper in your area is wholly earned. tion shippers as satisfactory.
General discussion of the new reg-
I know also that Florida is news. Its cli- ulatory measures showed general ap-
mate and appeal have the same draw in proval of the provision permitting
spite of the fears that have been raised by fruit inspectors to make inspections
of fruit at any time from the mo-
collapse of the real estate gamble (incidental- ment it is taken from the tree until
ly, it was brought here by outside gamblers), it enters the cars for shipment. An-
hurricanes, tidal waves and now the Mediter- other ruling provides for the num-.
bering of each separate lot of fruit,
ranean fly. People always want to know the the inspector being furnished a list
facts as to Florida. Unfortunately, a large and advised when each part of a car
part put out as facts is so colored by personal lot is ready to move.
The matter of the number of in-
interest for or against a particular point as to Te matte o te nme o in
spectors revealed a sentiment among
be little more than propaganda and is seldom the committee members that the in-
convincing. The fly is a subject of which little dustry could use as many Federal
is generally known, but much is speculated. inspectors as might be obtained dur-
ing the coming season.
The Florida Citrus Growers Clearing House Discussion as to the location of
is a co-operative organization working under the inspection headquarters, which
last year was moved from Haines
the United States Department of Agriculture. City to Winter Haven, was followed
It may be taken as the most official mouth- by the decision to leave the matter
piece of the growers in existence. It has is- in the hands of Commissioner Mayo.
and C. G. Strauss, supervising in-
sued a statement on the fly situation that is spector. However, on August 26, it
good fact, good sense and good reading, was decided to maintain headquar-
ters in Winter Haven, the Commis-
Florida could have handled its fruit and sioner making the announcement
kept it free of fly infestation with its own from Tallahassee.
processes and without the destruction that, to In addition to Commissioner Mayo,
cu m b co others who met with the Operating
agriculture, may be compared to Sherman's Committee included Spessard L.
march to the sea, and marketed it clean and Holland, attorney for the bureau,
free. To stamp out the fly at its first landing who presided at the meeting; B. J.
a hs s d to h e or f t p Owen and Jo.e Taylor, Assistant
Florida has submitted to have our fruit pick- State Chemists; Sinclair Wells, for-
ed from the trees and destroyed, guavas, per- mer citrus inspector, and A. N.
simmons, cherries, peaches, all kinds of ber- Turnbull of the State department's
ries, fruit trees and vines destroyed, bananas, Inspection Bureau.
that only produce one bunch to a stalk in two
years' growth, destroyed. Wild vines, cacti First of Season's
and every growth known as a host plant it Shipp*
killed. Quarantine workers run all through Grapefruit Sipped
my yard and garden, removing all on their To U. S. Scientists
list and scattering poison spray bait.
What are we doing? We are submitting The first car of the new season's
for others' sake and raising other things. If grapefruit crop was shipped the
our Northern friends will ignore these things middle of August from Terra Ceia
Island. The fruit was consigned to
as we are doing and let their Florida feelings the United States Department of
be itself we won't lose by the fly. It is the Agriculture at Orlando and is being
fears of our friends that hurts us and insist- used in research work there by gov-
ernment scientists. The fruit came
ence on calling these things Florida when from the grove of R. H. Prine, a
they are not Florida. If our Northern friends member of the Clearing House.
drew their capital out of their own banks as Although the fruit was not sub-
mitted to the State test, this being
they have out of Florida banks you would unnecessary J. H. Anderson, man-
have more closings than we have had. ager of the Terra Ceia Growers As-
J. M. GILLESPIE. sociation, was quoted as declaringS
that in his opinion the fruit could
Tavares, Fla., Aug. 9.-Lake County Citizen. have passed the test.

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