Y/ STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS
".. .to protect the
health and welfare
and stabilize and
of the State."
FOR THE FISCAL PERIOD
JUNE 30, 1973
Florida Citrus Commission
DAN K. RICHARDSON
WILLIAM F. EDWARDS
BEN HILL GRIFFIN, JR.
DAVID O. HAMRICK
W. R. HANCOCK
ARLEN N. JUMPER
MARVIN D. KAHN
JOHN T. LESLEY
MARVIN H. WALKER
From the Desk of the Executive Director
It is a generally accepted belief that it's hard to
improve upon success.
Nonetheless, the Department of Citrus has done just
that in the marketing of citrus in recent years. This has
been especially true of the 1972-73 season in which the
Florida Citrus industry harvested the largest crop on record.
For the first time ever, Florida, the world's largest
citrus-producing area, picked more than 200,000,000 boxes
of fruit with a final harvest of 227,600,000 boxes.
The Department of Citrus
developed and put into operation a
marketing program that helped move
the record crop. This noteworthy
effort included the creation of an
unprecedented demand for frozen
concentrated orange juice, the citrus
industry's best selling product.
Purchases of this convenience orange
juice averaged better than 2,000,000
gallons of concentrate per week from
September on, while records also
toppled in the purchases of chilled
orange juice which never dipped
below a 1,500,000 gallon-per-week
average after September.
Department of Citrus consumer
advertising for all Florida citrus
attained new highs in terms of
performance, with television viewers
reporting increased awareness of
lorida citrus fruit and products and
of the advertising efforts of Anita
Bryant and the Orange Bird.
Governor Reubin Askew in June
reappointed four members to the Florida
Citrus Commission Ben Hill Griffin, Jr., of Frostproof,
W. R. Hancock of Leesburg, Arlen N. Jumper of Ocala,
and Marvin D. Kahn of Sebring.
In the same month, Ed H. Price, Jr., of Bradenton was
elected by fellow Commissioners to a third consecutive term
as chairman and Dan Richardson of Vero Beach was elected
(Price resigned from the Commission October 24, 1973,
stating his reason as a strong desire to become active in
support of Governor Askew in the event the chief executive
seeks a second term.)
Other Commissioners serving are Albin Crutchfield of
Vero Beach, William F. Edwards of Dade City, John .T. Lesley
of Tampa, George McClure of Apopka, Karick Price of Orlando,
and Marvin H. Walker of Winter Haven.
The primary function of the Department of Citrus is to
serve as the marketing arm of the state's citrus industry.
Expressed in another dimension, the marketing term gen-
erally is understood to cover all phases from conception to
Approximately 90 per cent of all Department of Citrus
funds are allocated for marketing in all these phases, demand-
ing the constant exercise of careful judgement and stewardship.
Prior to the beginning of each new marketing season and
under supervision of the director of marketing, an exhaustive
analysis of accomplishments, problems and opportunities is
completed, then detailed and documented in a Marketing Plan
Book for each fresh fruit and processed product The books
provide a blueprint for guidance and direction in terms of
objectives, goals, and advancement of the industry.
In support of these plans,
the Department of Citrus em-
ploys a variety of sophisticated
services to provide checks and
balances on progress through
each crop year. Thus, potential
problem areas are avoided by
early warning signals that per-
mit changes in strategy.
A revision of strategy for l
the Three Party Program, based '-
upon documented proof of per-
formance, greatly improved
efficiency and efficacy of that" ^
endeavor and increased the .
exports of Florida citrus pro-
ducts to Europe. Strategies
also play a significant role in
current efforts to gain support
in lifting Japanese import restrictions on concentrate.
A long-term study was completed for the purpose of
supplying guidelines for a priority list of areas offering the
greatest growth potential for citrus in the institutional mar-
ket and is now being implemented.
Last year's total of more than 1,000 trade incentive
programs conducted by the retail food trade in cooperation
with the merchandising staff was topped this year by 200
A new approach in advertising resulted in a phenomenal
100 per cent increase in consumer awareness of single strength
grapefruit juice. During the year, sales of processed grapefruit
juices recorded a 9 per cent net gain.
Anita Bryant, with an assist from the Orange Bird, con-
tinued to contribute tremendously to the profitable and record
growth of processed and fresh orange products.
A major responsibility of market
research is to monitor and evaluate
industry marketing programs.
Toward this end, a number of
research services and techniques are
employed on a continuing basis.
During the 1972-73 fiscal year,
with few exceptions, the research
services reflected strong growth
trends, not only in citrus product
usage, but in consumer awareness
of these products.
Consumer buying of frozen
concentrated orange juice and
chilled orange juice grew dra-
matically in both percentage of
families purchasing and in amounts
purchased per family. The most
noteworthy of these achievements
was that an all-time high of 36.5
per cent of all United States
families purchased frozen concen-
trated orange juice during the
month of January
Consumer attitudes, which
are the target of Department of
Citrus advertising programs, have
shifted noticeable and awareness
to these citrus messages has grown
In the area of special projects,
a test was conducted to determine
the potential of small size packaging
for frozen concentrated orange juice.
The results were encouraging and a
further study is in progress on single
Another important subject of
research was the Target Group Study
designed to find reasons for non-use
of orange juice by people who claim
to like orange juice. While analysis
of this data is not yet complete,
there are indications that the under-
lying causes may be detected and
the information utilized to motivate
Plans for the next fiscal year in-
clude a test of advertising weights and
strategies for underdeveloped markets.
During the 1972-73 season, consumer demand for orange
juice reached an all-time high with 46 per cent of all house-
holds in the nation reporting use of the product during a
Responsible for much of this reaction was the use of
network television as an advertising vehicle during the year,
when commercials were estimated to have reached more than
90 per cent of housewives. A survey of these viewers indi-
cated that a record 84 per cent recognized Anita Bryant as
spokeswoman for the citrus industry in the commercials.
Another all-time high was the 87 per cent for respondents
who recalled the advertising message of "A Day Without
Orange Juice Is Like a Day Without Sunshine."
The survey reported that 69
per cent of viewing housewives
recognized the Orange Bird char-
acter which was created by Walt
Disney Productions for the Rorida
A special spot television
campaign and a newspaper coupon
program were conducted in key
eastern markets during the winter
and spring in support of fresh
oranges and specialty fruits.
Featured in the advertising were
Anita Bryant and her children.
During the fall, the Depart-
ment of Citrus offered 60,000,000
cents-off coupons through direct
mail and Sunday newspaper
supplements in the promotion of
processed orange products. The
same products benefited from a
spring campaign involving the
Orange Bird and 105,000,000
coupons distributed through direct
mail and consumer magazines.
A number of point-of-purchase
materials were created during the
year to tie-in with television
A continuing advertising cam-
paign for processed orange products
was conducted in leading food
trade publications in telling the
profit story of citrus to retailers.
Early-season support for fresh
grapefruit was provided in key
markets by fall newspaper adver-
tisements containing offers of grapefruit knives and spoons.
Beginning in January, 15 four-color advertisements appeared
in leading women' magazines expressing the natural advan-
tages of fresh grapefruit and offering serving hints.
Another campaign begun in January employed spot
television to introduce the "Smiley" symbol for grapefruit
juice, a tactic that helped boost the awareness of grapefruit
advertising in March to an all-time high of 14 per cent, double
the previous year's level.
Added support for grapefruit .
juice came in February and March
with a drop of 24,000,000 coupons
in newspaper advertisements cover-
ing 76 markets. Based upon a
successful test of the previous year,
a major promotion involving
41,000,000 newspapers coupons
was initiated in June with support
from network television. Featured
was a super juice in which grape-
fruit juice was substituted for
water in reconstituting frozen
concentrated orange juice.
A wide range of media was
employed in promoting the use
of Florida citrus through consumer
publicity. Recipe development was
the basis for the greater part of
this promotion which emphasized
nutrition in communications to
food editors of newspapers and
A highlight of the year was
an orientation tour of the Florida
citrus industry by a dozen food
editors of leading national publica-
tions, including Family Circle, Good 2 -: *i
Housekeeping, Woman's Day, House
and Garden, Redbook and Reader's 1- A .I
The Department of Citrus also
participated in the annual News- '
paper Food Editors Conference in
Philadelphia, hosting 150 editors
for the opening breakfast at which Dr. Willard A. Krehl,
noted nutritionist, was the featured speaker.
The Department of Citrus also assisted in the planning
and coordination of a Congressional Club luncheon in Wash-
ington for wives of all United States congressmen, a very
successful event hosted by wives of the Rorida delegation.
The major functions of the Administrative Department
revolve around legal, regulatory, fiscal, personnel and general
services activities, all of which are supervised by the deputy
During the 1972-73 season, the legal and regulatory
section drafted 122 contracts and promulgated and had
published 33 amendments to 18 Florida Citrus Commission
The substance of some of the more significant regulation
changes provided, in part, for a 2/5 bushel container to serve
as a shipping container as well as a consumer unit; a more
uniform procedure for
juice content tests, and
specific sampling pro-
cedures for use of the
to determine official
color scores for pro-
cessed orange juice.
were implemented to
the quality of Florida
canned single strength
orange juice during the
early season period and
to insure that fruit from
which imported frozen
concentrated orange juice
is processed meets the
same high maturity
standards required for i
Florida fruit. Separate
yield calculations were
established at processing
plants on early-midseason
and late varieties to
provide a more equitable
treatment for each type
The legal section,
working closely with the
Food and Drug Adminis-
tration and industry officials,
announced the enactment by
the FDA of mandatory
for diluted orange juice
beverages. This was a
wholesalers and food brokers.
Another plus for the mer-
chandising program came in 18
special marketwide promotions
centered around visits by the
Florida Citrus Queen. Each
year this young lady adds an
inestimable amount of charm
and color to these large
promotions in her visits with
city and state officials, inter-
views on radio and television,
and special features in news-
papers, as well as personal
appearances at food super-
markets. She also finds time
to visit hospitals and to speak
briefly before civic and service
One of the most popular
promotions of any year is the
annual national fresh citrus
display contest which attracted
more than 4,000 entries this
year. For the first time, the grand prize went to Canada for
an outstanding display constructed by the produce manager of
a food store in Hull, Ontario.
A similar display contest for processed grapefruit also
attracted a large number of entries.
Approximately 1,000,000 cartons of fresh citrus were moved
through special fundraising programs that began four years earlier
as projects for Vo-Ag groups and since have expanded to include
church and civic organizations. This was three times more fruit
than was moved in the same type of programs the previous year.
The highlight of institutional activity was the progress
made in promoting the continental breakfast featuring Florida
orange juice. An estimated
6,000 commercial food serving
units now have been involved in
this nationwide program.
The popularity of trade
incentive programs continued with
560 such promotions reporting an
average sales gain of 29 per cent.
Sales of frozen concentrated
orange juice in the away-from-home
market climbed, reflected by an 18
per cent increase in the movement
of product in 32-ounce containers.
A long-range study of the
away-from-home market was con-
ducted and the information will
be utilized in formulating and
implementing future institutional
advertising and promotional
School lunch seminars
attracted large numbers of officials -I
in this field, with more than 900
in attendance at workshops con-
ducted in Albuquerque, Milwaukee,
Manhattan, Kansas, and Charleston,
Convention activity was
focused on national meetings of
the American Home Economics
Association, the American Dietetic Association, the American
School Food Service Association, and the National Restaurant
Association. These events provided excellent opportunities to
feature Florida citrus products and to communicate with
officials responsible for activities of each group.
The year offered occasion to broaden cooperative programs
with Cub Scout and Young Mens Christian Association organiza-
tions. A feature was a Cub Scout Physical Fitness Olympics
which drew widespread attention to the finals event in Rorida.
Demand was greater than at any time in the past for
educational materials providing specific information regarding
diets and nutrition news of interest to hospitals and nursing
New film strips on physical fitness were completed for
distribution to schools and colleges next fall.
More than 400 articles with illustrations and information
on all Florida citrus products appeared in various institutional
and education publications.
Florida's expansion in the
world citrus market continued
to make progress during the
Encouraged by the success
of fresh grapefruit sales in Japan,
Florida is seeking approval of
the Japanese government for the
import of frozen concentrated
orange juice. Shipments of fresh
grapefruit to that nation during
the year increased by 25 per
cent over the previous year,
when the Japanese government
lifted restrictions on the import
of grapefruit for the first time.
Eastern European countries
displayed interest in obtaining -
citrus juices with the same high
quality of products marketed
elsewhere in Europe under the
Department of Citrus Three
Party Program. The report of F0Ric
a conference in Poland between F "'.
government officials and the
Department of Citrus resulted
in a Rorida processor com-
pleting the first sale of Rorida
frozen concentrated orange juice
to that country. Further con-
sideration is likely to be devoted
to exploring and expanding the
market in eastern Europe for
New participants were en-
listed for the Three-Party Pro-
gram, which promotes Florida citrus with the financial support
of the Department of Citrus, the Foreign Agricultural Service
of the United States Department of Agriculture and distributors
in Europe. At present, the program involves 53 marketing
plans in 10 countries Austria, Belgium, Finland, France,
Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and
Significant changes were made in the program during the
year, with one being the requirement of each distributor of
documented proof of purchase. Another change involved the
imposition of a maximum cost-per-gallon ceiling.
The final tabulation of sales of Florida citrus juices under
the Three-Party Program likely will exceed 20,000,000 single-
strength gallons in the fiscal year.
The publicity office con-
tinued to utilize every available .
news medium in reporting the
plans and achievements of the
Department of Citrus to the
citrus industry, the food trade
and the general public. This
effective network was made up
principally of radio, television,
magazines and newspapers, plus
something new in the form of
a monthly publication, the
"State of Citrus," written for
and distributed to owners of
Florida citrus groves.
Among attractions involving
Department participation which o
provided added exposure for
citrus from a publicity stand-
point were the Orange Bowl
Parade that precedes the
annual college football contest
in Miami's Orange Bowl; the
Florida Citrus Open golf tourna-
ment which draws an outstand-
ing field of professional golf
talent, and the Sunshine Pavi- "
lion's animated bird show at
Walt Disney World's Magic
Kingdom of family entertainment.
The float sponsored by the
citrus industry again led the Orange
Bowl Parade, which featured Anita
Bryant, the citrus industry spokes-
woman whose job each year is to
describe the event and to add I
color for millions of television
The Sunshine Pavilion, one
of the most popular attractions in
the Magic Kingdom, established many attendance marks during
the year, including a turnstile record of more than 4,000,000
visitors since Walt Disney World opened in the fall of 1971.
Records also were set in the number of servings of orange
juice and a sherbet-like orange slush at the Sunshine Tree
Terrace refreshment stand adjacent to the Pavilion.
Two new films were completed during the fiscal year,
one publicizing the Sunshine Pavilion and citrus products at
Walt Disney World, and the second a new documentary of
the growth of the citrus industry.
The economic research staff continued to develop infor-
mation programs about all aspects of citrus supply and demand
so that intelligent and reliable replies may be provided to
economic questions raised by the Forida Citrus Commission,
the Department of Citrus marketing staff, various industry
organizations and growers.
Revisions were made in long-run orange and grapefruit
supply estimates to reflect changes in the tree numbers re-
ported by the United States Department of Agriculture's
December 1971 tree census. Long-run orange juice sales
projections were revised to reflect the strong demand during
the previous two marketing seasons. The
general outlook for the next few seasons
indicates that demand for orange juice is
expected to increase at a rate greater than
Analyses were also completed for the
1972-73 season which indicated the desir-
ability of a revised frozen concentrated
orange juice industry-wide inventory policy.
A study was developed for the Canadian
market to estimate consumer demand for
orange juice products as well as the expected
impact of Department of Citrus advertising
The pending shortage of citrus harvesting
labor led to the development of a study to
determine the probable supply and demand
for such labor. Results indicate that unless
a viable mechanical harvesting system is
developed, demand for harvesting labor is
expected to be 20 per cent greater than
likely supply within two seasons, and 25 per
cent greater within five seasons.
Procedures were initiated to suggest the
optimum expenditures of Department of
Citrus advertising funds and how such funds
should be allocated over the four quarters
of the marketing year. Work was initiated which suggested
the allocation of coupons of various denominations among the
different geographical regions of the United States.
Studies dealing with expected growth trends in grapefruit
packing houses indicated that whereas little change is foreseen
for the interior region of the state, firms in the Indian River
area are likely to increase in both size and number.
Other organizations in the industry were assisted with the
development of information to use in seeking revisions in regu-
lations of the Cost of Living Council. Justification for the
revision was based on the non-inflationary record established
by the citrus industry during the past two years.
The emphasis in scientific
research this year was placed
upon expanded efforts toward
mechanical harvesting and -
abscission and upon building
an entirely new nutritional k
analysis program which would lS '
meet the needs for nutritional
Utilizing an added appro-
priation made available in Dec-
ember, mechanical harvesting
engineers began the construction
of an improved tree shaker unit
and catch frame with the most
recent design advances, an advan-
ced foliage shaker, and a rede-
signed air harvester. Colleagues
engaged in abscission research
expanded chemical screening
efforts by putting a second
crew into the field and by
increasing the number of
companies cooperating in the .... .
The processing research staff was reorganized to meet the
specifications required by nutritional labeling, particularly for the
analysis of nutrients not previously studied. Analyses for folic
acid, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), thiamine (vitamin B1), vitamin A,
magnesium, potassium and possible other minerals appear promising.
Juice definition research was continued by processing researchers.
Extractor-finisher systems from both major manufacturers were used
in this program for the first time.
Two additional patents, entitled "Natural Orange Base" and
"Enhancement of Color by Natural Means," were issued to the
Department of Citrus and a third application entitled "High Protein
Citrus Food Products" is actively pending.
Research related to fresh fruit was continued, with emphasis
upon studies in fungicides, chilling injury and packing house waste
The most noteworthy event relating to the school marketing,
program occurred in the final weeks of the fiscal year when it
was announced that the Lake County Circuit Court had granted
voluntary dismissal of the lawsuit that had held the program in
restraint for four and a half years.
The motion to ask dismissal followed a conference a few
weeks earlier between Florida Citrus Commission Chairman Ed H.
Price, Jr.; Monterey Campbell, general counsel for the Commission;
C. V. Griffin, Sr., the plaintiff, and plaintiff's attorney, Charles
Davis, in the chambers of Circuit Court Judge Troy Hall.
Another important event during the year was the securing
of grower approval through a referendum for an amendment
to the school marketing order
that will allow the support of
programs promoting the purchase
of processed orange products for
the nation's schools by other
than the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. This action
now permits the subsidization
and promotion of sales of
processed orange products directly
to schools by Florida citrus
processors and distributors.
With funds now available,
a marketing plan developed after
considerable research and experi-
ence will be presented for
Total funds, including
interest on taxes accumulated
during a two-year period that
began early in 1969, now
amount to almost $16,000,000.
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS
P, O. BOX 148
LAKELAND, FLORIDA 33802
THIS PUBLIC DOCUMENT WAS PROMULGATED AT AN ANNUAL COST
OF $1,949.67. OR A COST OF 97.5c PER COPY FOR THE PURPOSE OF
REPORTING THE ANNUAL ACTIVITIES OF THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT
FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION
There is hereby created and estab-
lished within the Department of Citrus a
board to be known and designated as
the "Florida Citrus Commission" to be
composed of 12 practical citrus fruit
men who are resident citizens of the
state, each of whom is and has been
actively engaged in growing, or grow-
ing and shipping, or growing and pro-
cessing of citrus fruit in the state for a
period of at least five years immedi-
ately prior to his appointment to the
said Commission and has, during said
period, derived a major portion of his
income therefrom or, during said time,
has been the owner of, member of, offi-
cer of, or paid employee of a corpora-
tion, firm or partnership which has,
during said time, derived the major
portion of its income from the growing,
or growing and shipping, or growing
and processing of citrus fruit.
Seven members of said Commission
shall be designated as grower members
and shall be primarily engaged in the
growing of citrus fruit as an individual
owner, or as the owner of, a member
of, an officer of, or a stockholder of a
corporation, firm or partnership pri-
marily engaged in citrus growing.
Five members of said Commission
shall be designated as grower-handler
members and shall be engaged as
owners, or paid officers or employees
of a corporation, firm, partnership or
other business unit engaged in han-
dling citrus fruit. Two of said five
grower-handler members shall be en-
gaged in the fresh fruit business and
three of said grower-handler members
shall be engaged in the processing of