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Title: Orange blossoms
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086633/00104
 Material Information
Title: Orange blossoms
Alternate Title: Orange blossom
Physical Description: 25 v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Production Credit Association
Publisher: Florida Citrus Production Credit Association,
Florida Citrus Production Credit Association
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: June 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
 Subjects
Subject: Oranges -- Marketing -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Oranges -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1, (May 1942)-v. 25, no. 8 (Nov. 1967).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 16 repeated in numbering.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086633
Volume ID: VID00104
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 45618176
lccn - sn 00229153

Table of Contents
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    Main
        Page 2
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        Page 16
Full Text

























MANAGING THE GROVE


FOR MORE PROFIT


R. E. "BOB" NORRIS
1965


"Managing the grove for more profit" is a subject of vital importance and
consideration to the folks at Florida Citrus Production Credit Association.
Likewise, none are more aware of the tremendous amount of time and ef-
fort that has been spent in research and experimentation to achieve a
formula for profitable production. At the 12th Annual South Florida Citrus
Institute R. E. Norris, Lake County Agricultural Agent, presented a sum-
mary of the various developments and recommendations to the citrus in-
dustry -- a summary which in itself represents considerable research.
Believing this to be a worthy compilation, with permissionof Mr. Norris
we have printed this paper to make it available to our members and friends
and to all interested citrus growers.
The Editor





















'W About the Authot:

Nearing his 30th anniversary
as Lake County Agricultural
Agent, Bob Norris is a well-
known figure in agricultural
- Norris circles. While his responsi-
bilities are widespread, his main inter-
est has been in citrus through the years.
In pursuing this interest Mr. Norris has
written many articles which have been
published throughout the citrus areas
of the nation. He is the author of
Florida Extension Service bulletins on
"Hedging Florida Citrus" and "Thinning
Practices in Florida Citrus Groves" and
co-authorwith Fred P. Lawrence, citri-
culturist, of the bulletin "Hairy Indigo
as a Cover Crop for Florida Citrus
Groves".
For almost all of its history, Bob has
been manager of the Annual Citrus Gro-
wers Institute at Camp McQuarrle. In
addition he has conducted many demon-
strations of citrus practices in areas of
nutrition, cultivation, cover crops, in-
sect and disease control, thinning and
hedging practices.


Among the many honors that have come
to Bob Norris are the U.S. Department


of Agriculture's Superior Service award;
the Distinguished Service Award of the
National As sociation of County Agricul-
tural Agents; Progressive Farmer Maga-
zine's "Man of the Year in Service to
Florida Agriculture" award in 1958.
Bob is past president of the Florida State
Horticultural Society and an honorary
life member of that organization. For
many years he has served as secretary
of both Florida Grape Growers' Assn.
and Central Florida Beekeepers' Assn.
He is a past president of Florida County
Agents' Association.
Mr. Norris is a member of Gamma Sigma
Delta, the national honor society for ag-
riculture and in 1962 he received their
Senior Faculty Award; he is also a mem-
ber of Alpha Gamma Rho, agricultural
fraternity at the University of Florida.
A recipient of the State Farmers Degree
awarded by the Future Farmers of Amer-
ica, Bob works actively with both FFA
and 4-H Club groups, and he was in-
strumental in the development of the
Lake Agri Science Club to acquaint
young people with opportunities open
in fields of agriculture and science.





- 1 -


MANAGING THE GROVE FOR MORE PROFIT

R. E. NOltiz
Lake County
AgAicutultat Ag ent

": 3Profitable citrus production
is the obvious goal of every grower.
The production of quality citrus has
not always been his foremost objec-
tive, just as it appears that the pro-
duction of top quality citrus products
has not always been the objective of
citrus processors. If therewas ever
a doubt that quality should be the
uppermost thought in the collective
minds of all of the industry, recent
developments should dispel such an
idea and every segment of the in-
dustry should make every effort to
take every step necessary to deliver
to the consumer only quality products
--high quality at that, if you please.
It appears that it will be those who
S are willing and able to produce such
products that will be able to not only
make a profit on their investments
but actually sustain the industry.


Talk presented at the South Florida Citrus
Institute Camp Cloverleaf, Lake Placid,
June 1, 1965.





-2-


The processes involved in delivering to the
consumer citrus products of highly superior quality
should begin at home with the producers. This paper
is designed to review some of the factors of quality
production which have resulted from the work of the
researchers and which have been learned from the ex-
perience of successful growers. This writer believes
that the only way to manage a grove for more profit
from this time on is to manage it for more quality fruit
production.
While we are not in possession of all of the facts
necessary for a sure-shot program to guarantee AA
quality of all of the fruit that we produce every year,
the combined efforts of research, education and a
persevering community of growers, have brought forth
a number of practices, which will, when carried out,
go a long ways toward accomplishing this objective.
And we might add to this that we can make substantial
improvement in the quality of fruit that we produce, at
a reasonable cost provided we as growers use prac-
tices that place emphasis first on quality and thenon
quantity. Many production practices favor both qual-
ity and quantity production at the same time.

To accomplish the objective of producing qual-
ity fruit we must be diligent in our efforts to plan and
carry out management practices that are known to be
effective in most years; we must review the work of
the researchers regularly; and we must observe the
system of operation of our most successful grower
neighbors. Grower experience contains a huge reser-
voir of helpful information.

lk" Ctmate" Climate is an important factor in the
production of quality citrus. It has been said many
times that the further north that citrus will grow suc-
cessfully, the better will be its quality. Surely this
is true as regards color. It is probably true as regards
solids, too, but the high solids are probably more of





-3-


a function of the sour orange and Cleo rootstocks grown
on our heavy soils than they are of the lower average
winter temperatures. Date of bloom, amount of sun-
light, total rainfall and humidity are factors in the
production of quality fruit, but we do not have much
control over these factors so they will not be discussed
further here.
'W Rootatockh Rootstocks have an important
bearing on the production of quality fruit. The choice
of rootstocks is governed largely by the climate and
soil type as well as the scion variety to be grown.
Choice of selection of the rootstock, based upon the
old line selections and based alone upon fruit quality
their scions produce are usually rated in this order:
sour orange, sweet orange, Cleopatra, grapefruit and
rough lemon. Cohen's work with rootstocks at Fort
Pierce has led him to suggest growers might evaluate
the Rangpur lime, Carizzo citrange and Sunshine tan-
gelo, in addition to those listed, in small trial plant-
ings. USDA scientists at the Foundation Farm grove
in Lake County are breeding and selecting for new im-
proved rootstock varieties, and are testing rootstocks
in plantings throughout the state.
Scion varieties selected for planting depend
upon a number of factors. Crystal ball gazing is one
factor. The location and soil type on which they are
to be planted are others. Butregardless of the vari-
eties planted, it is desirable to deal with reputable
nurserymen and select registered trees. Recent in-
troductions of several tangerine hybrids by the USDA
and work with the development of new round orange
varieties by the USDA workers point up the emphasis
being placed on new and improved varieties.
'" Location Site selection is important inlo-
cating a grove. The best locations are generally con-
ceded to be on hammock soils located on the south-
east side of large lakes to provide cold protection.




-4-


But these choice locations have long since disappear-
ed from the market and we must settle now for less
attractive locations.

Most of the factors covered in our remarks to this
point deal with management operations occurring up
to the planting time. We will try to cover some now
that are involved with post planting management.
'.F eattilizatio n Fertilization is a must for the
production of profitable crops of citrus on Florida
soils, but the excessive use of it is expensive and
wasteful. Workers at the Lake Alfred Citrus Station
have shown that during dry years when no irrigation
was applied, 100 pounds per acre of nitrogen gave a
5-box per tree yield, while 300 pounds per acre de-
pressed production to 1.8 boxes per tree. In a survey
conducted by the Lake Alfred workers it was found
that 43% of the growers use more potassium than
nitrogen, yet Lake Alfred Citrus Experiment Station
workers and USDA workers recommend equal amounts
of nitrogen and potassium for early and midseason
orange trees and 25% less potassium than nitrogen
for late orange varieties and grapefruit. "Possum-
eared" or "mouse-eared" foliage, long associated
with fertilizer deficiency by growers, is recognized
now as a symptom of fertilizer excess.

Dr. Paul Smith pointed out in 1964 that ex-
cessive fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus or
potassium tends to accentuate green color of fruit.
This is not apparent at full color break, but results
in slow colorbreak in the fall and hasty re-greening
in the spring.

A summary of the influence of varying levels
of citrus fertilizer constituents by' Citrus Experiment
Station and USDA investigations is listed. Careful
attention to this listing and the study and consider-
ation of rates of fertilizers as recommended in Florida





-5-


Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin 536B, which
is authored jointly by Citrus Station and USDA wor-
kers can substantially reduce costs in many grove
operations. As regards fruit quality:

1) As nitrogen levels are increased the soluble
solids and acids of citrus fruits are increased,
workers in California, Florida, Arizona, and
South Africa have shown.
2) Phosphorus levels have little effect on quality
except that high phosphorus interferes with col-
oring and depresses solids. (Reuther & Smith)
3) Low potassium levels in grapefruit reduces
sizes, and acids but hastens maturity by im-
proving the ratio of solids to acids. (Smith)
4) High potassium levels in Valencias increases
sizes and lowers solids. (Reuther & Smith)
5) Potassium levels within wide ranges have little
effect on Hamlins. (Koo) (With regard to po-
tassium fertilization it is suggested that with
varieties where fruit splitting is severe the
potassium application be increased to thicken
the rind and thereby reduce splitting losses.)
6) Magnesium has little effect on solids if it is
not deficient; however, it is important that op-
timal soil levels be maintained as deficiencies
appear to result in excessive damage from
freezing temperatures.
7) The above holds true generally for the minor
elements. The requirements for the minor ele-
ments is very small and excesses in the soil
can cause difficulties. Follow the suggestions
in Bulletin 536B.
8) High levels of copper in the soil burn young
rootlets resulting in distressed trees and low-
ered fruit yields.
With regard to the use of high levels of organic
sources of nitrogen, such a practice is generally
considered wasteful since Florida researchers have





-6-


found no particular advantage in the use of organic
materials when the minor element levels are kept op-
timal. Surely organic are not harmful but they are
generally expensive, and in many cases their use in
mixed fertilizers is confined mainly to conditioning
the mix to improve its mechanical condition.

Regarding fertilization and soil fertility man-
agement, it should be pointed out that pH levels be-
tween 5.5 and 6.5 are considered optimal, and that
deviations much above or below the extremes of these
levels can result in the inefficient use of fertilizers
and the resulting unnecessary excessive costs of
production. Liming is important and soil calcium
levels should be adjusted to around 500 pounds of
calcium per acre once a year.
W Cove't CAOps In 1962 the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service published a report (Circular 227)
by Norris and Lawrence in which they reported on a
series of grower demonstrations conducted to evalu-
ate the use of cover crops in citrus groves. Such
crops produce organic matter and probably are bene-
ficial in most sandy soils because they aid in the
control of erosion losses induced by windandwater;
they provide organic matter to the soil which is less
expensively supplied in this fashion than in pur-
chases in the mixed fertilizers; and in addition, they
moderate soil temperatures during the hot summer
months by shading the soil. Hairy indigo was found
to be generally the most satisfactory summer legume
for growing in citrus groves with y i e I d s of green
weight averaging from 5 to 7 tons to the acre in the
groves studied. But non-leguminous c over crops
were also found to supply large quantities of green
weight in similar groves included in the study. Late
spring planted oats or rye to control wind erosion
have been found to be an economical and effective
way to reduce wind erosion and sand bla sting in young
groves during the season of the March winds.




-7-


nSa l Cultivation Norris and Smith reported at
the 1957 meeting of the Florida State Horticultural
Society on a 7-year study of cultivation trials in a
young bearing grapefruit grove on sandy ridge soils
in Lake County. During the years of the trials three
methods of cultivation were employed. These in-
cluded clean cultivation throughout the dry season of
the year with the number of cultivations varying from
4 in a relatively dry year to 7 in a relatively moist
season. A second treatment was known as the mini-
mum cultivation treatment in which a rotary chopper
was used each year in mid-October, followed by a
second chopping in early spring to minimize compe-
titionfor moisture between weeds and the trees. The
third method of cultivation employed fall plowing plus
one cultivation. While the effects of method of cul-
tivation on yield varied somewhat from season to
season, it was noted that appreciable differences
occurred in most of the heavy-crop years. The three
light-crop years showed no difference large enough
to be statistically significant, but the trends agreed
with the over-all responses that minimum cultivation
was the best cultural practice. This method gave an
average greater yield of almost a bushel of fruit per
tree than the other treatments. Clean cultivation and
fall plowing were essentially equal in their effect on
yield. It is obvious, of course, that the minimum
cultivation practice was the lea st expensive and
most profitable operation.
a I iltig action Koo of the Lake Alfred Citrus
Experiment Station has shown that irrigation pays in
most groves in most years with most varieties, ex-
cept he has not received much response to yield from
Pineapple oranges. But for Marsh grapefruit, Hamlins
and Valencias growing on Lakeland and closely re-
lated soils, he suggests these varieties receive two
acre inches of water every 14 days during the months
of January and February, 2 inches every 10 days in
March and April, and 2 inches every seven days in




-8-


May and June. This should be applied through irri-
gation when rainfall does not furnish the required
amounts. After July 1, the crop requirements for mois-
ture are not so critical and are usually met with nor-
mal rainfall. If irrigation is needed in the last half
of the year the "two o'clock wilt" symptom is a good
criteria for applying irrigation. Dr. Koo has shown
thatthe amounts of waters indicated increases both
the yield and the net returns in the groves studied.
WSb Hedging 5 PLuning Norris reported in
1953 on very significant increases in the percent of
pack-out of tangerines when trees were hedged on
two sides and in 1962 Kretchman and Jutras of the
Lake Alfred Station reported that in their experiments
with grapefruit, although total yields were not in-
creased appreciably by pruning (hedging) the pack-
out, which is a reflection of grade and size, was
significantly increased. Hedging on 2 or4 sides plus
topping at 12 or 15 feet provided generally the greatest
increase in the percent of pack-out. As the severity
of pruning increased, the juice content in the fruit
increased; the Brix and acid decreased and the ratio
was not changed appreciably.
"k' GrapeLuit QuZtit y In discussing ways to
improve the quality of grapefruit, Dr. Herman Reitz,
speaking at the Lake Placid Citrus Institute in May
of 1961, pointed out that the 1.25 pounds of arsenic
per 100 gallons of water was the most effective rate
in improving ratios; that lower levels of potassium
than used by most growers would be desirable; that
melanose should be better controlled; and that better
varieties of grapefruit than presently grown commer-
cially should be selected, either by screening present
varieties or by developing new ones.
BW Wheed ContAol An important factor in the
economical growth of young trees is the control of
weeds, a practice which enables the young trees to
absorb the moisture and plant food otherwise taken




-9-


up by the pest plants. The use of chemical herbi-
cides in the control of weeds, when properly and
carefully carried out is a recommended practice, and
we refer interested growers to Agricultural Extension
Service Circular 224 "Chemical Weed Control in Cit-
rus Groves" by Kretchman and McCown. Herbicidal
research in citrus is being carried forward presently
by Ryan of the Lake Alfred Station and he is studying,
in addition to other things, the use of herbicides in
nurseries.
"-&. Pest Controlt In general, regarding pest
control as it relates to fruit quality, it should be
pointed out that oil sprays tend to lower solids es-
pecially after July 15. Parathion does not have this
effect on citrus fruits. The control of scab in sus-
ceptible varieties and the control of melanose are
important factors in the production of high quality
fruit for the fresh market. Timing of sprays for the
control of these fungi is important and growers should
refer to the "Better Fruit Program" for the suggested
timing and fungicides to use. Time of application
and thoroughness of coverages are as important as
the use of the proper materials in the economical
control of pests.
Sooty mold has been a serious problem in many
groves in recentyears. This is partly due, probably,
to the severe outbreaks of whiteflies, which occur
on the profusion of vigorous new growth which has
developed as the result of the freeze of 1962 and as
the result of increased hedging and pruning operations
in many groves. Summer oil sprays are excellent for
the control of scales, whiteflies and sooty mold and
is not a high cost or highly toxic material.
Snow scale is a severe pest in an increasing
numberof groves in the state. It is very difficult to
control and Dr. Bob Brooks of the Lake Alfred Citrus
Station points out that to control this pest is going
to take extra effort, and that growers are probably




- 10 -


going to have to learn to live with the pest. He re-
commends 2 scalicide applications a year and very
thorough and complete coverage. Parathion is prob-
ably the best material to use while malathion is ef-
fective where parathion is not used.
The various mites are important to citrus pro-
duction and their control is an item of considerable
cost. Dr. Roger Johnson of the Lake Alfred Citrus
Station is of the opinion that it does not pay to try
to control the spider mites in the spring and summer,
but that control of them in the fall is most important.
He recommends the control of rust mites in all
seasons.
- MatuLtity It is the composition of fruit that
determines whether or not it is ripe and has muchto
do with its over-all quality. Oranges are as ripe as
they ever will be when they are picked from the tree,
so to maintain highest internal quality, only ripe
fruit should be harvested.
Quality in fresh citrus is made up of a number
of factors several of which involve ripeness. These
include: firmness, freedom from blemishes, thick-
ness andtexture of rind, texture of flesh, juiciness,
content of total soluble solids, total acid, ratio of
solids to acids, aromatic constituents, vitamin and
mineral content. Processed fruit quality involves
many of the same identical factors and, for example,
poor concentrate made from good oranges winds up
as poor orange product for the consumer, and any poor
citrus product delivered to our consumer friends is
surely a luxury that we growers cannot afford.
Fruit should not be harvested until it is ripe,
but it should not remain on the trees until it becomes
over-ripe. The 1964-65 season was very early and
ratios were high. Some harvest operations were late
in getting started due either to management overlook-
ing this unusual development or because of labor
shortages, or both, and this resulted in heavy loss
of fruit.





- 11 -


W Mapping Grove mapping is a very important
grove management operation. The map or diagram of
the grove should include every tree space in the grove.
It should indicate the age, variety and rootstock of
the tree, whether or not it is healthy and productive,
and the sketch should locate all vacant spots in the
grove. Vacant spots in groves are an expensive and
highly inefficient luxury because the real estate taxes
are as high for the vacant spots as for the productive
spots; the income is lost from the vacant areas and
very often they are sprayed and fertilized even though
no tree is present.
'g Cost Accounting Cost account records
are also very important and their study on an indivi-
dual grove when compared with the state and county
cost figures can be most revealing. County agents
are in position to assist growers in getting cost ac-
count record books, which may be kept in cooperation
with Zach Savage, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station economist.
S MANa.gement It can be said that there area
multitude of factors that enter into the cost of pro-
duction of quality citrus fruit. The two most important
factors in the profitable production of quality fruit
have not been mentioned. The MAN in MANagement
must be the skillful manipulator of these factors into
a profitable combination, and one season's combina-
tion may not be the best one for another season.
Marketing When all of the factors for
producing quality fruit have been brought into play,
and indeed, when high quality fruit is produced, an
effective marketing program is equally as important
as is the production of high quality fruit. Without it
there cannot be a profitable industry. The industry--
grower, packer, and processor alike--should always
bear in mind that a high quality product is more easily
marketed than is one of inferior quality.





- 12 -

*t THE AUTHOR wishes to acknowledge
the work of the following:

Dr. Robert F. Brooks -- Entomologist, Citrus
Experiment Station Lake Alfred
Dr. Mortimer Cohen -- Associate Plant Pathologist,
Indian River Field Laboratory Ft. Pierce

Dr. Roger B. Johnson -- Associate Entomologist,
Citrus Experiment Station Lake Alfred
Pierre Jutras -- formerly Assistant Engineer for
Florida Citrus Commission working at Citrus
Experiment Station Lake Alfred

Dr. R. C. "Bob" Koo -- Assistant Horticulturist,
Citrus Experiment Station Lake Alfred
Dale Kretchman -- formerly Assistant Horticulturist,
Citrus Experiment Station Lake Alfred

Fred P. Lawrence -- Citriculturist, Agricultural Ex-
tension Service, University of Florida
Gainesville
Jack T. McCown -- formerly Associate Citriculturist,
Agricultural Extension Service, University of
Florida; presently Polk County Agricultural
Agent Bartow

Dr. Herman Reitz -- Horticulturist in Charge, Citrus
Experiment Station Lake Alfred
Walter Reuther -- formerly Horticulturist, U.S. D.A.
- Orlando; presently Chairman, Department of
Horticulture, Citrus Experiment Station River-
side, California
Dr. George F. Ryan -- Assistant Horticulturist, Citrus
Experiment Station Lake Alfred
Zach Savage -- Economist, Agricultural Experiment
Station Gainesville

Dr. Paul Smith -- Plant Physiologist, U.S. D.A. -
Orlando










'W TABLE OF CONTENTS

CLIMATE ............. ........ 2
COST ACCOUNTING ............ 11
COVER CROPS .................. 6
CREDITS ...................... 12
CULTIVATION PRACTICES......... 7
FERTILIZATION ................4-6
Copper ......... .......... 5
Magnesium ................ 5
Nitrogen .................. 4,5
Organics .................... 5
Phosphorous .............. 4,5
Potassium ............... 4,5,8
Soil Fertility Management ..... 6
GRAPEFRUIT QUALITY........... 8
HEDGING & PRUNING.......... 8
HERBICIDES ................... 9
IRRIGATION .................... 7
LOCATION OF GROVE ............ 3
MANAGEMENT ................. 11
MAPPING .................... 11
MARKETING ................... 11
MATURITY OF FRUIT ........... 10
PARATHION ................. 9,10
PEST CONTROL ..............9,10
Melanose ................. 8,9
Mites ..................... 10
Scab ....................... 9
Snow Scale .................. 9
Sooty Mold .................. 9
Timing of Sprays ............. 9
ROOTSTOCKS ................... 3
WEED CONTROL ................ 8









riW ADDITIONAL COPIES
of this SPECIAL BULLETIN
may be obtained
by writing to:

at any of the following offices:
at any of the following offices:


ORLANDO (Home Office)
P. O. Drawer 2111
Orlando, Florida 32802

DADE CITY
1901 South Highway #301
Dade City, Florida 33525

EUSTIS
P. O. Box 1507
Eustis, Florida 32726

FORT PIERCE
P. O. Box 1034
Ft. Pierce, Florida 33451

SEBRING
P. O. Box 932
Sebring, Florida 33870

WINTER HAVEN
P. O. Box 786


Ph: 422-3157



Ph: 567-5674



Ph: 357-4138



Ph: 464-3530



Ph: 385-0750



Ph: 293-2158


Winter Haven, Florida 33881


SERVING GROWERS OF FLORIDA CITRUS


~lsoa;z~nt




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