VLQU&E C2tAus9 Ai MB2 1soacA 64
VOLUME 22, Number 9 SEPTEMBER, 1964
MAKE ROOM FOR JUNIOR!
More than one hundred 4-H Club boys at-
tended the 9th Annual Junior Citrus Institute
held August 24 28 at 4-H Camp Cloverleaf
near Lake Placid, which is also the site for
the annual South Florida Citrus Institute (for
dads!). As in all the citrus institutes, the
program for the Junior Citrus Institute is di-
rected by the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service, and teaching and training in the fun-
damentals of citrus production is done bythe
Extension personnel, assisted by commercial
managers and growers.
The educational program is based on par-
ticipation over a five year period. Fundamen-
tals of nutrition, cultivation, spraying, and
fertilization; insects and diseases affecting
citrus with recommended procedures for con-
trol, all are studied during intensive class-
room instruction. This is followed by practi-
cal application of these principles in the five
acre citrus grove on the grounds at the camp,
which serves as a field laboratory. Senior
students receive specialized instruction, and
this year the mechanics of all types of spray
machinery were taught.
Jim Bartlett, of Eustis, a mem-
ber of the Lake County 4- H
Agri-Science Club, a winner
of county and district awards
at science fairs, demonstrated
the Economic Radiometer, a
.temperature device to measure
loss of heat from ground sur-
face to air. Jim also presented this work at
the 31st Annual Citrus Growers Institute held
August 17-21 at Camp McQuarrie.
h HAS BEEN
LF ORIDA CITI
Carrying on in the
same old way at the
c same old stands...
this could be the
theme of the folks at
Florida Citrus Pro-
duction Credit As so-
ciation as the offices take on a somewhat
"new look" after the large lighted signs
in front of each of the field offices were
revamped to display the new PCA emblem
worked out by the Farm Credit Adminis-
tration and personalized by Florida Citrus
Production Credit Association. A note of
color has also been added to the signs,
with the PCA emblem showing red, and
the Farm Credit Service emblem in black
on a wide yellow band at the right of the
M sign. Bold black letters across the top
of the signs identify FLORIDA CITRUS.
You saw this first on our Mid-Year State-
ment; and the new emblem now is boldly im-
printed in black and white on the envelopes
in which you receive your copies of "Orange
Blossoms". We hope you'll recognize it as
the same old friend in new garb.
Those who have seen the new field office
signs report that they are attractive and easy
to see from either direction on the streets.
"ORANGE BLOSSOMS" PAGE TWO
Scene during the Youth Conference at the
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF COOPERATION
One of the foremost educational activities
of the American Institute of Cooperation is the
Youth Conference held in conjunction with the
annual meeting of the Institute on the campus
of a land grant college. Some fifteen national
youth organizations send chosen representa-
tives to this Conference, often referred to as
"the graduate school of cooperation". Here,
with adult leaders in the fields of agriculture
and education, the young people participate
in a three-day conference which climaxes a
year of activity on local and state levels.
Active for many years in this program as
a member of the Youth Committee and a trustee
of the American Institute of Cooperation, Al
Whitmore, General Manager of Florida Citrus
Production Credit Association, attended this
year's session held on the campus of Michi-
gan State University at East Lansing, August
9 12. Members of the Santa Fe Future Far-
mers chapter, Alachua; and of the Hastings-
Elkton Community Club, Hastings; and of the
Golden Triangle 4-H Club of Umatilla were
representatives of Florida at the Youth Con-
Mr. Whitmore was re-elected as trustee
of the American Institute of Cooperation, and
in addition to his work with the Youth Com-
mittee, also serves as Florida Finance Chair-
man for the A. I. C.
THE DOORS DON'T CLOSE AT FIVE .......
There is no dearth of evidence to support
the statement made at Florida Citrus Produc-
tion Credit As sociation that to the management
and staff, the welfare of the individual grower-
members of the Association is of concern and
interest, on more than a mere business basis.
This is the reason why, during the winter
months when the weatherman is flashing tem-
perature alerts to Florida growers, all through
the citrus belt of the state you will find the
representatives of Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association "riding the groves", visit-
ing with growers who are 'firing', checking
temperatures, watching developments, lending
encouragement by their presence even though
unable to alter the course of nature. Next day,
business goes on as usual.
As we prepare to go to press with this
newsletter, Hurricane Cleo is charging up the
east coast of Florida, spending her fury on
the Indian River section of the citrus belt.
The representatives working withthat area of
the state are in there pitching, side by side
with growers who face possible serious loss.
And in the aftermath of these or other hard-
ships, growers have come to recognize that
Florida Citrus Production Credit Association
will still be there, ready to meet the challenge
and help to "mend the fences". After a calm
appraisal of a situation, policies are reviewed
and adapted to meet the particular needs.
It is in these ways that the Association
has been striving for all of its thirty years to
maintain its position as the source of
for citrus growers and nurserymen of Florida.
Published by: FLORIDA CITRUS
PRODUCTION CREDIT ASSOCIATION
Orlando, Florida -
S as a NEWSLETTER to its menibers
and the Florida Citrus industry;
and incorporating, when appropriate,
the Official Program of the annual
Citrus Institutes or Seminars directed by
the Florida Agricultural Extension Service.
CONSERVATIONISTS ASSISTING WITH WATER TROUBLES
Among the many and varied requirements
of a citrus grove for commercial production,
none is more important than having approxi-
mately four feet of well-drained rooting soil
that remains free of sub-surface water. Most
of the soils that meet this and other critical
requirements for citrus were planted prior to
1955. The increased demand for land for new
citrus plantings has caused soil types to be
utilized for citrus that do not naturally meet
the four-feet drainage requirements. In addi-
tion, some growers with mature groves have
found that a fluctuating water table near the
surface has caused decreased production dur-
ing the life of the grove. These groves are
usually shallow rooted and suffer severely
during dry months.
To solve these drainage problems on poorly
drained soils, many growers have turned to
their Soil Conservation Service for assistance
and under the supervision of the conservation-
ists are installing underground tile drainage
systems. Consisting of four to eight inch terra
cotta clay pipe, the systems are installed to
grade approximately four feet below the surface
of the soil in laterals 90 to 150 feet apart.
(See pictures) Most growers report complete
satisfaction with these installations, but em-
phasize they must be properly engineered to
assure the desired results.
Florida Citrus Production Credit Associ-
ation has recently financed several of these
installations for its grower-members. This
type of capital improvement is eligible for in-
termediate term loans with repayments of up
to seven years. In some cases growers report
that increased production achieved as a result
of providing proper drainage has amortized the
cost of the drainage system in as little as two
to three years.
Conservationists report that in the Winter
Garden area of the Orange Soil Conservation
District, 464,010 feet of drainage tile have
been installed during the past four years, and
that in the counties to the south where high
water table is a problem, growers are keeping
Soil Conservation Service technicians busy
designing tile systems for the thousands of
feet of tile that are being installed there.
Growers who have this problem and desire
to investigate the possibility of tile drainage
should contact their Soil Conservation District
office for information.
FLORIDA'S EAST COAST
The fact that Hurricane CLEO travelled
vengefully up the east coast and through the
Indian River citrus section of the state isnews
to no one at this point. And many assessments
of damage will be made and publicized. How-
ever, we believe that our members will be in-
terested in the early appraisal made within 24
hours after the storm's pas sage by John Brooks,
branch manager of the Ft. Pierce field office.
Surveying the effects of the hurricane in
the citrus area of west St. Lucie County, John
estimates a grapefruit loss of 40 50% of the
fruit, but believes that the increase in size
of the remaining fruit will cut this loss to 30-
40%. A major portion of the grapefruit that
was nearly mature and large in size was lost.
Orange loss was small, possibly 5 to 10%.
John reports negligible tree damage some tops
blown out, leaves and small twigs taken off,
but not of major proportion.
Of greatest concern at
/ the moment is the water
problem. It is extremely
wet, and all available
I pumps in St. Lucie and
/ Indian River counties are
running full speed. The
water is flowing off, and
drainage is anticipated
in another 24 to 36 hours
from this 'day-after' look
at the situation.
John reported that Ft. Pierce had two hours
of sustained winds in excess of 70 miles per
hour, with maximum gusts of 98. Indiantown
was in the path of the eye of the hurricane,
and all the communities south of Palm Beach
were badly battered.
The other field offices report no serious
losses from the winds, which ranged up to 60
miles per hour.
Management Development Institute II was
held for branch managers and representatives
at Columbia, South Carolina during August.
Attending from Florida Citrus Production Credit
Association were Erroll Fielding, representa-
tive in the Orlando territory; Harold Moreland,
Jr., Branch Manager of the Sebring office; and
James Riley, representative inthe Eustis area.
The three-day conferences were conducted
by officials of Rogers, Slade & Hill, a man-
agement consulting firm of New York and of-
ficers of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank
of Columbia. Group discussions, and deci-
/ sionmaking problems offeredparti-
cipants an opportunity to exchange
a ideas and practices in the practical
application of the principles, skills
and tools of management.
OVERHEAD IRRIGATION PROVES VALUABLE
Junius T. Bolin
After the disastrous effect from the freeze
of December, 1962 on groves that were under
permanent overhead irrigation, many growers
had second thoughts on the advisability of
this constant irrigation insofar as freeze pro-
tection is concerned. It now seems that the
old adage, "Every cloud has a silver lining",
may also apply in this situation, because in
this second look at existing overhead systems
some growers have discovered definite advan-
tages in the labor and maintenance saving
features of these systems for normal irrigation
operations. Another advantage reported from
this type system, relating back to cold pro-
tection, is that by applying water just prior
to a freeze, latent heat is stored in the soil
and released, giving a moderating effect.
Just as for other capital-purpose invest-
ments, Florida Citrus Production Credit Asso-
ciation has available to citrus growers a fi-
nancing plan for forms of irrigation and/or
heating equipment on the basis of intermedi-
ate term loans. The Association's represen-
tative in your area will be pleased to explain
such loans to you and to discuss your needs.