Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Old Testament history
 New Testament history
 A short history of Christianity...
 Table of dates
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bible history for children : and, A short history of Christianity after the days of the Apostles
Title: Bible history for children
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086574/00001
 Material Information
Title: Bible history for children and, A short history of Christianity after the days of the Apostles
Alternate Title: Short history of Christianity after the days of the Apostles
Physical Description: vii, 129, 22 p., 14 leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kennett-Barrington, A. G.
James Nisbet and Co. (London, England) ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co ( Printer )
Publisher: James Nisbet & Co., Limited
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: Ballantyne, Hanson & Co..
Publication Date: [1898?]
Edition: 4th ed.
Subject: Bible stories, English -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Christianity -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1898   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance) -- 1898   ( rbprov )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
Prize books (Provenance)   ( rbprov )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by Lady Kennett-Barrington ; with illustrations.
General Note: Date of publication from prize inscription.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086574
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002232481
notis - ALH2875
oclc - 245529135

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Old Testament history
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 14a
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    New Testament history
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 82a
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    A short history of Christianity after the days of the apostles
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 126a
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 129
    Table of dates
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

The Baldwin LI r
fRjn~B P, 3nda


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At the Ballantyne Press


I HAVE endeavoured in this little text-book to give
in simple Bible language a continuous narrative of
the chief events contained in the Old Testament,
followed by a short history of the Jews during the
period connecting the Old and the New Testament,
mainly founded on the Book of Maccabees. The
New Testament history follows, and a sketch of
the growth of Christianity is brought down to the
present day. In the -selection and narration of the
events in the Bible, while following the text of the
authorised version, I have by permission largely
made use of an excellent Danish manual compiled
by Bishop Balsley. In the latter portion of the
book, the history of Christianity, I have limited
myself to historical facts without comment, in order
to make this manual as widely useful as possible
in elementary schools.




I. The Creation. .. I
II. The Fall. 2
III. Cain and Abel. 4
IV. Seth and Enoch 5
V. The Flood ... 5
VI. The Tower of Babel. 6
VII. Abraham. 7
VIII. Isaac .
IX. Jacob 13
X. Joseph 14
XI. Moses 21
XII. Joshua 29
XIII. Judges 30
XIV. Saul. 33
XV. David 37
XVI. Solomon 41
XVII. The Division of the Kingdom 44
XVIII. The Kingdom of Israel .45
XIX. The Kingdom of Judah 49
XX. The Babylonian Captivity 51
XXI. The Return of the Jews from Babylon 55
XXII. The Jews under the Dominion of Egypt and Syria .56
XXIII. The Maccabees 57
XXIV. The Jews under the Romans 58
XXV. On the Books of the Old Testament 59


I. The Angel of the Lord appears to Zacharias 65
II. The Angel of the Lord appears to the Virgin Mary 66
III. The Birth of Jesus 67
IV. The Childhood of Jesus 68
V. John the Baptist 71
VI. The Baptism of Jesus 72
VII. The Temptation of Jesus in the Wilderness 72
VIII. Jesus begins His Ministry 73
IX. Jesus chooses His Twelve Apostles 74
X. The Parables of Jesus 75
XI. The Miracles of Jesus 88
XII. Some other Stories about Jesus during the time He
went about teaching .95
XIII. The Enemies of Jesus 98
XIV. The Entry of Jesus into Jerusalem 99
XV. The Institution of the Lord's Supper .
XVI. The Sufferings and Death of Jesus 102
XVII. The Resurrection o8
XVIII. The Ascension. I. I
XIX. The Descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles 112
XX. The Apostles before the Council of the Jews 113
XXI. Stephen .. 115
XXII. Cornelius 116
XXIII. The Apostle Paul 117
XXIV. The Destruction of Jerusalem 119
XXV. The Apostle John .. 120
XXVI. The Books of the New Testament 121


XXVII. The Persecution of the Christians under the Roman
Emperors 123
XXVIII. Mahomet 124
XXIX. The Introduction of Christianity into England 125
XXX. The Pope and the Monks 126
XXXI. Luther 127
XXXII. The Growth of Christianity in Moder Times 128




IN the beginning God created the heaven and the
earth. And the earth was without form and void.
God said: "Let there be light;" and there was
light. That was God's work on the first day.
On the second day, God made the firmament over
the earth, and called it Heaven. On the third
day, God divided the waters from the dry land, and
caused all kinds of herbs and trees to spring up
on the earth. On the fourth day, God set the sun
and moon and stars in the heaven, to divide the day
from the night, and to regulate the time. On the
fifth day, God made the fish in the waters, and the
birds in the air ; and on the sixth day, God made
the beasts, cattle, and creeping things. In this way,
by His word, He made all things in six days..
And when all this was completed, God said:
"Let us make man in our own image, after our
likeness, to have dominion over the fish of the sea,
and the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and


over all the earth." And God created man in His
own image, male and female created He them. God
first made the man, who was called Adam, from
the dust of the earth, and breathed into him the
breath of life. And God put him in the garden
of Eden, to dress it and keep it. And God said:
"It is not good that man should be alone; I will
make him an help meet for him." And God caused
Adam to fall into a deep sleep, and took one of his
ribs, and made of it a woman, whom he called Eve,
and he brought her to Adam. Then Adam said:
"This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my
flesh." Therefore shall a man forsake his father and
mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they
shall be one flesh. And God blessed them, and
said: "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the
earth, and subdue it." And God saw all that He
had made that it was very good.
On the seventh day, God rested from all His work,
and He blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it.


IN the garden of Eden, which is also called
Paradise, God made to grow out of the ground
every tree that is.pleasant to the sight and good
for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the
garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good
and evil. And God said to the man: "Of every
tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of


the tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou
shalt not eat of it, for in the day that thou eatest
thereof thou shalt surely die."
Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast
of the field which the Lord had made. And he
said unto the woman: "Ye shall not surely die, if
ye eat of the fruit of the tree; for God doth know
that in the day ye eat thereof, your eyes shall be
opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and
evil." And when the woman saw that the tree
was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the
eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise,
she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave
also to her husband with her, and he did eat.
But as soon as they had done this, their eyes
were opened, and they knew that they were naked,
and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made them-
selves aprons. Then the Lord called to Adam, and
said : "Where art thou ? Adam answered: I
heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid,
because I was naked, and I hid myself." But ,the
Lord said: "Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I
commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat ?"
Then Adam laid 'the blame upon Eve, and Eve
laid it upon the serpent. But the righteous God
told them they should be punished for their sin.
To the woman He said: "In sorrow thou shalt
bring forth children, and thy desire shall be to thy
husband, and he shall rule over thee." And to
Adam He said: "In the sweat of thy face thou
shalt eat bread, till thou return unto the ground,
for out of it wast thou taken, for dust thou art, and


unto dust shalt thou return." But to the serpent
the Lord said: The seed of the woman shall bruise
thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel." And the
Lord drove Adam and Eve out of the garden of
Eden, away from the tree of life.

ADAM and Eve's first sons were Cain and Abel.
Cain was a tiller of the ground, and Abel a keeper
of sheep. Towards the end of every year, they each
offered thank-offerings to God. Cain offered of the
fruits of the earth, and Abel of his flocks. The
Lord was pleased with Abel's sacrifice, but not with
Cain's. And Cain was angry, and his countenance
fell. Then said the Lord to him: "Why art thou
angry, and why is thy countenance fallen ? If thou
doest well, shalt thou not be accepted ? and if thou
doest not well, sin lieth at the door." But Cain
did not heed the words of the Lord, and as he went
out into the fields with his brother Abel, he slew
him. Then said the Lord to Cain: "Where is Abel
thy brother ?" Cain answered: "I know not: am
I my brother's keeper ?" The Lord said unto him:
"What hast thou done ? The voice of thy brother's
blood crieth unto me from the ground. And now
art thou cursed from the earth. When thou tillest
the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee
its strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou
be in the earth." Then said Cain: "My punish-


ment is greater than I can bear. Every one that
findeth me shall slay me." And he fled away into
a strange land.

GOD gave Adam and Eve another son in the place
of Abel, and he was called Seth. Adam lived
many years after this, and had many more sons and
daughters, whose names we do not know. He was
930 years old when he died, and his descendants
also lived to be very old. Methusaleh, the oldest
of them all, lived 969 years. One of Seth's de-
scendants was called Enoch. He is said to have
walked with God, and when he had lived on earth
365 years, God took him away without dying.

WHEN men increased on the face of the earth, and
Seth's descendants joined themselves in marriage
with Cain's wicked race, sin and ungodliness in-
creased so much, that God determined to root out
the wicked people from the earth. But a just
man, Noah, found favour in the sight of the Lord.
God allowed one hundred and twenty years to pass,
to give men time to repent; but, as this delay was
in vain, Noah was commanded by God to build a
large ship which was called the Ark, and he went
into it with his wife and his three sons, Shem,


Ham, and Japhet, and their three wives. God also
commanded that all kinds of birds, beasts, and creep-
ing things should be taken into the Ark with Noah,
one pair of some kinds, and seven pairs of other
kinds; and Noah gathered up food in the Ark for
all. Then God caused a great rain to fall, and the
waters covered the whole earth. The rain fell for
forty days and nights, and the high mountains
were covered, and all the people and living things
on. the earth were drowned, except Noah, and his
family, and those that were with him in the Ark.
It was a whole year before the ground became
dry again. Then Noah and his family, and all the
living things, went forth out of'the Ark, which rested
on Mount Ararat. And Noah raised an altar, and
offered a thank-offering to the Lord. Then God
blessed Noah and his sons, and said: "While the
earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, and cold
and heat, and summer and winter, and day and
night shall not cease." And God set a rainbow in
the clouds for a token that the waters should no
more destroy all flesh.

FOR a long time, mankind had only one lan-
guage; but after they had increased in numbers
they settled themselves in a plain, and said to each
other: "Let us build us a city and a tower, whose
top may reach unto heaven, lest we be scattered
abroad upon the face of the whole earth." But God


confounded their language, so that they could not
understand one another's speech, and the Lord scat-
tered them from thence upon the face of all the
earth, and they left off building the city, and the
name of it was called Babel, or Confusion.

I. Abraham's call.
BY degrees the greater part of mankind forgot the
true and living God, and in. place of Him they
worshipped all kinds of dumb idols. But in order
that idolatry should not prevail on the earth, the
Lord chose a righteous man to be the father of
a people by whom the worship of the true God
should be preserved until the Saviour came. This
man was called Abraham, and was of the race
of Shem.
It was about 2000 years after the Creation, and
*350 years after the Flood, that the Lord said to
Abraham, who came from Ur of the Chaldees:
"Get thee out of thy country, and from thy
kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land
that I will show thee: and I will make of thee a
great nation, and in thee shall all the families of
the earth be blessed." So Abraham set out, and
took with him his wife Sarah, and his nephew
Lot, as well as all his servants and all his
flocks and herds, and he came into the land of
Canaan. The Lord gave this land to Abraham and


his descendants, and Abraham dwelt there; but he
had no fixed abode, he wandered about from one
place to another with his large flocks, and he and
his people did not live in houses, but in tents, which
they carried with them.

2. Abraham's love of peace.
Lot also had large flocks and herds, and there arose
a strife between the herdmen of Abraham and Lot.
When Abraham heard this, he said to Lot: Let
there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and
thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen,
for we be brethren. Is not the whole land before
thee ? If thou wilt take the left hand, then I will
go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand,
then I will go to the left." So Lot chose the plains
round Sodom, which at that time were fertile and

3. Abraham's generosity.
Some time after this, Abraham heard that four
kings had come and fought against Sodom, and had
carried away Lot and his goods. Then Abraham
quickly led forth his trained servants, three hundred
and eighteen men, and overtook them, and smote
them, and pursued them, and brought back all the
goods and the people they had carried away. And
the king of Sodom wanted to give Abraham all the
spoils he had taken from the enemy, but Abraham
said to him: "I will not take from a thread even
to a shoe-latchet, or anything that is thine."


4. The Lord appears to Abraham.
Abraham was now about a hundred years old, and
many years had passed since the Lord had brought
him into Canaan, and had promised that his de-
scendants should become a great people, and that
in his seed all nations of the earth should be blessed;
but until now Abraham and Sarah had no child.
And the Lord appeared unto Abraham as he was
sitting at the door of his tent. He saw three men
coming, and he rose up to meet them, and asked
them to remain a little while with him, to refresh
themselves, and he hastened to Sarah to tell her to
prepare a meal for them. And the Lord talked with
Abraham, and promised him that Sarah should have
a son. When Sarah heard this, she laughed, think-
ing she was too old for this to happen. But the
Lord saw her thought, and said: "Is anything too
hard for the Lord ? At the time appointed I will
return unto thee, and Sarah shall have a son."

5. The destruction of Sodom.
After this, God revealed to Abraham that He
intended to destroy the city of Sodom on account
of its great wickedness. Abraham prayed the Lord
to spare it if fifty righteous men should be found
in it, and this the Lord promised to do. Then
Abraham, fearing that so many good men might not
be found there, said: "Behold, I have taken upon
me to speak unto the Lord, which am but dust and
ashes: peradventure there shall lack five of the
fifty righteous: wilt thou destroy the city for lack


of five ?" And he went on praying until the Lord
promised to spare the city if only ten righteous
men were found in it. But not even ten were to
be found there. God did not wish to destroy the
righteous with the wicked, so he sent two angels
to Sodom, and they took Lot, his wife, and his two
daughters out of the city, and commanded them to
make haste, and not to look back. So they were
all saved, except Lot's wife, who looked back, and
became a pillar of salt. And God rained upon
Sodom and Gomorrah fire and brimstone, and the
fertile plain in which they had stood became a lake,
which is called the Dead Sea.

6. Abraham's trial.
Sarah had a son at the time the Lord had fore-
told, and Abraham called him Isaac. Abraham
was then one hundred years old. When Isaac was
grown up, God wished to try Abraham, and said
to him: "Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac,
whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of
Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering
upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee
of." Abraham was ready to do all the Lord com-
manded him, and he rose up early in the morning,
and went with his sdn Isaac and two servants to
the place which God had told him of. On the
third day, Abraham saw the place afar off, and he.
told his servants to remain behind, and took the
wood for a burnt-offering and laid it on Isaac, then
he took in his hand the fire and the knife, and they


went both of them together. Then said Isaac:
" Behold the fire and the wood, but where is the
lamb for a burnt-offering ?" Abraham answered:
"My son, God will provide Himself the lamb for
a burnt-offering." When they came to the place,
Abraham built an altar, and laid wood upon it, and
bound his son Isaac, and laid him upon the altar,
and he stretched forth his hand and took the knife
to slay his son. But the angel of the Lord called
to him out of heaven, and said: "Lay not thine
hand upon the lad, neither do thou anything unto
him, for now I know that thou fearest God, since
thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from
me." And Abraham looked, and saw a ram caught
in the thicket by his horns; and Abraham took it,
and offered it up as a burnt-offering instead of his son.
And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham out
of heaven, and said: "Because thou hast done this
thing, and hast not withheld thy son, I will certainly
bless thee, and I will multiply thy seed as the stars
of heaven, and as the sand that is on the sea-shore;
and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth
be blessed, because thou hast obeyed my voice."

WHEIN Sarah was dead, Abraham sent his old
Servant Eliezer to the country where his kinsfolk
lived, to find a wife for Isaac. Eliezer journeyed
there with ten camels, and many goodly things.
When he came to the city where Abraham's brother


lived, he made his camels kneel down by a well of
water outside the city. It was evening, the time
when the women came to draw water. The faithful
servant prayed to God, and said: "I pray thee, send
me good speed this day, and show kindness unto
my master Abraham. Behold, I stand by the well
of water, and the daughters of the men of the city
come out to draw water. And let it come to pass,
that the damsel to whom I shall say, Let down thy
pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink, and she
shall say, 'Drink, and I will give thy camels drink
also:' let the same be she that thou hast appointed
for thy servant Isaac." And before he had done
i- ,:;1,_. Rebekah came out, the daughter of Bethuel,
Abraham's nephew. And he went to meet her,
and begged for something to drink. Then she said:
"Drink, my lord." And when she had given him
to drink, she said: "I will draw for thy camels
also." And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher
into the trough, and ran again unto the well to
draw, and drew for all his camels. Then Eliezer
gave her a golden earring, and two bracelets, and
asked her whose daughter she was; and when he
knew, he thanked the Lord, who had given him such
a prosperous journey. Rebekah ran home, and told
all that had happened, and her brother Laban went
out and asked Eliezer to come in. And Eliezer
went in boldly, and told his errand, and gained the
consent of the damsel and her family. So he took
Eebekah back with him, and she became Isaac's
wife, and they lived happily together.
Abraham lived many years after this. He was


I' -- -- ~




I -

I I i

P. 12.


175 years old when he died; and Isaac buried him
in the cave of Machpelah, where Sarah was buried.
God blessed Isaac, and he became a powerful and
prosperous man. And God heard his prayer, and
gave Rebekah two sons, Esau and Jacob, who were

WHEN Isaac's sons grew up, Esau became a skilful
hunter, but Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in
tents. Esau was the firstborn, but he despised his
birthright, and sold it to Jacob for a mess of pottage.
When their father was old, he wished to give Esau
his blessing as the firstborn; but when Rebekah
heard of this, she persuaded Jacob to pretend to be
Esau, that he might receive the blessing. Jacob did
so, for Isaac was old and blind, and could not recog-
nise him. Esau was very angry with Jacob, and
threatened to kill him as soon as their father was
dead. Jacob's parents, therefore, sent him away to
his uncle Laban. On his journey, he lay down one
night to sleep on the ground, and he dreamt that
he saw a ladder set up on the earth, the top of
which reached to heaven, and the angels of God
ascended and descended on it. And the Lord stood
above it, and said: "I am the Lord God of Abraham
thy father, and the God of Isaac : the land whereon
thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed;
and thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth; and:
thou shalt spread abroad, and in thy seed shall all


the families of the earth be blessed: and, behold,
I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places
whither thou goest, and will bring' thee again into
this land; for I will not leave thee until I have
done that which I have.spoken to thee of." And
Jacob awoke, and was afraid, and said: "This is
none other but the house of God, and this is the
gate of heaven." So Jacob went to Laban, and was
with him twenty years, and took his two daughters,
Leah and Rachel, to wife, and God blessed him in
all that he undertook.
When Jacob at last went back again to Canaan,
he drew near to the place where Esau was;, and
when he heard that Esau was coming to meet him
with four hundred men, he was greatly afraid.
But when Jacob met Esau, all Esau's hatred was
gone, for he ran to meet Jacob, and fell on his
neck and kissed him, and they both wept. So
Jacob journeyed on to Canaan. He had twelve
sons, of whom the most remarkable were Levi and
Judah, Leah's sons, and Joseph and Benjamin,
the sons of Rachel; these two were the youngest
of all.

I. Joseph sold by his brethren.
JACOB loved Joseph more than all his other sons,
and made him a coat of many colours, so Joseph's
brethren were jealous of him. They hated him
still more on account of some dreams that he




had, which he told them. He dreamt that he
and his brothers were binding sheaves in the
field, and that his sheaf arose and stood upright,
and his brothers' sheaves stood round, and made
obeisance to his sheaf. Another time he dreamt
that the sun, moon, and stars made obeisance to
him. Once when his elder brothers were feeding
their flocks a long way off, Jacob said to Joseph :
"Go now and see whether it be well with thy
brethren, and well with the flocks, and bring me
word again." So Joseph went and sought for them;
but when they saw him coming, they said: "Behold
this dreamer cometh: come now therefore, let us
slay him, and cast him into some pit; and we will
say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we
shall see what will become of his dreams." Then
Reuben, the eldest brother, persuaded them, instead
of killing him, to cast him into a pit; thinking
to deliver him out of their hands and restore him
to his father. But soon after this, a travelling
company of Ishmaelites passed by, and Judah said
to his brethren: "Let us sell him to the Ishmaelites,
and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our
brother and our flesh." And they lifted Joseph up
out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites.
And when Reuben, who was not with them, returned
and found that Joseph was not in the pit, he rent
his clothes. And they took Joseph's coat, which
they had taken- from him, and dipped it in the blood
of a kid, and brought it to their father, and said:
"This have we found: know now whether it be thy
son's coat or no." And Jacob knew it, and said:


"It is my son's coat; an evil beast hath devoured
him: Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces." And
he mourned for his son many days.

2. Joseph with Potiphar and in prison.
When the Ishmaelites came into the land of
Egypt, they sold Joseph as a slave to Potiphar, an
officer of Pharaoh's, the king of Egypt. But the
Lord was with Joseph, and made all that he did to
prosper in his hand, and Potiphar took him into
favour, and made him overseer over all his house.
And from that time, God blessed the Egyptian's
house for Joseph's sake. But Potiphar had a
wicked wife, who tried to lead Joseph into sin, and
when he said to her, "How can I do this great
wickedness and sin against God ?" she accused him
falsely to her husband. And Potiphar believed his
wife, and cast Joseph into prison. But God was
with Joseph, and he found favour in the sight of
the keeper of the prison, who committed to Joseph's
care all the prisoners that were in the prison.

3. Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dream.
Joseph remained two years in prison; he then
not only obtained his freedom, but rose also to great
honour. It came to pass in this way. One night
the king of Egypt, who was called Pharaoh, had a
wonderful dream. He dreamt that he stood by the
river Nile, and that there came up out of the river
seven kine well-favoured and fat, and afterwards
seven other kine ill-favoured and leah, who ate up
the seven fat kine. And again he dreamt that he


saw seven good ears of corn come up on one stalk,
and afterwards seven thin and withered ones, which
swallowed up the full ears. And Pharaoh was
troubled in his spirit, for fear that his dream should
mean that some misfortune should befall him, and
he sent for all the magicians of Egypt and all the
wise men, but none could interpret his dreams.
Then the chief butler told the king that when he
and the chief baker were in prison they both, on
the same night, had strange dreams, which they had
related to a young man who was in the prison.
He had interpreted the dreams, and everything had
come to pass as he had said. Pharaoh then sent
for Joseph from the prison. When Joseph heard
the king's dream, he said that God meant to show
Pharaoh that there would come seven years of
great plenty, and afterwards seven years of scarcity,
and that famine would consume the land. Joseph
advised Pharaoh to appoint overseers to gather in
all the corn of the years of plenty, and to store it
up against the years of scarcity, so that the land
should not perish through the famine. And the
counsel was good in the eyes of Pharaoh; and as
he saw that God had given Joseph great wisdom
and understanding, he set him over all the land of
Egypt. And Joseph went about throughout the
land, and gathered up all the food of the seven
years of plenty, and laid up a great store of corn
in the cities.


4. Joseph's brethren come down into Egypt.
When the seven years of scarcity came, there
was famine in all other countries, but there was
corn in Egypt. When Jacob, who was in the land
of Canaan, heard that there was corn in Egypt,
he sent his elder sons there to buy corn, but
he kept Benjamin at home. Joseph knew his
brethren when they came before him, but they did
not know him, and when they bowed themselves
down to him with their faces to the ground, he
remembered the dreams he had dreamt about them.
At first he would not make himself known to them,
for he wished to try them. So he cast them into
prison, saying, Ye are spies;" and after three days
he allowed nine of them to go home with corn, but
he kept one as a prisoner until they should come
again with their youngest brother, of whom they had
Then they said one to another: "We are verily
guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the
anguish of his soul when he besought us, and we
would not hear; therefore is this distress come
upon us." When Joseph heard these words, he
turned himself from them, and wept.. So they
journeyed home. And when the corn they had
brought with them was eaten, they went down
to Egypt again, taking Benjamin with them.
Joseph put them to one more trial, but when he
was sure that they loved their old father and Ben-
jamin, he could no longer hide from them who he
was, and he wept aloud and said: "I am Joseph;


doth my father yet live ?" And his brethren could
not answer him, for they were troubled at his
presence, so he said to them: "Come near to me,
I pray you. I am Joseph, your brother, whom ye
sold into Egypt. Now be not grieved, for God did.
send me before you to preserve life." And after
that, he said: Haste ye, and go up to my father,
and say unto him, that God hath made me lord of
all Egypt; and bring him down that he may dwell
with me." And they returned homewards, and told
their father: "Joseph is yet alive, and he is governor
over all the land of Egypt." At first Jacob would
not believe them; but when he saw the waggons
which Joseph had sent to carry him, his spirit
revived, and he said: "It is enough; Joseph my
son is yet alive: I will go and see him before
SI die."

5. Jacob goes down into Egypt.
So Jacob took his journey into Egypt, with all his
children and their children, in all seventy persons.
On the way, God spoke to Jacob in the visions of
the night, and said: "I am God, the God of thy
father: fear not to go down to Egypt; for I will go
down with thee, and I will there make of thee a
great nation; and- I will surely bring thee up again:
and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes."
When Jacob came into Egypt, and saw Joseph, he
fell on his neck and wept a long time, and said:
"Now let me die, since I have seen thy face,
because thou art yet alive." Pharaoh gave Jacob
'and his people the land of Goshen to dwell in by


themselves with their flocks, because every shepherd
was an abomination to the Egyptians

6. Jacob's death,
Jacob was 130 years old when he came into Egypt,
and he lived there seventeen years. When he felt
that the time drew near that he should die, he said
to Joseph: "Behold, I die: but God shall be with
you, and bring you again unto the land of your
fathers." And he called all his sons to him, and
blessed them. So Jacob died; and Joseph carried
his' father's body to Canaan, and buried him in the
cave of Machpelah, the burial-place of Abraham and
Isaac. When Jacob was dead, Joseph's brethren
feared that he would revenge himself upon them,
but Joseph said to them: "Fear not: for am I in
the place of God ? And as for you, ye thought evil
against me; but God meant it for good, to bring to
pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive."

7. Joseph's death.
Joseph lived to the age of I o years, and when be
was about to die, he made his children promise that
when God should let them return to the land which
He had given to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, they
should take his bones with them, and bury them in
the land of his fathers.




I. The birth of Mioses.

JACOB'S descendants, who were called Israelites, or
the children of Israel, because Jacob was also called
Israel, dwelt in Egypt for four hundred years, and
increased so much in number that the land was
filled with them. The Egyptians were afraid that
they would become too powerful for them. The
Pharaoh or king who then reigned in Egypt knew
nothing of Joseph, and he made the lives of the
Israelites bitter with hard work in making bricks
and building cities, and he set taskmasters over
them. But they still increased greatly, so he
gave orders that all the male children that were
born amongst them should be cast into the river
Nile. At that time a boy was born in the family
of a man of the house of Levi, a goodly child, and
his mother hid him for three months. When she
could no longer hide him, she made an ark or cradle
of bulrushes, and put the child in it, and placed it
amongst the reeds by the river's brink. And the
daughter of Pharaoh came to bathe in the river, and
when she saw the ark amongst the reeds, she sent
her handmaid to fetch it. And she saw the child,
and behold, the babe wept. And she had com-
passion on him, and brought him up as her own
son. She gave him the name of Moses, and had
him taught all the wisdom of the Egyptians.


2. The call of Mfoses.
When Moses was grown up, he one day saw
an Egyptian smiting an Israelite, so he killed the
Egyptian, and hid him in the sand. And fearing
that the thing should be known, he fled into the
land of Midian, and dwelt there many years with
Jethro, a priest, and kept his flocks. Once when he
was keeping the flocks out in the wilderness, he saw
a bush that burned with fire, and yet was not con-
sumed. He turned aside to see this sight, and God
spoke to him from the midst of the bush, and said:
"Put off thy shoes from thy feet, for the place whereon
thou standest is holy ground. I am the God of thy
father, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; I
have surely seen the affliction of My people in
Egypt, and have heard their cry. And now I will
send thee to Pharaoh, and thou shalt lead My
people the children of Israel up out of Egypt."
Then Moses answered: "Who am I, that I should
go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the
children of Israel out of Egypt. They will not
believe me: they will say: 'The Lord hath not
appeared unto thee.'" But the Lord said to Moses:
"I will be with thee ;" and He gave him power to
work miracles as a sign that He had sent him.
And when Moses said that he was slow of speech,
the Lord said that his brother Aaron should go with
him, and speak for him, but Moses should put the
words in his mouth. Moses then went back to the
land of Egypt, and on the way his brother Aaron
met him. They went firstt to the Israelites, and


Aaron told them all that the Lord had said to
Moses, and he did the signs in the sight of all the
people. And they believed him, and gave thanks
to the Lord because He had seen their affliction.

3. The hardness of Pharaoh's heart.
After this, Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh,
and told him of the Lord's command that he should
let the children of Israel go out of Egypt. But
Pharaoh said: "Who is the Lord, that I should
obey his voice, to let Israel go ? I know not the
Lord, neither will I let Israel go." And from that
time he laid heavier burdens on the Israelites, so
they began to murmur against Moses and Aaron,
and to say that they had only made their lot still
harder. Then Moses was cast down, but the Lord.
said to him: "Now shalt thou see what I will do
to Pharaoh, for with a strong hand he shall let them
go, and shall drive them out of his land." And
God sent nine dreadful plagues upon the land of
Egypt, but not upon the land of Goshen. Still
Pharaoh would not let the people go until the
tenth plague came, when one night God sent the
angel of death throughout the land, and the first-
born in every family died, from the firstborn of the
king to the firstborn of the captive in the dungeon.
This plague did not hurt the Israelites, for God
had commanded them to kill a lamb in each house,
on the evening before that night, and to sprinkle
the blood on the doorposts, so that the angel of
death might see it and pass over their houses. They


were then to roast the lamb and eat it with un-
leavened bread, with their loins girded and their
staff in their hands. The Lord commanded them
to do this every year on the same day, which was
to be kept holy in remembrance of their being
saved from death, and delivered from the bondage of
Egypt. This feast was called the Passover.

4. The departure from Egypt.
When the Egyptians awoke and saw what the
Lord had done, there was a geat cry in all the
land, for there was not a house in which there was
not one dead. And Pharaoh rose up in the night,
and called for Moses and Aaron, and commanded
that they and all the children of Israel should
hasten to depart with all that they had. But as
soon as they had gone, Pharaoh repented that he
had let them go, and pursued after them, and over-
took them near the Red Sea. When the Israelites
saw the Egyptians coming, they were sore afraid,
and they murmured against Moses, and said:
"Wherefore hast thou brought us forth out of Egypt;
because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou
taken us away to die in the wilderness?" Then
Moses said to the people: Fear not, for the
Egyptians whom ye have seen to-day, ye shall see
again no more for ever; the Lord shall fight for
you, and ye shall hold your peace." Then, by
God's command, Moses stretched out his hand over
the sea, and the Lord caused the sea to go back by
a strong east wind all the night, and made the sea


dry land, so the Israelites went into the midst of
the sea upon dry ground. But when the Egyptians
followed after them, Moses again stretched out his
hand, and the waters returned, and Pharaoh and
his host were drowned. Thus did the Lord save
His people; and Moses and the children of Israel
praised Him and sang: "I will sing unto the Lord,
for He hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and
his rider hath He thrown into the sea. The Lord
is a man of war: the Lord is His name. Pharaoh's
chariots and his host hath He cast into the sea: his
chosen captains also are drowned in the Red Sea.
The depths have covered them: they sank into the
bottom as a stone. Who is like unto Thee, 0 Lord,
among the gods who is like unto Thee ? glorious in
holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders ? The
Lord shall reign for ever and ever."

5. The wanderings in the wilderness.
The Israelites were now so near Canaan that
they could have reached it in a few weeks, but yet
it took them forty years to get there. God let
them wander all that time in the desert of Arabia
on account of their unbelief and disobedience, until
all those who were grown up when they left Egypt
were dead, except two men, one of whom was called
Whilst they were wandering in the wilderness,
God preserved them in many wonderful ways. In-
stead of bread, He gave them manna, which was
like round white seeds; they gathered it up from


the ground every morning. Once when they wanted
water, God told Moses to strike the rock with his
rod, and immediately the water flowed out of it.

6. The giving of the Law on Mount Sinai.
When the Israelites came to Mount Sinai, Moses
went up into the mountain, and there the Lord
spoke to him, and told him to say to the children
of Israel: "Ye have seen what I did unto the
Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings:
now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed,
and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar
treasure unto me above all people: for all the
earth is mine." So Moses went down and told the
people the words of the Lord, and they all answered
and said: "All that the Lord hath spoken we will
do." Three days after this, a thick cloud lay on
the mountain, and there was thunder and lightning,
and the voice of a trumpet exceeding loud, so that
all the people trembled. Then the Lord spoke from
the mountain, and said: "I am the Lord thy God,
who brought thee out of the land of Egypt. Thou
shalt have no other gods before Me. Thou shalt
not make unto thee any graven image. Thou shalt
not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day. Honour
thy father and thy mother. Thou shalt do no
murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou
shalt not steal. Thou shalt not bear false witness
against thy neighbour. Thou shalt not covet thy
neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neigh-

I -

4A J


P. 26.

-- ----- --------~



,a.Ii .Asj




bour's wife, nor his manservant nor his maid-
servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything
that is his."
Besides these ten commandments, which were
given for all mankind, and always to be obeyed,
God gave Moses many laws which concerned the
arrangement of the tabernacle, and regulated the
duties of the priests and the manner of the sacri-
fices. The tabernacle was a large tent arranged
for religious services. It was divided into two
parts, and all around it was an enclosed space
called the outer court. In this outer court stood
the altar on which the burnt-offerings were offered,
and in the outer part of the tabernacle, called
the Holy Place, stood the altar on which incense
was burned. In the inner part of the tabernacle,
called the Holy of Holies, stood an ark or chest
overlaid with gold, in which were the two tables of
stone on which the ten commandments were written.
No one was allowed to go into the tabernacle
except the priests, and only the High Priest might
go into the Holy of Holies, and that only once in
the year, on the Day of Atonement, when he offered
sacrifices for his own sins and the sins of the people.
Aaron was the first High Priest, and the eldest son
of every High Priest had to succeed his father.
The rest of Aaron's kinsfolk were to be priests, and
were to prepare the sacrifices, and to teach the
people the law of the Lord. The descendants of
Levi, who were called Levites, were to help the
priests, and attend to the service of the tabernacle.


7. The unbelief of the Israelites.
Moses was so long on the mountain with God
that the people did not know what had become
of him, and asked Aaron to make them a golden
calf, for them to worship. When Moses came down
from the mountain he punished them severely for
their idolatry. Their unbelief and ungodliness on
many occasions after this caused Moses much
trouble, and the Lord sent many heavy punishments
upon them.

8. The death of Moses.
When Moses saw that the end of his life was draw-
ing near, he called the people together, and said to
them: "I am an hundred and twenty years old this
day, and I can no more go out and come in. Be
strong and of good courage, for the Lord thy God,
He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail
thee, nor forsake thee." Moses reminded them of
God's great mercies, and said: "See, I have set
before thee life and death, blessing and cursing."
The blessing if they obeyed God's commandments,
and the curse if they did not do so.
The Israelites had wandered in the wilderness
for forty years, and had come close to the land
of Canaan: the river Jordan alone was between
them and it. Moses went up into Mount Nebo,
whence he could see into the promised land, and
there he died.


WHEN Moses was dead, Joshua became the leader
of the Israelites. And the Lord spoke to him and
said: "Be strong and of good courage, for as I was
with Moses, so will I be with thee." Then Joshua
called together the officers of the people, and told
them that within three days they must be ready to
pass over Jordan. And they answered him: "All
that thou commandest us we will do; and whither-
soever thou sendest us we will go; only the Lord
thy God be with thee as He was with Moses."
When the time came for them to go over Jordan,
Joshua made the priests go first with the Ark of
the Covenant, and as soon as those who bare the
Ark put their feet into the water, the waters
were divided, and there was dry ground in the
midst of the river. The priests remained stand-
ing with the Ark until all the people had passed
over. Thus did the Lord bring the Israelites into
Canaan, the land which He had given to Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob, and to their seed. But the land
was full of heathen, and in order that the Israelites
should not learn idolatry from them while they were
living amongst them, God commanded them to drive
away the heathen out of the land. The first city
they came to was called Jericho, and here the Lord
*showed that He would be with His people and help
them to take possession of the land. By God's
command the priests went round the city for seven


Ii.v r in succession, and on the seventh day when
L.'.- went round, and blew their trumpets, the walls
of the .:Iv fell down ti.r. and the Israelites entered
:L. tv. By ..:,:i? -. l..ii, took possession of
most of the -,.'... and divided it amongst the tribes
of the children of Israel The tribe of Levi, however,
, I not have their share of land in one place like
the ... but were ..! t:r f. :. -' t, cities,. which
were -.: 1.2'. -._ the land.
_"..:-J faoshua .-,:--. ,:l1. he called all his people
: ._.- .- and reminded them how God had led them
rom the i .- that He had called Abraham to go
int C aan smuntil w .-.. when He had i.,i. ih back
his *I.: :--.. -,;Lr into the same land. Then Joshua
said to them: i ...- therefore fear the Lord, and
serve Him in Ai it- and truth: choose this day
wilhomi -on. serve: but as for me and my house,
we will serve the Lord" And the people answered:
"The *.1 i7. our God will we serve, and His name will
we -' "."

WauM Jashua and .- -_ i who had seen the-
... .-ri-.' works of the Lord were dead, the Israel-
ites wee -- c into -i.-..::; by the L-.-azUln who still
iemainiAed in the ._ .1. And the anger of the Lord
~was -,L, ,, : --L ..- and the L:,:
delivered a ---t into i. L-. of their enemies.
Bat when, in their rL:.2. i :I L.t of their


sins and cried to God for help, He raised up amongst
them from time to time brave men who saved them
from their enemies, and afterwards ruled over the
land. These men were called Judges. The Israel-
ites were governed by judges for more than 400
years. The first of them was called Othniel,
another was called Samson, who was reniarkable
for -his great strength. He slew many of the
Philistines who lived to the south-west of Canaan
near the shores of the Mediterranean, and were
for a long time the most dangerous enemies of the
2. Eli.
Eli was the last judge but one, and he was High
Priest also. He had two wicked sons, but he did
not correct them for their wickedness, and this
displeased the Lord. There was a war between
the Philistines and the Israelites, and when the
Israelites were defeated, they took the Ark of God
with them into the battle, thinking that its presence
would give them the victory. At that time Eli
was very old, and he sat on a seat by the wayside
watching, for his heart trembled for the Ark of
God. And there came one running who had fled
from the battle, and he told Eli.: Israel is fled
before the Philistines, thy two sons are dead, and
the Ark of God is taken." When Eli heard this,
he fell backward off his seat, his neck broke,
and he died. The Philistines took the Ark, and
-put it in the temple of their idol DP,2f.!i, but they
did not keep it there long. In the morning they


found that the image of 'Da.'in had fallen down
upon its face, and its head was broken off; and
sickness broke out in the town. When the Ark
was taken to a neighboring town, the same sick-
ness broke out there, so they dared not keep it in
their country any longer, but sent it back.

The last of the judges was the prophet Samuel.
He preached to the people so earnestly that they
turned from their false gods to serve the Lord;
and every year he went from place to place through-
out the land to give judgment, and he was held in
great honour by the people.
God gave the Israelites victory over the Philis-
tines, and the land had rest whilst Samuel ruled.
When Samuel was old, he made his sons judges;
but as they perverted judgment, the people de-
sired that he would give them a king in their
stead; and, by God's command, he anointed Saul
to be king over Israel. And Samuel said to
the people: "Behold, here I am: witness against
me before the Lord, and before His anointed: whose
ox have I taken, or whose ass have I taken, whom
have I defrauded or oppressed, or of whose hand
have I received any bribe to blind mine eyes there-
with, and I will restore it you ?" And they said:
"Thou hast not defrauded us nor oppressed us,
neither hast thou taken ought of any man's hand."
And Samuel said: "Turn not aside from following
the Lord, but serve Him with all your heart; I will
not cease to pray for you, and I will teach you the


., and the n!.i, way; but if ye still do
-i, ,l:-, ye shall be ....-' I and ....

a'.. !;' li-"" I for some t. .- -i and .-:-.
he ~a : I; all Israel mourned for I1..

I ,' .

__, the first Tuiut of IJ-.- was a man of great
stature, and was a head -. 1 -- than -. -of K. r.. .. 1
At first he :: e I.:e and conquered :1.
enetmies of his country, but Cr-- : he became
proud, and I. ;..:! ,-- conmmanda. T.
Samnel li -.. I.-- -,'- :--:- T .i for his disOledience
and said to him : Thou hast done ,:.- -. -. : ;;
.not TI.t K word of the L ._ :-
S.-,1 not .*.. jtu but the i.- hath sought Hian
a man .t:--t His own heart to captain over Hi
..1." Thent,:- t J- "* '--
to IJ trhb-Leni. and anointed -, _. ., L-:
son ... T-:-. to be. kg :1T-- : -L. om -
.I,- 1u- became sad and --t:.-: andl .I'; -TL,.
.__-7- how to play on TL_ -. was sent for io
play it to him. This made :, feel, __- and
'.-.:i ...: -he- :.'-- David.

2. r am sia&
The I'ra-i:e-- again went o :. : the a-'i:-
c:-.-. And :"_ : i-was among the j1_'-. I..-: a -.t


giant, called Goliath, and he stood and cried to the
armies of Israel, and said: Choose you a man for
you, and let him come down to me. If he be able
to fight with me, and kill me, then we will be your
servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him,
then shall ye be our servants." This he repeated
for many days, but no one dared to fight him.
Then David came from his home, where he had
been keeping his father's sheep, bringing provisions
for his brethren in the camp. Hearing the boasts
of Goliath, he offered himself to fight the Philistine.
But Saul said to him: "Thou art not able to fight
with him: for thou art but a youth, and he a man of
war from his youth." But when David related how
he had slain both a lion and a bear, and said that
the Philistine should be as one of them, Saul said to
him: Go, and the Lord be with thee." And David
had only his staff in his hand and a sling, and he
carried the stones for it in his shepherd's bag; and
when Goliath saw that he had no other weapons, he
despised him, and said: "Am I a dog, that thou
comest unto me with staves ? Come to me, and I
will give thy flesh unto the fowls of the air, and the
beasts of the field." But David said to him: Thou.
comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and
with a shield : but I come to thee in the name of the
Lord of hosts, and all this assembly shall know that the
Lord saveth not with sword and spear, for the battle
is the Lord's, and He will give you into our hands."
And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence
a stone and slung it and smote the Philistine in
his forehead, and he fell on his face to the earth.


Then David ran and took the sword of Goliath and
slew him, and cut off his head. And when the
Philistines saw that their champion was dead, they
fled, and the Israelites pursued them and slew them.

3. Saul's jealousy.
From that time forth there was a strong friend-
ship between David and Saul's brave son, Jonathan,
but Saul himself soon became angry with David.
On one occasion, as they were returning from battle,
the women came out to meet them and wish them
joy, and sang these words: Saul hath slain his
thousands, and David his ten thousands." When
Saul heard this, he was very wroth, and said:
"They have ascribed unto David ten thousands,
and to me they have ascribed but thousands, and
what can he have more but the kingdom ?" From
that day Saul was jealous and suspicious of David,
and tried to take his life. One day when David
was playing his harp before him, Saul cast a spear
at him, but it did not hit him, and David fled away.

4. Saul pursues David.
From that time David was obliged to wander
about to escape from Saul, and Saul pursued him
with his army. Many people came and joined
David, but he never sought to do Saul any harm.
On two occasions he could have killed Saul, but
when his followers urged him to do so, he said:
"The Lord forbid that I should do this thing unto
my master, the Lord's anointed." The first occasion


was when Saul went into a cave to rest, without
seeing that David was in it with his people. When
Saul lay down to sleep, David went to him and cut
off the skirt of his robe. Then he went out of the
cave, and called to Saul and said: See, the skirt
of thy robe is in my hand, which I cut off,-but I
did not kill thee; know that there is neither evil
nor transgression in mine hand; yet thou huntest
after my soul to take it." These words moved
Saul's heart, and he lifted up his voice and wept,
and said: "My son David, thou art more righteous
than I, for thou hast rewarded me good, whereas.I
have rewarded thee evil; wherefore the Lord reward
thee good for that thou hast done unto me this
day." So Saul went home; but it was not long
before he again set out to pursue David. And
David went into Saul's camp by night, and took
his spear, which was stuck in the ground by his
bolster, and carried it to the top of a hill, and
called out to Saul's captain, saying: "Art thou
not a valiant man ? wherefore then hast thou not
kept thy lord the king ? See where the king's
spear is." Saul once more changed his behaviour,
and said to David: I have sinned: return, my son
David, for I will no more do thee harm, because
my life was precious in thine eyes this day. I
have erred exceedingly." But David knew that he
could not trust Saul, and that it would not be safe
for him to remain in the land of Israel, so he passed
over into the land of the Philistines, and lived in
the city of Ziklag with his followers.


5. Saul's death.
The next year the Philistines again assembled their
armies, and marched against the Israelites. Saul
was afraid when he saw their hosts, and he went
to a woman who had a familiar spirit, to inquire of
her how it would go with him in the battle, but she
only made him still more afraid. So there was a
battle between the Philistines and the Israelites, and
the Israelites were conquered, and Jonathan and two
others of Saul's sons were killed, and Saul himself
was sorely wounded by the archers. Then he took
his'sword, and fell upon it, and killed himself.
When the Philistines found his body, they cut off
his head, and fastened the body to the wall of the
town of Bethshan. But the inhabitants of the town
of Jabesh-Gilead, whom Saul had delivered from
their enemies, went in the night, and took Saul's
body and the bodies of his sons, and buried them.
And David sang a song of lamentation over those
that had fallen, and he mourned greatly over Jona-
than's death.

I. David becomes king.
AFTER Saul's death David became king. God was
with him, and he overcame all the enemies of Israel,
conquered many lands, and became a mighty king.
He lived in Jerusalem, where he built himself a
palace on Mount Zion. There also he set up a


tabernacle, in which he placed the ark of God with
great solemnity. In place of a tabernacle, David
wished to build a temple, because he did not think
it right that he should live in a splendid palace,
and that the ark of God should be only in a tent.
But the Lord would not allow David to build the
temple, and told him by the prophet Nathan, that
after his death God would establish the kingdom
of his son. And God said: "He shall build an
house for My name; I will be his father, he shall
be My son." David gave thanks to the Lord for
'the words which He had spoken, and for all the
mercies the Lord had shown him, for David had
a faithful heart, and loved God, as we may see by
the-many beautiful Psalms he wrote, which we find
in the Bible.

2. David's sin and repentance.

David was not free from sin, and once he
committed a great crime. Amongst his soldiers
was a man called Uriah, and whilst he was absent
in time of war, David wished to take his wife Bath-
sheba, and make her his own wife. So he sent a
message to Joab his general, to put Uriah in the
forefront of the battle, that he might be smitten and
die. And Uriah was killed, and David took Bath-
sheba to be his wife.
After David had committed this sin, the prophet
Nathan went to him, and said: "There were two
men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor.
The rich man had exceeding many flocks and herds:


but the -poor man had only one little ewe lamb,
which did eat of- his own morsel, and drank of his
own cup, and lay in his bosom. And there came a
traveller unto the rich man, and he spared to take
of his own flock and of his own herd, but took the
poor man's lamb, and dressed it for the man that
was come to him." When David heard this, his
anger was kindled against the man, and he said:
"The man that has done this thing shall surely die."
And Nathan said to David: "Thou art the man.
Wherefore hast thou despised the commandment of
the Lord, to do evil in His sight ? Thou hast killed
Uriah with the sword, and hast taken his wife to
be thy wife." Then David acknowledged his sin,
and he repented bitterly of it, and prayed to God in
these words, which we find in one of his Psalms.:
"Have mercy upon me according to Thy loving-
kindness: according to the multitude of Thy tender
mercies blot out my transgressions.
"Wash me throughly from my iniquity, and cleanse
me from my sin.
Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a
right spirit within me.
"Cast me not away from Thy presence; and take
not Thy Holy Spirit from me." (Ps. li.)
The Lord heard David's prayer, and sent the
prophet Nathan to comfort him, saying: The Lord
hath put away thy sin: thou shalt not'die." But
David had to bear a -great deal of grief and trouble
as a punishment for his crime.



3. -. ,', ..".: rebellion.
1.. -.i had a son called Absalom, who was much
S.c,:. 1 for his i.-.-:ut:., but his heart was evil. He
to dethrone his father, and having Ahithophel,
a wicked and :!.'i vy man, and many of the people
on his side, he caused himself to be proclaimed
.. -.- -i .i. who was then an old man, was
T::. '. to flee in'.i Jerusalem before his own son,
and went up : -_ '.,.2, and weeping to the Mount of
and many of his faithful followers went with
h .im weeping. Then there came out a man named
'-,.: ::. .-' the kindred of Saul, and he cursed and
naleked at I' tv.-. One of David's men would have
Shim, but David said: Let him alone, let him
.. -. for the Lord hath bidden him. It may be
-_..: i Lord will look on mine affliction, and that
:.- 1 :will i-1.1 pit.- me good for his cursing this
;,7 And A..-X.i:., and all his people came to
S.-',u. Ahithophel advised him to pursue
*.--i_ at once, but Absalom did not follow his
so Ai.ih Li L.1.-i went out and hanged him-
selt. I' .-. assembled an army, and sent it against
_": but he begged his people to spare his
.. life. however, they did not do, for
when : 1 .I-.L was put to flight, and was caught
-- his head in the boughs of a tree as he rode
'..: -:.- a :.-..', *, i. David's general, took three
darts and thrust them t:.I. ii'h Absalom's heart.
Then 1~- brought back their old king
Jerusalem; but David wept for Absalom,
r.,,' : .: son AI.- -do,:m; would God I had died
f tr : :. O0 Absalom, my son, my son !"


4. David's death.
Before his death, David caused his son Solomon
to be anointed, that he might be king after him,
and he called Solomon before him, and said: "And
thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy
father, and serve Him with a perfect heart and
with a willing mind: for the- Lord searcheth all
hearts and understandeth all the imagination of the
thoughts: if thou seek Him, He will be found of
thee; but if thou forsake Him, He will cast thee off
for ever. Take heed now; for the Lord hath chosen
thee to build an house for the sanctuary: be strong,
and do it."
Soon afterwards, David died at the age of seventy,
having reigned over Israel forty years.

I. The wisdom of Solomon.
AFTER David's death, Solomon, who was still very
young, reigned over a large and powerful king-
dom. And God appeared to him in a dream,
and said: "Ask what I shall give thee." Solo-
mon prayed for wisdom to rule his people
well, and God said to him: "Because thou hast
asked this thing, behold, I have done according
to thy words: I have given thee a wise and an
understanding heart; so that there was none like
thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise


like unto thee. And I have also given thee that
which thou hast not asked, both riches and honour:
and if thou wilt walk in My ways and keep My
commandments, then will I lengthen thy days."
Solomon became so famous for his wisdom, that
many people came from distant lands to hear him.
The Queen of Sheba came from a far country, and
wondered greatly at Solomon's wisdom that she
heard, and at all his riches and prosperity that
she saw.
Solomon soon proved that he was a wise judge.
There were two women who lived together, and had
each a child, but the child of one woman died, and
she took the child of the other one, saying that it
was her own. They brought the child to Solomon
that he might decide to whom it belonged, and he
said: "Bring me a sword; and when they brought
him one, he said: "Divide the living child in two,
and give half to the one and half to the other."
Then the woman whose child it was, said: "0
my lord, give her the living child, and in no wise
slay it." Then the king saw by her love for the
child that she was its mother, and he ordered it to
be given to her. We can also see how great was
the wisdom of Solomon by the book of Proverbs
whifh he wrote.

2. Solomon builds the Temple.
Solomon continued to reign in peace. He lived
in friendship with the king of Tyre, and with his
help they built many ships, and carried on a large


trade with foreign lands. By these means he ac-
quired 'great riches, which he spent in erecting
many splendid buildings. The most famous of
them all was the temple which he built on Mount
Moriah in Jerusalem. This temple was in place
of the tabernacle, and like the tabernacle it was
divided into two parts, the Holy Place and the
Holy of Holies; and there was a court outside.
Solomon took seven years to build the temple,
and made it very beautiful and costly. When it
was' finished, the Ark of the Covenant was brought
there in a solemn. procession, and there was a great
assemblage of the people. Then Solomon stood
before the altar, and spread forth his hands to
heaven, and said: "0 Lord God of Israel, there is
no God like Thee, in heaven above, or in earth
beneath. Behold, the heaven cannot contain Thee;
how much less this house which I have builded!
Let Thine eyes be open towards this house day
and night, and hearken unto the prayer which Thy
servant shall make towards this place." And
Solomon prayed for the people of Israel, and also
for the people who lived in distant lands, that all
the inhabitants of the earth might learn to know
and 'fear the Lord. Then the glory of the Lord
filled the house, and the people bowed themselves,
and said: "The Lord is good, and His mercy en-
dureth for ever."


3. Solomon's last days.
But Solomon's heart was not perfect with the
Lord his God. When he was old he allowed him-
self to be led away by his heathen wives to ofier
sacrifices to their gods. And the Lord was angry
with him, and told him that his kingdom should
be divided, and that his son should only have one
part of it. Moreover the people murmured, because
Solomon laid heavy taxes on them, and many rose
up against him.

WHEN Solomon was dead, the people came to his
son Rehoboam, and said to him: "Thy father
made our yoke grievous: make thou his heavy yoke
lighter, and we will serve thee." Rehoboam took
counsel first with the old experienced men who
had been his father Solomon's counsellors, and they
advised him to answer the people kindly, and to
speak good words to them, and so they would be
his servants for ever. But Rehoboam forsook the
counsel of the old men, and took counsel with the
young men who had grown up with him. They
advised him to answer roughly and harshly, and
he followed their advice, and said to the people:
"Whereas my father did lade you with a heavy
yoke, I will add to your yoke: my father hath
chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you
with scorpions." Rehoboam was punished for his


folly, for the ten tribes were so enraged at his
answer that they chose another king called Jero-
boam, and Rehoboam only reigned over the two
tribes of Benjamin and Judah.
Thus -the tribes of Israel were divided into two
kingdoms. The two tribes over which Rehoboam
reigned formed the kingdom of Judah, which had
Jerusalem for its capital; and the ten tribes who
chose Jeroboam for their king formed the kingdom
of Israel, and Samaria was their chief town. These
two kingdoms were often at war with each other,
and these wars weakened them so much that they
were often overcome by their enemies.


I. Jeroboam.
JEROBOAM was afraid that when his people went up
to worship at the temple in Jerusalem they would
again join the other two tribes, and acknowledge
Rehoboam as their king. So he made two golden
calves, and set up one in Bethel, and the other in
Dan, and said to the people : It is too much for
you to go up to Jerusalem: behold thy gods, 0
Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of
Egypt." And Jeroboam offered sacrifices to the
calves which he had made, and he made priests of
the lowest of the people, who were not of the sons
of Levi, and he ordained feasts, which he had de-
vised of his own heart.


Jeroboam's son Abijah became king after him;
but he reigned only for a short time, for he was
killed in a rebellion, and his whole family were
rooted out. After him there were many other
kings, one worse than the other, and they continued
to worship idols as Jeroboam had done.

2. Ahab and the prophet Elijah.
Ahab was the worst of all the kings of Israel. He
had a wicked and idolatrous queen named Jezebel,
who came from the heathen city of Sidon, where
the people worshipped a false god called Baal.
Jezebel made Ahab build a temple to Baal in
Samaria, and the prophets of the Lord were per-
secuted, and many of them were put to death.
At.this time the Lord raised up a great prophet
called Elijah. He warned Ahab that as a punish-
ment for his wickedness no rain should fall in the
land for a long time. Then Elijah went away, and
it came to pass as he had said: for three years no
rain fell, and there was a great famine in Samaria.
And Elijah came back, and went to Ahab. When
Ahab saw him coming, he said: Art thou he that
troubleth Israel ? Elijah answered him: "I have
not troubled Israel; but thou, and thy father's house,
in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the
Lord, and thou hast followed after Baalim." Then
he made Ahab gather together all the priests of
Baal and the people on Mount Carmel, and when
they were assembled Elijah said to the priests of
Baal: "Choose ye now a bullock, and lay it on


wood, and put no fire under, and call upon the
name of your gods, and I will also offer up a
bullock, and call upon the name of the Lord: and
the God that answereth by fire, let him be God."
The priests brought their offering first, but they
called upon Baal in vain from morning till mid-
day. Then said Elijah to them: "Cry aloud: for
he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing,
or he is on a journey, or peradventure .he sleepeth,
and must be awakened." But however loudly they
called, there was neither voice nor any to answer.
Then Elijah offered his sacrifice, and said: Lord
God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, let it be
known this day that Thou art God in Israel, and
that I am Thy servant." Then fire fell down from
heaven and consumed the sacrifice. And when the
people saw it, they fell down on their faces, and
said: The Lord, He is the God; the Lord, He is
the God." Then Elijah said to Ahab: Get thee
up, eat and drink; for there is a sound of abun-
dance of rain." And it came to pass that the heaven
was black with clouds and wind, and there was a
great rain.
But Ahab and Jezebel did not repent of their
wickedness. They caused Naboth, an innocent
man, to be accused by false witnesses and stoned
to death, that they might take his vineyard, which
Ahab coveted. After they had done this wicked
deed Elijah went to Ahab, and said: "In the place
where dogs licked the blood of Naboth, shall dogs
lick thy blood, even thine, and the dogs shall eat
Jezebel by the wall of Jezreel." This prophecy


was fulfilled, for Ahab. was killed in battle, and as
they washed the blood from his chariot the dogs
licked it up. Jezebel lived some years longer, but
when Jehu, the captain of the host, who had become
king, made his entry into Samraria, he caused her
to be thrown out of window, and the horses trod
her under foot, and the dogs devoured her body.
Elijah had a disciple, called Elisha, who also
became a great prophet. And it came to pass, as
they walked together, and talked, there appeared a
chariot of fire and horses of fire, and Elijah went
up by a whirlwind into heaven, and Elisha saw
him no more.

3. The prophet Jonah.
The Lord raised up many prophets in the king-
dom of Israel, but yet the kings and the people
continued to do wickedly, and would not heed the
prophets' warnings. One of these prophets, called
Jonah, declared the word of the Lord, not only to
the Israelites, but to the heathen also. He was
commanded by God to go to the great city of
Nineveh, which was the chief town of the kingdom
of Assyria, to warn the inhabitants that the Lord
would destroy it on account of its great wickedness.
Jonah did not wish to go on this errand, so he fled
away in a ship. Then God caused a great storm to
arise, and the sailors cast Jonah into the sea, for he
told them that for his sake this great tempest was
upon them. A large fish swallowed him, but three
days after it threw him up again alive on the
dry land. So Jonah went to Nineveh, as God


had commanded him, and prophesied that in forty
days the city would be destroyed. Then the king
and the people repented of their sins, so the Lord
spared the city.

4. The downfall of the kingdom of Israel.
A hundred years after this time there was a
king in Nineveh called Shalmaneser. He marched
against Samaria with a large army, and took the
town and conquered the whole kingdom, and led
captive king Hosea with his people to Assyria.
The kingdom of Israel had existed for nearly two
hundred and fifty years when it thus came to an
end as a punishment for the great wickedness
which had been committed there since the days of

I. Behoboam.
REHOBOAM, we have seen, only reigned over the
smaller part of his father Solomon's mighty king-
dom; and he had not reigned very long before
the king of Egypt came with a large army and
plundered the temple and the king's palace. Re-
hoboam did not fear God, and many of the people
worshipped false gods, although idolatry did not
prevail so much in the kingdom of Judah as in
that of Israel. David's race continued to reign in
the kingdom of Judah, and there were amongst


them some good kings, who feared the Lord and
served Him.

2. Hezekiah and Isaiah.

The best of the kings of Judah was Hezekiah,
who reigned at the time when Shalmaneser, king
of Assyria, put an end to the kingdom of Israel.
Hezekiah was faithful to the Lord, and rooted out
idolatry from the land; and the Lord was with
him, and saved him and his country from a great
danger. Sennacherib, one of the successors of
.li.iJne:.-r. came against Jerusalem, and spoke
insolently to the people, saying: "Let not Hezekiah
deceive you, saying, The Lord will surely deliver
us. Who are they among all the gods of the
countries that have delivered their country from
the hand of the king of Assyria, that the Lord
should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand ? But
Hezekiah trusted in God and prayed earnestly for
His help, and the Lord told him by the prophet
Isaiah that his prayer was heard. And that same
night God sent His angel to slay 185,000 men in
the Assyrian camp, and Sennacherib returned in
ri.jn:,' to Nineveh.
The prophet Isaiah foretold many other things.
He told Hezekiah that all his treasures would be
carried away to Babylon, and that some of his
successors would be slaves in the palace of the
king of Babylon. But he also prophesied that the
Lord would once more have pity on His people,
and that the Messiah would come.


3. Manasseh.
Hezekiah's son and successor, Manasseh, was very
wicked. He set up false gods in the temple, and
sacrificed even his own children to them. The
Lord punished him, and allowed the king of Assyria
to conquer him, and carry him captive to Babylon.
Then he repented, and after a time God let him go
back to his own kingdom.

4. The downfall of the kingdom of Judah.
In the time of Manasseh, Babylon belonged to
Assyria, but afterwards it had a king of its own,
and became a powerful kingdom. When the king-
dom of Judah had existed for about four hundred
years, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, conquered
Jerusalem, destroyed the town and burned the
temple, and Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, was
with his people carried captive to Babylon.
The prophet Jeremiah, who lived at this time,
had foretold that this would happen, and he also
foretold that after seventy years the Lord would
let His people return to their own country.

GOD had punished His people severely for their
wickedness. They were obliged to live far away
from their own country among the heathen, and
they thought with sorrow of their holy temple


and their beautiful city of Jerusalem, which were
now destroyed. In the book of Psalms there is a
mournful song written at that time, which begins
1. "By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down,
yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion.
2. "We hanged our harps upon the willows in
the midst thereof.
3. "For there they that carried us away captive
required of us a song; and they that wasted us
required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the
songs of Zion.
4. "How shall we sing the Lord's song in a
strange land ?
5. "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right
hand forget her cunning." (Ps. cxxxvii.).
But 'lhe Lord comforted them in their trouble. He
raised up two great prophets among them, Ezekiel
and Daniel, who told them not only that they should
be delivered from their captivity in Babylon, but that
there was a still greater deliverance to be expected.

2. Daniel interprets Nebuchadnezzar's dream.
The prophet Daniel was not only held in great
honour by his own countrymen, but he rose also into
great favour with king Nebuchadnezzar. This king
had a dream, which he afterwards could not clearly
remember, and Daniel told him both the dream and
the meaning thereof. Now the king had dreamt
that he saw a great image, whose head was of gold,
the breast and arms of silver, the thighs of brass,


the feet part of iron and part of clay. And he
had dreamt that a stone that was cut out without
hands came and smote the image upon its feet
and broke them in pieces, but the stone became
a great mountain, and filled the earth. Daniel
interpreted the dream thus: That four great king-
doms should arise one after another, and the stone
that broke the image signified another kingdom
which God Himself should raise up, and which
should conquer the other kingdoms, and should
itself last for ever. When Nebuchadnezzar heard
this, he said to Daniel: "Of a truth your God is
the God of gods, and a revealer of secrets, seeing
thou couldest reveal this secret." And he made
Daniel one of the greatest men in the kingdom.

3. Daniel's three friends and the burning fiery
Nebuchadnezzar still continued to worship idols,
and he set up a large golden image, and commanded
that all the people should fall down and worship
it. Three men who were Daniel's countrymen and
friends were accused before the king of not wor-
shipping the image he had set up. They were
brought before Nebuchadnezzar, who threatened
that if they would not worship the golden
image they should be cast into a burning fiery
furnace; and he said to them: "Who is that God
that shall deliver you out of my hands?" But
they answered: "Our God whom we serve is able
to deliver us out of thine hand; but if not, be it


known unto thee, 0 king, that we will not serve
thy gods, nor worship the golden image thou hast
set up." Then the king had them cast into a
burning fiery furnace; but the Lord sent His angel
to them, and they came out unhurt from the furnace.
Then the king knew that their God was the true
God, for no other god could deliver in this manner.

4. Daniel in the lions' den.
Daniel continued to be in great favour in Baby-
lon even after Nebuchadnezzar's death. But a great
many people were jealous of him, and they persuaded
the king Darius to cast him into the lions' den, into
which they 'generally threw their criminals. But
the Lord was with Daniel, and the lions' did him
no harm. At this the king was glad, and caused
Daniel to be taken up out of the den of lions.

5. Cyrus, king of Persia, takes Babylon.
During the lifetime of Daniel, Babylon was taken
by Cyrus, king of Persia, in this way. One night
the king of Babylon, not thinking of any danger,
gave a great feast. He ordered the gold and silver
vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the
temple at Jerusalem to be brought, and the king and
his guests drank out of them, and sang the praises
of their false gods. Then to his great surprise
the king saw a hand writing some words on the
wall which none of them could read. So they
called Daniel, who read and explained the writing
thus: Thou art weighed in the balances and found






wanting; thy kingdom is divided and given to the
Medes and Persians." In that same night Cyrus
took the city.

As soon as Cyrus came to rule over Babylon he
allowed the children of Israel-the remnants of the
tribes of Benjamin and Judah-to go back to their
own country. Their exile had then lasted seventy
years, as prophesied by Jeremiah. From that time
they were called Jews. Many of them went back
very soon, and Cyrus gave them all the gold and
silver vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had taken
from the temple at Jerusalem.
When the Jews returned to Canaan, they began
to build a new temple, but they were disturbed in
their work by the Samaritans, who lived in the
country round about the town of Samaria. Shal-
maneser, when he conquered the kingdom of Israel,
and carried away the inhabitants, had sent some of
his heathen subjects to settle there. These people
had adopted some part of the Jewish religion and
mixed it up with their own idolatrous practices,
and they wanted to have a share in the temple
which the Jews were building. But the Jews re-
fused to allow them this, for they had a great
abhorrence of idolatry, and on this account the
Samaritans were very angry with them, and for
many years they hindered them in building the
temple. But there arose a prophet among the Jews


called Haggai, who encouraged the Jews to take up
the work- again, and at last they were able to finish
the temple. But it was not nearly so beautiful as
Solomon's temple, and the elders of the people who
had seen that one were discontented with the new
one. Then the prophet Haggai comforted them,
telling them that the glory of the latter house
would be even greater than that of the former,
and that the Desire of all nations should come and
fill this house with glory.

AFTER the return of the Jews from Babylon, they
continued for 200 years to be subject to the kings
of Persia. But at length the whole of the great
Persian kingdom, as well as many other countries
both in Asia and Africa, were conquered by a king
who came from Greece, called Alexander the Great.
Alexander, however, did not live long, and after his
death the generals of his army divided his large
kingdom among themselves. One of them founded
a kingdom in Egypt, and another became king of
Syria. The kings of these two countries soon made
war upon each other, and Judea, which lay between
them, was under the dominion sometimes of Egypt,
and sometimes of Syria.
At last the kings of Syria conquered Judea, and
one of them named Antiochus tried to make the
Jews renounce their faith and worship idols. He


even caused many of them to be cruelly treated and
put to death because they held fast to their faith.
Amongst them was an aged man called Eleazar.
He was advised to speak falsely in order to save
his life, but he answered: "Though I should be
delivered from the punishment of men, yet I should
not escape the hand of the Almighty. I will die
willingly, and leave the young a good example."
There was also a mother, who with her seven sons
suffered a painful death with great firmness, com-
forting herself with the thought that God would
raise them up to everlasting life.



DURING the time that king Antiochus was perse-
cuting the Jews so cruelly, there was a priest
named Mattathias, who grieved deeply over the
misery of his country. There came to his town
those that were appointed by the king to compel
the Jews to sacrifice to idols, and said to Matta-
thias: "Thou art an honourable and great man:
come thou first and fulfil the king's commandment:
so shall thou and thy house be among the king's
friends, and be honoured with silver and gold and
many rewards." But he answered: "If all the
others should obey the king in this matter, I and
my sons will keep to the faith of our fathers."
And when another Jew came forward to sacrifice
on the altars of the false gods, Mattathias was so


angry that he killed both the man and the king's
officer, and threw down the altar. Then he and
his five sons fled to the mountains, and a number
of their countrymen joined them, so that they
assembled a large army, and marched against the
Syrians, and defeated them, and at last drove them
out of the country. One of the five sons of Mat-
tathias was Judas Maccabeus. He was a brave
warrior, and from him all his family were called
For nearly one hundred years the race of the
Maccabees ruled over Judea, after which the Romans
came and took possession of the land.

THE Romans were a people who lived originally
in the city of Rome, in the country of Italy, but
they had by degrees conquered many countries in
Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the empire of Rome
became the most powerful one in the whole world.
One of the Roman generals was in Asia when two
brothers of the race of the Maccabees were striv-
ing for the mastery, and he offered to decide their
quarrel. But he settled it in such a way that the
Jews from that time were under the dominion of
the Romans.
Some time after this the Roman emperor Augustus
set up a king over Judea called Herod. He was
of the race of the Edomites, descended from Esau.


It was during the time that Herod governed Judea
under the Romans, that God fulfilled His great
promise, and sent into the world the Messiah,
whom all mankind needed, and whom many were
looking for.


THAT part of the Bible which was written by holy
men among the Jews, and which is called the Old
Testament, contains the following books:
The five books of Moses, the first of which contains
the history of the creation, and is continued to the
death of Joseph. The other four contain the his-
tory of the Israelites from the birth of Moses to his
The book of Joshua contains the history of the
Israelites during the life of Joshua. The book of
Judges gives an account of the Judges until the
time of Eli. Then follows the book of Ruth.

The history of Ruth.
In the days of the Judges there was a great
famine in Canaan, and a certain man went from
Bethlehem, with his wife Naomi and his two sons,
into the land of Moab. Here Naomi's husband
died, and her two sons married two Moabitish
women, called Orpah and Ruth. After ten years
Naomi's two sons died also. Then she determined
to go back to Bethlehem, and both her daughters-
in-law set out with her. But Orpah turned back


to her own country, whilst Ruth would not forsake
Naomi, but said: "Entreat me not to leave thee:
for whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou
lodgest, I will lodge: where thou diest, will I die,
and there will I be buried: the Lord do so to me,
and more also, if ought but death part thee and me."
So they went on to Bethlehem, and reached it at
the beginning of barley harvest. Then Ruth went
out into the fields to glean the corn, and it happened
that the field she went into belonged to Boaz, who
was a kinsman of her late husband's. When Boaz
saw her, and heard who she was, he gave her leave
to glean in the field where his men were reaping,
and he let her eat and drink with his harvest
labourers, and gave orders that no one should harm
her. And when Ruth bowed herself to the ground
before him, and asked him how it was that he
showed such kindness to her who was a stranger,
Boaz answered: "It hath been fully showed me all
that thou hast done unto thy mother-in-law since
the death of her husband, and how thou hast left
thy father and thy mother ahd the land of thy
nativity, and art come to a people that thou knewest
not heretofore. The Lord recompense thy work,
and a full reward be given thee of the Lord God of
Israel, under whose wings thou art come to trust."
When the harvest was over, Boaz took Ruth to be his
wife, and she had a son called Obed, who was the
father of Jesse, and one of Jesse's sons was David.

The two books of Samuel contain the histories
of Eli, Samuel, Saul, and David. The two books

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of Kings give the history of the following period
until the Babylonian captivity. The two books of
Chronicles contain first many genealogies, and then
the history of Israel and Judah from the time of
David to the Babylonian captivity.
The books of Ezra and Nehemiah relate the
return of the Jews from Babylon, and' the re-
building of the temple.
The book of Esther gives the history of Esther,
the Jewess, whom Ahasuerus, king of Persia, made
his queen.
I Next comes the book of Job, which relates the
history of his trials and his patience, and teaches
us that we should submit to God's will, whether
He sends us sorrow or happiness.

The history of Job.
Job was a man who feared God. He was very
rich, and had seven sons and three daughters, but
God allowed many misfortunes to come upon him.
Robbers came and carried off his oxen and camels,
and slew his people. Fire came down from heaven
and destroyed his flocks and herds. A storm threw
down the house where his children were assem-
bled, and they were all killed. Job bore all these
calamities with patience, and said: "Naked came I
into the world, naked shall I leave it. The Lord
gave, and the Lord hath taken away: blessed be the
name of the Lord." But the Lord tried Job still
more: he was afflicted: with boils, over his: whole
body. Then his wife said to him : ." Doth thou


still retain thine integrity; curse God and die.'
But Job answered: "Thou speakest as one of the
foolish women speaketh. What! shall we receive
good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive
evil ?" Then three of Job's friends came to comfort
him, but they spoke unkindly to him, and told him
that his sufferings were a just punishment for. sins
that he had committed. Then Job began to boast
of the good that he had done, and to murmur
against God. Then God spoke to him and rebuked
him, and Job acknowledged his fault. And God
blessed Job, and he became so prosperous that he
was twice as rich as he had been before, and he
again had seven sons and three daughters, and lived
in happiness for a great many years.

After the book of Job come the Psalms, many
of which were written by David. Then follow the
Proverbs of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of
Next in order are the writings of the prophets,
which, besides prophecies, contain many precepts and
warnings. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel
are called the four greater prophets, and the other
twelve are called the minor prophets, because their
books are shorter.
The names of the minor prophets are--Hosea, Joel,
Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk,
Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.
Malachi, the last of the prophets, lived soon
after the Babylonian captivity. The books that
were written after this time by the Jews do not


belong to the sacred writings, and are called apo-
cryphal books. The most important of them are-
The book of Tobias, the book of Wisdom, Sirach, and
the two books of the Maccabees.

The Scribes, Pharisees, and Sadducees.
The Holy Scriptures were read and explained to
the Jews in their synagogues, or places of worship,
which they built all over the country after their
return from Babylon, and those persons who studied
the Scriptures and explained them were called
Scribes. Most of the Scribes belonged to a sect or
party called Pharisees, but some of them belonged
to the sect of the Sadducees.
The Pharisees had the reputation of being very
exact in keeping the ceremonial ordinances of the
law of Moses, and the people thought them very
holy; but they cared more for being considered
holy than for ruling their conduct by the laws of
God, and their supposed holiness was often only
hypocrisy or deception.
The Sadducees did not believe in angels or in
the resurrection, or in heaven or hell.




AT the time when king Herod reigned over Judea,
there lived a priest named Zacharias, and his wife's
name was Elizabeth. They were both "righteous
before God, walking in all the commandments of
the Lord," but they were old and had no children.
It happened one day while Zacharias was burning
incense in the temple that the angel of the Lord
appeared to him. Zacharias was frightened, but
the angel said to him: "Fear not, Zacharias: for
thy prayer is heard; thy wife Elizabeth shall bear
thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
And thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many
shall rejoice at his birth. And he shall go before
him in the spirit and power of Elias, to make ready
a people prepared for the Lord." And it happened
according to the words of the angel: Elizabeth had
a son, and called his name John.


SIx months after the angel had appeared to
Zacharias, he was sent by God to the city of
Nazareth, to a maiden of the race of David, called
Mary, who was betrothed to a carpenter named
Joseph. When the angel came to her, he said:
"Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is
with thee: blessed art thou among women." Mary
was greatly troubled, and could not understand
what this salutation could mean. But the angel
said to her : "Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found
favour with God; and thou shalt bear a son, and
thou shalt call His name Jesus. He shall be great,
and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the
Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of His
father David; and of His kingdom there shall be
no end." And when Mary asked how this could
come to pass, the angel answered : "The Holy Ghost
shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest
shall overshadow thee: therefore that holy thing
which shall be born of thee shall be called the
Son of God." Then Mary said : Behold the hand-
maid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy



AT this time the Roman emperor Augustus wished
to number the people, and he sent an order that
throughout the whole of Judea every person should
be enrolled in the town to which his family be-
longed. Joseph and Mary, who were both of the
family of David, went from Nazareth to Bethlehem,
which was David's birth-place. And whilst they
were there, the Saviour of the world, Jesus Christ,
was born at night, and Mary His mother wrapped
Him in swaddling clothes and laid Him in a
manger, because there was no room for them in
the inn.
That same night there were some shepherds in
the fields near Bethlehem keeping watch over their
flocks. Suddenly an angel of the Lord stood by
them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them,
and they were sore afraid. But the angel said to
them: "Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good
tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.
For there is born to you this day in the city of
David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And
this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the
babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a
manger." And suddenly there was with the angel
a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and
saying : "Glory to God in the highest, and in earth
peace, good will toward men." And the angels
went away again into heaven, and the shepherds


went to Bethlehem, where they found the child
lying in a manger, and Mary and Joseph with Him.
They made known there the saying which was
spoken to them concerning the child, and all
wondered at the things which were told them.
And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising
God for all the things which they had heard and

I. Simeon and Anna.
FORTY days after the birth of Jesus, Mary and
Joseph went up to the temple in Jerusalem, and
they had the child with them. There they met a
just and devout man whose name was Simeon.
He had been waiting for the consolation of Israel;
and God had revealed to him that he should not
see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ.
And when he saw the child, he took him in his
arms, and blessed God, and said : Lord, now lettest
Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy
word: for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which
Thou hast prepared before the face of all people."
There came to them also an aged widow called
Anna, who rejoiced greatly that the Saviour was
born, and she spoke of Him to all them that looked
for redemption in Jerusalem.



2. The wise men from the East.
Not long after the birth of Jesus some wise men
came from the East to Jerusalem, and asked: "Where
is He that is born king of the Jews ? For we have
seen His star in the East, and are come to worship
Him." When Herod heard that a king was born,
he was troubled, and he gathered together all the
chief priests and scribes, and inquired of them
where the Christ should be born. And they told
him that according to the prophecy He should be
born in Bethlehem of Judea. Herod sent the wise
men to Bethlehem, and told them to bring him word
when they had found the child, that he also might
go and worship Him. And they, having heard the
king's words, went to Bethlehem, and found the
child with Mary His mother, and they fell down
before Him and worshipped Him, and offered Him
gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh. And being
warned of God in a dream that they should not
return to Herod, they departed to their own country
another way.
When Herod saw that the wise men did not
return to him, he was very angry, because he
expected to hear from them where the child was,
that he might put Him to death. Then he sent
and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem,
and in all the borders thereof, from two years old
and under. But Jesus was no longer in Bethlehem,
for God had. sent His angel to say to Joseph in
a dream: "Arise, and take the young child and
His mother, and flee into Egypt, for Herod will


seek the young child to destroy Him." And Joseph
rose up quickly, and did what the Lord commanded
him. And they went to Egypt, and remained there
until Herod was dead, when they went back and
dwelt in Nazareth.

3. Jesus in the Temple.
Every year Joseph and Mary went up to Jeru-
salem, to keep the feast of the Passover there
according to the law of the Lord; and when Jesus
was twelve years old, they took Him with them.
When the feast was over, and they were going
home, Jesus remained behind in Jerusalem. Joseph
and his mother did not know this, but supposing
Him to be in the company they went a day's journey,
and they sought Him among their kinsfolk and
acquaintance. When they could not find Him, they
returned to Jerusalem seeking Him. And after
three days they found Him in the temple, sitting
in the midst of the teachers, both hearing them
and asking them questions, and all that heard
were astonished at His understanding and answers.
Then Mary said to Him: "Son, why hast Thou
thus dealt with us? Behold, Thy father and I
have sought Thee sorrowing." But Jesus said:
"How is it that ye sought Me ? wist ye not that
I must be about My Father's business?" And
Jesus went with them to Nazareth, and was subject
unto them, and He increased in wisdom and stature,
and in favour with God and man.


WHEN John the son of Zacharias was grown
up, he went out into the wilderness towards the
river Jordan, and when he was thirty years old
he came forth and preached to the people, who
flocked into the wilderness to hear him. And
he warned them, saying: "Repent ye, for the
kingdom of heaven is at hand. And now also
the axe is laid to the root of the tree: every tree
therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn
down, and cast into the fire." Those who repented
of their sins he baptized in the river Jordan.
Many of the people thought that John was the
Christ, and the Scribes and Pharisees came to him
from Jerusalem asking if he were the Christ or
not. But he answered: "I am not the Christ,
but the voice of one crying in the wilderness,
Make ye straight the way of the Lord, as said
the prophet Esaias. I indeed baptize with water:
but there cometh one after me that is mightier
than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear.
He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and
with fire." And afterwards when John saw Jesus
coming to him, he said: Behold the Lamb of God,
that taketh away the sins of the world."
John continued preaching and baptizing for about
six months, then he was cast into prison by Herod
Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee, whom he had re-
buked for marrying his brother's wife, and after


keeping him some time in prison Herod had him

WHEN Jesus was thirty years old, He came to the
river Jordan, where John was then preaching and
baptizing, and desired that John should baptize
Him. John refused at first, saying: "I have need
to be baptized of Thee, and comest Thou to me ?"
Jesus answered: "Suffer it to be so now, for thus
it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness." So John
baptized Him. And Jesus when He was baptized
went up out of the water, and the heavens were
opened, and He saw the Spirit of God descending
like a dove, and lighting upon Him, and lo, a voice
from heaven, saying: "This is My beloved Son, in
whom I am well pleased."

AFTER His baptism, Jesus was led up of the Spirit
into the wilderness, to be tempted of the devil.
And when He had fasted forty days and was
hungry, the tempter came to Him, and said: "If
Thou be the Son of God, command that these
stones be made bread." But Jesus answered: "It
is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but
by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth


of God." Then the devil taketh Him into the
Holy City, and he set Him on a pinnacle of the
temple, and said to Him: "If Thou be the Son of
God, cast Thyself down, for it is written, He shall
give His angels charge over thee, and in their
hands shall they bear thee up, lest at any time
thou dash thy foot against a stone." But Jesus
answered: "It is written again, Thou shalt not
tempt the Lord thy God." Again the devil taketh
Him up into a very high mountain, and showeth
Him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory
of them, and he said unto Him: "All these things
will I give Thee, if Thou wilt fall down and worship
me." Then said Jesus to him: Get thee hence,
Satan, for it is written, Thou shalt worship the
Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve."
Then the devil left Him, and angels came and
ministered unto Him.

AFTER His baptism and temptation Jesus began to
preach among the people as a prophet or teacher
sent from God. He went about from one place to
another in Judea, and wherever He went the people
flocked to hear Him, for they marvelled at His
wisdom, for He taught them as one with authority,
and not as the Scribes.
And now Jesus began to proclaim the joyful
tidings that He was the promised Saviour, and


the Son of God, and that those who believed in
Him should not be lost, but have everlasting life.
And He called sinners and sufferers most lovingly to
Him, and said: Come unto Me, all ye that labour
and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest."
Besides these glad tidings, Jesus taught people
that they must lead a holy life, and that the whole
summing up of God's law is to love the Lord our
God with all our hearts, and our neighbour as our-
selves, and that His followers should be known
by their loving one another. His own life was a
pattern of holiness, for He committed no sin, and
no guile was found in His mouth.

SooN after Jesus had entered upon His office of
teacher, He chose from amongst His disciples twelve
who were called apostles or messengers, because they
were to be sent out into the world to preach the
gospel. These twelve apostles followed Jesus about
wherever He went. We know most about the
apostles Peter and John. At first Peter was called
Simon, but Jesus gave him the name of Peter; which
means a rock, and said: "Thou art Peter, and upon
this rock will I build My Church." John was much
beloved by Jesus, therefore he is often called "the
disciple whom Jesus loved." John's brother James,
and Peter's brother Andrew, were also among the
twelve. These four were fishermen when Jesus


called them to be His disciples. There was another
named Matthew, who was a tax-gatherer. The rest
were Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, James the son
of Alpheus, Simon Zelotis, Judas Thaddeus, and
Judas Iscariot. After Jesus had chosen His twelve
apostles, He sent them out two and two together
to travel throughout Judea, and commanded them
to proclaim wherever they went that the kingdom
of heaven was at hand. And when they returned,
He sent out seventy other disciples in like manner.

WHEN Jesus taught His disciples and the people,
He often spoke to them in parables or stories in
which He made use of common incidents and daily
events as images or pictures of things relating to
the kingdom of God.

I. The parable of the sower.
Once, when a number of people had come to
Jesus near the lake of Gennesaret, He went into
a boat that lay there, and spoke the following
parable to the people who stood on the shore.
A sower went forth to sow; and when he sowed,
some of the seed fell by the wayside and was
trodden down, and the birds came and devoured
them up. Some fell on stony places where they
had not much earth, and forthwith they sprang


up, because there was no deepness of earth. And
when the sun was up, they were scorched; and
because they had no root, they withered away.
And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung
up, and choked them: but other fell into good
ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundred-
fold, some sixtyfold, and some thirtyfold.
Jesus explained this parable to His disciples thus:
The seed is the word of God; those by the way-
side are they that hear the word without doing
it; then comes the evil one, and catcheth away
that which was sown in their hearts. Those that
receive the seed into stony places are they that
hear the word of God at first with joy, but have
no root in them; which for a while believe, and
in time of temptation fall away. The seed which
fell among thorns are they that have heard the
word, but are choked by the cares of the world
and the deceitfulness of riches, and bring no fruit
to perfection. But the seed which fell on good
ground are they who in an honest and true heart
heard the word, and bring forth fruit with patience.

2. The tares and the wheat.
When Jesus was teaching the people from the
ship, He told them this parable also. There was
a man who sowed good seed in his field. But
while men slept, his enemy came and sowed
tares among the wheat, and went away. When
the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit,
then appeared the tares also. So the servants of


the householder came and said to him: "Sir, didst
thou not sow good seed in thy field ? From whence
then hath it tares?" He said to them: "An
enemy hath done this." The servants said to him:
" Wilt thou that we go and gather them up?"
But he said: "Nay; lest while ye gather up the
tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let
both grow together till the harvest: then will I
say to the reapers, Gather together first the tares,
and bind them in bundles to burn them; but
gather the wheat into my barn."
Jesus thus explained the parable to His disciples.
He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man;
the field is the world; the good seed are the sons
of the kingdom; but the tares are the children
of the wicked one; and the enemy that sowed
them is the devil. The harvest is the end of
the world; and the reapers are the angels. As
the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so
shall it be in the end of the world. The Son of
man shall send forth His angels, and they shall
gather out of His kingdom all things that offend,
and them which do iniquity; and shall cast them
into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and
gnashing of teeth. But the righteous shall shine
forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father.

3. The servant who was in debt.
On one occasion Peter asked Jesus: "How oft
shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive
him ? Till seven times ?" Jesus said unto him:


"I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but,
until seventy times seven." Then Jesus told His
disciples this parable: A certain king wished to
take account of his servants, and one was brought
unto him who owed him ten thousand talents.
But as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him
to be sold, and his wife, and his children, and all
that he had, and payment to be made. The servant
fell down and besought him, saying: "Lord, have
patience with me, and I will pay thee all." Then
the lord of that servant was moved with compassion,
and loosed him, and forgave him the debt. But
the servant went out and found one of his fellow-
servants who owed him a hundred pence: and he
laid hands on him, and took him by the throat,
saying: "Pay me that thou owest." And his
fellow-servant fell down at his feet and besought
him, saying: "Have patience with me, and I will
pay thee all." And he would not: but cast him
into prison, till he should pay the debt. So when
his fellow-servants saw what was done, they were
very sorry, and came and told their lord all that
was done. Then his lord called him to him and
said: "0 thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all
that debt, because thou desiredst me: shouldest not
thou also have had compassion on thy fellow-servant,
even as I had pity on thee." And his lord cast
him into prison till he should pay all that was due
unto him. And Jesus said: So shall likewise My
Heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your
hearts forgive not every one his brother their


4. The good Samaritan.
A certain lawyer once asked Jesus what he
should do to inherit eternal life, and Jesus answer-
ing said: "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God
with all thy heart, and thy neighbour as thyself."
The lawyer then asked: "Who is my neigh-
bour ?" Jesus answered by this parable: A cer-
tain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho,
and fell among robbers, who stripped him, and
wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.
And by chance there came down a certain priest
that way: and when he saw him, he passed by on
the other side. And likewise a Levite, when he
was at the place, came and looked on him, and
passed by on the other side. But a certain Sama-
ritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and
when he saw him, he was moved with compassion,
and went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring
in oil and wine; and he set him on his own beast,
and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.
And on the morrow when he departed, he took out
two pence and gave them to the host, and said:
"Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest
more, when I come again, I will repay thee." Then
said Jesus: "Which of these three, thinkest thou,
was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves ?"
And the lawyer said: "He that showed mercy on
him." And Jesus said unto him: "Go and do
thou likewise."


5. The rich man.
Jesus said to the people: Take heed and beware
of covetousness, for a man's life consisteth not in
the abundance of the things which he possesseth."
Then He spake this parable: The ground of a
certain rich man brought forth plentifully: and he
thought within himself, saying: "What shall I do,
because I have no room where to bestow my fruits ?"
And he said: "This will I do: I will pull down my
barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all
my fruits and my goods. And I will say to my
soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many
years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry." But
God said to him: "Thou fool, this night thy soul
shall be required of thee: then whose shall those
things be which thou hast provided ?" So is he,"
said "Jesus, "that layeth up treasure for himself,
and is not rich towards God."

6. The barren fig-tree.
Jesus spoke the following parable on the subject
of God's patience with sinners. A certain man had
a fig-tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and
sought fruit thereon, and found none. And he said
to the dresser of the vineyard : Behold, these three
years I come seeking fruit on this fig-tree, and find
none: cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground? "
And he answering said unto him: "Lord, let it
alone this year also, till I shall dig about it and


dung it : if it bear fruit, well; but if not, then after
that thou shalt cut it down."

7. The prodigal son.
The Pharisees, who thoughtthemselves righteous,
were angry that Jesus showed love for men whom,
they despised and called sinners. Jesus said to.
them : "I say unto you, that there shall be joy in
heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over
ninety and nine just persons who need no repent-
ance." And then He spoke the following parable.
A certain man had two sons; and the younger of
them said to his father: "Give me the portion of
goods that falleth to me." And he divided unto
them his living. And not many days afterwards
the younger son gathered his goods together, and
took his journey into a far country, and there wasted
his substance in riotous living. And when' he
had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that
land; and he began to be in want. And he went
and joined himself to a citizen of that country,
and he sent him into the fields to feed swine.
And he would fain have eaten the husks that the
swine did eat: and no man gave unto him. And
when he came to himself, he said: "How many
hired servants of my father have bread enough and
to spare, and I perish with hunger.- I will arise
and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father,
I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and
am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me
as one of thy hired servants." And he arose and
came to his father. But when he was yet a great


way off, his father saw him, and had compassion,
and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. And
the son said unto him: "Father, I have sinned
against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more
worthy to be called thy son." But the father said
to his servants : "Bring forth the best robe, and put it
on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on
his feet: and bring hither the fatted calf, and kitl
it; and let us eat, and be merry : for this my son
was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is
found." Now his elder son was in the field: and
as he drew nigh to the house, he heard music and
dancing, and asked what these things meant. And
when he was told that his brother had come home,
and that his father had made a feast for him, he
was angry, and would not go in. And his father
came out and entreated him; but he said: "Lo,
these many years do I serve thee, and I never trans-
gressed at any time thy commandment: and yet
thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make
merry with my friends: but when this thy son
came, who hath wasted thy living, thou hast killed
for him the fatted calf." But the father said to
him: Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I
have is thine; but it was meet that we should
make merry and be glad, for this thy brother was
dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found."

8. Lazarus and the rich man.
Jesus spoke the following parable as a warning
to the rich and an encouragement to the righteous
poor. There was a certain rich man, which was

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P. 83 .


clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sump-
tuously every day : and there was a certain beggar
named Lazarus, who was laid at his gate, full of sores,
and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell
from the rich man's table : moreover the dogs came
and licked his sores. And it came to pass, that
the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into
Abraham's bosom. And the rich man died also,
and was buried. And in hell he lifted up his eyes,
being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and
Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said:
" Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send
Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in
water and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in
this flame." But Abraham said: Son, remember
that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things,
and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is
comforted, and thou art tormented. And beside
all this, between us and you there is a great gulf
fixed: so that they which would pass from hence
to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that
would come from thence." Then he said to Abraham:
"I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send
him to my father's house: for I have five brethren;
that he may testify unto them, lest they also come
unto this place of torment." But Abraham answered:
" They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear
them." And he said: "Nay, father Abraham: but
if one go to them from the dead, they will repent."
But Abraham answered: "If they hear not Moses
and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded,
though one rise from the dead."


9. The Pharisee and the publican.
This parable was spoken by Jesus to some who
trusted in their own righteousness, and despised
others. Two men went up into the temple to pray;
the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The
Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself: "God,
I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extor-
tioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican.
I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that
I possess." And the publican, standing afar off,
would not so much as lift up his eyes unto heaven,
but smote upon his breast, saying: "God be merci-
ful unto me a sinner." I tell you," said Jesus,
" this man went down to his house justified rather
than the other: for every one that exalteth himself
shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself
shall be exalted."

I The great supper.
A certain man made a great supper, and bade
many. And he sent his servants at supper time
.to say to them that were bidden: "Come; for all
things are now ready." And they all with one
consent began to make excuse. The first said: "I
have bought a piece of ground, and must needs go
and see it: I pray thee have me excused." And
another said: "I have bought five yoke of oxen,
and I go to prove them: I pray thee have me
excused." And another said: "I have married a
wife, and therefore I cannot come." And the

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