Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 The cause of the war
 The "Maine"
 The blockade
 The battle of Manila Bay
 The Merrimac
 More work done by the Navy
 Our army goes to Cuba
 The battle of Las Guasimas
 El Caney and San Juan
 The Spanish fleet leaves the...
 Closing events
 The Phillipine Islands
 Back Cover

Group Title: Altemus' young people's library
Title: Young peoples' history of the war with Spain
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086560/00001
 Material Information
Title: Young peoples' history of the war with Spain
Series Title: Altemus' young people's library
Physical Description: 184 p. incl. front., illus. (incl. ports.) : ; 17 x 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Holmes, Prescott
Henry Altemus Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: H. Altemus Company
Place of Publication: Philadelphia
Publication Date: c1900
Subject: Spanish-American War, 1898 -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1900   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1900
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Statement of Responsibility: by Prescott Holmes; with eighty-six illustrations ...
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086560
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001613931
oclc - 06191063
notis - AHN8349
lccn - 29012036

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 1a
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The cause of the war
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    The "Maine"
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    The blockade
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    The battle of Manila Bay
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    The Merrimac
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    More work done by the Navy
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Our army goes to Cuba
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    The battle of Las Guasimas
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    El Caney and San Juan
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    The Spanish fleet leaves the harbor
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Closing events
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    The Phillipine Islands
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
    Back Cover
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
Full Text



... ......

At p

Ev' 7 1-1,




The Baldwin Library
---- --- -- -^







-MAj -f



C- "







Copyright 900o by Henry Altemus Company



THE brief war between the United States and Spain
was the outgrowth of the humanity of the Ameri-
can people and their love of fair play. They did
not stand idly by when Spain was literally starving the
people of Cuba into subjection to her will, but freely and
generously sent food, medicine and clothing to the suf-
When Spain's cruelty to the Cubans became intoler-
able to the civilized world, the United States intervened
in the name of humanity and right, and demanded that
the oppression should cease. Spain resented this, and the
war followed.
Much has been said and written regarding our con-
duct of the war, and the grave scandals that arose from
it; but it is not the purpose of this volume to discuss these
other than to say that, the work of the navy was clean
and beyond question, while it is clear to every one that
there was gross mismanagement on the part of army

6 Atroduction.

The army performed as splendid achievements as the
navy, but did it under much greater difficulties. Regu-
lars and volunteers fought side by side, and equally de-
serve our praise; but they were corralled in filthy camps,
stowed between the dirty decks of crowded transports,
and despatched to Cuba in a manner of which a cattle
shipper would be ashamed. They were flung against the
ingenious defences- of the Spaniards, cold, wet and hun-
gry, and to their indomitable spirit alone we owe the
victories in Cuba.
The boys and girls of America cannot fail to be deeply
interested in the story of the splendid deeds of our army
and navy in the year of our Lord 1898, and it is for them
that this history has been prepared.


ON April 21st, 1898, a war began between the
United States and Spain. All the other coun-
tries of the world felt an interest in it, but did not
take any part in it. They were what we call neutral "
--that is, they did not help either side.
As soon as the war was proclaimed a great wave of
excitement swept through the United States, from shore
to shore. Flags were hung out in every city and town;
thousands of men offered to serve in the army-volun-
teers they were called; and many persons offered to help
in other ways. The people were not glad that war had
begun, but they felt that their country was doing right,
and that they ought to support her efforts.

Young People's History

And what was the cause of the war? Spain, a large
country across the Atlantic Ocean, in the southwestern
part of Europe, owned some of the islands, called West
Indies," near the United States. Spain had been unjust
and cruel to the people living in one of these islands,
for many years. Several times
the unhappy islanders tried to
drive the Spanish from the
island, and set up a government
of their own, but Spain sent so
many soldiers there that they
could not get their freedom.
They fought bravely, however,
but matters kept getting worse
Cuban Flag. and worse, and at last Spain sent
a very cruel general to take
charge of affairs in the island. His name was
Weyler, and he determined to conquer the islanders.
After a while he found he could not do it by fight-
ing them, so he sent his soldiers to drive those who
were not fighting away from their homes and farms
and make them live in or near the large cities. When
he had done this, the people had no way to earn money
to buy food for themselves and their families, and soon
they began to get sick and to die of starvation. The
cruel Weyler would not give them anything to eat, and
so they died by thousands.
When this dreadful state of affairs became known

of the War with Spain.

in the United States, kind people sent several ship-loads
of food and medicines and clothing to the sufferers.
This did a great deal of good, but all the poor people
could not be reached and they continued to die. Finally,
the United States told Spain that she ought not to have
such a cruel man at the head of affairs, and after a while
Spain sent another general to take his place. This new
governor's name was Blanco, and he really tried to help
the poor people, but Spain had very little money to send
him to buy food for them, and so they went on dying.
The soldiers, too, were in a very bad condition; they
had not been paid for a great many months; they did
not have enough to eat, and so they too sickened and
died by thousands. You can see that unless something
was done to help the poor people, they would all die
and their beautiful island would become a wilderness.
Besides being very proud, Spain was very poor. She
had spent millions of dollars trying to conquer the
islanders, and had no money to buy food for the sufferers
that she had driven from their homes and huddled like
cattle in yards and gloomy inclosures. So she asked
the United States to help feed them, and the Red Cross
Society, of which I will tell you later, sent hundreds of
ions of food, medicines and clothing to them. These
supplies were distributed by competent persons, and the
relief was very great, but very soon some of the Span-
iards began to say that the United States had no busi-
ness to interfere in the affairs of the island, and to stir

Young People's History

up the people. The feeling became so strong that our
representative, Consul-General Lee, notified the author-
ities in the United States that, the lives and property of
American citizens living in the island were not safe.
It was for this reason that the battleship Maine was sent
to Havana, the chief
city of the island. I
will tell you about this
ship later.
Well, in spite of all
that the United States
Shad done to help Spain,
matters grew worse,
S and finally the United
( States was obliged to
tell Spain that, unless
she took her soldiers
away from the island
and let the people gov-
President McKinley. ern themselves, she
would help them to be-
come a free and independent nation. When Spain re-
ceived this message, she regarded it as a declaration of
war, and both sides prepared for the conflict.
But before telling you about the war, shall I tell you
something about the island and the group to which it
The island is called Cuba. It belongs to a large





L L -




Map of the West Indies.


SA .


\ Ci2


Young People's History

group of.islands known as the West Indies; a changed
form of the old name, West Indias, given by Christopher
Columbus, who thought that by sailing westward he had
reached islands off the shore of India. If you look
on a map of the Western Hemisphere, you will find the
West Indies between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic
Most of these islands are high and rocky, seeming like
a chain of mountains in the ocean, with their tops above
the waves. They are in the tropical regions, and the
climate is very hot in the lowlands and on the coasts,
but is delightful in the high parts all the year round.
There are only two seasons-wet and dry. The rainy
season begins in the spring or early summer, and lasts
about six months.
What grows in these islands? Delicious fruits: man-
goes, oranges, cocoanuts, limes, pineapples, and bananas;
many other valuable crops: coffee, tobacco, maize, rice,
sugar-cane, and cotton; immense forests of mahogany and
other valuable trees. This beautiful vegetation makes
these lands fair to look upon. Then, too, there are many
birds with gorgeous plumage. The islands have gold,
silver, copper, and iron mines; there are quarries of mar-
ble; and some kinds of precious stones are' found.
But this region is not a paradise. Snakes and other
horrid things crawl among the beautiful trees and foliage,
and poisonous insects swarm in every place. Earthquake
shocks are often felt, and fearful hurricanes sweep over
the islands nearly every year, doing much damage.

of the War with Spain.

A gentle race of Indians dwelt in these islands at the
time of their discovery, but the Spanish settlers treated
the natives so cruelly that after a few years they had
ceased to exist. Many of the Indians were sent to
Spain and other countries and sold as slaves; the
rest were made to work in the mines, and as the In-
dians had never been
used to such work,
they died from the
hard labor. In later
times some of the
islands were bought
from Spain, others
were captured, others \
were gained by treaty, "s ,
by the nations to whom ,
they now belong.
At the beginning of
the war between the
United States and
Spain, in 1898, Cuba,
as I have already said, King AXfonso.
belonged to Spain.
Spain owned another large island, Puerto Rico, which we
call Porto Rico, a name meaning rich port." But I need
not say anything more about Porto Rico at present.
Cuba is the largest and most valuable of the West
India Islands. It was discovered by Columbus about

14 Young People's History

two weeks after his first landing at San Salvador. Ac-
cording to his custom, he gave it a Spanish name, but
somehow the old name clung to it, and to-day the whole
world knows the island by its native Indian name, Cuba.
On account of its position, it is often called the "Key to
the Gulf of Mexico;" and Havana, the capital, has a key
upon its coat of arms. Cuba looks very small upon our
maps, yet it contains nearly as much land as the State of
Perhaps I should
tell you just here that
Spain is a kingdom.
Its ruler, King Al-
fonso XII., died in
1885. His widow,
Queen Christina, has
S ruled since then, but
her son will be crowned
king as soon as he is
/ old enough. The
"little king," as he is
often called,was twelve
t of S years old when this
Queen egent of Spain. war began. Queen
Christina is a good and
noble woman, and it is -not her fault that the people in
distant islands have been badly treated.

of the War with Spain.'


B EFORE the United States joined in the war,
the Cubans had succeeded in driving the
Spaniards out of many places in the east-
ern part of the island, but could not get posses-
sion of the western part and the chief harbors. We
have seen that the war between the United States and
Spain began in April, 1898. But, two months before
that time something happened in the harbor of Havana,
the capital of Cuba, which caused terrible excitement in
our country. You must understand that many persons
belonging to the United States have business in Cuba,
own property there, and even live there. Though these
Americans did not take part with the Cubans against
Spain, yet it seemed sometimes as if they were in' danger
on account of the disturbance in the island. So our
country decided to send one of our battle-ships-a man-
of-war-to stay awhile in the chief harbor of Cuba, so
that the Americans might feel safer by having such a
ship to help them if they should need help, as I have told
you. Spain made no objections to this plan, and said
she would send a ship in return to visit New York.
The ship chosen from our navy was the Maine, com-

Young People's History

manded by Captain Sigsbee. On January 25th, early
in the morning of a bright warm day, the Maine, with all
her colors flying, and with all her men dressed in their
best clothes, drew near the harbor of Havana. A Span-
ish pilot went out to meet her, took her carefully through
the narrow entrance to the fine harbor, and anchored

U. S. Battlesip "Maine.'
her near some other ships. Though the entrance is nar-
row, yet the harbor itself is large enough to accommodate
a thousand ships. The entrance is guarded by several
fortresses, one of which, called "Morro Castle," is nearly
three hundred years old. It stands on a high point of
land, and for this reason is called "Morro," a name that
means in Spanish, headland, or promontory.

of the War with Spain. '7

No doubt the place seemed very attractive to the men
on board the Maine that bright sunny morning. The
new part of Havana is pretty, the old part is quaint and
interesting. There are a number of famous build-

Morro Castle, Havana.
ings, one of which is the Cathedral, where the remains
of Columbus were treasured at that time, but they have
since been removed to Spain. All the buildings are low,
for low buildings are the fashion in countries that are

Young People's History

subject to earthquakes; they are built of stone, and gen-
erally adorned with bright colors. There are wide ave-
nues, and large parks and gardens.
If you should visit Havana, you would see many cur-
ious sights. All the houses, hotels and stores have iron-
barred windows, which gives one the impression that the
inmates are confined there. Many houses have large
gates which open into beautiful gardens and court yards.
Some of the streets have very funny names, such as
"Ladies' Delight," and "Fat Stick," when the Spanish
names are translated into our language; and they have
bright-colored awnings stretched across, from side to side.
The fish market is one of the most noted buildings in
the city. It has one long marble table running the en-
tire length of the building, which has one end open to
the harbor. Poultry and fruits are brought to the doors
of the houses in baskets which are carried on donkeys
or the little horses of the country. Often you can see
what looks like a large bunch of grass, slowly moving
over the pavements, but as it gets nearer you will see
the head of a donkey sticking out of one side, while
his tail alone is visible on the other side. This is the
way that food for horses and mules is brought into the
city; no hay is used, only green feed. fTe milkman
does not call at the house, as with us, but instead drives
his cow up to the door and supplies you direct from
her with as much milk as you wish to buy. Charcoal is
almost the only fuel used in cooking, and the ranges look

Columbus Chapel, Havana.

20 Young People's History

like benches placed against the walls with holes in the
tops of them. But we must return to the battleship
There was no special work for the Maine to do; she was
simply to stay in the harbor till further orders. The
Spanish officers called on Captain Sigsbee, and he re-
turned their visits, according to the rules that naval offi-
cers of all countries are bound to observe. Yet it was
easy for the men of the Maine to see that they were not
welcome guests. The Maine had twenty-six officers, and
a crew of three hundred and twenty-eight men. With
her guns, ammunition, and other valuable stores, she was
worth $5,000,000. She had been three years in service,
having left the Brooklyn navy-yard in November, 1895.
The evening of February 15th, 1898, was dark and sul-
try. At eight o'clock Captain Sigsbee received the re-
ports from the different officers of the ship that every
thing was secure for the night. At ten minutes after
nine the bugler sounded taps," the signal for "turning
in," and soon the ship was quiet. At forty minutes after
nine a sharp explosion was heard, then a loud, long, roar-
ing sound, mingled with the noise of falling timbers;
the electric lights went out, the ship was lifted up, and
then she began to sink. The Captain and some of the
other officers groped their way to the deck, hardly know-
ing what had happened. They could do nothing; the
ship was sinking fast, and was on fire in several places.
The force of the explosion was so great that it threw

of the War with Spain. 21

Captain Sigsbee out of his cabin, where he sat writing a
letter, and against William Anthony, a marine who was
on duty as a sentry. As coolly as though nothing had
happened, Anthony saluted the Captain and then said:
"Sir, I have the
honor to inform you
that the ship has been
blown up and is sink-
Small boats came
out from the other
ships, and rescued
many men from the
Maine. The Spaniards
helped the sufferers in
every possible way,
taking them to the hos-
pitals in Havana,where
they received the best
care that the hospitals Captain Charles i Sigsbee.
care that the hospitals
could give.
In that awful destruction of the Maine, two officers
and two hundred and fifty-four of the crew were lost.
Several of those who were rescued, died afterward.
The next day divers went down into the water to see
what they could find in the wreck, and nineteen dead
bodies were brought up. The Spanish officers of Hav-
ana asked Captain Sigsbee to permit the city to give the
men a public funeral; and a plot of ground in Col6n

Young People's History

Cemetery, outside the city, was given to the United
States free of expense forever. The day of the funeral
all the flags were put at half mast," as a sign of mourn-
ing, and the stores were closed. Crowds of people joined
the long funeral procession.
In the latter part of the year 1899, however, the Maine
dead were brought from Havana by the battleship Texas,
then commanded by Captain Sigsbee, formerly of the
Maine. They were laid away in Arlington Cemetery,
near Washington, on December 28th, with simple re-
ligious services and the honors of war, in the presence of
the President of the United States and his Cabinet, offi-
cers of the army and navy, and many other spectators.
Besides Captain Sigsbee and Father Chidwick, who
was chaplain of the Maine at the time she was blown up,
three others who lived through that awful night were
present. They were Lieutenant Commander Wain-
wright, who was the executive officer of the Maine and
who afterwards sank the Furor and Pluton at Santiago;
Lieutenant F. C. Bowers, formerly assistant engineer of
the Maine; and Jeremiah Shea, a fireman of the Maine,
who was blown out of the stoke-hole of the ship through
the wreckage.
After three volleys had been fired over the dead, and
the bugles had rung out the soldiers' and sailors' last
good night, Captain Sigsbee introduced Shea to President
McKinley. Being asked for an explanation of his es-
cape, he responded, as he had done to Father Chidwick

Wreck of the "Maine."

Young People's History

when he visited him in the hospital in Havana, where he
lay covered with wounds and bruises, and with nearly
every bone in his body broken:
"I don't know how I got through. I was blown out.
I guess I must have been an armor-piercing hr..je,'Ile"
The work of \avi:lg the guns and other -aluaLble
thil' on the Maine was carried on for some time.
AlL.-..u, other T lahi: that the divers recovered was a
splendid silver service that had been presented to the
ship by the state of Maine. The keys to the jmaazini'a
were f.:uind in their proper lu1:-- in the r.qptalun' cabin,
and his :...n d id papr'i- were also recovered. FLi.J-,
it was ::u11-i that the hull of the great ship could -not be
ra.*-,1.. and in April the United States thL.-. that had been
kept dri:bg above the wreck since the nKLj of the fatal
explosion, was hauled down and the ship i r-:.i] de-
lared out of commission.
Of course, -ur.- awful li-. -' caused deep -~oriw in
the United M:ii.,-. There was great excitement also, for
many persons li. i:l- that some of the Spaniards had
wreeked the Maine on The.r..---..-. The harbor was fll of
mines "* or immense iron -],& I Silled with t-ri' that will
.1.... All countries at war protect -iLjir harbors in
this way.
P tr-:n..I.,T L.--Kidt.-- appointed men to examine the
wreck an d ind out aU lld-- ,,-..i,... i..,.1u the explosion.
TL--, ":m ..I~ that the 'l.p, was des-troyed Iy a "mine,
but eould not prore that tmhe Spaniads had purpisely
caused the "mine to rxp.*1]s-.

C~rqUlltl C:.,urt-1' s paltme, nhn am

26 Young People's History

So there will always be a mystery connected with the
horrible destruction of the Maine.
On April 10th, Consul-General Lee and such Amer-
icans as wished to do so, left Havana and returned to the
United States. From that time on, it seemed to the peo-
ple of the United States that war with Spain was inevit-
able, and preparations for it were carried on rapidly.
On April 19th-which, by the way, was the anniversary
of the first battle of the war of the Revolution and also
of the Civil War-Congress declared that the United
States must interfere in the affairs of Cuba and help the
Cubans to become a free and prosperous people. This
declaration was signed by President McKinley on the fol-
lowing day, and then our minister to Spain, Mr. Wood-
ford, was instructed to tell the Spanish government what
had been done, and also what would be done, if Spain did
not promise before the 23d to withdraw her soldiers
from Cuba and give up the island to the Cubans.
The message was sent by one of the submarine cables
which connects America with Europe, and the operator
who received it told the Spanish officials about it before
sending it to its destination. So, before Mr. Woodford
could deliver his message, the Spanish government sent
him his passports, which was a polite hint to leave the
country, and he did so, at once. This action on the part
of Spain was virtually a declaration of war, and was so
regarded by the President and the people of this country.
On the 22d, a blockade of Cuban ports was established
by. the navy, and a Spanish ship was captured .-.....

of thLe War with Spain.


I HAVE already told you that the Cubans, in their re-
bellion, had driven the Spaniards out of many places
in Cuba, but had not been able to get possession of
the chief harbors. So
now it was thought
best that our ships
should blockade the
large harbors of Cuba.
Do you know what
blockade means? It
means to surround a
place held by the
enemy, and stay there,
doing any damage that
can be done, cutting
the enemy off from
outside help, and so,
in time, if he is not Rear-Admiral Sampson.
strong enough to break
the blockade, he must surrender, as his supply of food
will give out.
On the morning of April 22d, a squadron under the

28 Young People's History

command of Acting Rear-Admiral Sampson sailed from
Key West to establish a blockade of the most important
Cuban ports. The ships which were to be stationed
off Havana reached that port on the same day; others
were sent to different ports along the coast, and so the
blockade was begun.
All kinds of vessels were employed in this blockading
service. There were huge battleships, splendid cruisers,
and gunboats that could go into shallower waters than
the large ships. There were also monitors-immense
fighting machines with decks but a little height above
the water and big guns in circular turrets. Then there
were torpedo boats-very swift vessels armed with
deadly torpedoes, any one of which could sink the largest
ship afloat.
Some of our large passenger steamships had been
appropriated by the Government for war service, and
did good work for the blockade, as they can move very
fast. They flew about from place to place as scouts"
or "spies "; they carried messages; they cut the Spanish
cables under water, and were useful in other ways.
The gunboat Nashville sailed from Key West with
the squadron, and before the sun had fairly risen she
saw the smoke of a steamer away off to the westward.
She gave chase at once, and, as the vessels drew near,
the stranger was flying the flag of Spain. The Nashville
fired a shot across her bows, and this was the first shot in
the war between the United States and Spain. The
Spaniard was not inclined to stop, and it required another

of the War with Spain. 29

shot before she would stop her engines. The Nashville
sent an officer in a boat to inform the steamer that she
was a prize to the United States. She was found to be a
Spanish merchantman, the Buena Ventura, and was sent
in charge of a prize-crew to Key West. During the
next thirty days, many other Spanish ships, with cargoes
worth millions of dollars, were captured by different ves-
sels of the navy. A few were released, but the larger
part were condemned by a prize-court and sold.
The first action of the war was a small affair, but I
shall mention it, as it was much talked about at the time.
It took place on April 27th, a few days after our ships
had begun the blockade. The Spaniards were building
new forts at Matanzas, a port about sixty miles east of
Havana. With the exception of Havana, Mantanzas
has the finest harbor on the northern coast of Cuba.
The city itself lies between two small rivers and contains
many beautiful homes. The houses are often decorated
with colored tiles, and with their luxuriant gardens make
a charming picture against the background of hills that
rise beyond the beautiful valley of the Yumurri, which
is one of the loveliest spots in Cuba. In times of peace
the exports of sugar and molasses from Mantanzas have
been very large, but the Cuban army burned many of
the finest plantations in the district.
The ships that engaged the new forts that the Span-
iards were adding to the castle of San Severino and other
defences of Mantanzas, were the flag-ship New York, the

30 Young People's History

monitor Puritan, and the cruiser Cincinnati. The
Spaniards fired the first gun, and then the New York took
up a position between two batteries and delivered broad-
sides right and left. Then the Puritan's big guns came
into play, and then the Cincinnati poured a stream of
shells into the forts. It did not take long to knock the
Spanish defences into sand-heaps-only about half an
hour-and then the American ships stood out to sea.
As they were doing so, the Spaniards fired one more
shot. The Puritan had the range and sent a twelve-
inch shell in reply. It was one of the best shots of the
war. It struck the Spanish gun fairly, dismounted it,
and then burst, throwing the sand high in the air. The
Spanish account of the engagement stated that no dam-
age whatever was done, except the killing of one mule!
Great excitement and great anxiety were caused by
the news that a large and powerful fleet was coming
from Spain. Our Government could not tell whether
these ships would come to a Spanish port in the West
Indies, or whether they would attack one of our large
cities on the Atlantic coast. We had not ships enough
to protect all our ports as well as to blockade Cuba, so
much care was needed to make good plans, and our naval
officers were kept busy. It was most important to watch
for the Spanish ships.
The "CapeVerde"fleet,as the Spanish shipswere call,
troubled the Navy Department of the United States day
and night. They knew that it sailed from the Cape

1 1,4/k

The "Cape Verde" Fleet.


Young People's History

Verde Islands in the latter part of April, but that was
about all they did know regarding it. At last it was
seen off the Island of Martinique and then it was lost
again. It was next heard from at Curacoa, an island in
the Caribbean Sea, off the north coast of Venezuela,

U. o. nattlesnip "Uregon."
but before the American ships could reach it, the
SSpanish admiral had coaled and provisioned his ships at
Willemstad, the chief city on the island, and was off
again to sea.
There was some reason to think that the Spanish fleet
might catch our great battle-ship Oregon, coming as fast

of the War with Spain.

as it could to the Eastern Coast. I must take time to
tell you about the Oregon. Shortly before the war be-
gan, the Oregon was in the Pacific Ocean; but when she
received a message to come to an Atlantic port, to be
ready for war with Spain, she took coal at San Francisco
and started-March 19th-on her long voyage. She
went south through the Pacific Ocean, east through the
Strait of Magellan, and then turned northward into the
Atlantic Ocean. Then the closest watch was kept for
the enemy; the guns
were always ready, the
lights were covered
every night. Though
Captain Clark did not
know that war had
really begun before
that time, still he knew
that there was danger.
On May 24th the Ore-
gon arrived at a port in
Florida, having come
14,000 miles, through
all kinds of weather, in
two months' time, Captain Charles E. Clark.
without breaking any-
thing about the ship. So the Spaniards did not catch the
Oregon, but later in the year she helped to catch them.
When the Oregon arrived at Jupiter Inlet, Florida,

34 Young People's History

she was as able to fight or to run as on the day she was
put into commission. When she left San Francisco she
had nine hundred tons of coal on board. During the
voyage she consumed almost four thousand tons. Cal-
lao was the first port where the Oregon stopped. From
there she ran down the Pacific coast, and after passing
through the straits sailed up the eastern coast of South
America to Rio Janeiro, where she was notified by the
American consul that the United States and Spain were
really at war. There were now two other American war-
ships at Rio. The gunboat Marietta had joined the Ore-
gon near the straits, and the Buffalo, which the United
States had bought from Brazil, was waiting for them at
Rio. I will let Captain Clark tell you the story of the
remainder of the voyage, in his own way:
Several long cablegrams were exchanged between the
Government and myself. Nothing whatever in the way
of instructions was issued that would hamper me or in
any way abridge my responsibility for bringing the Ore-
gon home. We sailed from Rio on May 4. I decided,
when we had been at sea a little while, to leave the Buf-
falo and the Marietta to shift for themselves. They were
so slow that I feared the Oregon might be late in arriving
where she was most needed. I left these ships off Cape
Frio, one hundred miles above Rio, after signaling them,
Come to Bahia, or run ashore if attacked by overwhelm-
ing force.' I reached Bahia on the 8th, but we were told
to 'Come on.' We sailed next morning, and this run to

of the War with Spain.

Barbadoes was the most thrilling of the entire voyage.
We steamed absolutely without a light.
Indeed, the entire trip from Sandy Point to Jupiter
Inlet was a lightless voyage. In pitchlike darkness we
drove along at our highest speed-seeing lights many
times, but always avoiding the ships that bore them. We
were out of court. We had fo right of way without a
light. Even if we met a vessel on our port, we gave way.
Night and day the men stood at the guns. Not for
a single moment was vigilance relaxed. The strain on
the men was terrible. For four days at a time hammocks
were never strung. Watch and watch about, the men
lay beside the guns, sound asleep, while the men on duty
stood silently above them. All the lookouts were
doubled and changed with unusual frequency.
"Barbadoes was reached just before daylight, May
18, and after rushing two hundred and fifty tons of coal
aboard, we sailed the same evening. Still the orders
read, 'Come on.' From our consul I learned that Cer-
vera's fleet was at Martinique, just to the north of us.
This fleet had been extolled for speed and fighting quali-
ties. I am not a rash man. I was not looking for that
fleet. The situation seemed critical. Sailing just before
dark, I headed northwest, apparently into the heart of
the Caribbean Sea. This information, I have no doubt,
was promptly communicated to Admiral Cervera. But
as soon as the darkness of a moonless night had thor-
oughly set in, I changed the course to due south, and ran

36 Young People's History

below Barbadoes and thence far to the eastward before
I took the Oregon to the northward. We thus passed far
to sea east of Martinique, and eventually turned into the
north Atlantic beyond St. Thomas. I carefully avoided
the Windward Channel and the shallow waters of the
I didn't know where the Department wanted to use
me. I was in the dark as to the location of the two fleets.
I knew one had been at Hampton Roads and another at
Key West, and the charts told me that Jupiter Inlet was
in telegraphic reach of all points on the coast. From that
place I had coal enough to make the run to either of the
two fleets."
With scarcely a day's delay, the Oregon joined the
North Atlantic Squadron, in Cuban waters, and was one
of the vessels under Commodore Schley when that officer
trapped the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Santiago.
When we think of the officers and men on the decks of
a warship, we must not forget the force of men below
the decks. The engineers, firemen and stokers do as good
work, and are entitled to as much praise, as the fighting
force above. In battle they are kept under the hatches,
and, as a rule, never know of the progress or the result of
a fight until it closes. They work in a temperature of
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty degrees, by
half-hour stretches. The roaring furnaces make the fire-
rooms almost beyond a man's power to endure, and we
should give a great deal of our praise to the brave fellows
who make the power that moves the ship.

The Men Who Make the Power.

38 Young People's History

You know that we saw in the first chapter, that Spain
owned another large island some miles east of Cuba-
an island called Porto Rico.
This island was sighted by Columbus on November
16, 1493, and, three days later, he anchored in one of
its bays. In 1510, and again a year later, Ponce de
Leon visited the island and established a settlement, to
which he gave the name of San Juan Bautista. Spain
did not always hold it peaceably, however, for at differ-
ent times the Dutch and the English tried to take it from
her. The people of the island used to be terribly annoyed
by pirates and buccaneers, but that was a long time
The Spanish used to call San Juan the "Rich Port of
John the Baptist," and it was a great source of profit to
them for nearly four hundred years. Ponce is the largest
city in the island, but San Juan has the advantage of a
large, protected harbor. Like Havana and Santiago, San
Juan has its Morro Castle, and within its walls are the
buildings of a small military town,-houses for troops,
a chapel, bake-house, and guard-room, with dungeons
down by the sea, and underneath it.
The city of San Juan lies upon an island connected
with the mainland by a bridge and a causeway. The
streets are narrow, the houses are low, mostly of a single
story, and are built in the old-fashioned Spanish style,
with thick walls around the courtyard. The fronts are
ugly and are painted all sorts of brilliant colors-pink,

Palace and Sea-wall, San Juan, Porto Rico.

40 Young People's History

blue, purple and yellow. There are heavy shutters in
the windows for protection, but there are no panes of
glass in the town. Behind the gloomy walls are splendid
gardens and courtyards, with splashing fountains, shaded
by palms. The city contains a cathedral, a theatre, a
city hall, the Governor-General's palace, and several fine
churches, and in the center is quite a large park, with
concrete walks and seats, as with us. There is no turf,
however. All around this park the market women gather
every morning, selling poultry, eggs, vegetables and
flowers, and in the evening there is music by a military
It was thought that the Spanish fleet, which had
caused our Government so much anxiety, might go to
San Juan, the capital of the island, and so, before the
Oregon arrived, and before any of the Spanish ships
had been seen, Admiral Sampson took some of his ves-
sels from Cuba to Porto Rico in hope of meeting Ad-
miral Cervera, the Spanish commander, and his fleet.
Our ships reached San Juan in the evening of May 11th,
but could see nothing of the Spanish ships. Next morn-
ing our ships fired upon the forts guarding the harbor,
to try the strength of the enemy. But finding the forts
stronger than he thought they were, Admiral Sampson
drew off his fleet. He could not spare the time, or spend
his powder and shells, upon San Juan then. The im-
portant thing to do was to find the Spanish fleet. So
Admiral Sampson again sailed toward Havana.

of the War with Spain.

The two ports on the northern coast of Cuba that
seemed most likely to attract the Spanish fleet were
Havana and Matanzas. There was one port on the
southern coast that seemed to be a good one for the Span-
ish fleet-the port of Cienfuegos. So our ships continued
the blockade of Havana and Matanzas, and now Com-
modore Schley was sent with several vessels to watch
The city of Cienfuegos is situated some distance back
from the sea, in a harbor which winds and twists about
between high hills, completely obscuring it from ships a
little distance from the shore. The word Cienfuegos
means a hundred fires." Close by the water's edge there
stood a cable-house, where one end of a submarine cable,
which reached to Santiago, some three. hundred miles to
the eastward, was secured. On one side of the cable-house
was an old fort or lookout, such as the Spaniards used
to have all along the coast. On the other side was a
light-house. The Americans wished to destroy commu-
nication between Cienfuegos and Santiago, so they sent
an expedition to cut the cable and destroy anything that
would be of use to the Spaniards.
The ships that were sent to do this work were the
Marblehead, the Nashville and the Windom. You will
remember that the Nashville fired the first gun in the
war with Spain. She is not a pretty boat at all. She
is built differently from other vessels of her class, and
her two tall funnels, or smoke-stacks, give her an un-

42 Young People's History

gainly appearance. Her commander was a splendid
officer, though, and her crew were the bravest of the
brave. I must tell you a little of her work after she cap-
tured the first prize of the war.
One day, while in company with the Marblehead and
the Eagle, she saw a big Spanish mail steamer leave the
harbor of Cienfuegos and put to sea, followed by nine
Spanish gunboats. The Nashville started in pursuit of
the big steamer, leaving the other American ships to
attend to the gunboats. She soon overhauled the steamer,
which proved to be the Argonata, and took possession of
her. Her cargo was a very rich one, and among the pas-
sengers were twenty-nine Spanish soldiers and officers.
These were taken on board the Nashville. Meanwhile,
the Marblehead and the Eagle had disposed of the gun-
boats. It only took them half an hour to drive them
back into the harbor, with their smokestacks shot off, and
several of them in a sinking condition. The Nashville
then turned over her prize to the Marblehead and started
for Havana.
On her way she discovered a big gunboat, and, as the
two ships drew near, the Spanish officers, who had been
allowed on deck, saw that she was not an American ves-
sel, and danced for joy. An instant later they were
shoved down a hatchway and placed in the hold. As
the stranger came closer it was plainly seen that she was
nearly twice as large as the Nashville and more heavily
armed, but the commander of the American vessel did

of the War with Spain.

not hesitate an instant. He cleared his ship for action
and trained his guns on her. Just then she hoisted Eng-
lish colors and dipped them in salute to the stars and
stripes that were floating above the Nashville. She
proved to be the Talbot, an English ship cruising in
those waters. The whole affair was a splendid display of
courage on the part of the Nashville in clearing ship and
showing fight to the big English gunboat. Every man
on the American ship knew that if the stranger proved to
be a Spanish war vessel the chances were ten to one
against the Nashville; but none of them stopped to think
of that, but made ready to fight her. Now we will return
to Cienfuegos and see how our splendid seamen cut the
Spanish cables in the very face of death.
Volunteers from the Marblehead and the Nashville
manned the boats that were sent into the shallow waters
to grapple for the cable. Each ship furnished a cutter
and a launch, under the command of a lieutenant. The
men who were to do the work were in the cutters, and
each of the launches carried a small rapid-fire gun to
protect the workers as much as possible. The Nashville
shelled the shore and then the boats were ordered in.
They went within one hundred yards of the shore and
then began to grapple for the cable. As calmly as though
they were fishing, the men worked with their hooks. At
last the cable was caught, and soon it was brought to
view. It proved not to be the Santiago cable, but about
a hundred feet of its length were cut out of it, and the

Young People's History

brave fellows grappled for another. They found it,
hauled it up, and, with what tools they had, hacked it in
They were not unmolested, however, for Spaniards
began to show themselves on the shore, and a perfect
hail of bullets dimpled the water around the Americans
as they worked. When a man in the boats was hit,
another took his place. Sturdy arms at the oars held the
boats against the strong current, while others hacked
away the tough wires.
Then the guns of the ships sent an iron storm among
the rocks and trees and the soft sands. They drove the
Spaniards to shelter, and then they knocked the cable-
house, the fort and the light-house to bits. It was not
intended at first to destroy the light-house, but when it
was discovered that the Spaniards used it for a shelter
while firing upon the Americans, the gunners were or-
dered to cut it down, and in a short time nothing re-
mained of it but a heap of ruins.
The personal bravery of the men in the boats was won-
derful. Although untried in warfare, they conducted
themselves like veterans in the hour of trial. Cable cut-
ting is one of the new features of modern warfare, but
that made no difference to the brave jackies and marines
that volunteered for the work. One of their number was
killed and several were wounded, but officers and men
performed their work with the utmost coolness and


I ~



Cutting the Cables Under Fire.

r ~- 8~

Young People's History

Before we leave the subject of cutting an enemy's
cables, and thus destroying one of their best means of
communication, I will tell you of another exploit. The
St. Louis, which was one of the big ocean steamships that
the Government hired during the war, was the vessel
that performed it. A few days after the cables were cut
at Cienfuegos, the St. Louis was ordered to Santiago to
cut the cables at that point. One very dark night the
boats left the big ship and began to grapple for the cables.
About three o'clock in the morning they returned with
a long piece which they had cut out of one of the cables.
About eight o'clock the St. Louis'went to work to find
the other cable, and after working for three hours, the
batteries on shore opened fire on her. They kept up a
furious fire for three-quarters of an hour, but the St.
Louis replied so vigorously that the batteries were si-
lenced and the garrisons sent running in all directions.
Then they found the cable, hauled it on board and cut it.
Afterwards the St. Louis cut another cable at San Juan,
the capital of Porto Rico.
Do you wonder why these three ports were thought
to be the best for the Spanish fleet to enter? You know
that Havana is the capital of Cuba; most of the citizens
were Spaniards; thousands of Spanish soldiers were there;
all the chief officers also. So it was thought that the
Spanish :Navy would try to unite with the Spanish
Army. From Matanzas and from Cienfuegos the troops
from the Spanish ships could go easily by railroad to

of the War with Spain.

Havana, through a part of the country still in the hands
of the Spaniards. I may have told you more than you
care to hear about the coming of the enemy's fleet, but
I want to give you an idea of the great anxiety felt by
our Government at this time, and to help you to under-
stand" what follows. You must remember that we had
not vessels enough to blockade every port, so we block-
aded the ports that seemed most dangerous.
Where was the Spanish fleet all this time, while our
Navy was so troubled? If you look at a map of Cuba
you will find that the eastern end of the island-the east-
ern province-is called Santiago de Cuba. The chief city
of the province is on the southern coast, and bears the
same name. The city of Santiago is next in importance
to Havana, and is said to be the oldest city in the Western
Santiago is a picturesque city, five miles from the
coast. It was founded by Don Diego de Velasquez, who
named it for the patron saint of Spain. Santiago, San
Diego and St. Jago are really one name, which is trans-
lated St. James in our language. The city is built along
a sloping hillside, and its massive buildings are tinted
pink, blue, green and purple. There are plenty of red-
tiled roofs, among which rise towers, steeples and palms.
The houses are low and built around courtyards, where
flowers and palms grow in profusion. The floors are of
brick or marble. There is a plaza, or central square, and
a great cathedral. The streets are narrow and dirty, and

Young People's History

in the quarters where the poorer class live, babies and
pigs roll together in the gutters, and boys and girls with-
out a rag of clothing on them hold out their hands for
The first impression of Santiago is one of filth and pov-
erty, dilapidated buildings and general decay; but if you
climb the hills that encircle the city and look over the
red-topped buildings to the glistening bay, the prospect
is lovely.
As you approach the mouth of the harbor from the
coast, you can at first see nothing but a break in the hills;
but soon you discover, perhaps, the most picturesque
fort in the western hemisphere. It is the Morro Castle,
one hundred years older than its namesake at Havana,
perched on a rock at the entrance to the channel. This
channel is very narrow, but it winds and twists about
until it opens into a broad, land-locked bay-the famous
harbor of Santiago-with houses running down to the
water's edge.
Into this beautiful harbor, while our ships were watch-
ing other ports and looking in other directions, Admiral
Cervera and his fine Spanish ships quietly sailed at day-
break on the 19th of May. It was a strange port for the
Spaniards to seek, and it was a fatal one.
While Sampson was looking in one direction for Ad-
miral Cervera's ships, Commodore Schley, with another
squadron, was close upon their track. For awhile he
thought they were in Cienfuegos, but when he found

of the War with Spain.

they were not there, he kept on up the coast. His flagship
was the splendid cruiser Brooklyn, and among his ships
were the Massachusetts, the Texas and the Iowa-all

Morro Castle, Santiago.

immense battleships. He also had a number of smaller
vessels, and the swift St. Paul, another of the famous
ships hired by the Government. The St. Paul was com-
manded by Captain Sigsbee, who, you will remember,

50 Young People's History

was in command of the Maine when she was blown up
in Havana harbor.
At last Commodore Schley became satisfied that the
long-looked-for fleet was in the harbor of Santiago. On
the morning of May 29, Captain Sigsbee, in the St.
Paul, ran close enough to the mouth of the harbor to
see some of the Spanish ships inside, and the long game
of hide-and-seek was over. Commodore Schley at once
established a strict blockade, and then sent word to Ad-
miral Sampson that the Spanish ships had been found
and that he had them safe. He very shrewdly said:
We have bottled them up, and they will never get
home!" A few days later, the two squadrons were con-
solidated, with Commodore Schley the second in com-
I want to tell you a little about Commodore Schley-
one of the finest officers of the navy. He graduated from
the Naval Academy at Annapolis, at the head of his class,
and from that time entered upon a career in which
he served his country in nearly every quarter of the
globe. When the Civil War broke out, he staid by the
old flag when many of his brother officers went with the
Confederacy, and during the war performed many gal-
lant and meritorious services. He had seen all kinds of
naval service, and was at home among conditions that
required dash and courage, zeal and persistency, before
he was given the command of the "Flying Squadron,"
and sent to find the Spanish ships.

of the War with Spain. 51

He had done such things as to rescue seven men who
were starving to death in the Arctic regions. He had
been sent by the Government to do this, and, realizing
that it must be done quickly, he pushed on so fast that
he found the seven
men alive. If he had
been slower in his
movements they would
have been dead, for
they were in the last
stages of starvation
and exhaustion. At
another time, some of
his sailors were stoned
in the city of Val-
paraiso, and one of
them was killed.
Schley trained his guns
upon the city and kept
them there until the Rear-Admiral W. S. Schley.
murderers were given
up to justice. He was the right kind of a man to have
around the coasts of Cuba, wasn't he?
Now I am going to tell you the names of the Spanish
vessels, and give you an idea of the blockade.
Within the harbor were four large Spanish ships and
two new, fast torpedo-boat destroyers, all commanded by
Admiral Cervera. The ships were the Infanta Maria

Young People's History

Teresa, named for a Spanish princess; the Vizcaya,
named for a province in Spain; the Crist6bol Col6n,
which is the Spanish name for Christopher Columbus;
and the Almirante Oquendo. Many years ago Spain had
a famous admiral whose name was Oquendo, and in rec-
ognition of his services the Spanish Government made
a law that there should always be a ship in their navy
bearing his name. That is how they had the Almirante
Oquendo, which means Admiral Oquendo. The names
of the torpedo-boat destroyers were the Furor and the
Pluton. All these warships were splendid vessels, and
were commanded by brave men. We shall hear about
them later.
Our ships were outside the harbor-a few miles from
its mouth, in a line like a half-circle. Our big ships
were the New York, the Brooklyn, the Texas, the Iowa,
the Oregon, the Indiana, and the Massachusetts. There
were a number of smaller vessels, and one of them, the
Gloucester, afterwards gained great fame. Our ships
could not anchor, as the water was too deep, so they were
always moving back and forth.
As I have told you, between the sea and the harbor, or
bay, is a long, narrow channel with high cliffs on each
side, and on these cliffs are forts, which guard the en-
trance to the harbor.
Our men could not see the Spanish ships in the har-
bor, but could see only the narrow channel and the hills
and forts above it. Our men watched carefully, to see

of the War with Spain.

that no Spanish ship came out. For the first few nights
of the blockade a bright moon lighted up the channel,
but after the moon failed, the place was wonderfully
lighted by the great search-lights of our ships. Four
battle-ships took turns of two hours each in standing at
the entrance of the channel and moving fhe "search-
lights." The ships were always headed toward the shore,
and steam was kept up.
And so our great gray vessels, grim monsters of the
sea, waited and watched near the harbor of Santiago de
Blockading work is very hard upon officers and men.
It requires ceaseless vigilance at all hours of the day and
night. Besides preventing an enemy's ships from com-
ing out of a blockaded port, it is very important to prevent
vessels with supplies from running in. During the Cu-
ban blockade our vessels captured at least one large ship
loaded with coal that was intended for Admiral Cervera's
fleet. When nations are at war, they do not allow other
nations to supply their enemies with anything that will
help them. There are international laws about this, and
if a warship belonging to a nation which is at war with
another, puts into a neutral port for coal or provisions, it
is only allowed to buy enough to last it to its nearest
home port. It is not allowed to remain in a neutral port
more than twenty-four hours, either.
The purpose of a blockade is to cut off supplies and
stop all communication with the enemy by sea. When
this is done, merchant vessels of all nations are therefore

54 Young People's History
forbidden to pass or even to approach the line, and the
penalty for disobedience is the confiscation of both ship
and cargo, whether the latter is contraband or not. If a
ship does not stop when hailed, she may be fired upon,
and if she is sunk while endeavoring to escape, it is her
own fault. Blockade running is perilous business, and is
usually attempted under cover of night, or in stormy
weather, and it is as full of excitement and adventure as
war itself. The motive is usually either to take advan-
tage of famine prices, or to aid the enemy by bringing
supplies or carrying despatches. Neutral ships are enti-
tled to some sort of warning that a blockade exists, and
in the case of Cuba, the United States notified neutral
Governments, announcing the fact, and stating exactly
the extent of coast covered.'
Before we were at war with Spain, the Government
restrained and punished those who organized expeditions
to help the Cubans. We were obliged to do this because
we were a neutral nation. But after our war with Spain
began, we sent all kinds of war material to the Cubans,
so as to help them to fight Spain. I will tell you about
one of these expeditions.
About the middle of May, the steamer Florida sailed
from a port in the State for which she was named, with
supplies for the Cuban army. In addition to a great
quantity of provisions, clothing, shoes and medicines, she
carried several thousand rifles and an immense amount
of ammunition. Down in the hold were a hundred horses

of the War with Spain. 55

and mules, and among the passengers were several hun-
dred recruits for the Cuban army.
The Florida reached the Cuban coast in safety, and
was met at the appointed place by more than a thousand
Cubans. It required three days and one night to unload

Searching for Contraband.
the cargo. Small boats conveyed the stores to the eager
hands that hurried them inland. The mules and horses
swam ashore. Women and children flocked to the scene,
bringing fruit and vegetables to exchange for coffee and
meat-the .first they had tasted for a long time.

56 Young People's History

When the cargo was all ashore, the Florida prepared to
return to the United States. Then the Cuban soldiers
ranged themselves along the shore; women and children
grouped behind the ranks, and a Cuban marching song
burst from happy hearts as the Florida steamed away.,
A great deal of blockading duty was done by the small
vessels of the fleets, the torpedo-boats and the armed tug-
boats. Many strange encounters took place during those
nights when these little craft rolled about in the Carib-
bean swells, or moved along in hostile waters without a
light visible on board.
The tug-boat Leyden had one of these. With her two
or three small guns she held up a big ship one night,
firing across her bow, and demanding, What ship is
that?" It was the same vessel that had the encounter
with the Nashville, the story of which I have told you;
and so the answer came back:
This is Her Majesty's ship, Talbot."
The idea of a tug-boat like the Leyden halting a war-
ship in this fashion was not particularly pleasing to the
British Captain. Neither was he better pleased when
some one on the tug-boat called out, Good night, Tal-
bot!" But he took it as a new experience, and solemnly
You may go, Leyden."
The spirit that animated the officers of our navy in
these trying times was well expressed by Lieutenant
Fremont, who commanded the torpedo-boat Porter.
Fremont was the son of John C. Fremont, whom you

of the War with Spain. 57
may possibly remember as a noted explorer and pioneer
in the western part of the United States, and a general
during the Civil War; and he possessed the bravery and
daring of his father. Some one said to him:
Those Spanish destroyers have heavier batteries than
yours. What would
you do if you ran
across one of them out
"Well," replied
Fremont, "it's my
business to keep them
from getting in among
the fleet. I'd try to do
it. I'd engage a de-
stroyer, and if I found
his battery was too
heavy for me I'd close
in. If a chance of-
fered, I'd torpedo him. Lieutenant John C. Fremont.
If not-well, this boat
has made twenty-six knots. I'd go at him full speed. I
think the Porter would go half way through him before
we stopped."
"And then?"
And then, I think, there would be a swimming
match. It saves time to have your mind made up in
advance in such matters."

Young People's History

THE greatest event of the war between the United
States and Spain took place in a strange part of the
world, far from both of those countries. If you
look on a map of Asia, you will find a large group of
islands in the Pacific Ocean, east of the China Sea. They
are called the Philippine Islands. The largest of them is
called Luzon, and its chief city is Manila, on a large bay
of the same name.
These islands were discovered nearly four hundred
years ago, by Magellan, as we call him in English, a
-famous sailor and explorer. I'e was the first to sail
through the strait that is south of South America; and
so that strait is still called by hiiname. After passing
through that strait he led his fleet on, farther west, north-
west, over the Pacific Ocean, till he came to the islands
Seat of the China Sea. Magellan took possession of them
in the name of the King of Spain; for, though not a
Spaniard, he was working in the interests of Spain. He
gave the islands a name, but the name did not cling to
them; and some time after, they were named Islas Fil-
ipinas-or, as we say in English, Philippine Islands-

of the War with Spain.

in honor of King Philip II., of Spain. But the savage
tribes dwelling in the islands did not submit tamely to
Magellan's conquest, and in a fight with them he was
killed. Still, the Spaniards held the islands, and estab-
lished towns there, some of which have become very im-
portant. It is said that there are people from all parts
of the world living in Manila.
Have you ever heard any one speak of the Filipinos?
They are natives of the islands, descendants of the Span-
ish settlers; besides these there are the native savage
tribes, still living in many places. The Filipinos had
often tried to gain their independence, but had not been
successful. When they heard of the rebellion in Cuba,
they thought they would make another attempt against
Spain, and so began a new rebellion. And this is just
how matters stood when the war began between the
United States and Spain.
The United States, having some ships in one of the
ports of China, sent word to their commander, Commo-
dore Dewey, to turn his attention to the Philippine
Islands. So Commodore Dewey prepared his fleet in the
best way possible and started for Manila. The ships
sailed Wednesday afternoon, April 27th.
You must not think that Commodore Dewey had big
battle-ships in his fleet. He had only what we call
"cruisers," not big battleships. The ship on which
the commander of a whole fleet sails is always
the "flagship." Then, of course, each ship has its own

60 Young People's History

captain and other officers. Would you like to know the
names of the ships that won such fame in Manila Bay?
The "flagship was the Olympia; then there were five
other cruisers: the Baltimore, the Boston, the Raleigh,
the Concord, the Petrel; and a small vessel called the
Hugh McCulloch. There were also two steamers carry-
ing coal and provisions. All the fleet had been newly
painted gray, to match our other vessels in this war.
During the voyage, the men were very busy getting
ready for a battle, for they knew that the Spaniards had
ships in Manila Bay, and that they would fire upon the
new comers. Everything made of wood that might be
shot and splintered, was thrown overboard; for flying
splinters are very dangerous on shipboard. Tables,
benches, chests, and rails were thrown into the sea. The
men were told what to do in time of battle, and how to
help the wounded, and the doctors arranged the rooms
to be used as hospitals, so that every thing would be
We have seen that the fleet sailed Wednesday after-
noon, and the next Saturday morning land was sighted-
the island of Luzon. On, on, the ships sped, and that
evening they reached the entrance to Manila Bay. Then
they stole along in the darkness, with their lights covered,
so that the Spaniards might not see them. Our men were
doing a daring deed. They were entering a strange bay,
by night, where not one of them had ever been before;
they did not know the soundings, they had no harbor
pilot. The entrance to the bay was guarded by fortresses

The "Olympia," Admiral Dewey's Flagship.

I /1


Young People's History

containing big Krupp guns, and there was good reason
to think that there were "mines" in the water, which
might blow the ships to pieces. Still, every man was
ready to do his duty.
Some of the forts did discover our ships, and fired a
few shots; but no harm was done, and our ships steamed
on. At daybreak they drew near the city of Manila.
The Spaniards were expecting them, having had notice
of their approach. The Spanish ships, under Admiral
Montojo, were waiting at a place called Cavit6, seven
miles from Manila. They were protected by batteries
on the shore. Having steady guns on the shore should
have been a great help to the Spaniards, as it is easier to
fire a steady gun than to fire a gun on a ship that is riding
up and down on the waves.
The battle began a little after five o'clock, Sunday
morning, May 1st, 1898. The Spaniards fired the first
shot. All the vessels of our fleet were out in the bay,
but, as soon as the Spaniards began to fire, our fighting
ships started forward. They did not answer the Spanish
fire at first, but steamed up the bay, in a wide circle,
toward the city of Manila, then turned and came back
toward Cavite. The Olympia led the way. After her
came the Baltimore, Raleigh, Concord, Petrel, and Bos-
ton. All had their battle-flags flying.
Uninjured by the enemy's shots, the Olympia and her
train drew near the Spanish forts and ships. At a dis-
tance of a little more than four thousand yards, the

------ ---- Z E--

B of Mal B
- --

Battle of Manila Bay.

Young People's History

Olympia fired, and the roar of her first gun was the sig-
nal to her companions to open fire. Then the firing from
both sides became fast and furious. Our ships moved rap-
idly about, up and down, past Cavit6 five times. Admiral
Montojo came out in his flagship, the Reina Christina,
to attack the Olympia. The Olympia poured such a
storm of shot at her
that she was compelled
to turn back toward the
/ harbor. But the Reina

I" doom. As she turned,
N "a huge shell from the
Olympia struck her,
set her on fire, and
killed her captain and
many of her men.
Admiral Montojo
changed his flag to
Another ship and came
forward again,but soon
Admiral Montojo. had to turn back. But
a moment of great
peril came to the Olympia. Two fierce little torpedo-
boats came toward her, ready to hurl her to destruction.
The gunners of the Olympia instantly opened such a
shower of shells from the smaller guns that the surface
of the water was covered with foam. The little boats,

of the War with Spain.

without having had time to send forth a torpedo, were
overcome. One of them blew up, then sank, with her
crew, beneath the waves. The other, pierced with shots,
turned toward the shore and ran upon the beach, a wreck.
After more than two hours of fierce fighting, Commo-
dore Dewey led his ships out into the center of the bay,
and the battle ceased
for a time. The true
reason for this move-
ment was known
only to some of the
officers. The men
were told that they
were to haul off to
get a little rest and
some breakfast. The
men believed that
they had done great
damage to the Span-
iards, and were eager
to finish the battle at
once. In fact, no The "Olympia'" Leading the Way.
one really knew then how much damage had been done to
the Spanish fleet. The results were not known till after-
ward. Though the men were hopeful and in good spirits,
Commodore Dewey and his staff thought the situation
serious. Three of the Spanish ships were on fire, and the
Boston had also broken out in flames. The Olympia had

66 Young People's History

not enough ammunition to continue the fight two hours
longer. Our ships were far from home, and could not
get a supply of ammunition in less than a month's time.
There was good reason to think that the Spanish forts
were well supplied.
The Spaniards thought, when our ships drew away
from the shore, that the Americans had been overcome
and were leaving in order to bury their dead. They
found themselves sadly mistaken.
Our men, strengthened by the rest and a breakfast of
bread and cold meat, started again to battle a little before
eleven o'clock. Soon several of the Spanish ships were
on fire, and some of them sank. After the Spanish fleet
had been destroyed, some of our ships attacked the forts
on the shore and made them surrender. At five minutes
after one o'clock the Spaniards hauled down their flag.
The Spaniards did many brave things that day, and
fought desperately, but they were not good marksmen.
They did not aim their guns well. They lost eleven
ships, and had many men killed and wounded. Our
ships were not much injured, only seven of our men were
wounded, and none were killed.
When our ships drew together after the battle, and our
men found that they had suffered so little, and that no
one had been killed, they knew not how to control their
feelings. Some of them cried like little children. But
such tears are not childish. It is said that when the
Spanish forts gave the signal of surrender, Commodore

The Destroyed Spanish Fleet.

68 Young People's History

Dewey turned to his officers near him, and said: "I've
the prettiest lot of men that ever stepped on shipboard,
and their hearts are as stout as the ships."
You must notice that the city of Manila had not been
taken in this battle. We shall see later about its surren-
der. But the battle of Manila Bay was one of the most
remarkable naval battles ever fought.
When Commodore Dewey received his orders to "cap-
ture or destroy" the Spanish fleet, that was known to be
somewhere about the Philippine Islands, the Asiatic
squadron, as his ships were called, was lying in the har-
bor of Hong Kong, which is an English port. After
the blowing up of the Maine, which occurred in Feb-
ruary, you will remember, he began to put his ships in
the very best possible condition for a war with Spain,
which he and his officers now thought inevitable.
Every emergency was provided for; all the vessels were
in complete fighting trim.
Because of the neutrality laws, of which I have told
you, after war was declared Dewey's ships could not
stay at Hong Kong more than twenty-four hours, so he
moved them to Mirs Bay, a Chinese port, and from there
set out to find the Spanish fleet.
A naval officer, now retired from the service, told me
not long ago, the words capture or destroy have been
used in instructions to naval officers for three hundred
years. He also spoke of his acquaintance with Dewey
during the Civil War, and upon long cruises when they

of the War with Spain.

were shipmates; and particularly dwelt upon the ability
and good judgment that characterized him as a naval
When Dewey received his orders to capture or de-
stroy" the Spanish fleet, he is said to have remarked:
Thank the Lord! at
last I've got the
chance, and I'll wipe
them off the Pacific
Ocean." He did not
know what he was to
meet in the way of re-
sistance, but there was
not a man in the fleet
that doubted the out-
come of the encounter.
He found the Spanish
fleet, fought it until
not a ship was left to
fly the flag of Spain,
and then sent word to Admiral George Dewey.
the Spanish Governor-
general that if another shot was fired at his ships he would
lay the city of Manila in ashes.
The Island of Corregidor guards the entrance to Ma-
nila Bay, but it seemed to be asleep as Dewey's gray ships
stole silently by. Once a shell screamed over the Ra-
leigh, followed by another; but the Raleigh, the

70 Young People's History

Concord and the Boston answered the challenge and
soon all was silent. At daybreak the fleet was
about five miles from Manila, the American flag flying
from each ship.
Day breaks quickly in the tropics, and as the sun


I U ri.

Church of the Friars, Manila.
flashed his beams above the horizon, a beautiful picture
revealed itself to the men of Dewey's fleet. Before
them lay the metropolis of the Philippines, walled in
part like a medieval town; the jangle of church bells

of the War with Spain.

came from lofty towers. To the right, and below the
city, lay the Spanish fleet for which they had been

Dewey on the Bridge.
The Spaniards fired the first gun from a powerful
battery in front of the city, and the Concord sent two
shells in reply, as the American fleet swept grandly
past. Before them were the Spanish ships-of-war and

Young People's History

the fortifications at Cavit6; between, were shallow waters
where they dared not go. Still they swept on, preserving
their distances as though performing evolutions in time
of peace, the Olympia in the van, drawing nearer and
nearer to the ships that flew the red and yellow flag of
Spain. The shore batteries again roared defiance to the
invaders, but Dewey stood quietly on the bridge of the
Olympia, surrounded by the members of his staff. He
wore the usual white uniform of the service, and a gray
cap such as travelers and bicyclers wear. A huge jet of
water now sprang from the peaceful sea, showing that
the Spaniards had fired a submarine mine, but no harm
was done. Then Dewey gave the quiet order to Cap-
tain Gridley, who was in the conning tower:
Gridley, you may fire when you are ready."
Then the guns of the Olympia spolke, and those of the
other ships followed her example. During the five times
they passed and repassed the Spanish ships and forts,
their courses resembled a gigantic figure 8.
Between the entrance to the bay and the city of Ma-
nila is an arm of land or promontory, pointing upwards
and towards the city. It is on the right hand side of
the bay and is called Cavit6. The word means a fish-
hook, and the promontory looks something like one. Be-
hind Cavit6 and in the bay of the same name, the Spanish
ships were stationed, and at the little town of Cavit6
was an arsenal and quite a respectable navy-yardc
When Dewey withdrew his ships to ascertain what


Landing the Marines at Cavit6.

74 Young People's History

damage the Spaniards had inflicted upon them, the Span-
iards thought they had driven them off, and so they sent
a dispatch from Manila to Spain saying that they had
won a great victory over the Americans; but when
Dewey made the second attack, after breakfast, there was
not much more for him to do,
for the Spaniards were well
whipped. Dewey had met a
foreign foe in its own waters,
and added another victory to
the glorious record of the navy
of the United States.
_, g After the battle, one of the
signal boys on the flagship
wrote a very interesting letter
to his friends at home:
.... We are all nearly
wild with the effects of victory.
The pride of Spain is here un-
der our feet. No doubt before
this letter reaches you, you will
Signaling. read full accounts of the battle
--a battle that was hard fought
and bloodless for the victorious. Not a man in our fleet
was kilie.l. Six men were slightly wounded on the Balti-
SSay, it was grand! We left Mirs Bay, in China, at
two a.m., Wednesday, April 27th. Saturday afternoon

of the War with Spain. 75

we sighted Subig Bay. The Boston and the Concord
were sent ahead of the fleet as scouts. We expected
to find the Spanish fleet and have our first engagement.
We could not find them there, so the Commodore and
Captains held a council of war and decided to run past
the forts at night.
It was nine-thirty that night when we sighted the
entrance. We went quietly to quarters,- loaded our guns,
shook hands with each other and trusted to luck. I was
on signal watch on the aft bridge and could see every-
thing. Not a sound was heard. At twelve o'clock we
were under the guns of the first fort. It was an island
called Corregidor. I tell you I felt uneasy. The moon
was well up, but not a light could be seen.
There were two signal officers and three other boys
with me. We were laughing and joking with one
another to steady our nerves. When we were well under
the guns a rocket was fired, and every man braced himself.
Then you could hear the breech blocks closing and the
officers telling the men to aim steady and to kill.
Well, all the ships passed that fort, but there were
twenty-six miles to go yet, and God and the Spaniards
alone knew how many batteries, mines and torpedoes
were ready to send us all to eternity..
"The Olympia passed two more forts The Balti-
more was next to us. She passed all right, but when the
Raleigh came under the guns of the second fort, there
was a flash and I heard the shriek of the first shell.

Young People's History

Then almost before the shell struck, there was a spout
of flame from the Raleigh, and her shell killed forty
men, as we learned yesterday. Two more shells were
fired at us, but we were well past them. Then the men
were told to lie down.

Rapid-fire Gun.
Now, commenced the signal corps work. Soon our
signal lights were flashing the order to close up. At
four o'clock I was told by the signal officer to lie down
and catch a nap.
"At, four, coffee was given to all the men and at fif-
teen minutes to five, the shore batteries had shells drop-
ping all around, but we did not fire until sixteen min-

of the War with Spain.

utes past five. The Spanish fleet was in sight off the
navy yard. Then the fight started in earnest. For a
while I thought my time had come. After we made
the signal 'commence firing,' we had nothing to do but
watch the fight. The shells flew over our heads so quick
I paid no attention to them.

The Olympia's Military Mast.
"After an hour and fifteen minutes, the Spanish ad-
miral had two ships sunk under him. We withdrew for
a short time, not knowing we had them whipped. As
we were leaving, three ships were burning. At nine-
twenty-five, we started again. In a short time the ar-



~i ~f~~c cF

Young People's History

senal went up and the Government buildings were in
"The battle lasted altogether three hours and some
minutes. At eleven-fifteen the white flag was shown,
and you might hear us cheer. The ship was hit about
six times. The Spaniards lost terribly. The rebels at-
tacked the enemy. It is something wonderful when you
consider the advantage they had over us. They had
eleven ships to our six. Their ships could run behind
a neck of land near the navy yard. The shore bat-
teries were firing on us from three points. But our
marksmanship was too much for them; our fire was so
rapid they could not stand it. They lost about two
thousand men, so the rumor says. We sank four ships
and burned seven. It was a grand, beautiful sight to
see those ships burn.
"I was ashore yesterday, and we destroyed all the
guns. I managed to get a few souvenirs. Two tor-
pedo boats attempted to blow us up, but one was sunk and
one was beached. I saw her. She was full of holes and
blood was all over her bow . .
I hope the ships at home have as good luck as us. I
wrote this on captured paper with a Spanish officer's
Like many other vessels in the navy, the Olympia has
a complete printing outfit on board, and issues, at inter-
vals, a very creditable sheet called the "Bounding Bil-
low." This is its account of a Spanish shot:

of the War with Spain.

One shot struck the Baltimore
in the starboard waist, just abaft
one of the six-inch guns. It
passed through the hamnock net-
tings, exploded a couple of three-
pounder shells, wounding six men,
then across the deck, striking the
cylinder of a gun, making it tem-
porarily useless, then running
around the shield it spent itself be-
tween two ventilators, just forward
Sof the engine-room hatch. The
Shell is in possession of the cap-
8 When the news of the glorious
Victory in Manila Bay reached the
United States, the people went
t wild with joy. Commodore
Dewey was thanked by Congress,
M and afterwards was made a rear-
admiral. In December, Congress
revived the grade and rank of ad-
miral and conferred it upon Rear-
Admiral Dewey, and he and all of
his men were presented with
medals of honor made expressly
for the purpose. The raising of
Admiral Dewey's new flag on the

Young People's History

Olympia was an interesting ceremony. As the blue
bunting with its four white stars fluttered to the peak
of the flagship, the crews of all the vessels in the fleet
were at quarters; the officers in full dress for the occasion.
The marines paraded; the drums gave four "ruffles"
as the Admiral stepped upon the deck; the Olympia's
band struck up Hail to the Chief," and an admiral's
salute of seventeen guns echoed across Manila Bay from
every American ship; followed by salutes of the same
number of guns from each foreign war vessel in the

The Dewey Medal of Honor.

of the War with Spain.


W HILE Admiral Sampson had been fixing the
blockade he had also been forming plans to
close the channel, and so keep any large
ship from stealing out
of the bay. For, al-
though our men
watched closely, there
was always a chance
that in a fog or storm
the Spanish shipsmight
slip out without being
seen. Admiral Samp-
son knew that the
Spaniards couldremove
anything that might be
sunk to close the chan-
nel, but the work
would take time, and Lieut. Richmond P. Hobson.
meanwhile our Army
might arrive on the land back of Santiago, and then our
Army and Navy could help each other. Time was what

82 Young People's History

was needed in order to have all things ready for forcing
the Spaniards out of Santiago and taking possession of
the city.
So, plans were made for sinking a coal steamer across
the narrowest part of the channel, and thus blocking the
way. Now you shall hear of one of the bravest deeds
ever done in war.
The work of closing the channel was put into the hands
of Lieutenant Hobson. The collier Merrimac was chosen
as the vessel to be sunk. You have no idea how
much had to be done before the Merrimac was ready.
There were hours and hours of work. The crew had to
take off all the things that were not to be sunk, the
machinery had to be fixed in certain ways, the heavy
anchors had to be placed in the right parts, and the tor-
pedoes, which Lieutenant Hobson made for blowing
holes in the vessel at the right moment, had to be fitted
into their places. AMore than two thousand tons of coal
had to be shoveled away from certain places in the hold
to make room for the torpedoes and to leave spaces for
the water to rush in and sink the vessel. So, much hard
work was done before the good collier was ready to be
forced under the waves.
There was only a small chance that the men who took
the Merrimac into the channel would ever see their
friends again. Death in the waves, or death in the hands
of the Spaniards, was the prospect. Lieutenant Hobson
said that he would not take one man more than was

of the War with Spain. 83

needed. A signal was put up on all the ships, to find
out the men who were willing to go in the Merrimac.
Hundreds of brave fellows sent in their names, begged
to go, gave good reasons why they thought they ought
to go, and were grieved to be refused. Lieutenant Hob-
son chose only six, but at the last minute a seventh man
got his chance; so, counting Lieutenant Hobson, there
were eight men going to almost certain death.
After the passing away of the old wooden ships of the
navy, and before our war with Spain, it was often said
that opportunities for individual bravery and daring had
departed from the navy; but this was disproved in the
case of Lieutenant Hobson and his men, and in many
other instances. Every man in the fleet was ready to go
on the Merrimac and do what he was told to do; and so
long as such men man our ships our navy can never be
conquered. They will fight to the uttermost and go
down with their colors rather than strike them.
Thursday evening, the second of June, arrives, and
the Mierrimac is all ready for her last voyage. The men
are on board, waiting for the time to start. Quietly and
fearlessly they pass the night, but they do not sleep,
they cannot sleep. Behind the Merrimac, farther out
at sea, stand the faithful vessels of our fleet, huge, pale
shadows in the night. The full moon lights up the chan-
nel that the Merrimac will enter after awhile when the
moon is low. On both sides of the channel rise the high
cliffs with their forts. Morro Castle frowns upon the
scene. Beyond-far beyond, are the mountain tops.

Young People's History

A basket of food and a kettle of coffee had been sent
on board by the flagship, and after midnight the men
sit down on deck to eat their last meal on board the
A little before two o'clock, Friday morning, June
3d, the Merrimac starts for the channel. Each man is
at his post; each knows his duty and intends to do it.
The men are not wearing their naval uniforms, but are
clad only in woolen underclothes, woolen stockings,
with no shoes. Each man wears a life-preserver, and a
belt with a revolver fastened to it.
On, on goes the vessel, swiftly, surely, heading for the
channel. Suddenly shots begin to pour upon the Merri-
mac; the Spaniards in the forts have seen her approach.
Still she plunges on, not heeding the fire from the forts.
Lieutenant Hobson gives the signal to stop the engine,
to turn the vessel in the right way across the channel,
to fire the torpedoes, to drop the anchors. Shells from
the forts are exploding all around, and the noise is ter-
rible. But hard luck meets the Merrimac. A shot has
broken her rudder, so she cannot be steered; a shot has
broken the chain of one of her anchors, so the anchor is
gone; some of the torpedoes will not go off, so not enough
holes can be made to sink the Merrimac quickly; the tide
is sweeping her into the channel farther than she ought
to go.
The men, having done their work, lie flat on deck to
avoid the shots, and wait anxiously for the moment

The Merrimac."

Young People's History

when the vessel shall go down. In a few minutes the
Merrimac tosses low to one side, then to the other, then
plunges, bow foremost, into the waves. Now the men
are thrown into the whirling water. But see! they man-
age to swim to the life-raft, which had been fastened by
a long rope to the Merrimac and is now floating on the
waves. They cling to the raft, only heads and hands
above water. They keep quiet, for the Spaniards are out
in small boats now, looking to see what damage has been
done. The Spaniards do not see our men clinging to
the flat raft. So Lieutenant Hobson and his crew stay
in the water, which is very chilly in the early morning;
their teeth chatter, their limbs ache. Meanwhile day
dawns beautifully over the hills of Santiago.
An hour passes in this way. Now a steam-launch is
seen coming toward the raft. Lieutenant Hobson hails
the launch, asks for the officer in charge, and surrenders
himself and his men. They are helped into the launch,
prisoners in the hands of the Spaniards. The officer is
Admiral Cervera.
Naval Cadet Powell, of the New York, performed a
feat in many respects as heroic as that of Hobson and his
men. HIe volunteered to take the launch of the flagship
and a small crew, patrol the mouth of the harbor and at-
tempt to rescue H-obson and his plucky crew should any
of them survive after the Merrimac had been blown up.
This is his story:
Lieutenant Hobson took a short sleep for a few hours,

of the War with Spain.

which was often interrupted. A quarter to two o'clock
he came on deck and made a final inspection, giving his
last instructions. Then we had a little lunch.
Hobson was just as cool as a cucumber. About two-
twenty I took the men who were not going on the trip
into the launch and
started for the Texas,
which was the nearest
ship, but had to go back
for one of the assistant
engineers, whom Hob-
son finally compelled
to leave. I shook
hands with Hobson the
last of all. He said:
'Powell, watch the
boat's crew when we
pull out of the harbor.
We will be cracks,
rowing thirty strokes Naval Cadet Jos. W. Powell.
to the minute.'
"After leaving the Texas, I saw the Merrimac steam-
ing slowly in. It was only fairly dark then, and the
shore was quite visible. We followed about three-quar-
ters of a mile astern. The Merrimac stood about a
mile to the westward of the harbor, and seemed a bit
mixed, turning completely around; finally, heading to
the east, she ran down, then turned in. We were then

Young People's History

chasing him, because I thought Hobson had lost his
bearings. When Hobson was about two hundred yards
from the harbor the first gun was fired from the eastern
We were then half a mile off shore, close under the
batteries. The firing increased rapidly. We steamed in
slowly and lost sight of the Merrimac in the smoke, which
the wind carried off shore. It hung heavily. Before
Hobson could have blown up the Merrimac the western
battery picked up and commenced firing. They shot
wild, and we only heard the shots. We ran in still closer
to the shore, and the gunners lost sight of us. Then we
heard the explosion of the torpedoes on the Merrimac.
Until daylight we waited just outside the breakers, half
a mile to the westward of Morro, keeping a bright look-
out for the boat or for swimmers, but saw nothing. Hob-
son had arranged to meet us at that point, but, thinking
that some one might have drifted out, we crossed in front
of Morro and the mouth of the harbor to the eastward.
About five o'clock we crossed the harbor again, within a
quarter of a mile, and stood to the westward.
In passing we saw one spar of the Merrimac sticking
out of the water. We hugged the shore just outside of
the breakers for a mile, and then turned towards the
Texas, when the batteries saw us and opened fire. It
was then broad daylight. The first shot fired dropped
thirty yards astern, but the other shots went wild. I
drove the launch for all she was worth, finally making
the New York. The men behaved splendidly."

of the War with Spain. 89

How did our brave men fare as prisoners? They were
taken to one of the Spanish warships, were fed and
clothed, and treated as friends. Ad-
miral Cervera sent a message to Ad-
miral Sampson, saying that all the *
men were safe and would be well
treated. But they were not allowed
to stay long on the ship. After a
few hours they were
taken to Morro Castle,
which they did not
find a pleasant prison,
though they were not
badly treated. Lieu-
tenant Hobson, by
climbing up to the
Hobson's Cell.
little window in his cell,
could see our ships far out at sea. In a few days the
prisoners were taken from Morro Castle to another prison
in the city of Santiago. You shall hear of them again.

Young People's History


I HAVE not told you all the brave deeds done by our
Navy soon after our ships had reached Cuba, but I
will go back, for a few minutes, to the 11th of May.
A very sad affair took place at Cardenas, a port about
twenty miles east of Matanzas, the place where the first
shots were fired. Some of our smaller vessels blockading
Cardenas were bold enough to go into the harbor to fight
some Spanish gunboats. Though our men gained a vic-
tory, it was dearly bought, for our torpedo-boat Winslow
was nearly destroyed, and five of her men were killed.
That same day, across the island, at Cienfuegos, on the
south shore of Cuba, our men succeeded in cutting the
cables under the water, the story of which I have told
Before the Cubans began to fight the Spaniards, in
1895, Cardenas was a very pleasant city in which to live.
So many Americans who had business interests in Cuba
lived there, that it was frequently spoken of as the
American city. Like Matanzas, it was the shipping point
for a great sugar-growing district, and one of the finest
sugar plantations in Cuba was in the vicinity of the city.

of the War with Spain.

The bay used to be a famous resort for pirates, but they
were exterminated a great many years ago by war vessels
of the United States. Now I will tell you the story of
the Winslow.
The blockading vessels off Cardenas were the Machias,
the Wilmington and the Hudson. It was determined to
enter the inner harbor and attack three small gunboats
which were known to be there. While preparations for
the attack were being made, the Winslow came in from
off Mantanzas, for coal, and was given a place in the at-
tacking force. The Winslow, Wilmington and Hudson
entered the inner harbor through a small channel to the
eastward, near Blanco Cay. The Winslow went in closer
than the others, and almost before her plucky com-
mander knew it, the fire of the Spanish gunboats and of
some shore batteries was concentrated on this frail craft.
The Winslow was a torpedo-boat, and this class of ves-
sels do not have very thick sides or carry heavy guns.
They are very fast and the powerful torpedoes they carry
can destroy the largest and heaviest ship afloat.
The Winslow returned the Spanish fire splendidly, but
at last a shot crashed into her bow and disabled her boiler.
Another tore away her steering gear; and then she rolled
helplessly while the Spaniards made her a target for
every gun they could bring to bear: Seeing her helpless
condition, the Hudson came to her assistance and tried
to get a line on board. After awhile she succeeded, but
when she attempted to tow her away the line parted.

Young People's History

She made a second attempt, but just at the instant the
little group on the Winslow caught the line, a shell burst
in their very faces. Several of the crew, including the
commander of the Winslow, were wounded, and Ensign
Bagley and four seamen were instantly killed. There
was scarcely a man left on the torpedo-boat to make the
line fast, but it was done at last, and the Hudson towed
the shattered Winslow
out of danger. It was
a very brave thing that
the officers and men of
the Hudson did, and
later they were
thanked by Congress,
and a medal of honor
was presented to each
of them.
I think you will be
pleased to learn that
the next day the Wil-
mington went into the
Ensign Worth Bagley. harbor again, and with
her big guns tore the
forts and batteries to atoms, sank two gunboats and two
other vessels, and burned a block-house.
Ensign Bagley, the first and the only line officer in
the navy to fall in the war with Spain, was one of the
most popular of young naval officers. While at the

of the War with Spain.

Academy at Annapolis he became known as an all-round
athlete, but his greatest triumphs were on the foot-ball
field. His record throughout his naval career was stain-
less, and the news of his death was received with sorrow
by the people of the United States.
Now I will tell you the story of how the United States
flag was raised for the first time on the island of Cuba
during the war; and I will tell it in the words of Ensign
Willard, of the Machias, the officer who performed the
deed. It was done while the fight was going on in Car-
denas harbor.
The Machias drew too much water for the channel to
the eastward, and moved up the main channel to within
one mile of its narrowest part abreast of Diana Cay.
This channel was supposed to be mined and the mines
operated from the block-house and signal station on
Diana Cay. This place was shelled, and, under cover of
this fire, a boat's crew of nineteen sailors and marines,
under my command, made a landing on the opposite side
of the Cay.
The Spanish hastily left the place, disappearing com-
pletely. A Spanish flag, signal flags, etc., and a quantity
of ammunition, were captured, and the United States flag
raised. Then search was made for mines and the channel
dragged for two hours. Before leaving, everything at
the station was burned or destroyed, including nine large
row-boats. For the raising of this flag I was later
awarded, through the New York 'Herald,' a prize of one

Young People's History

hundred dollars, which was divided pro rata by me among
the men who accompanied me on the expedition."
Early in June, brave work was done by our sailors at
Guantanamo, a short distance east of Santiago. They
took the harbor and destroyed the forts there, in order
that our ships might have a place where they could get
coal without going far
from Santiago. The
coal steamers could not
supply the whole fleet,
so our vessels had been
going for coal all the
way back to Key West,
south of Florida. It
was a great help to
have a coaling place at
Guantanamo, but our
sailors had much hard
work to take the place.
Commander B. H. McCalla. NOW I will tell you
about some of this hard
work, and something about two men who made it possi-
ble to land the marines and establish a coaling station
in Guantanamo Bay. The men were Commander Mc-
Calla, of the Marblehead, and Captain Brownson, of the
Long before the Spanish fleet put into the harbor of
Santiago, the Marblehead was along the southern coast

of the War with Spain.

of Cuba, poking her nose into every inlet, cutting
cables, and communicating with the Cubans. McCalla
had her stripped of everything- but her guns and
her steering gear, and everywhere she went she became
a terror to the Spaniards. She dared to go anywhere and
do anything. Every man on the ship was devoted to
McCalla, and every gunner on board was a crack shot,
because they were kept shooting at something all the
time. If they couldn't find a Spanish gunboat to shoot
at, they fired at floating targets.
When it was decided to clear everything Spanish out
of the bay, so our ships could use it, McCalla and Brown-
son were sent down there to do the work; but first I will
tell you a story about Brownson, so you can see that he
was just the right kind of a man to go along with Mc-
In the early part of 1894 there was a civil war in
Brazil. The entire Brazilian navy had taken sides with
the insurgents and completely blockaded the harbor of
Rio de Janeiro. Ships of all nations were there, waiting
to enter the harbor, but the insurgents would not let
them. Admiral Benham was sent there to look after
American interests, with his flagship, the San Francisco;
and Captain, then Commander, Brownson, was there
with his ship, the Detroit. The blockade had to be
broken, and Brownson was selected as the man to do it.
One morning there was a stir on board the Detroit.
The awnings came down, her flag was sent aloft and her

Young People's History

guns were shotted. Brownson ordered the anchor
hoisted, and, with the men at the guns, the cruiser headed
towards the city. The flags of the English, German and
Italian ships were dipped in salute as she moved ahead.
Two American ships, the Amy and the Good News, were
anchored under the guns of two of the insurgent fleet.
As the Detroit passed
close by the Trajano,
Sa marine on that ship
raised a musket and
fired a bullet over the
heads of the sailors on
the Amy, which was
following close behind
the Detroit.
When the shot was
fired Brownson turned
to a gunner and or-
dered him to shoot into
Capt. Willard H. Brownson. the Trajano at the
water line and about
six feet from the stern. The order was misunderstood
and was sent across the Trajano's bow instead.
"Trajano, ahoy!" hailed Brownson. "If you fire
again I will sink you." Not a shot was fired.
You go ahead," shouted Brownson to the Amy, and
I'll protect you "; and although there were insurgent
ships all about, the Amy passed into the harbor unmo-

of the War with Spain.

lested, with the ships of other nations closely following
her. Then the Detroit returned to her anchorage.
Brownson had raised the blockade.
Guantanamo Bay is one of the most famous harbors
on the southern coast of Cuba.
It is deep, wide and smooth
as a mill pond. At the en-
trance the harbor is broad and
open, but afterwards it is nar-
rower, and in this place the
Spaniards had placed a lot of
mines and two little gunboats.
When the Marblehead and
the Yankee steamed into the
bay they began to make trou- I
ble for the Spaniards at once.
There was a block-house on a
hill, but they quickly knocked
that to pieces. Then they si-
lenced the fire of the fort and
chased the gunboats as far as
they could go. Next they A Marine.
shelled the woods, and, having
made a general cleaning out, they sent word to the fleet
that they could land the marines at any time.
On June 10, a detachment of marines from the Ore-
gon landed, and soon afterwards six hundred more were
landed from the troop-ship Panther. They found plenty

98 Young People's History

of evidence that the Marblehead's shells had induced the
Spaniards to depart in a hurry. Watches, hammocks,
two field guns, and a lot of ammunition, were lying
around. There were a few buildings left, but the marines
soon set fire to them. They then drove off a few Span-
iards who were about, and then pitched their tents.
Pretty soon they were attacked by a large body of Span-
iards, but they d4lve themoff after having several men
killed and quite a number wounded. The place of en-
campment was named Camp McCalla, in honor of the
gallant commander of the Marblehead.
Before the marines were reinforced they were fighting
nearly all the time. It was the first time that most of
them had been in battle, but they fought like veterans.
The Spaniards were very cunning and constantly planned
surprises for them, but the marines finally drove them
away and held their position until reinforcements came.
One of the marines, in writing home, said:
They fight Indian fashion, and the guerillas strip off
all their clothing and dress themselves with leaves and
crawl along the ground like snakes, and at night it is very
hard to see or hear them. Then, again, they dig holes
in the ground and cover them over with brush and con-
ceal themselves there until their prey comes along. Their
signals are very hard to understand, and they sound like
birds and are very deceiving.
We have to carry our rifles and ammunition with us
wherever we go. Yesterday morning, while we were eat-


A Spanish Guerilla.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs