The Daily equator-Democrat
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086520/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Daily equator-Democrat
Portion of title: Daily equator Democrat
Alternate Title: Equator-Democrat
Physical Description: Newspaper
Language: English
Publisher: Equator Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Key West Fla
Creation Date: March 1889
Frequency: daily (except sunday)
normalized irregular
Subjects / Keywords: Newspapers -- Key West (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Newspapers -- Monroe County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Monroe -- Key West
Coordinates: 24.559167 x -81.784031 ( Place of Publication )
Additional Physical Form: Also available on microfilm from the University of Florida.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 9, no. 251 (Mar. 26, 1889).
Funding: Funded in part by the University of Florida, the Library Services and Technology Assistance granting program of Florida, the State Library and Archives of Florida, and other institutions and individuals.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002042453
oclc - 01556730
notis - AKN0317
lccn - sn 95026773
System ID: UF00086520:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Equator-el Ecuador
Preceded by: Key West Democrat

Full Text




ily Equator-Democrat
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Key West, Florida.

"The City Without a Winter."

Tho most Southern Land under the
Star-Spangled Banner.

The pieces where first the water of
the fI Mej' lean ulf and th c broadly
Atlantic meet anil kiss each
A Brief Review' of hei m niiufaietirimg Ini.
terest, with midi h-winter scenes,, 1in(
biographical sketches, with p)or-
traits of prominent inailiu-
fthcturers and othilier
leading citizens.

The largest city in Florida, the first cigar manu-
facturing ,city, save Havana, in the world;
the ninth port of entry in the United States,
the third naval strategic point belonging to
Uncle Sam, rightly termed the Key of the
The city alone pays more Import duty and
Internal Revenue Tax than all the ba-
lance of the State of Florida, and
also of the vast States of Geor-
gila, Alabama, and
As an Introductory to this edition we wish to
say, that the Equator- Democrat, of which this is

factory world. We feel satisfied that we will
give in every way more than originally prom-
ised, and from this cause we feel assured that
every patron of the paper, and every man in-
terested it; Key West, will have cause for con-
gratulation. The reports of the dity's business
are takon from the records of the U. S. Govern-
ment offices. We leave tihe descriptive matter
to peak for itself, the engravings having all
beoon made from Photographs taken during
January of this year. We shall hereafter issue
an annual edition of this kind, on or about the
1st of November of each year. Should we
have overlooked items that should be noticed,
or'escalpd men1 or firms who would havee liked
to havo been reoresented, we have only to say
that we have done our best to see all, and
therefore it is more Jan likely that the fault
rests upon other shoulders than ours. (A fuller
history of the papers of Key West will be found
under the appropriate head.)

IT is the intention of the writer of this sketch
of Key West, or the "Island City,",to give as
full and complete a Listory of tihe island as far
back as 1820, or 1822, as it is possible for limit to
so do. From his limited personal knowledge,
and from the short time in which he has had to
gather facts from older residents and cull glean-
ings from the few works or articles that have
been published, which contahi facts. and date-

more or less low, but never overflow, and are
extremely healthy, and are composed of a rich
fertile soil, and abound in a growth of hard-
wood timbers, such as Lignum.vitto, Crab
Wood, Machria, R1ubber trees and Wild Fig.
The scenery among these islands is beautiful in
the extreme; and deer and other large game are
In abundance, and birds, wild pigeon and other
small game, "are as plentiful as the sands of
the sea," Hardly a d..y passes that'the settlers
of Pine Key (which os only piort distance
from Key West), and other islands near us, do
not bring to this market from one to five large
bucks and does, and any number of pigeonst
ducks, and quails; and Afliare hooked in any
part of the Bay or Gulf without apparent effort.
AccI:S is easily had to any or all of these beau-
tiful islands, which makes Key W t and her
surrounding Keys offer to the sff an (and
health-seeker, of which we shall speak later) the
finest advantages in the world.
THE iSLAND OF KEY WEST is situated in
latitude 24 32', sixty miles from the border of
the tropics, and the clhnate is the finest in the
world, and no consumptive was ever known to
come to Key West, from a colder climate, and
die of lung trouble. In fact the climate is es-
The temperature was never recorded lower
thanri 41" and only one time at that, which was
thirty three or four years ago. The lowest
since then was about 50* or 51. The average
temperature for January, whichh is about the
coldest month w'k have, is from 68' to 72', and
for July and August the average temperature is
from 80 to 85'. Of course we have occasional

"Mid-Winter Scenes," United States Custom House and Court House, now building.

the Trade Issue, is a seven column, 28 page
paper, with a special double size quarto on
Saturday; that it is tile first daily paper over
published in the Islan4 city, but we dQ not wish
it thought that it is the only one over started,
having hlad, at several times, warm opposition,
but controlling tlie field to-day, without oppo-
sition. It is thl official organ of the Sixth
Judicial Circuit, of the County of Monroe, and
of the city of Key West, Florida, also the paper
in which the legal advertisements of Uncle
Sam," in this section are printed. It has daily
cable service, via the International Ocean Tel-
egraphic Co., with the world, The subscription
price is $10.00 per year in advance. Tli Demo-
crat was founded in 1880, and the Equator, the
latter first started as an English and Spanish
paper, both by lon. C. B. Pendloeton, in 1886.
They were consolidated by him later on, and
merged into a daily, under his exclusive control
and proprietorship. This paper is given its
present form, instead of the usual size of the
EQUATOR-DE.MOcnAT, on account of its bulk,
being handier in this shape for reference, and
on the whole allowing of better and more satis.

necessary to this sketch, it is to be hoped that
he will be pardoned if a greater portion of the
first part of this Trade Issue" should contain
extracts from other writers; and for the greater
portion of the early history of Key West we are
indebted to an address delivered by Hon. W.C.
Maloney, Sr., deceased, in front of the City Hall,
in this city, July 4th, 1870, and from a few other
printed documents, among which is The Italy
of America."
Key West is the cotinty seat of Monroe
County, the most southcl'n county in the State
of Florida, and is composed of all the islands
of Florida, from Cape lRomano, on the Gulf of
3Mexeio, to Miami, onil the Atlantic Ocean, a
distance of two hundred and fifty diles or
more. It has, also, a small strip of territory on
the extreme southern portion of the peninsula.
The principal islands of the County of Monroe
are Key Largo, the Ton Thousand Islands,
Torch Key, Plantation Key, a hundred or
more smaller islands, and last, but by no means
least, the island of Key West, with which we
Iave to deal in particular.
Monroe County is bounded on the north, by
Lee (which was cut off from Monroe in the
spring of 1887) and Dade counties; on the West
and South by the Gulf of Mexico; and on the
east by the Atlantic Ocean. The islands that
compose the greater portion of the county are

exceptions from this average, but veiy rarely,
and the extremes either way do not last over.
one or two days. The highest temperature sel-
dom exceeds, in summer, 90'. A cool, pleasant
salt breeze ever blowing. In winter the waters
of the Gulf, seconded by the warm, refulgent
rays of the sun, temper the chilly blasts of the
frozen north, so when they reach the Coral
Island they are as pleasant as could be wished
for by the thinnest-blooded consumptive or dys-
Key West has the f iest climate, at all sea-
sons, together'with the*'flnest capabilities and
natural advantages to make it the most attrac-
tive Winter resort of any other city or section
of country in the world, and this fact is already
becoming known to tourists, who for the past
two years have begun to fill our hotels; and
our capitalists have at last awakened to the
fact that finer and larger accommodations arQ
needed for them, and a movement is now on
foot to build, on South, a large and
and places of amusement, for the accommoda-
tion of the hundreds of invalids and, pleasure
seekers that have already comttienced to flock to
the Island CiAty It is their intention, also, to
have a nuimbei* pteli ind sail yachts to con-
vey the guetsti m a y of the Keys they may wish

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to visit for a day's shooting or. fishing. A lot of
small tents will also be made for the accommno-
dation of those who would enjoy a camp hunt
on the Keys. And it il confidently asserted
that all these improvements will be finished
before the advent of another winter; and why?
Is not
one of the prettiest 4nd the longest in the State?
It certainly is, and promises, with but little im-
provement, to make the finest beach for bath-
ing to be found in the South; and besides, the
water is a perfect eddy, and bathers need have
no fear of being washed off their feet by the
"under-current," as is too otten the case at
iany other favorite bathing resorts.
Key West is the home of the cocoa-nut,
banana, pine-apple, date, sappadillo, and hun-
dreds of other tropical and semi-tropical fruits,
while the orange and lemon are grown in abun-
dance on Horr's, and other neighboring Keys,
and can be bought in any of our fruit stores for
a song on almost any day in the year.
Key West is easily reached by tourists from
the States, either by steamer direct, or via
the overland route to Tampa or Punta Gorda,
and from thence on the Plant Line or the Mor-
gan Line, respectively, to Key West. Many,

on the island. Everybody has what heart can
wish, and work is plentiful. The wages earned
by the cigar makers rmnge from $18 to $50 per
week, according to skill, while those earned by
the pickers and packers average much higher.
Young girls hero earn from $5 to $20, and a
number of them make much more, in some in-
stances their envelopes will contain as high as
$85 per week.
The majority of our cigar manufacturers are
self-made men, commencing life as a cigar
maker in mainny instances not ten years ago. In
fact there have been more fortunes made in
Key West during that period than in any city
in the south,-pheinomonal mining cities of
Alabama, Georgia or Tennessee not excepted.
Key West has many modern improvements,
being lighted by gas,-with ten miles of street
railroad. The island also boasts of one of the
finest Fire departments in the State composed
of four lirst-9lJss latest Imrproved e engines,
one large Hook and tadder Company, and four
first-class Hose .carriages, with Mr. B. F. IH.
Bowers as Ci~ief of the Department, who has
held the office for several consecutive terns.
We also have three handsome Methodist
churches and a Cuban mission house, also
Episcopal, Baptist, Presbyterian, and Catholic
churches, at which the white population of the

ing, after whom our Fleming street takes its
name, and who was one of the original proprie-
tors of the island. The lot was situated on the
corner of Duval and Eaton streets, where now
stands a handsome frame edifice. In 1840 the
congregation had a handsome native stone
church erected, but which was totally destroyed
by the memorable hurricane of 1846; and in
1847 the present framo edifice was erected.
This church now hls a..membership of over
seven hundred members, although it lost a por-
tion of its membership a few years back when
the colored members erected a church to them-
selves and withdrew from it. It also has a largo
and flourishing Sunday School, with over four
hundred scholars and forty odd teachers. Rev.
Dr. J. B. Lynn is the present pastor, and who
is loved and admired by his entire congrega-
During the latter part of 1875, the colored
people of the island organized another Episco-
pal church as above named, and which now
numbers several hundred, with a large and
flourishing Sunday School. The Rev. Dr. McGill
is the present pastor, lihe having arrived here
from Washington, D. C., a few months ago.

L? >K

prefer the overland route," inasmuch as they
will have the pleasure of admiring the pretty
scenery in all the different States through
which they will pass, most especially in Florida,
and then have the pleasure of enjoying from
Aighteen to twenty-two hours' sea voyage from
Tampa or Puntsa Gorda.
If the truth in regard to the climate and
healthfulness of Key West was known in all
the different States of the Union, tlhe island
world not be large enough to accommodate the
visitors that would pour in upon us every year.
But oh the contrary, there is less 'rinnn known
about it than any cliT, or section in the world
-Africa not excepted. Many wealthy and In-
telligent persons believe Key West belongs to
Cuba, or rather to Spain; others confound it
with Dry Tortugas, and think it is a barren
island only used by Uncle Sam as a prison
for his refractory subjects; while others, still,
believe it to be the home of pirates and cut-
throats. Few there are who know it is the
largest and most Important city in the State
and has a population of 22,000 (actual count last
year) or more, and growing at a rate that is
almost magical; and that it has over 200 cigar
factories, some of them giving employment to
as many as 800.Mands, and tihe smallest of this
number employ at least fifteen hands.
The citizens of Key Westre all hospitable
and generous to a fault, and there is no poverty
Al." ,

New Ruas~ella IIous.

island worship; besides, we have one colored
Baptist, two Methodist and one Episcopal
Our Public schools (two in numner) and sev-
eral private schools are all under excellent man-
agement, and have large attendance.
* Besides the above schools we have the finest
Catholic Convent to be found in the State,
which now has pupils from nearly every State
in the Union.
We also have several largo hotels, besides
quite a number of .private boarding houses.
The NiXw RUISSELL lHors, is the principal and
leading hotel in the city, and is second to none
in the State in a coummodations, of which more

The first church e eor organized in Key West,
was on the 25fh day of December, 1832, with
the Rev. S. K. Brunot, as its first pastor, andI
with a membership of thirty mentbers. During
the same winter an Act 'of Legislature was ob-
tained, incorporating this congregation under
the name of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal
Church." The site for the erection of the
church was donated by the widow of Mr. Flem.o

There is also connected with the Protestant
Episcopal Church of this city, a Cuban Mission,
organized among the Cuban inhabitants of the
island, through the zealous labors of the Rev.
Dr. Steeole,who also organized St. Peter's Church
for the colored people. The Cuban Missionl
also has a flourishing Sunday-School.
Mr. Maloney says, in reference to the organi-
zation of the Methodist church in this city,
that "among the many. very worthy persons
who cane among us in 'the year 1837, may be
specially named one who, though dead, still
lives in the sacred regards of his contempora-
rice. I allude to Mr. Samuel Kemp. This gen-
tlemen, good and pious, worshiped with those
of us who resorted to the court house for that
purpose, for some time, but soon after erected,
at his own expense (assisted in the labor by
some of his neighbors, who wore mechant), a
small building for public worship, on land
owned by himself, immediately opposite the
present residence of Dr. J, V. Harris, on Caro-
line, near Grinnell street. This was the first
place of public worship in which the denomina-
tion known as Wesleyan Methodists," congre
gated in this city; and which gave rise to all
the others, with Father Kemp as the brst
A few yearn after this building became too


small, another house was erected on Caroline
street, and a few years later, when it became
necessary to have a still larger house of worship
for this denomination, Mr. Win. C. Greene pre-
sented the congregation with a lot on which
now stands the largo stone edifice of the
on the corner of Simonton and Eaton streets.
The hurricane of 1840 leveled the first stone
building to the ground after the four walls had
been completed. Mr. Simon Peter Richardson
was the pastor of the church at the time of this
heavy loss to the congregation, and through his
active, untiring efforts another handsome edi-
tice was soon erected. In 1872 the membership
of this church was only seventy-two; but its
present membership will now aggregate five
hundred or more, being the largest denominia-
tion in the State. This church also has a largo
and growing Sabbath School, with some four
or five hundred scholars enrolled. Their Rev.
Mr. Householder is the present pastor.

of Allen Dean (col.), with Rev. B. W. Roberts
as the first pastor. It now has a membership
of some three hundred, ald a large and flour-
ishing Sunday-School. Rev. R. Seabrook is the
present pastor.
This church is of comparatively recent date,
situated on the corner of Duval and Angelia
streets; holds Spanish services, and has a large
Cuban membership, as well as a flourishing
Sunday-School. Rev. II. B. Sonmeillan is the
present pastor, assisted by Mr. M. J. Perez.
Thlie Missionary Baptist Church, situated on
Rocky Road, was organized in 1848, with the
first church on Eaton street. Later a larger
houso of worship was built on Rocky Road.
where the members now worsl~1i. It now has
a large nidmbershilyi and a flourishing Sabbath-
School. Rev. S. F. cfove is the present pastor.
In 1870, the colored Baptists of this city. pre-

The church is now known by the name of St.
Mary's Star of the Sea." In 1870 the church
was enlarged to its present size, for the better
accomminodation of the large increase in mem-
bership. The membership is the largest of any
church on the island, and the most rapidly in-
creasing. Rev. Father Ghione is the priest at
present in charge.

The educational interests of the city of Key
West first took form, prior to the Civil War, in
a private school, in which the tuition of indi-
gent pupils, however, was paid by the county:
thus rendering it, to that extent, available as a
free school.
Subsequent to the war, however, the growth
of the city rendered imperatively necessary an
extension of facilities for the public education.
Accordingly, the School Board, with Judge
Locke ex-oflicio Co. Supt., organized, in 1870,

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"Mid.Winter Scenery." From at Photograph tak,,n by Estevez, Jammary 3, 1889,

The first African Methodist Episcopal Church
was erected in 1865, and was organized by
Sandy Cornish and Cataline Simmons, both
colored men, who, while they were not regu-
larly ordained ministers, held regular services
between them until one could be procured; and
the church now has a large congregation and a
flourishing Sunday school.
In 1800 a portion of the congregation of the
"First Methodist Church" (white) withdrew
from that church and organized themselves into
a society under the name of Sparks' Chapel,"
with Rev. J. 0. A. Sparks as the first regular
pastor. This church is now in a flourishing
condition, andi has a thriving Sunday-School,
with Rev. Goo. W. Mitchell as the present pas-
tor. At the time of its organization it num-
bered eighty-seven members, with a Sabbath-
School attendance of about forty scholars. It
now numbers nearly three hundred members
with a Sabbath-School attendance of over two
In 1870, tfie above church, situated on Duval
street, was erected mainly through the efforts

ferring to worship to themselves, caused to be
erected their present edifice on Thomas street,
with a membership of about fifty-five. It now
boasts of between two and three hundred mem-
bers, with a Sabbath School of over three hun-
dred attendants.
Situated on Rocky Road. Services: Sunday
Preaching at 10:30 A. M.; Sunday School (Span-
ish and English), at 4 P.M. r Preaching (Spanish
and English), at 8 P. M. Holiness Meeting every
Wednesday at 5 P.M. Prayer Meeting service,
every Thursday at 8 P. M. Holy Communion
first Sabbath in each month. Bros. Jno. A.
Giddens and H. B. Somellman are the present
"Previous to 1845, visits from a Roman Cath-
olic priest seldom occurred. About that time,
however," says Mr. Maloney, Rev. Father Cor-
coran came to the city, and occasionally cele-
brated mass in the City Hall," About 1851 a
Catholic church was erected, on Duval, between
Eaton and Fleming streets, where thle present
Cathedral now stands, and in 1852, was conse-
crated by Right Rev. Father Gartland, then
Bishop of Savannah: the dedication ceremony
being delivered by the Rev. Dr. Cumming.

Public School No. 1. This school was appropri-
ated to the education of the colored children of
the city, and temporary quarters were provided
pending the erection of a commodious and well-
appointed building, which was completed ar d
first occupied in the autumn of 1872. This in-
stitution now took the name of The Douglas
School," commemorative of the great. Illinois
senator, of national repute. The career of this
school, from its organization to the present
time, has been one of uninterrupted prosper-
Immediately following, and during the same
year (1870), the foundation was laid for the
munificent public educational system now en-
joyed by thte children of this city, and
which, for liberality and munificence of appro-
priation, is not excelled by any community of
equal population, even in the wealthy and pop-
ulous northern sections of the republic. (It is
proper to remark, at this point, that the expe-
rience of tile writer, as a practical educator, ex-
tends over a field comprising the wealthiest and
most progressive States from the Atlantic to
the Missouri River).
The white free school occupied quarters in
the Masonic Hall until the completion, in 1874,
of an elegantly appointed building for its use,
when it entered 4jpon its present career under
the name of


The plan of the Sears building is such as to
combine the essentials of convenience and com-
fort in the.lighest degree; is an imposing struc-
ture of three stories, contains nine Lesson rooms
with capacity for 500 pupils. The rapidly grow-
ing wants of the city have, however, rendered
this building inadequate to tile demands, and
now a third commodious and beautiful build-
ing has been added to the system. The same
characteristic liberality marks all the appoint-
ments of the latter structure, no pains or ex-
pense having been spared in securing furniture
and equipment of the most approved design
and best calculated to subserve the ends of con-
venience and comfort. This school has received
the title of
Complimentary to the present popular Supt.
of Pub. Instruction for the State.
The Board of Pub. Instruction for the county
of Monroe at the present time, consists of tih
following named gentlemen: R. ,j. Perry, M. 1).,
Supt. Pub. Inst.; C. F. Kemp, 1). 1). S., Chair-
man; Allen E. Curry, J. 13. Brown, C. R. Pierce,
P. T. Knight.

tering care, fidelity and unflinching firmness of
purpose may be attributed much the greater
part of the suecoss thus far attained by the
entire public school system of the city
The curricula of the public schools embraces
none of the purely ornamental branches (see
section descriptive of school at Convent) but
comprises, in addition to the elementary
branches, a liberal course in Literature, Lan-
guagoe and Physical Science. Also the West
Point course in mathematics, pure and mixed,
together with their applications in all branches
of field and topographical surveying, Including
the l rinciples, adjustIments and uss of thei most
approved class of instruments known to modern
Civil Engineerinlg.
Our educational facilities, however, are not
limited to the public school system. There are
now in operation upwards of 12 private schools
in our midst, pretminent among which is that
conducted in (hle
COxvIi' Or MARY l1mMACt',ATr.
This institution occupies a beautiful site coin-
prising eight acres in one of the finest sections
of the city. The location is on Division St.,
easily accessible to the entire city; and at the

Also St. Francis Xavier's school, which pro-
vides educational facilities for colored children
of both sexes; attendance 75.
The aggregate membership of all the schools,
both public and private, will approximate 1500.
Andl, In conclusion, it will be seen that the
facilities, offered by this city, to all classes. rich
or poor, sectarian or unsectarian, liberal or
atheistic, for acquiring a thorough education
either of a liberal, business or ornamental
character, are certainly second to none in the

Key West can, perhaps, boast of having the
greatest number of secret and benevolent orders
and societies of any city of its population on
the continent, to wit:
First we have the Free and Accepted
Masons," organized and chartered under the
name of "i)ade Lodge, No. 14," In January,
1844, with only eight members, now has a imem-
bership of 153.
In 1808, the Island Royal Arch Chapter," F.
and A. M., was organized, and now has between
fifty and sixty members. In 1870, the Monroe

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The Douglas school, at this time, embraces
four grades, has a registration of 100 pupils, a
well selected practical curriculum and employs
a corps of five competent teachers, at the head
of which Is Prof. L. W. Livingstone, an alum-
nus of Howard University, Washington, D. C.
This school is fully sustaining its past record
for efficiency.
The Sears school nc y registers an aggregate
membership of 432. L he Principalship of this
institution is in the hands of Prof. G. M. Yan-
cey, an alumnus of the university of North Car-
olina and a gentleman of large experience as a
practical educator. The work in the remaining
grades of this school is in the hands of eight
competent assistants, whose labors are charac-
terized by a degree of fidelity and singleness of
purpose which commands the apprecilatlon and
confidence of the entire patronage.
Russell Hall was opened to the public Oct. 1st,
1888, and is one of the fruits of the enterprise,
public spirit and far-seeing judgment of the
present County Board. The rapidly extending
limits of the city render this school a great con-
venience to the newer portions of the town,
and, from a very modest beginning, its enroll-
ment has extended to nearly 100. A corres-
ponding addition has been made to the corps of
teachers since the opening. This institution,
being in its infancy, has received every atten-
tion and support which an 9pterprising and
judicious Board could extend, and, to their tos-

satne time sufficiently retired to give it all tin'
charms of seclusion. The grounds have been
beautified by artificial adorimuent. The edfice,
constructed of light stone work, consists of a
main octagonal, with two wings, three stories
and a enpola. The design is convenient and
the stylo of architecture tasty In the extreme;
in short, this institution constitutes one of the
material elements of beauty and attractiveness
of the city. It was founded In 1808, for the
education of females exclusively, and has, dur-
ing its career of 20 years, done some excellent
educational work, as evidenced by the many
refined and intelligent ladies, of all religious
denominations in this city, who have received
their education at the hands of the cultured
and ne'ompllished sisters.
The curriculum comprises the elementary
branches, a liberal course in literature and
science. The entire course of pure mathematics,
both elementary and analytical, and, in addi-
tion to these, an extended course in the fine
arts, embracing ornamental nooedle-work, vocal
and instrumental music, painting etc.: 223
pupils are now registered and the educational
work is conducted by 8 teachers.
Of similar character, and under the same
auspices, is St. Joseph's College, opened Sep-
tember, 1888, exclusively for males: it is under
the instruction of two teachers, is parochial or
preparatory in character and scope, and is at-
tended by 60 students.

Council, No. 4," was also organized, and now
ias nearly forty members. And in 1872, the
" Baron Commandery" was organized, which
now numbers about thirty-five.
In 1872 the Cubans of this city also organized
the "Dr. Felix Varela Lodge, No. 04," which
now numbers nearly seventy-five qpounbers,
The Key West Lodge, No. 18," I. 0. 0. F.,
was organized in 1872, and now has a member-
ship of about seventy. The "Key West En-
campment, No, 5," I. 0. 0. F., was organized
July 4th, 1875, and now lhas about thirty-five
members. The "Cuban Lodge, No. 15," I. 0.
0. F., was organized in 1875, and now has about
forty members.
LOWS, we have, first, St. Michael's, No. 1530,"
organized in 1873, and now has about eighty-
five members; the St. Agnes, No. 1000," comes
next, which was organized in 1875, and now
has over forty members; and last, we have the
"St. Raphael, No. 1700," (Cuban Lodge), which
was organized in 1870, and now has nearly forty
The Mt. Morlah Lodge, No. 12," (colored),
was organized in 1875, and now has nearly
seventy members.
PLAns: We first have the Island City Lodge,
No. 9," organized in 1874, and in 1876 it num-
bered eight hundred members; "Sons of the
Future, No. 10," organized in 1874, had one

. ......... ...


hundred and eighty members in 1870; the
"Unity, No. 11," organized in 1874, had threo
hundred and eighiy members in 1871: the
"Rising Star, No. 1:1," organized in 1873, had
eighty members in IH 4,
Of the UNITED OIanIU o TrIll', RFwoFRM-
ERS: The Crystal Fountain, .No. 1," was or-
ganized in 1875, numbered two i11ndred mecn-
bers one year after' its organization.
TIIK KNIOIIS 1ov Jucn0io. --" Australia
Lodge No. 18," organizedil In 1875, and now Ims
abl)out olle hulindr'ld llei'bvlirs.
ANCF.-" (oral Tiemile," organize(li'i in 1875, 1Imd
nearly one Iniiilldredi ll ollibersl' in ole yeaI' from
its organization ; tli Solltliorln Star Council,",
organized in 187d, with thirty mvI'iilbiers; thel
"Clinton Hniievohlct Soclety," organized in
1165, and in 1870i had a membership of two hun-

As far back as 18:31, Key West could boast of
a Fire D]epartment, buit, of course, it was very
inferior to our organization of the present day.
Mr. Joseph A. Thouron was the first Chief, or

No. 1. Mr. Fulford is a prominent merchant
of the city, of line executive ability, doing well
all that he undertakes. This engine is a six
thousand pound Button. The foreman of Mon-
roe, No, 2, is Capt. P. T. Knight, ex-county
clerk and at present U. S. marshal for the
southern district of Florida: this engine is a
four thousand pound Button. Foreman of
Sunny South Engine, No, 3, is Mr. B. B. Whal-
ton, senior member of Whalton Bros., a leading
up-town firm, and a leading citizen of the city;
this engine is a six thousand pound Silsby.
Poreimlnl of Waddell Engine, No. 4, is Allen E.
Curry, manager of the Standard Oil Co's busi-
ness at Key West, and a young native-born Key
Wester. The foreman of Hook and Ladder Co.
is llenry Lee Bethel, ex-city-marshal and a
popular young man in every respect.

That Key West was predestined by Nature
to become the leading Port of Entry in the
South, and that she is at present such, the fol-
lowing will show:

than a semi-centennial, the figures given from
the report of the Bureau of Statistics of Com-
merco and Navigation," for the year 1874, will
tend to show the gratifying progress of our city
in coilnuniereu and nalvigatlon.
The comparative number of entries Into these
several collection districts from foreign coun-
tries was as follows for 1874:

Amer. Amer. Ocean
Vessels. Steamers.
Charleston, S. C., 52 1
Savannah, OGa., 71 0
Mobile, Ala., 44 0
St. John's, Fla., 40 0
Key West, Fla., 801 Oil

For. Ocean

The amount of dutiable goods im-
ported into this collector's district
in 1874, $641,885.00
Free of duty, $19,077.00
Making the total importation, $60l0,483.00
Pensacola imported (same period), 26,904.00
Fernandina 1,89.00
Jacksonville 0.00
We simply give the above figures to show the
difference between the import revenue collected

"bMid-Wlnter Scenes," January, 1800. Key West, making North.

Foreman, with about twenty-five members,
The engine was purchased by subscription, but
was never of much service, owing to its inferior
make, and after the foreman resigned and left
the island, tilhe engine ('.) wits almost entirely
neglected, but In 18413, a large warehouse caught
fire and the engine was again brought out for
use, but proving utterly unfit for service it was
contemptuously hurled into the sea.
In November, 1875, aftvr Key West hlad suf-
fered untold loss for thle want of a well orginlZed
and equipped Fire Department, the nucleus (of
our present ieflhvint Fire Department was organ-
ii'.d ; and on the 17th of February, 187i within
a few months after its organization, with one0
hundred and three members, and Mr. A. II.
D orsett, Chief, thle Department lhad an oppor-
tunity to prove its value to the citizens, which
they did in a manner that will be handed down
to posterity. (It has already been male I mat-
ter of history by Ilon. W. C. Maloney, sr.)
Since that time the brave fire boys have not
been neglected by our liberal-hearted citizens,
and to-day Key West can boast of as fine a
fire department and apparatus as any city in
the State. Mr. B. F. II. Bowers is the efficient
chief, and is respected and obeyed by every
member of his nine different companies which
form the Key West fire department.
The respective chiefs of the fire department
are H. G. Fulford, foreman of Rescue Engine,

First, Its geographical position, it being the
ext renme southern portion of the States.
Second. For its capacious harbor, the great
depth of water over its bar, and the ease of in-
gress and egress to and from its outer and inner
Third. For its affording such ready protec-
tion to her shipping, naval and otherwise, in
time of war and stress of weather.
From these considerations, and a few other
facts ind figures which we shall give, we claim
that Key West is theo Commereful En'mporium
of tihe State of Florida, if not of the entire
A custom house was established, by special
legislation, at Key West in 1822, and the follow-
ing year a revenue cutter was attached to the
port, but not until 1928 was a collection dis-
trict regularly established for South Florida;
Key West was then constituted a port of en-
try, which it continues to be at the present
The revenues of the custom house at this port
show an average of about $45,000 per annum as
far back as 1828 to 1832.
For want of compiled data, we are compelled
to pass over the intervening years from 1832
down to 1874. And notwithstanding the fact
that the cities of Charleston, S. C., and Savan-
nah, Ga., both celebrated their centennial as
cities in 1880, and Key West was barely more

by the several different ports in the State
even as far back as 1874 and 1876. Since that
tino Key West has yearly increased in impor-
tance as a port of entry, and to-day it is the
with port in the United States, and collects
more import duty than all the other ports in
the State of Florida, Georgia and one half of
Alabama combined.
With these facts before us, who can say that
Key West is only a wrecking station and naval
depot, with only pirates for its inhabitants?
Yet such silly assertions occasionally reach us;
and why? Simply because our citizens have
heretofore been content to reap and enjoy all
these blessings among themselves, and did not
put themselves at all oui of the way to let the
outside world know what great blessings a
beneficent Providence had bestowed upon them.
Until now Key West has never been adver-
tised to the outside world; and it seems from
the little mito of a spot that geographers use
to represent Key West on their maps, that even
t hey have conspired against the" Coral Island,"
and determined to keep it hid as long as possi-
There are thousands of people to-day wrapped
in their shrouds and fast decaying, who died of
lung, throat or nasal trouble, that would have
been engaged in active trade, or following their
trades or professions in Key West, if they had
known of the even, salubrious climate of our


island. And we will here take occasion to call
the attention of our readers to the short bio-
graphical sketches of Mr. John White and
others among our citizens, to be found on an-
other page later on in this paper. These people
came to Key West ten, fifteen, twenty, thirty,
and forty years ago to die, but have instead ac-
cuniluated vast fortunes, and, though old
enough to die, are still hale and hearty, and
good for another half score or a score of years
yet. Letters addressed to either of them, with
stamp for reply enclosed, we take the liberty to
say, will be answered with groat pleasure.

For the following facts in regard to the early
history of Key West, we are also indebted to
Mr. Maloney's address. He says:
It is probable, says Mr. Whitehead, that
from the time of the first visit of Ponce de Leon
until the cession of the Floridas to the United
States, the island (or keys as they are termed,
a corruption of the Spanish word 'Cayo'), which
extended in a southwesterly direction from Capo
Florida, were only resorted to by the aborlig-
ines of the country, the piratical erewr, with
which the neighboring sas were infested, and

it is said, were known to have been met with
in the Island of Cuba."
This sanguinary battle strewed this island
with bones, asit is probable that the conquerors
tarried not to commit the bodies of the dead to
the ground; hence the name of the' Island City,'
' Cayo JfI,eso'(in Spanish' Bone Island'), which
the English-with the satuo facility which en-
abled them to transform the name of the wino
.leres seco into 'Sherry sack,'-corrupted into
' Key West.'"
That the harbor of Key West was the occa-
sional resort of pirates, has been proven by the
evidence of many who were connected with
them in their lawless depredations, and by the
discovery of hidden articles, that could only
have been secreted by them."
5 *
On the 20th of August, for some military
services rendered to the government by Juan
P. Salas, Doi' uttuan do Estrado. then Governor
of Florida, granted to hliU the Island of Key
West, but nothing was done by Salas in the
way of settlement or improvement, and the
island bore the saito wild aspect it had borne
for ages, when, on the 20th of December, 1821,
Malas sold his right, title and interest to Jno.
W,. Simionton, then of Mobile, Ala., who met
with Salas in Havana. Having heard of the

claim, such as it was, to John Giddens, who,
having the countenance of the conunmmander of a
United States vessel in harbor, effected a landing
and took possession in April, 1822. A suit of
law was thereupon commenced, and John W.
Slimonton engaged as his counsel John Rodman
and John Gadsden. This suit," says Mr. Ma-
loney, was finally determined by a compro-
"The commissioners appointed under tihe
Treaty of Cession with Spain," continues Mr.
Maloney, "lihaving reported favorably upon the
validity of the grant to Salas, the same was
coniilrined by Congress, thus settling perfectly
amnd forever all title to lands on the Island of
Key West derived legally through John P.
Slals and John W. Simonton."
Up to the beginning of the late war, 1861,
Key West had not nmado rapid strides towards
becoming a populous city, for we find, from the
United States census of 1800, that the eitiro
county (which tihen enmbraced large territory on
the mainland that has 'since been cut off and
nine counties formed) only contained 2,088 in-
habitants, (Itl of whom wore colored; but In
1860, after the rebellion had broken out in
Cuba, the population of the island began to
increase rapidly, and within a very few years
Key West had become a populous, busy city;


the fishermen (many of them from St. Au-
gustine), who were engaged in supplying the
market of Havana from the finnyy tribes' that
abounded in their vicinity. Of the occasional
presence of the first, we have evidence in the
marks of ancient fortifications, or mounds of
stone, found in various localities (in one of
which, opened some years since, human bones
of a large size were discovered), and tradition
has, in addition, brought down to us notices of
them which deserve all the credit conferred
upon the same authority in" other parts of the
country. The oldest settler in this section of
the country, one who resided in the neighbor-
hood of Charlotte Harbor, dated back to about
1785, used to say that in his early years he had
heard it stated that some eighty or ninety years
previous (probably about the conmlencement of
the eighteenth century), the Indians inhabiting
the islands along the coast, and those on the
mainland, were of different tribes; and as the
islanders frequently visited the main for the
purpose of hunting, a feud arose between
the two tribes, and those from the main having
made an irruption into the islands, their in-
habitants were driven from island to island un-
til they reached Key West. Here, as they could
flee no further, they were compelled to risk a
final battle, which resulted in the almost entire
extermination of the islanders. Only a 4ew es,-
e4 oad (and that by a miracle, as they embarked
canoes upon the ocean) whose descendants,

"Mid-Winter Scenes." Residence of A. M1. Ferguson,

advantageous situation and capacity of the har-
bor, etc., Mr. Simonton was induced, from the
certain prospect of haprovement throughout
the country, by the cession to the United States,
which his mercantile experience led him to
foresee must advance the interests of a settle-
ment at this point, he consumnmated the pur-
chase of the island for the sum f two thousand
dollars, and on the 10th of January, 1822, he
took possession."
"Soon after making the purchase of the
island, Mr. Simonton sold one individual quar-
ter of his interest to John Warner and John
Mountain, and two other quarters to John
Whitehead and John W. C. Floeming, also of
Mobile at that time. The interest of Messrs.
Warner and Mountain was soon after trans-
ferred to Pardon C. Groono, who became a per-
manent resident of the island from that time."
"Mr. Whitohead notes the remarkable con-
nection of the name 'John'," says Mr. Maloney,
"with all those who figured prominently at
that time in the acquisition and settlement of
the island, thus: John do Estrado, the Spanish
Governor of Florida, granted the island to
John P. Salas, who made a conditional sale to
John B. Strong, who conveyed his title, such as
it was, to John WV. Simonton. John W. Simon-
ton, having secured the title of John P. Salas,
Aispo.ed of a portion of it to John Whitehead
and John W. C. Fleming, John Warner and John
Mountain; and John B. Strong transferred his

but on the 80th and 81st days of March, 1886,
Key West lost, during the memorable fire of
that year, and in the terrific storm which fol-
lowed a few hours afterwards, over two and a
half millions of dollars' worth of property, and
the terror of that grand but awful sight is indel-
ibly pictured in the minds and written on the
hearts of all who witnessed it. The two elements
destroyed in a few short hours the work of sev-
eral generations. But to-day, less than three
years from those memorable events, there is
hardly a sign of their ravages visible.


Col. Maloney says that the original proprie-
tors and first settlers of Key West considered
the manufacture of salt the most probable
means of making it known in the commercial
world. Small quantities had been gathered
from the natural salt pond in the interior,
without any special facilities, and that portion
of the island was regarded as destined to be the
source of future wealth to any enterprising in-
dividual who might undertake to turn its ad-
vantages to account."
But it might be well here to state that after
several different efforts, by as many different
companies, to make this business profitable had




been made, the enterprise was given up, and
the Salt Ponds" now lie idle; but the lands
belonging to them, known as the Salt Ponds,"
over 800 acres, are among the most valuable
real estate, and the largest landed property on
the island. [See another page.]
The history of those manufacture of cigars dates
back to 1831, but on a small scale, and for
which we are again indebted to Mr. Maloney,
to wit :
In 1831, an advertisement appeared in the Key
West (aizette, which notified its readers that
Mr. W. H. Wall had estihablished a cigar factory.
This factory was no Inconsiderable one, as it
employed about fifty operators, and manufac-
tured cigars for export, and was located In the

rear of the old St. James Hotel, between Duval
and Fitzpatrick Streets, and was finally de-
stroyed by fire. Weh live no evidence that it
was ever recoimmencecd.,
In 1837 Messrs. Estava and Williams begat
the manufacture of cigars, and employed six-
teeon ien, and shipped to New York; but ow-
ing to the irregular communication between
this port and New York at that date, the busi-
ness was abandoned in 18 .
About the same time Messrs. Odet Phillippe
and Shuboel Brown also engaged in the busi-
ness with a force of six men.
As far back as 1884, we hear of Messrs. Fran-
cisco and James Arnan beginning in the man-
ufacture of cigars, and continued till their
death. They were also joined by their brother,
Albert, in 1838. However, this firm did not as-
pire beyond domestic trade.
Messrs. Francisco Sintas, Manuel Farino and
E. 0. Gwynn, also, at different times, and for

short periods, were engaged in the business.
So it will be seen that the cigar industry in Key
West dates as far back as 1834, and it is very
probable that lind the pioneers of this industry
in Key West had tihe same mail and shipping
facilities as we have at the present day, Instead
of having two or three hundred factories, as we
have to-day, giving employment to nearly 6000
operators, every available space on the Island
would now be dotted with cigar factories, giv-
Ing employment to 25,000 or 30,000 operatives,
as will eventually be thle case, and at no dis-
tant day. In reality tlhe present growth and
magnitude of the cigar industry in Key West
does not date back beyond 1872; although up
to that date there were a few factories doing a
prosperous business on tlhe island.
To quote further from Hon. W. C. Maloney's

"Mid-Winter Scenes." Resldence of 3rMrs. Packer.

address, we find that in 1870 (Just twelve years
ago) there were only twenty-nine cigar factories
on the Island, giving employment to about
2,100 persons. The average daily product of
these factories is estimated at 171,000, or 02,-
415,000 annually.
lie further says that the amount disbursed
for labor alone in our city may be reasonably
estimated at one million dollars. Three of
these factories, combined, employed over 1,500
hands, to wit: The "La Rosa Espanol" (see
another column), owned by Messrs. Seldenburg
& Co., employed 000; the Principe de Gales,"
Martinez Ybor, proprietor, employed 400; and
the "Club de Yate" (tho Yatcht Club), McFall
and Lawson, proprietors, employed 100.
[NOTrI: Neither of the last two named facto-
ries are now running under the same manage-
ment or ownership in Key West.]
The growth of the business of late years mtay
be considered as due, in a great measure, as be-

fore stated, to the immigration from Cuba,
which commenced in the latter part of 1809,
growing out of the political disturbances on
that island.
The cigar business in Key West has already
grown to immense proportions. The amount
disbursed by the factories, for labor alone, dur.
ing the year 1888, amounted to three million
dollars, and the business is rapidly increasing.
Nearly six thousand souls (men, women and
children) find remunerative employment in
those factories; experts making as high as fifty
and sixty dollars per week, while the dullest
child does not make less than from three to
five, and thim more intelligent, ten and twelve
dollars per week.
Key West paid an internal revenue of about
$350,000 for 1888, which is not only larger than

is paid by any other city in the State, but more
than is paid by the balance of the entire State.
The business of the cigar factories has swelled
the amount of money. Orders issued at this
post oihe to about $330,000 per year, and the
amount received for stamps and postage to
about $2.i,000. This great increase in the pos-
tal business has caused the post office at Key
West to be made a third-class office, with an
excellent mail service.

Key West can boast of about eight or ten
miles of street railroad, Incorporated under tihe
nanim oLf the Key West Street Railroad Associa-
tion, and extends through the most populous
and business portions of the island; and as the
occasion demands it the road is extended al-
most each year. This Road is now owned



almost entirely by Mr. E. H. Gato, one of our
largest cigar manufacturers.
The "Key of the Gulf" Railroad has boon
chartered by the State of Florida, and the road
will run from Key West to the mainland, where
it will probably connect with the Alabama,
Florida and Atlantic road, which is on its way
to the most southern point of the peninsula,
or with some other system of roads. When
this road is completed the time between Key
West and New York will only be about fifty
hours, when it now requires from three-and-
one-half to four days, at least, to make the trip;
and then such tropical fruits as sugar apples,
guavas, mangoes, sappadillos, etc., that are
grown in Key West, and the neighboring Keys,
in abundance, can find ready sale in the North
among people that have never seen or heard of
such rare and delicious fruit.

We clip the following artleih, verbatim, from
" The Italy of America," by Mr. C. J. Huelsen-
kaimp, on account of the true and perfect pic-
ture the writer paints, and its excellent diction.

rind trees from the Tropics and the Banyan
from India, attain large size hero; and flowers
as rare as exotics grace the gardens on every
hand, The sea surrounding the Island City
is as clear as crystal and reflects a summer sky
of purest blue. Street car lines encircle the
city and gas lights flash from every corner,
Electric lights will soon be introduced and a
system of Artesian wells is now in operation.
Schools, Churches, Convents and Colleges give
Key West ample facilities for educating the
many children dwelling on the Island andl
mainland. The Cigar industry of this City is
immense. Two hundred factories, employing
5,000 operatives and doing a business of $7,000,-
000 annually. Key West is the great port of
entry between the United States and the West
India islands. Before three years shall have
rolled away, a Rail Road will connect this im-
lm)rtant place with the mainland. A road has
already been> chartered and work will coinu-
mlence soon.) "
"As the traveler from other climes approaches
Key West, on the elegant steamer Olivette,'
(the fastest in American waters-twenty-two
miles per hour), that runs from Tampa to
Hlvann, via Key West, he is certain to be
both surprised and delighted. The result is

the nineteenth century! How elastic his Inge-
nuity and enterprise I
Tihe area of scores of acrem which on the
first day of April, 1d80, represented a waste of
ashes and smoking embers, a seat of blackened
faith and ruined hopes, is now transformed into
the pleasing picture of an improved and pros-
porous modern city of 20,000 happy people.
"As the day is different from the night, so I.
the Key West of to-day different in many re-
spects from that of the past. Buildings of an
improved order are going up by hundreds. A
$100,000 custom house will soon be commenced;
new enterprises are being established; old
apathy has been in a measure and is rapidly
being supplanted by substantial progress, and
the citizens, reinforced as they are by a largo
influx of go-ahead men from the Continent,
have awakened to the splendid opportunity
with which nature has favored them in natural
surroundings and advantages, geographical
and climatic. The time was when Key West
was considered out of the world' by the most
of the uninformed or misinformed people of the
States. It is surprising, for one who has once
become familiar with the importance of Key
West, to realize in traveling North or West the
universal ignorance of American citizens con-

M R~

~' i675

-, id Whiter PBccmes," 'file, Convenit,

It may be proper to state that the article
was written in 1887, and that many improve-
mnents have since been made.
Key West, the county seat of Monroe
County, is situated on the Island of Key West,
far out in the Gulf of Mexico. It is sixty miles
from Cape Sable, the most southern extremity
of main land in the United States, and ninety
miles from Cuba. The island embraces two
thousand acres of a coral formation. Popula-
tion 20,000. Key West is one of the most im-
portant naval stations in the United States, as
she is, indeed, the Key of the Gulf. The Gulf
Stream flows in sight of the City and is no-
where distant over five miles from thle Islands
of Monroe. The Custom House here is the
second in importance in the South and trans-
acts a revenue of $1,000,000. Congress has ap-
propriated $100,000 for a better building. There
are fifty officials employed by the Collector and
the business is increasing fast. Key West pre-
sents the appearance of a West India City, and
is one of the most beautiful places in America.
Her capacious wharves are lined with vessels
from every nation, and the commodities of
every quarter of the globe find an exchange
here. The stranger is forcibly impressed with
the tropical appearance of the City and won-
ders to himself if he is really in the United
States. Bearing cocoanut trees, as tall as eighty
feet, give grateful shade to her citizens; Tamua-

always the same; the attractions prove to be
far greater than their most sanguine expecta-
tions lead them to believe. Nor is this feeling
of exuberant satisfaction diminished as they
land and proceed to investigate the attractions
and resources of the City itself. The pleasant
streets, running at right angles, as smooth and
hard as adamant, the handsome and substan-
tial residences, the home lots filled with great
numbers of cocoa-nut, tamarind and rubber
trees; and such flowers as ponci-annas, night-
blooming cereus and magnolia-fraseatti; and
perfect forests of bananas and guavas. The
large and well stocked stores give ocular and
tangible evidences that Key West is a prosper-
ous city.
On the 80th of March, 1880, Key West lost Inl
the neighborhood of two Million Dollars by
The terror of that awful sight will never be
forgotten by any one who witnessed the grand
but terrible tragedy. Fire and wind undid in
a few short hours the work of many generations
of busy men. Human suffering and hardship
was exemplified in the period of woo and desola-
tion that followed. Every one was dazed and
bewildered. Despair was the key note of every
voice, and a scene of blackened ruins and ashy
waste failed to inspire hope in any heart or re-
flect a flash from any eye.
But how irrepressible is the AM RICAN of

corning a city which bears such peculiar im-
portant relations to the nation.
Not only are people ignorant of our impor-
tance, but they are almost without exception
unable to locate or describe our position geo-
graphically. Again the knowledge of many
who consider themselves posted is limited to
the description of the place given by some old
dictionary or encyclopedia compiled in the sev-
enteenth century, sooner or later, where it is
defined as a little island in the Gulf of Mexico
inhabited chiefly by a few fishermen, and a re-
sort of pirates, buccaneers and wreckers. This
description might have been accurate enough to
challenge all probable investigation some hun-
dred years ago or so, as it Is generally conceded
that, in early colonial days, when the' Western
World' was new, Key West was such a resort.
It is a great misfortune that no authentic his-
tory of the proceedings of those early days is
extant, else the lovers of exciting history might
regale themselves on some rich record from this
interesting locality. It is more than probable
that many a thrilling adventure lies buried in
the sunny waters that surround this little trop-
ical island and that many a flowery romance
has been enacted on these coral reefs. If the
soft warm waves that lave the limn-sand beach-
es of this same island of Key West could speak,
they' would a tale unfold' that would surpass
any inspiration begotten by Avon's rippling


tide. The sensations experienced by a North-
erner arriving here in dead of Winter and yet
In the midst of Summer, are something inde-
scribable. When Philadelphia and New York
are wrapped in their two-foot robe of snow and
ice, whon Itielnond and Atlanta are wrapping
thermiomieters in hot clothes to keep them
above Zero, and when oven Now Orleans miand
,Jacksonville are suffering from frost, then the
balmy sea breeze, as refreshing as that of
(', icy Island or Long Branch would be in
July, is wafting the balmy freshness and per-
petual health-giving spring-time from ofT these
sunny seas of the Equatorial belt. A word in
this connection would not be amiss if said con-
cerning the curative qualities and effects of
this climate. Catarrh and thyoat troubles are
surely and permanently cured by a more or less
protracted stay here. Men, several of them,
are here to-day doing business and apparently
in sound health who were brought here In the
last stages of throat and lung disease and who
had abandoned all hopes of recovery. This is
easily explained; Northern and Western doc-
tors will invariably recommend salt water to be
forced through the nostrils for such complaints.
And the very air here is a continual and natu-
ral application of this remedy, for it is a cotimtn-
nued sea breeze the year round and is imiipreg-

unbroken rail line to the North and West will
be had. The Artesian wells will soon be fin-
ished, furnishing the city with abundant water.
The streets will soon be lit with electricity; and
the street car lines extended farther out on the
Island. Now houses are going up all over the
city and business is better than over known
before. Sewers will soon be inaugurated, thus
making Key West one of the healthiest cities in
the world.
Ero ten years rolls itself into oblivion, this
'beautiful isle of tilhe sea' will have doubled in
population. Rail Roads will give her the only
thing she wants:-Rapid transportation."
When taking into consideration the resources
of a country, whether agricultural or otherwise,
its market facilities become an active factor in
the problem, and enter largely into its satisfac-
tory solution. It may be state that the imar-
kets of Monroo Cottciy are good and rapidly
improving every year. Our products are
shipped In immense quantities to distant mar-
kets, and profitable employment is thus fur-
nished to a great many people.
Now we will deal with a business that
amounts to $1,000,000 per annum to Monroe

"Mid-Winter Scenes."

nated with the curativequalities comprised in
the salt water; while, on the contrary to north-
ern cures, there is no back set occasioned by
chill of frosty weather. This climate is purely
and essentially tropical, It is also equable:
never reaching the intense heat that is expe-
rieneed in the Northern and Western States
in summer, while in winter, frost or frosty air,
neither a flake of snow nor hail, was eve/ known
here. The Island contains, with tihe immedi-
itely adjacent Keys, about 5000 acres. It has
anll extensive harbor on its northwestern side
and a splendid deep water channel of thirty
feet, sufficient for any heavy draft ocean vessel.
It is consequently suited for a naval station,
and its geographical position at the southeast-
ern extremity of the United States makes it
one of the most important ones, it being liter-
ally the 'Key of tile Gulf.' A well equipped
Naval station is one of the important features
of the place, and the presence of naval officers
stationed here, together with the constant com-
ing and going of portions and the occasional
concentration here of the entire North Atlantic
squadron, add greatly to the social side of life.
The future of Key West is indeed bright. Her
people have roused themselves from that Rip
Van Winkle nap that they have allowed them-
selves to indulge in so long. New life now stirs
them to activity. Just as soon as proper ar-
rangements can be made, the Key of the Oulf
Rail Road will conummence operations. The
Alabama, Florida and Atlantic road is pushing
to the extreme southern point of mainland.
Key West will there connect her road; and an

County. Sponges of the finest quality and size
are taken in our waters, that command a high
price in Key West. Sponges are taken on the
Reefs, where the water is from five to twenty
feet deep. It is a rare sight to see piles of
sponges, thousands in numbers, sold at auction
in Key West. Some sponge fishers make as
much as $1000 in a single month. When the
sea is rough they cannot work. These sponges
are shipped to nearly all the Cities of the
United States.
Within the next ten years, Monroe County
will send out millions of cocoanuts from her
groves that are now young. The soil of the
Islands is about the same as the West Indies,
and the climate and the salt atmosphere com-
bineo to make it the home of the palm. The
tree has no tap root and will thrive on a thin
soil. It comes into bearing in eight or ten
years from the nut; and after that it is putting
on fruit every mouth in the year. Like the
orange tree, the older it gets the more it bears.
A bearing cocoanut grove is of less expense than
an orange grove and the revenue therefrom is
more. They require no cultivation and are as
hardy in this section as the cabbage palinmetto,
that grows everywhere in Florida.
The great beauty about cocoanuts is, that
you can ship them in any month of the year:
and they will bear transportation for thousands
of miles. There is a good market for green
cocoanuts as well as matured ones. When the
nut is fully grown, but green, it contains about

Thousands of these monster turtles weighing
from 100 to 1200 pounds,are taken in these waters
and the business has grown to $400,000. They are
shipped to the larger cities in the United States
and command a high price. In June and July
the turtles crawl out on the sandy sea shore to
deposit their eggs, which are eagerly sought
after by the hunters. The turtle business is
growing rapidly on the coast and seems to be,
like the fish business, inexhaustible.
This business is now assuming vast propor-
tions. A large fleet of boats, belonging to Key
West, is engaged in that lucrative business.
The oyster taken in extreme South Florida
waters has a peculiar flavor, much prized by
the lovers of that luscious bivalve. Many pri-
vate plants are being made, which will event-
ually be a paying business.
This fruit, although it does not bear until the
second year, will nevertheless, where the second
crop is marketed, in the third year from time of
planting be found to have yielded a net return
after deducting first cost and all expenses of
cultivation of not less than $1000 per acre per
annum for the three years and it will continue
thenceforward to give the same annual return
per acre with good management.
It is safe therefore to say that under suitable
conditions, the pine apple is the most remuner-
ative crop that can be raised in any part of the
United States.

two glasses of clear juice, that is considered one
of the most healthful beverages of the Tropics.
There are trees on the island of Key West
that are eighty feet high and moro than fifty
years old. They niake a dense shadow and are
an ornament to any home. The time will come,
when the cocoanut culture in Monroo County
will far exceed the most sanguine hopes of the
orange growers 'Af Orange, Polk or Manatee
Counties. Not depending upon any stated sea-
son, but ready to ship at all times. The lands
of Monroe are cheap and it costs less than one-
fourth to start a cocoanut grove to what it
does to commence the orange industry. After
once started, cocoanuts need no cultivation.
The fish business of this section of the State
amounts to $800,000 per annunmI The waters of
Monroe, Lee and Manatee Counties furnish, not
only Florida, but Cuba, with fish. The qual-
ity is the finest in the world. There is no
country on God's groen earth that can boast
of finer mullet than Florida-and in inexhaust-
ible numbers. Ilundreds of persons are en-
gaged in tihe business and some inom have accu-
mulated fortunes from it, Thel pompano, the
great fish of the epicure, is caught here in great
numbers and commniands a high price.


On the Oth day of May, 1888, the Island City
Guards (which is composed of the first young
men, socially and morally, of the Island) held
its first meeting at the County Court-House,
and the Company was organized with thirty-
two members and the following officers:
F. C. Brossier, Captain; C. S. Williams, First
Lieutenant; Geo. L. Babcock, Second Lieuten.
After the organization nothing further was
done until the Captain could hear from the
Adjutant General of the State, which was on
June Oth following, when the commissions for
the above officers were received.
After receiving the commissions thie Company
was drilled in the Company movements, etc.,
twice a week, so as to be prepared to celebrate
the approaching Fourth of July in a manner
becoming a military company.
About this time Lieutenant Babcock resigned
his commission, owing to the fact that he was
about to change his place of residence. It
might be proper to state here that a large por-
tion of the honor and credit of organizing this

Company is due to Lieut. Babcock for his ear-
nest efforts in securing the necessary members
for the organization.
Mr. Gee. L. Lowe was elected by the Com-
pany to fill the vacancy caused by Lieutenant
Babcock's resignation.
Owing to the red tape process which the
requisition for guns for the Company had to go
through in the War Department, the Guards
did not receive their arms until October, 1888,
though the requisition was made June Oth, and
approved by the Secretary of War, July 27th.
However, when they did receive their guns,
the "boys" were proud to find that they were
the latest "1884 Springfield Rifles," and had
come direct from the Rock Island Arsenal.
Their Armory, which is one of the large and
handsome U. S. Barracks buildings, which they
have kindly been permitted to occupy by the
Government, is a model of neatness. The Com-
pany has expended over $800 on the building
and grounds in placing them in first-class repair.
This Company is also the life of the Island,
inasmuch as they give semi-umonthly balls at
their Armory, and about once every three
months they give a Grand Dress" or "Mas-
querade" Ball, all of which are largely patron-
ized by the elite of the city. Their last effort (a
Grand Masquerade Ball), on New Year's Even-
ing, was a grand success, and at which the fluest
costumes were worn.

The following is a list of Officers (including
the non-comndssioned officers) and the members
of the Island City Guards:
F. C. Brossier, Captain; C. S. Williams, 1st
Lieutenant; Geo. L, Lowe, 2nd Lieutenant. A.
F. Shultz, 2nd Sergeant; Win. L. Wells, 8rd
Sergeant; M. W. Curry, 4th Sergeant; Jackson
Lowe, 5th Sergeant. Corporals: Win. McKillip,
J. M. Warren, Win. Saunders, W. E. Browne.
Color Bearer: A. W. Thompson. Privates: T.
W. Shultz, M, Brinis. G. W. Reynolds, G. Niles,
0. Kirchhelner, C. E. Crusoo, W. C. Roberts, H.
L. Roberts, T. K, Warren, F. Roberts, T. 0.
Otto, J. R. Curry, Jr., W. Monsalvatge, J. Otto,
S. J. Wolf, H. K. Cold, W. E. Warren, P. C.
Albury, Benj. Jenks, J. P. Boyle, C. S. B. Mof-
fat, J. H. Edgar, C. E. Roberts, H. Gunn, J. W.
Johnson, Thomas Blckford, (ieo. Baker, J. V.
Harris, Jr., T. Johnson, Goo. L. Babcock. Hon-
orary Members; Benii. Albury, A. W. Arnold,
J. J. Delaney, S. W. Hawyer, Jeff. B. Browne,
Dr. R. D. Murray, P. A, Wlliiams, Geo. H. Cur-
ry, Coin. J. K. Winn. J. J. Philbrick, H1. E.
Moss, (eo, W. Allen, Robt. 0. Curry, W. D.
Cash, W. B, Curry, 1). T. Sweeney, L. Otto, Dr.
J. Y. Porter, Mr. Ridgell.
Hon. C. B. Pendleton was one of the first of
the honorary members elected, but declined the
honor upon the ground that lie was already

Inside of E. J. Araplan's Sponge House.

holding a major's commission in the Florida
State troops.
Shortly after the organization of the Island
City Guards the above Band was organized,
and in loss than three months from the day of
their organization (some of whom had never
put a horn to their lips before) tlhe music ren-
dered by tlem was pronounced by many to beo
equal to that rendered by even the prize Band
of the State (the Key West Cornet (col.) Band).
However, whether this be trup or not, we do
know that they rendered as sweet music as we
ever hoard. A movement is now on foot to
have this Band enrolled as members of the
Island City Guards, and thus make a military
Band of it, and ere this paper reaches many of
its readers this will have been accomplished.
The following is a list of the names of the
gentlemen composing this Band: J. C. Whal-
ton, President; 31. S. Moreno, Musical Director;
Frank Russell, Teacher; Andrew J. Kemp,
Josh. Curry, W. A. Pinder, Frank Papy, A.
Horrurtner, F. Carbonelle, C. Jininez, Willie
Camaller, A. Castillo, Lewis Otto, G. N. Not-
tage., and Charles Bailey. The above Bawl w1s
recently awarded the position of honor at the
parade of the troops and Bands in Tallahassee,
where they visited, with the Island City Guards,

to be present at the inauguration of Gov. Flem-
ing, We omitted to mention above that at the
parade when Gov. Flenming reviewed the Flor-
ida troops, immediately after his inauguration,
the Island City Guards were given the position
of honor among the troops, with the Island
City Silver Cornet and Reed Band in the lead
of all. And we will take this occasion to say
that these honors were rightly bestowed and
richly deserved.
This Band was organized in 1874, but there
are but a very few of the original members with
the Band at present. This Band has long been
known as the Champion Band" of the State,
and has taken one or more premiums as such
at the State Fairs in Jacksonville. It is com-
posed of seventeen pieces, as follows: Three E
flats, three B flats, three altos, one baritone,
two trombones, one B bass, two E basses, one
snare drum, one bass drunk and cymbals, and
one Band Major; with A.V. Finlason, President;
C. Mickens, Musical Director; C. E. Shavers,
Secretary; and N. F. English, Treasurer.
It is certainly a rare treat to hear both of
these most excellent Bands discoursing rare
and choice selections at one and the same time,
as they frequently do on ftte days. If you

want to enjoy yourself in a manner never
dreamed of before, and then be lulled to sleep
by the strains of the sweetest music, just visit
Key West, and, our word for it, you will never
feel contented anywhere else on the globe.

The members of the Key West Board of Trade
held their first meeting for organization Novem-
ber 80th, 1885.
The meeting was called to order by Col.
Horatio Crain, who explained the purpose of
the mooecting, after which Judge J. W. Locke
was elected temporary Chairman, and Mr. R.
A. Monsalvatgo temporary Secretary.
On December 4th, 1885, the second meeting
was held, when the Board went into permanent
organization. Col. John Jay Philbrick was
elected the first permanent President; E. 11.
Gato, First Vice-President; John J. Delaney,
Second Vice-.President; G. W. Allen, Third
Vice-President; and Col. Horatio Crain, Sec-
Shortly after his election Col. John Jay Phil-
brick resigned the Chairmanship, and Mr. John
J. Delaney was elected in his place.
On the 7th of February, 1887, Mr. Peter A.
.Williams was elected President of the Board,
which position he still holds. The Board now
has about sixty members.


The following is a list of the present ofilersm
of the lihord:
Peter A. Williuiams, President; G. W. Allhn,
First V'le-Prosidenit; Win. Curry, Second Vieo-
Prshideiit; Jerry Foigar'ty, Third Vic'-l-Pres-
dent. (i, Hownio Pittorson, Secretl'iry.
Thel in'tioins of the lBlord are controlled by a
lo IAIt OiF (OVllEiNOins, to, wit:
Thie otlnicrs (if the AssocIiitlon, and ten neiint-
Ihor's eihcted by the iloard, tas follows: ,J. J.
D])lianey, Ionj. Albluiry, VWin. Ledwitlh, M. L.
Illllings, MSini'l Filer, lion. It. A. Mosaiilvat'ge,
.1 V. llarrl M. Il, lion.i Js. A. Waddel, Con-i
sul W. J. 11. Taylor, and lion. Golo. II, Curry.

The Key Wet uildliig uind Loan Assoela-
tion wns organized nil incorporated May 10th,
Col, Johin Jay lhilllrick, Presidenit; I. ',T.
Sweeny, Vile-Plrecsldeit l; iaion Alvarez, See-

rotary; lion. Gen. W. Allen, Treasurer; Hon.
J fTersoni II, Browne, Attorney.

BOAIID OF Dm]lllons:
iJudge James W. Locke, Peter T. Knight,
'.ibriel Ayala, Wii. Ledwitch, Will,. I. Will-
The profits from loans are accounted semi--
annually and credited to the account of each
shareholder entitled to the same, Tlie money
is loaned onco a month, to niembers only, to
the highest bidder at auction. Interest on
loans is fifteen cents per week )1on each $100, for
the first three years, afterwiirds ten cents per
week per $100. New iemiiers cian enter at ainy
time without having to pay back payments.
Members having no real estate iian borrow tlhe
1tull value of their shares by assigning the cer-
tilleates of stock to tlie association.

The Key West Merchants' Protective Associa-
tion, as its name implies, is an organization of
our merchants and business men for the promio-
tion and protection of the business interests of
the Island City. It was organized on the 3rd
day of October, 1888. The first meeting was-
called to order by Mr. Win. H. Albury, as tem-
porary Chairman,

Mr. Win. Curry wits elected permanent Presi-
dent, anii Mr. Chas, R., Merce Secretary, No
change has shine becn made in Its officers, The
Association claims its its inembers all the lead-
iII nl mercihanlts anid business mnen on thle Island,
who have the best interests of Key West at
heart, and have already taken several ilmpor-
tant steps looking to the advancemenit of our
1in1111ifiactu irng and commercial interests.
No'rll.-hMince the above was written, Mr.
C(irry has resigned ,and lion. James A. Wild-
dell elected In his stead. lion. Chalis. H. Peidle-
ton is chairman of the executive committee.

The San Carlos Hall, situated on Duval
Street, near the corner of Soutlird, has just
beeii completed aiid tirnilsed throughout at
an enormous expense, by our Cuban citizens,
and is a charitable institution. It i. about 50
x 100 feet, three stories high, with a large and
beautiful stage erected oil the lirst floor for thel
atec(iillotdation of our local dramatic and oper-
atic talent, l who give weekly entertainments In

"Mid-Winto'r Scones." Whltehead Street, North.

Spanish in the building. The interior of the
building is inaigiifleently frescoed and painted;
and has the most beautiful drop-curtain to be
found in the State. The second story of the
building is. lithe "dress-circle;" while the third
floor is a large hall, in which the members of
San Carlos Association hold their meeting. It
will also serve as a school room,.
This building is quite an ornament to that
portion of our city in which it is situated, and
is a credit to the refined taste and liberal spirit
of our Cuban fellow citizens.

This building, situated on Simonton street,
was coimmenlced several months ago by Con-
tractor Win. It. Kerr, for Dade Lodge No. 14, I.
0. F. A. 1 and is now rapidly approaching
completion. The ground floor is to be divided
off into two large 11and handsome store-rooms,
with large Freneih plate glass fronts and iron
columns, while the second floor will be one
large hall. The third floor will be divided off
into large rooms for the necommodation of the
different nmisoile lodges of the Island. This
building, when comnplted, will cost between
twenty-five and thirty thousand dollars, and
will be the finest, handsomest and most costly
masonic Temple in the State, and the finest
building of any kind, of its size, in the South.

Some months ago Congress appropriated
$100,000 for the erection of a new Custom House
in Key West, and theo contract for excavating
and laying (or rather driving) the foundation
was awarded to Messrs. McDermott & Higgs,
contractors and builders, uf this city, which
has been faithfully performed and the founda-
tion com:iipletd. Piles from fifteen to twenty-
live foot were driven in the ground around the
entire excavation, and for the cross walls, upon
which to lay the stone for the foundation.
The contract for erecting the building has
been awarded to Mr. A. del Pino, of A. del Pino
Bros., manufacturers of cigars, of this city, for
$07,000, and work will soon be commnenced.
The building is to ibesituated on Front street,
at the foot of Whitehead. The importance of
this building will readily be seen, and the ne-
cessity admitted by all, when they are told that
the Custom House at Key West collects annu-
ally nearly one million dollars import duties,
and that Key West is the ninth Port of Entry
in the United States; and that she pays mnoro
than twice as much revenue collected into the
U. S. Treasury than all the rest of the cities and
ports in the State combined. See cut 2nd page.

Seldenburg & Co........................... 000
A. Del Pino Bros........... ......... ...... 500
E H G atoe................................. 000
Francisco Marrero....... ................. 000
Celestino Palaelo & Co................... 400
A. M. Castillo & Co. ............ ......... 400
Cayetano Soria ............................ 870
J. Ellinger & Co.......................... 85
N .'S. Castillo & Co....... ................. 100
L. B. Condo & Co, .......................100
J. R. Angulo.. ...... ..................22. 25
J. I. Gregory .............................. 800
Enrique Canals & Co ............... ..... 800
Gonzalez & Bourjolly....................... 200
Koenigsburg Falk & Co...... .......... 200
F. Marrero........ ... ... ............ 200
T. Perez & Co .............................. 250
T. A. Afonso...... .. ...................... 150
Baez, Milord & Co ......................... 150
M. Barranco & Co,.......................... 200
J. R. Beoniteoz ............................... 100
E J. B adia ................................. 100
A. Candales & Co ....... ...... .... ....... 100
Crut Bros.... ........ .................. 100
Corral & Co............................. .. 100
Fernandez & Co ......................... 100
M. E. Flaherty & Co........................ 100
M. Gonzales & Co........................... 100

.. 4


Greenhall & Zeniansky.....................
J. aailison & Co........................
R. A. Lord & Co................... .......
M. E. McDowell & Co......................
R 8. M oreno ........... ..................
J. M31. J, Navarro .... .......... ........
J. M. Navarro & Co........ ...............
M ax M arx & Co............................
R. Dobarganes................... .. ....
J. Mf. Afonso ................................
McKinlay & Semple.......................
G W N ichols........... ..............
A. tRodriquez ........... ..............
V. Toledo & Co............. ............ .
Villamil Plodeol & Co.....................
C Alfonso .................... ..............
C. HIonriquez...............................
N C. Salonis & Co .........................

A. Zamora ............................... 150
Jose V. Velasco .................. ........... 109
G. Suarez ........... .................... (10
Straiton & Storm........................... 50
J. Pomares & Co................ ......... 50
Pollak & Co.............................. 50
Perez Bros............. ................ 50
R. Perez ........... ........ ..... .. .. .... 150
F. N eum ann .......... .................... 50
E. M orales ........ ........... ..... 50
F, M. Martinez... ...................... 50
T. A. Leon................................. 50
Martin Herrefa........................... 50
A. Heuregress & Bros............. ....... 50
G. & R. Gonzalez & Co..................... 50
Thos.F. Gray & Co........................ 50
E. H. Gato............. ................... 150
A. De la Ra & Co ....................... 150
Barranco & Rico........................... 150
Jose Albertus ......................... ... 50
F. M. Naranjo ............................. 50
F. Alfonso & Co...................... .... 50
B. Alfonso............................... 50

IH C. Pent......... ...... ................
A. Cast, Funtez & Co ...................
T A ngilo.............. ........ .........
. Artumas.... . . . . . . . .
A. Arencibia & Co .........................
A B enitez ..................................
F C orbott .......................... .......
R. Diaz ..............................
RB.Mlyares & Co..... ...............
F. Milord & Bros ...........................
M1. R. Moreno.....................
F. fG. Mlarrero ...... ...............
F. Peroz.....................................
E T orres...................................
J. C. V elasco ...............................
II. C Pent ........ .......................
L. Hudson & Co...........................
R N oa ........ .. ................. .....

"Mid-Winter Scenes."

J. D. Sanchez.................... ... ..... 200
J. Sebasco & Co............................ 20
E. Calmo .......... ......................... 15
Pedro, Perez & Co .......................... 15
R. Barrios.................................. 10
Y. Chapuzot......................... ....... 10
1). Farne............. .................. .... 10
A. Fernandez ...................... ... ... 10
F (1rillo .......................... ... ...... 10
P Jaquez.................................. 10
F. Johnson....... ...... .................. 10
F. E. Johnson & Co ...................... 10
C. M agrina............... .................. 10
M O ladoll........... .. ..... ............... 10
F. Velasco ........ .. ...... ... 10
A. Arencibia................ ...... 10
T. Borjes......... .... ................... 10
R. Guz mano. ......................... 10
Pino Bros.................................. 10
The output of Key West ci art, for 1880, judg-
Ing by the history of the business last year,
which showed an increase of fifty per cent. In
the production over the preceding year, will be
far In advance of any city in the world,

lHoy. J. W. LOCK
wns horn at Wilmington, Vermont, in 1837, was
educated and studied law in New Hampshire.
In 18053 he located at Key West and comnenced
the practice of his profession. He was elected
to the State Senate twice. On February 1st,
1872, he was appointed United States District
Judge, which position he now holds.
The above named gentleman is the oldest
member of the Bar in Key West, having
studied law In his father's office, and was ad-
mnitted to the bar in 1867. When the war broke
out, Mr. Maloney buckled on his sword, and
served as a 1st Lieutenant in the 7th Florida

Regiment, commanded by Governor Perry, and
fought through the Western Army. Mr.
Maloney Is a man of very positive ideas, and is
a typical Southern gentleman. After hostilities
ceased lie returned home, and entered the legal
profession, at which le is still engaged. Mr.
Maloney has never been known as an office
seeker; but has held the responsible position of
Collector of Revenue and Assessor of Taxes for
five years; he has also acted as City Attorney
and is now the Attorney for Monroe County.
Mr. Patterson was born on the Island of Key
West ; his father having come from Connecti-
cut in the year 1829, and made Key West his
home. Mr. Patterson was educated partly in
Havana, Cuba, and partly in this city. He
read law with Judge Boynton and was admitted
to practice in 1871 after passing a very credita-
ble examination in open court, conducted by
the late Hon. Stephen R. Mallory. He was ap-
pointed United States Attorney for the Southera


District of Florida by President Grant in 1875,
and also ser~ ,d in thel same capacity under
Presidents Hayes and Arthur. Ho was the
Prosecuting Attorney for the State on two oc-
casions. Mr. Patterson is a very brilliant law-
yer, and is regarded as a credit to his profes-
sior, He has been associated in several very
important insurance cases and has invariably
made his mark.
Mr. Locke, one of the shining lights of the
Key West bar, was born in New Hampshire and
educated at Dartmouth Collego, whero he grad-
uated in 1870. 11h studied law at that institu-
tion, and camo to Key West in 1871, as Principal
of Sears School. lie was admitted to practice
at the Key West bar after undergoing a rigid

trict Attorney Plantz and was admitted to the
bar in this city in the year 1869.
In October, 1870, his friends placed him in
nomination for the office of Mayor, to which
honorable position he was elected by a largo
majority, and was re-elected to the same office
four times. The continued popularity of Mr.
Bethel drew the attention of the wholo State,
and when the Democratic State Convention
met at Gainsvillo in 1880, Mr. Bethel received
the nomination for Lieutenant Governor on tho
ticket with William D. Bloxham and was tri-
umnphantly elected. In 1880(1 he was chosen as
one of thle dolegatus from this county to frame
the new constitution, which wont into operation
last January. Governor Bethel is an able law-
yer and has won many laurels by his profession.
Several years since, when the late Cuban Uen-

The above named gentleman is one of the
leading lawyers of the bar of Key West. Mr.
Brown was born in this city in the year 1857.
Was educated in the State of Virginia. After
completing his education, he returned to Key
West, and spent some time with his relatives
and friends before leaving to study the profes-
sion he had chosen. Ho studied law at the
State University of Iowa, and graduated from
tlat institution in the class of 1880. Mr. Browne
was admitted to the bar In the following year-
1881. lie was appointed Postmasterunder Presi-
dent Cleveland which position he now holds.
Mr. Browne is regarded as an able and suc-
cessful practitioner, and has an extensive prac-

" Mid-Winter Scenes."

examination conducted by the late Hon.
Stephen R. Mallory in open court, and at the
same tine with Mr. Patterson. Mr. Locke las
been for a number of years Clerk of the United
States Court and Commissioner of the District.
In 1880 lie was nominated by the Republicans
of the First Congressional district for Represen-
tative in Congress: he made a thorough canvas
of the district, but was defeated by Mr. David-
son, the present incumbent. Mr. Locke is an
able and successful lawyer and continues to
practice in all the State and County Courts.

Ho.. L. W. BETHEL.
The gentleman who heads the profession next
in point of senority is the lion. L. W. Bethel,
who was born at the Capital of the Bahama
Islands, on October 21st, in the year 1845. In
1847 his parents removed to Key West and he
has continuously resided hero ever since, except
the period in which he attended an Educational
Institution in the State of Now York. He
studied law in the offloe of United States Dis.

eral Aguera was arrested in this city, at the in-
stance of the Spanish Government, he was re-
tained for the defence, and so ably laid his case
before the United States court, that his client
was released. The Cuban patriots resident on
the Island presented him with a handsome and
valuable gold watch and chain. He now holds
the important position of United States At-
torney for the Southern District of Florida,
having been appointed two years ago by Presi-
dent Cleveland, and which position he will fill
until his term of office expires. .

Mr. Allen was born in Jacksonvillii Fla., but
has resided here since May, 1809. Ho was edu-
cated in Now York and road law with Hon. G.
Bowne Patterson, was admitted to the bar in
1870. lie was elected State Senator in 1878 and
re-elected in 1882. In 1870 he was appointed
Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue; and on
the establishment of the Bank of Key West he
was appointed Cashier, which he still retains,

The only colored lawyer in Key West was
born in Ocala, Marion County, Fla., on Feb.
14th, 1858. Mr. Dean was educated at Cook-
man Institute, Jacksonville, where he graduated
in 1878. He read law at Howard University,
Washington, D. C., took the degree of Bachelor
of Law in 1883. In 1884 he took thu degree of
Master of Law at the same University, being
the valedictorian of the class in every case.
He was admitted to the bar of the Supreme
Court of the District of Columbia in Oct., 1884,
and to practice in the United States and State
Courts of Florida in 1887. Mr. Dean was elected
County Judge on November Oth, 1888, which
ofilee he entered upon the duties of on January
of the present year.

The history of journalism in Key West com-
mences In 1820, when the first newspaper, the
Register, was started under the management

71,hmm 0



of Thomas Eastlin, which was quickly followed
by the Gazette in 1831, and the Enquirer in
1882; all however were short lived. In 1840, a
small weekly newspaper, with the expressive
name of the Light of the Reef, was started by
Messrs. Ware & Scarborough. Its life was
short and was succeeded in 184.1 by the Key of
the Gulf, which had a fitful existence, chang-
ing hands often, sometimes passing into sleep
for years until 1857, when it was resurrected,
now life instilled into its veins, and Win. Ii.
Ward selected as its editor, which position he
held until he laid down the pen for the swordl
in 1801. From 1802 to 1803 The New Era was
started and run by R. B. Locke, an officer of
the 90th N. Y. Regiment. In 1867 the Now
York Despatch was started by Hon. Walter C.
Maloney, Jr., and was a great political power
until 1872, when it passed into the hands of Col.
H. A. Crane, who ran it for the two following
years. It died completely in 1877.
In 1870 the Key West Guardian was founded
by R.C. Neeld, but the history of past journals
presaged its decay, which happened the follow-
ing year. In 1874 the Key of the Utulf was
again resurrected by Col. H. A. Crane, and was
successfully run until 1887, when the feebleness
of the proprietor, caused by old age, forced himu
to retire from its management; its death fol-

suspension of the Key of the Gulf soon followed,
leaving it in entire possession of the field, so far
as the English language is concerned.
The Equator-Democrat occupies the entire
two story building, corner of Front and Duval
streets, Its establishment is second to none In
the State of Florida in extent. Its presses are
all driven by steam, and are of modern pattern
and make, In addition to the newspaper busi-
ness it has a complete Job outfit, and the man-
agement have recently commenced the publica-
tion of a cheap Spanish library, after the style
of Lovells or the Seaside, the first number of
which is now out of press. It is a translation
into Spanish of Hugh Conway's celebrated
novel Called Back (Spanish name, Recorda-
clon), which will be followed by others as fast
as the facilities will permit. In connection with
the newspaper the largest stationery store of
the island and cjty is run. The business of this
Department has been very .Satisfactory the past
year. It is under the immediate management
of W. V. Albury. The editorial department of
the Equator-Democrat are Hon. Chas, B. Pon-
dleton, editor-in-chief, and owner of the Equa-
tor-Democrat Publishing and News Co.; Mr. E.
B. Barker, city editor, to whose intelligent
energy the success of this edition is due; Dr.
A. S. Adams, M.D., A.M., of New York city, and

Our Cigar Factories.

Seidenberg & Co.'s Cigar Factory, Es-
tablished in 1868.
The largo and handsome three-story cigar
factory of Messrs. Seidenberg & Co., is the old-
est and one of the largest factories on the
island, it having been established in 1808, and
has won quite an enviable reputation for its
fine Havana cigars.
In 1808, there wore but few cigar factories on
the island of any magnitude, (none of whom
are now doing business on the island), but those
few had already gained considerable notoriety
for the Key West cigar and the vast com-
mercial experience of Messrs. Seidenburg & Co.
led them to see a royal opening here for the es-
tablishnent of a large factory to make a pure
article from the finest select Havana tobacco;
hence they embraced the opportunity and
opened up a factory that gave employment to
about 500 first-class skilled workmen, and as
many more other employees, and from the first
they had no difficulty In disposing of their

Horace R, Kelly & Co.'s Key West Fawtory. (Cut loaned by Tobacco.)

lowed soon after. El Republicano was the first
Spanish newspaper published in Key West, but
its life was also short. So it can readily be seen
that journalism in the "Coral city" promised but
little. However in 1880, lion. B. Pendleton, of
Fort Ogden, located in Key West and com-
menced the publication of the Key West Demo-
crat. He began a new era in journalism; and his
pen awoke much opposition, and for the three
following years, Key West was kept fairly alive
by the active and persistent efforts of the editor.
However, the paper never paid, and in 1883,
becoming tired of such an expensive and
troublesome toy, and being busily engaged in
other pursuits, he sold the outfit to Philip
Thompson, who continued it until the election
of Cleveland, about which time he was offered
and accepted a position in the Custom House.
Messrs. Knight & Moreno then purchased the
paper and continued to run it until 1888-when
it was purchased by Mr. Pendleton, its founder,
who consolidated it with the Daily Equator, a
publication which he had started two years pre-
viously. The history of successful journalism
really dates to May 17th, 1887, when Mr. Pendle-
ton started the Equator-El Ecuador, an Eng-
lish and Spanish daily. The growth of this
paper was steady and its influence constantly
widening: it soon became the recognized cham-
pion of the business interest of the place; the
city and its citizens independent of party gave
it a ready and liberal support, something never
accorded another journal. As above stated it
absorbed the weekly Domoorat in 1888, and the

Capt. E. J. Fleming, while Mr. W. M. Bonnet is
foreman of the newspaper department, and Mr.
Chas. B. Hudson of the Job rooms. By these
gentlemen's intelligent and able assistance has
success been achieved.
The last venture, closely linked it is true, is
the publication of this trade edition, or rather
the history of the city of Key West, with per-
sonal mention of many of the leading citizens
of the island. El Cubano, La Revista de Filor-
ida, and La Justicia, three Cuban newspapers,
under the respective editorial charges of M.
Poqueho, M. M. Delgado and F. Corbet, are
published in Key West in Spanish.

The illustration printed on this page gives a
clear idea ,dessrs. A. del Pino & Co.'s now
factory, wrloL as Is well known, is the Key
West branoh*W the house of Horace R. Kelley
& Co., New York. It is one of the most exten-
sive and among the finest factory buildings at
Key West, and stands on an elevated site in the
outskirts of the town, yet within easy access of
all points by a street railway that runs within
six hundred feet of the door. The factory build-
ing and the store adjoining, to the right of our
picture, are of brick, and have been equipped
throughout in the finest possible manner for the
preparation and manipulation of the tobacco
and the economical manufacture of cigars.-N.
Y. Tobacco.

goods. This, of course, led others to make the
experiment, with varied success.
At first Messrs. Seidenberg & Co. had some
difficulty in convincing the trade that they
could supply them cigars equal to any they
could buy in Havana at about two thirds the
cost. Some doubted; but after they had given
the samples a fair test they no longer doubted.
But this was not accomplished without consid-
erable labor and perseverance and the outlay
of an immense capital; and Key West to-day is
largely indebted to these gentlemen for the en-
viable reputation the Key West cigar now en-
joys all over the world; and most especially
favored with this reputation are the brands
made in the La Rosa Espahola" cigar factory,
Messrs. Seidenberg & Co., proprietors. And
right royally do they deserve their present good
fortune, for there is not a factory on the island
that has labored harder, and under more diffil-
culties, to reach this end than this one. The
proprietors have expended princely fortunes in
their labors, which have redounded to the best
interests of Key West as well as to themselves.
But they have no cause to regret the expendi-
ture, for they have at last succeeded in placing
their business here upon a firm basis, with a
" bed-rock foundation; and to smoke one of
the famous "La Rosa Espahola" cigars Is to
enjoy a luxury seldom indulged in by any but
the rich.
The output of Havana cigars from this fac-
tory for the year 1888 was over 10,000,000; every
one of which was made from the very Anest


select Havana (Spanish) tohamcco that could be
found on the island of Cuba. Not one inferior
cigar maker can be found in this mannmmoth
The dimensions of this factory are 150 x 50
feet, three stories itn height, and is capable of
giving employment to about 150 or 200 more
cigar makers. It is divided off and arranged
similar to thie many other large cigar factories
on the Island, and a description of the sanmeo
one'i's in so many difTferent places below that
to recapitulate would only prove wearisomno
to the reader. Suffice it to say that a large,
latest designed elevator extends from tho first
to third floors, and that the building is well
supplied with all the latest apparatus and con-
veniences, and has ani abundance of water in
case of fire,
The long continuance of this factory in Key
West, climbing higher and higher on the ladder
of success all the while, while many others have
slink into oblivion, is alone suficiett evidence
of the excellent management it has enjoyed.

ing a position as head cigar maker in the large
factory of Messrs. Manuel Cantero & Joaquin
M. Mora, where he succeeded in completing the
capital with whichli he, in copartnership with
Messrs. Bruno Diaz and Francisco Perez, started
a small cigar factory on Grand street, in 1871,
under the firm name of Gato, Diaz & Perez; but
not liking the location, the flirmn soon moved
their factory to Pearl street, where they did
business together for about one year, at the ex-
piration of which time the firm was dissolved by
itltitual consent.
Soon after the dissolution of the above co-
partnership, in tthe early part of 1872, Mr. Gato
again commenced business on Cedar street, un-
der the firm namo of E. 11. Gato, with about
thirty cigar makers and pickers, but soon re-
moved to Maiden Lane, where the real founda-
tion of his present princely fortune was laid;
although he was a heavy suttJTrer during the
financial crisis of ,tl, in whiicl11o lost heavily,
and nothing but his indomitable will and well-
known honor, coupled with his untiring energy,


A Biographical Sketch of the Business
Career of Mr. Edunardo IH. Gato, tilhe
Key West Millionaire, from 18609 to

Also a Birdl's Eye View of His Large Cigar Fac-
tory lfere-Noting its Ral)pid( Progress from
a Forty lland-Power," in 1871, upl) to the
Present Dlay. When lie Employs Over 4-50
limuls, and turns out over 300,000 Cigars
per Week, and Which Uses Nothing but
Select Haitvana Tobacco.

In order to give our readers a better idea as
to the magnitude of the cigar industry of tihe
city of Key West, Fla., and most especially In
this article of Mr. Eduardo 11. Gato's factory,
we trust that we will be pardoned in digress-
ing for awhile from our subject; for in order
that our readers may more fully understand
and properly appreciate tihe old proverb that,
" from small acorns large oaks grow," It will be
necessary for us to go back to the year 18690,
(seven years before the subject of this sketch
thought of establishing his headquarters in Key
Wnst), when Mr. Eduardo H. Gato first settled
In New York City, and where lie at once found
employment in one of the large American cigar
factories of that city. After remaining in Now
York a short while, his skill as a fine and rapid
cigar maker soon attracted attention, and lie
soon received an offer to go to Boston, Mass., to
work in another American factory, and in a
few months thereafter lie returned to New
York City, where he had no difficulty in secur.

H. Gato. (Cut loaned by Tobacco.)

push, pluck and go-aheaditiveness, kept him
front bankruptcy. It must be remembered that
during the trying times and scarcity of money
In this year, many of the largest business
houses and best financiers were forced to sus-
pend business; and this fact alone speaks vol-
unmes for Mr. Gate's business qualifications, and
at once gained for him the opinion of the large
banking houses, (that, like himself, had pulled
through tlhe crisis), that he was one of the
best financiers of that age, and which opinion
lie has since preserved intact.
As early as the year 1876, Mr. Gato had be-
come known as a capitalist, and as all shrewd
capitalists do, he began to think of extending
and enlarging his business, and commenced at
once to look about for broader fields in which
to operate. Knowing the advantages offered
by Key West over any other portion of the
United States to mako fine cigars from the finest
leaf of the renowned Havana tobacco, lie vis-
ited Key West with the intention of establish-
ing a cigar factory, if he could get a suitable
site, which he soon founc on Wall street, and
by the middle of June of the same year (1876),
ho had established a factory with about thirty
cigar makers and a number of pickers, strip-
pers, etc., making his entire force then employed
amount to the insignificant number of about
forty-five, all told. Here Mr. Gato filled the
twofold position of proprietor and manager of
the factory, and under his skillful generalship
his business soon grew to such proportions that
it was necessary for him to build a larger build-
ing. Finding a tract of land suitable for his
purposes on Simonton, between Division street

and South Beach, which contained about ton
acres, he purchased it, and at once secured the
services of the best architects, builders and car-
poenters, and by the middle of the year 1882 had
ever erected in Monroe County and which to-
day stands us a living monument to his enter-
prise and good feeling toward Key West. The
dimensions of this structure are, 125 feet long,
40 feet wide and about 75 feet high, and has
three large, roomy and well ventilated stories
with a perfect north and south light.
Mr. Jose Albertes 1i the general manager of
this establihmeint, and has full control over all
business pertaining to the cigar industry during
Mr. Gato's absence, both in ordering and sign-
ing for tobacco from Mr. Gato's large tobacco
warehouse, situated at 43 Dragones street, Ha-
vana, Cuba, presided over by Mr. Manuel
Prieto Arnms, as Mr. Gato's Cuban manager and
chief agent.


The business of Mr. Gato has already assumed
such proportions that he contemplates building,
at an early day, the largest cigar factory in the
world; the dimensions of which will be enor-
mous. The site, which has been already select-
ed, is 400 feet wide and 241 feet deep, and the fac-
tory proper, and necessary out buildings, will
cover the entire plot. The plans for this manm-
moth factory have already been drawn, and sub-
mitted to contractors. The dimensions of this
factory will be nearly twelve times that of his
present large factory, and will furnish ample
room to over 5,000 workmen. Mr. Gato has
sufficient confidence In the future of Key West,
and ample capital, to carry out any enterprise
lie may undertake, to warrant us in saying that
work will be commenced on this mammoth
structure within the next sixty days, or possibly
The entire building is to be built of brick and
iron, except the inside frame-work and floors,
and will be as nearly fire-proof as possible, and
will be the largest building of any kind, by
long odds, ever erected in South Florida, and,
as we before said, the largest cigar factory in
the world, and will cost, when completed, nearly
In this factory, as in his present one, nothing
but the finest "Havana" cigars will be made,
from the very finest select Spanish tobacco
that Ilis Havana agent can find on the Island of
Beside the magnitude of this structure, it will
be the most elegant in external as well as Inter-
nal appearances of any factory building in the
South. It Is to be magnificently fished, regard.


less of cost, and when running with full force,
it is calculated that nearly 750,000 cigars will be
made per day in it.
Mr. Gato had no sooner completed his pres-
ent large structure, than he began at once to
utilize the remaining space of the ton-acre pur-
chase in having a number of neat one and two-
story cottages erected for his employees and
officers, and almost simultaneous with the com-
pletion of the factory he had ample acconuno-
dations for all of them, either finished or rapidly
reaching the stage of completion.
As rapidly as the surplus accumulated from
this investment, Mr. Gato would invest it in
real estate, greatly to the improvement and ad-
vancement of the interests of the island of Key
West, until to-day, we do not exaggerate when
we say that he has between two and three hun-
dred business houses and cottages situated in
different portions of the island, to say nothing
of his city Street Car investment, New York
city and Cuban property, which swell his vast
real estate investments to the snug sum of
about $2,000,000, including hundreds, yes thou-
sandss of acres of fine lands, situated n various
parts of Florida, and which are daly Inprov-
ing in valuation.
Among the most valuable of i property, ex-
cept his rafiroad, bank and security stock, is,
perhaps his
consisting of a number of large and handsome
" flats" situated in the most desirable portions
of the city; some on Eighth avenue, with hand-
some store building, and double as many more
in other portions of that city, but hardly so
desirably situated. Those investments in New
York alone are estimatedat about $500,000, as
near as we can come at it.
His Cuban property is of the smallest valua-
tion of all, and of which we will not make spe-
cial mention.
Returning to the Key West investments of
Mr. Gato, we cannot pass unnoticed his crown-
ing ones, to wit.
and while it may not be the most remunerative,
yet it has done more to place Key West on a
permanent city-like basis, and at the same time
"lessened the distance," we may say, between
the city proper and its suburbs, than anything
else lie could have invested in at the time of its
During the early part of 188,3, Messrs. E. H.
Gato, Jno. White; Gee. G. Watson, Lewis
Pierce, Col. Walter C. Malonoy and Hon. C. 13.
Pendleton organized the above Street Car Com-
pany with a capital stock of $05,000, or 050
share., at $100 eaoh; and the first bed-road was
laid on Division and Whitehead streets, with a
short line from White to Division, with the first
station on White street. Lines were next laid
on Simonton and Front streets, and afterward
the Rocky Road line was laid, which since has
proved to be the th most lucrative investment of
all the lines, to say nothing of its great popular-
ity for pleasure-soeekers In thne several of the
old members sold out and others took their
place, until to-day the Company is composed
of Mr. Eduardo H. Gate, President; Benj. T.
Albury, Vice-President; Col. G. Bowno Patter-
son, Secretary, and Attorney for the Company;
and Mr. Jose Albertes, Cashier. The property
of the Key West Street Car Association, includ-
ing the beds, rolling-stock, mules, lands, station-
houses and sheds, has doubled in valuation,
and to-day could not be bought for $135,000.
Mr. Gato now owns all the shares of the Asso-
ciation, except, perhaps, seven or eight, which
gives him almost e;,<.usive control over the
Col. G. Bowne Patterson is not only Secretary
and Attorney of the Association, but he is also
Mr. Gate's Key West Attorney, and acts in
matters (outside of the factory interests) of bus-
luess, in Mr. Gate's absence, either private or
pertaining to the Street Car Association, "Just
an though it wam his own."

We cannot close without again referring to
the private life of the man who has so tho-
roughly and convincingly proved that "every
man is the architect of his own fortune," and
one who has done so much toward placing the
Key West cigar ahead of all others made in the
United States, and on an equal footing with the
Havana-made cigar; and we would like to im-
press upon the minds of our readers the fact
that the cigars sent out from Gato's factory are
made entirely, without exception, from the very
best tobacco that his Havana agent can select
direct from the farmers of Cuba, and it may be
relied upon that his cigars are as line and pure
as any cigar ever made in Havana. He employs
none but the very finest workmen, most, if not
all, of whom are Cubans, who learned the busi-
ness in Havana, Cuba.
Mr. Gato's excellent judgment displayed in
his selection o0 cpnfidential officers is apparent
to all, and which now porgillb hin to live a life
of ease, and ahnost total retirement from the
cares and worry of business, to enjoy the luxur.
ies of home life, and to devote nearly his entire
time to the society of his interesting family.
Occasionally he takes a short pleasure trip to
Havana or New York, where he sometimes de-
votes an hour or two out of each day to his
business interest; but the necessity for this no
longer exists, owing to the facttoo lay that in each of
these cities he has mostuccexcellent and worthy, in b
rir'',fr,4 lti('ir.'6 w those binll andlltk )lTiour lire
While the day was, when Mr. Gato believed
it necessary for his success In business, there
was not a slave wer o worked harder for his mas-
ter than did Mr. GatIs to lay tnd-Ne foundations of
that fortune and high personal character upon
whifrom a ch he has so successfully erected, in blazreet, in
letters, to the word "esent ssay, when it Gives E."

A Biographical Sketch of the Business
Career of Mr. Francisco Marrero, A
Wealthy Cigar Manufacturer.

Also a Bird's-Eye View of His Large Cigar Fac-
tory on the is Island-Noting its Progress
from a Small Concern on Wall Street, in
1870, to the Present Day, when it Gives Em-
ployment to over 500 Employes-Nothing
but the Finest Havana Tobacco used-A
Fortune Honestly Earned.

It Is our Intention to write up every cigar fac-
tory on the island of Key West, that gives em-
ployment to twenty-five or more cigar-makers,.
taking them as we can find the proprietors or
managers with a few idle moments to spare us.
In order that our readers may more fully un-
derstand and comprehend what can be accom-
plished in Keo West, from industry, skill and
perseverance, in the cigar industry, it will be
necessary for us to go back to the time when
the subject of this sketch, Mr. Francisco Mar-
roro, first put foot upon American soil; in fact
we will also mention the cause that drove him
from his home in Havana.
On the 25th day of March, 1800, during the
insurrection or rebellion, Mr. Francisco Marrero
was arrmlcted 22 mn!les from Havana, on a charge
of treason" and placed in prison in Havana,
where lie was kept in close confinement for
about forty days, after which time he was sent
to the Spanish prison in Fernando Po, Africa,
where he remained seventy days, when, with
bribes to his keepers, and an additional bribe
of $200 to the Captain of an English steamship
thou at that port, Mr. Marrero secured passage
to Liverpool, where lie remained forty-five days,
in search of some kind friend who would let
him have sufficient money to carry himhn to Now
York City. Finally good fortune threw him in
the way of a fellow-countryman who aided hint
to get to Paris, France, and after a short stay
there of about thirty days, lie took passage for,
and landed in New York City per the steam-
ship Colorado, on the 18th day of December,
1800, without a cent in His pocket and suffering
from the dreadful African fever, and which
afflicted him until June of 1870. However, in
thirty days from the time of his arrival there,
his extreme poverty drove him to the work-

bench in the large cigar factory of Jacob & Co.,
on Twelfth street, where lie was engaged to
make a line quality of Havana cigars, though
lie was so weak lie could hardly stand alone.
Here he remained only a short while, whlien he
and a Mr. Vichot (a Culan) formed a copart-
nership, and started up a sminall cigar factory on
2'2Tit, jbtwi 'I Secomtu street autid Fiftth avenue,
with a force of eight or ten hands, including
himself and partner, and made nothing but
pure Havana cigars, and sold all their goods to
Jacob & Co., his first employers.
At the expiration of six months, finding this
small business unprofitable, he and his partner
" closed up the shop" and Mr. Marrero accepted
a position as foreman of the cigar makers in
the large factory of Joaquin Marra & Co., on
Sixth avenue, between 42d and 45th streets,
where he only remained three months, when
tle increasing business of this firn forced them
to build a large factory on Water street, at No.
02. He remained two years with this firm, and
saved, by extreme frugality and energy the nec-
essary money to once more start himself in bus-
iness, on a larger scale, and which laid the
foundation .of his present large fortune and
mammoth cigar factory, and in May, 1874, lie
opened up a cigar factory at No. 450 Pearl
street, under the firm name of Francisco Mar-
rero, with about twenty cigar makers and a
number of pickers, strippers, etc.,which swelled
his working force to about forty hands, all told.
Here his business grew to such proportions that
he was forced to have larger quarters, and
moved to No. 832 Catharine street, where he
remained about twelve months. Finding this
place insufficient in size for his growing busi-
ness, he then removed to Maiden Lane and em-
ployed 150 cigar makers and a large number of
pickers, strippers, etc., where he remained un-
til December, 1875, when he closed his New
York factory to make preparations to com-
mence business in Key West, where his eagle
eye had discovered the Eldorado for the cigar
industry of thiscountry, and in February, 1870,
lie opened a factory on the corner of Wall and
Duval streets, with about 100 cigar makers,
pickers, strippers, etc. But Mr. Marrera still
retained the Maiden Lane building as his office
and store room for his cigars shipped to New
York from Key West.
The building on Wall and Duval street was
occupied by Mr. Marrera as a factory until the
latter part of 1878, when he again closed doors
and removed to New York, but did not start up
his factory there; and in February, 1879, he re-
turned to Key West, and this time bringing his
family, with the intention to remain and mak-
ing Key West his future home. Soon after his
arrival here he reopened business in his old
stand, corner of Wall and Duval streets, with a
small force of about fifty employes, but was
soon compelled to increase his force in order to
fill the many large orders that began to pour in
upon him, until in May, 1881, he removed to
Whitehead street (the old Parade factory), in
search of more roomy quarters. Here, owing
to the extra fine quality of the cigars turned
out by him, which were all made from pure


select Havana leaf tobacco, hle was forced to
seek larger quarters.
Finding a suitable site in the South-western
portion of the island, on the corner of Fort and
Julia streets, he purchased four large lots, anid
at once commenced the erection of his present
maitnioth factory building, and also the erve-
tion of some forty-five cottages in different
parts of the city for the accommodation of his
About the middle of October, 188), this build-
ing was completed, and lie at once moved into
lils inew,
with one of the largest forces ever employed
on the island.
The dimensions of this building are, I i0 fiet
long, 1) feet wide and about 1 feet high atld
tinhree stories, with an additional ell of 'i' lI'et
lol, and 11 feet wide; besides lie has siice
added an addition on thl North side running
thle full length of the building and about fifteen
feet wide, which is used in wetting down the
which is situated near the factory on the same
lot, about one hundred bales of choice Spanish
tobacco are always kept on hand conveniently
near; and here we haul the opportunity of see-
ing tobacco from the crops of 188M, '87 and 's88,
phaed side by side; and we believe preference
Is given to the tobacco of last youear's crop,
Adjoining the warehouse is ai neat eleanly
kept stable, for the aceonnmlodatiol of Mr. Maur-
rero's buggy aid saddle horses and dray muils,
all of which worn large, fat ald sleek tonihials,
and evidently receive the blest attenlltioh)n.
His forty-five or fifty cottages are all occupied
by good tenants, a. id are a soturoe of a largo
revenue to Mr. Marrero, and wlichl, in conllllce-
tion with the factory, bonds, bank stock and
quite a lot of other ieal estate not nientionled
here, swell the fortune of Mr. Frlanelso Mireroro
up to about $4100,l)000, a greater portion of it
having been accumulated in Key West simne
1870, which alone speaks volumes in the interest
of our matnufacturting ildulstries.
Mr. Marrero occasionally makes a visit to lln-
vana, where lie buys a slftlcilent lllnumbler of
hules of the very best tobacco to be found int
Cuba to last lihi until hlie cares to make aln-
other trip to his old Hlavanua bhoe. Something
over three llnntlis ago, while business was ait
its lowest ebb iII Key West, Mr. Mar'ero teIll-
porarily closed his factory here alnd went tto
New York, possibly with the intention of estab-
lishing a (cigar factory there, but lie soon re-
turned to Key West and opened up his factory
with a itlarger force than ever before, and now
hls factory is pointed to as one of the largest,
if not the largest on the island, both in regard
to the nilliber of lands emllployed, iand other-
wise. It is estimated that he employs about
500 or 55i) cigar makers, pickers, strippers, ete.,
and no filter iegar call be found tal ywher'e II
the world than is made in this model factory.

An Accurate Description of the Large
Cigar Factory of Villanil, Piodela
& Co.
The factory next claiming our attention is that
of Messrs. Villaiill, Plodetla & Co.,of this city,
now situated oi D)uval street, which works
more than three hlunidred hands at iaeseiit, bitt
which originally began with loss thian t twenty
cigar makers.
This Is a factory that lihas gained such ait vast
reputation for its cigars that we are )roud of
an opIlortunlty to do tlem honor, aslde from
the fact that the senior i member of the firm,
has made more friends by his affable, cour-
teous bearing, both to the poor as well as lthe
rich, than any foreigner oni tie island consider-
ing his short residence among us.
To begin: Early in September, 1870, Mr.
Domingo Villamill, the senior member of the
firm of Villatiul, Piodela & Co., of this city, as
before mentioned, left Havana to aeceept a p)osl-
tion in this city as manager of the large cilgar
factory of Mr. Jno. B, lomero, who carried oin
one of the largest cigar industries on the island.
In this factory Mr. Villamil remained for about
two and aI half years, when the fietory was re-
moved to Havana, Mr. Villamull accomplA)inhig it
as manager, where he remained until tarclh,
1884,when he bought an interest in Mr. Juan
Pino's cigar factory.
We would like to impress upon our readers
the fact that tlhe capital necessary to aleeomiplish
this was made and saved by Mr. Villainll while
lie was on salary, the greater portion of which
was made in Key West.
At the theme 0o his entering into the eo-part-
nership with Mr. Juan Pino tihe name of theo
factory was known as the La Africana," whleh
name was taken from on< of th\e choice t.m
leading brands made In this factory, and which
it bears to-day.

on Duval, near Angella street, nnd in Novem-
b)er, I18MI. Messrs. Villamiil, ]Pino & Co, took pos-
session of their new quarters, and opened up1
with alout thirty-five or forty cigar makers,
which have gradlualy been increased until to-
day, wthen they run full a force (which is gener-
ally every day), about t150 (igar makers are emii-
ployved, and even with these, they occasionally
get behind with their orders, which will neces-
sitite an increase o(f fifty or sixty cigar makers,
and other workmlen, soon.
The dimensions of this building arc about 115
by N feet, 80 feet high and three stories, and
furnish amit lo aeommutodations for 250 cigar
makers, whl ch force, if we judge by the past,
will soon be employed, possibly before the mid-
dile of 1880.
There are but few brands made by this firm,
from the fact tlihat they make nothing but at
pure iavana cigar and do not care to introduce
new brands while they are yet laboring to gain
a national reputation for those introduced and
so well known lin New York.
The La ilIpildoe" Is the loading brand man-
ufactuared in this factory, and to seat one's self
in the coe.y little private police of Mr. Vlllamil,
with a number of thio "La itapidez" before one,
und one of them between one t teeth, no greater
enj)oymelt or elysian dream could be asked,
Next co(imes the "Antonio y Cleopatra," which
onl' differs from the "La lhapidez" in name
Ionu size-the material and workmanship being
of t he llfest quality.
The Pelip11la," Sin Pretension," La Nina,"
"Solitaire," etc., are also very choice brands,
also itmade of pure clear Havaita tobacco, Iby
latvana (Cuiban) workillenll, and are as fine
e(lgiars is any man miay wish to smoke. As far
as we were ible to discover there was but little
diffretine In these brands, except perhaps the
fillnsi, for they are all made Iainll piure Havana
tobulaio, by native-born Cubans, who learned
their trade ill lavaiin: hielc we w t can conscieln-
tiously recommend eaci l Ibriand its being somle-
thling'extra filne.
The Leadinhg irands made i their Havana
factory, anld furnished to their customers, are:
a l'Afrieaill," Ptblhl y Virginita," "Ernest
Merek," Lat Admirable, Imperlil Sport,"
etc., all (of which (ican justly be classed allmonig
thle filnest ligars ever made.
Theo tobakee used ill the iimanullfactulre of these
eigars is selleted from the holds by Mr. .1laait
Piio himself andt shipped to this city. Heo
selects notliig ibut thie very best, with an eve
to the light colored leaf, of course, which is thel
craze among smolikers at present.
Is a gentleman of over thirty years' experience
in thle cigar business I1n Hatvana, and can select
the best quality of tobacco at a glance, and it
is this faculty for selecting the best, that has
gained for tlih La Africana," made inl Havanat,
and the La Rlapide,;," *anuifctured In Key
West, such an enviable reputation,
No. 43 Beaver street, successor to Purdy &
Nicholas, wholesale dealer and Importer of

While it Is not our Intention to write u)p any
H'avana factory, or to boom their cigars, yet
it is necessary for us to mention tlhe above fatets
in order to properly efinue Mr. V'lllmil's two-
fold position, and the great stridlo h lias made
from anl eliployee to an ellployer, which was
only accomplished by I industry, integrity and
alaTblllty; and to-day lie is known iI Key West
as (ione of the most genteel, courteous, anf( oblig-
ilug Slaniards onl thile island of Key West; and
tlut high Iregi d we have for himt takes us give
lihlm, instead of his fuatory, the preced(ence inI
these coluinllts, anld of wlhomll we shall again
In 1880 the ll'iii of Pino & Villamil, of Hna-
vana, always within their eyes open to their best
interests, saw whlut at fine field was offered with
it cigar factory established in Key West, to
minko a pure Iiavanlia cigar, andl it was at once
decide that Mr, 1)Domingo Vlliamil should
blring tlwo dozen of the best eiglar makers that
could lie fotidI in I ba Itmil it a tiiilhet'r (if blelas
of thie very lhlnest Slpltnisll, or 'avana toblaeeo,
imld sttit a factory in Key West, under the irm
nauie of Villhull, Plno & Co,.
At first Mr. Villinill hadn sotme difficulty in
fiinIig i suitable vaitlit l building il whilh to
imakthe his 'xNie'n'lii('Iit. l however 1)e found, iII a
few days, a building, near the Trish whanrf,
Ielonging to Mr. Jno, Lowe, Jr., that would
IIanswer for Ills inIvdiitetI purI'Ipomse, anll which he
itiiediately took possession of. But owing to
the hue iloquality of cigars made by the ftrlms,
whilcl equaled any made in Havanmi, but whlici
were sold to dealers at a great reduction iin
prive, owing to the fact that they had no import
duty to piavy, their orders were soon larger than
the sutlly, anil a large'billlilng was necessary ;
and in lss tlitan three months from the estate -
lishmtent of the brancl'h factory on this island,
Mr. J no. Lowe had built for the firm a

fine cigars, tobacco, liquors, etc., is too well
known for us to dwell upon the fact that lihe
handles nothing but first-class goods; and the
fact that lie is the agent for the above
cigurs, inadeo in Key West, as well as for the
" La Africana," is sufficient to convince every
thinking man as to the quality of these goods.
On the first day of the present year the first
name of this factory was changed front Villaminil,
Pino & Co., to Villanill, Piodela & Co., Mr. J.
G. Piodela, of the firm of Piodela & Lopez, hav-
ing bought an interest In the two factories-one
is Key West and the other in Havana, Cuba
but thioe firm name of the Havana factory will
not le changed. It is the intention of these
gentlemen to manufacture nothing but the very
finest quality of Hiavana cigars and we can
safely say that lovers of pure Havana cigars
will find I either of the above brands all they
could ask for. Mr. Plodela is a gentleman too
well known in the commercial world for us to
attempt to introduce him,

The Large "Monte Cristo" and "Con.
queror" Cigar Faeto0res, said to be
the Largest and Finest in the State.
Also a Bird's-Eve View of "Castillo City," One
of our Prettiest and most Cleanly-Looking
Suburbs-History of the Factory from 1881,
when Mr. A. M. Castillo First Started a
mall Factorv on Siimonton Street, with
Four Cigar Makers, to the Present Day-
Messrs. P. and ]). Pohalski the Owners of
this Beautiful Little City and the Mam-
moth Factory.
While it is our intention to devote most of
our space to the large and complete Monte
Cristo" Factory and Castillo City, and the
owners, it is necessary for us to go back to the
beginning of this factory, in order that its prog-
ress and prosperity may bem noted,
In the early part of 1881, Mr. Antonio M.
Castillo, aided by Mr. D. Pohalski, of New York
City, started up a small cigar factory on Simon-
ton street, with twenty first-class cigar makers,
and with himhnself as foreman, where he made
nothing but first-class cigars from pure Havana
tobacco, which were shipped to the large cigar
and tobacco importers, Messrs. P. Pohalski &
Co., No. 17 Warren street, New York. Mr. A.
M. Castillo was such a fine cigar maker and
business manager over it factory-in fact lie un-
lerstood thoroughly every branch of the cigar
business-and it was timts that first attracted
the attention of Mr. D. Pohalski to him, who
took hint from the table and placed hhnim as fore-
miail anid manager over the above factory, with
the assurance that itf he met the expectation of
P. Pohalski & Co., in furnishing a first-class,
clear Havana cigar, he would ald him in in-
creasing the business to meet the demands of
his tradle. And as anticipated by Mr. 1).
Polhalski, it was soon evident that larger quar-
ters and more workmen would be necessary for
Mr. Castillo to supply the demand; and true to
his promise lie furnished all that was requested
of himi. and in a few months from the time of
beginning on Simonton street (about February,
1882), Mr. Castillo removed his factory to the
corner of Wall and Whitehead street, and
opened up his factory thlre with fifty first-class
ecgar-makers, or a force of nearly 1N0 all told
where lie remained for about one year: bui
duringall this time his fine brands of cigars
were becoming the favorite brand handled by
Messrs. (P. arnd D. Pohalski) P. PohalsI'i & Co.,
and the attention of Mr. P. Pohalski, senior
inember of the above firm, about this time, was
attracted to his brother's (Mr. D. Pohalski) Key
West investment, and lie was invited to take
stock in it, which lie at once did, andt imnedi-
ately took steps to enlarge the business; and
soon afterwards, in 1885, the factory was re-
moved further up Whitehead street not far
from the present post-office, where Mr. A. M.
Castillo commenced operations with something
over 100 fine cigar makers, or nearly 200 work-
men all told, and where the "Conqueror" fac-
tory is now located.
It will thus be seen that, under the able mlan-
agement of Mr. Castillo, the business had rap-
idly grown, in the short space of two years,
from;i a small concern, with only twenty work-
men, all told, to a big factory, employing
about 200 hands. But it did not stop there; f
it had, possibly this sketch would have never
been written.
Mr. Castillo says hlie saw a fine opening in Key
West to make a clear Havana cigar, and it was
his Intention, when he first started on Sinlonton
street with only a few cigar makers, to strain
every nerve, and leave no stone unturned on his
road to success, until lie has reached the very
top ladder and ihas the largest and finest cigar
factory to be found anywhere in the State.
Tims 10o feels confident lie has accomplished,
thanks to thie liberality of his benefactors
Messrs. P. & D). Pohalski, and the Implicit trusi
and confidence placed in his honesty and abil-
ity by those gentlemen.
Now large and numerous orders poured In
until It was evident that the business would


have to be enlarged beyond the accomunoda-
tions of their present building, and In the latter
part of 188I a large tract of land was purchased
by Messrs. P. Pohalski & Co., covering nearly
all that part or parcel of land lying between
White, Olivia and Division streets, and opera-
tions were at once commenced to build a num-
ber of cottages for the accommodation of their
workmen, and at the same time skilled archi-
tects and contractors were employed to draw
up a plan and build the largest cigar factory to
be found on the island; and on the 10th day of
July, 1888, the large and handsome
was dedicated in a royal manner, and In a very
few days Mr. Castillo had his workmen, tables,
tobacco, etc., transferred to this establishment,
with a large additional force, which has boon
steadily increased, until to-day there is hardly
a vacant table to be found in all this vast strue-
ture, which, as large and roomy as it is, has
every available space occupied.
The dimensions of the building are, 100 feooet
long by 40 feet wide, and nearly 100 feet high,
four full stories and the dome. This building
presents one of the prettiest views, from the
White street entrance, of any factory we have
yet visited, more especially at night, when the
large and elegant lamps that are fastened to
the sides of the building, and those on the cor-
ner. posts are lighted up, and a visit to it on
Sunday afternoon, when the workmen are all
gone, will amply repay one, even though o0110
should not care to go up into the observatory,
where a most beautiful view can be had.

made by this factory need no special comment,
We only need to mention them, for they are so
well known that it would seem like a loss of
time and valuable space were we to attempt to
describe their perfect shape, flavor, andl othor
perfections which have better recomnioended
them to tile favor of all lovers of the weed tlan
anything we can say or do; hence, we shall
only mention the names of a few choice and
leading brands, to wit: "Monte Cristo," "First
Consul," "Los Castillos," "The Snuggler," Daz-
zle," Marshalk," Spanish ])oubloon," etc., all
of which are made from pure Spanish tobacco,
selected by their Havana agent, and stored in
their warehouse there until ordered shipped to
Key West.
We would feel that our work was not half
completed were we to omit a short mention of
this most beautiful and pretty little city; for
it is one of the few suburbs that Keywestors are
actually proud of. It must not bhe forgotten
that this city now contains a population of
some 800 or more, and has several ine buildings;
that while the Monte Cristo" factory is chief
among them, yet several of them are nearly as
handsome, if not quite so stately and expen-
sive, and among which may be mentioned the
handsome two-story residence of Mr. A. M. Cas-
tillo, also the one occupied by Mr. Nicholas T.
Castillo, both situated on Pollalski avenue.
Pohalski avenue in tlhe main street or avenue
of Castm'o ciy', and extend from a vi to D! v'-
sion streets, with large and handsome archways
erected at the entrance from each of the above
streets, bearing, in large plain gold letters, the
Inscription," Entrance to CastiUlb OtyM '

Mr. J, T. Knowles, the courteous and efficient
real estate and collecting agent for Messrs. P.
Pohalski & Co., also has his office situated on
Pohalski avenue, and a neater, better kept real
estate oflleo cannot be found on the island, N'r.
P. Pohalski has never seen the Monto Cristo"
factory or Castillo City, being content to rely
upon the judgment, and otherwise, of th'e
junior inetmber of the firn, Mr. ). Pohialski, andI
upon Mr. A. M. Castillo, in whose iani tihe
business here is conducted, and upon Mr. .f. T.
Knowles, tlie fficiont real estate agent, whole
has the ontiro confidence of both Messrs. P. and
1), Pohalski as well as of Mr. A. M. (Castillo.
While Pohalski avenue is the most linportant
avenue in Castillo City, yet there are other
avenues and streets worthy of imentton, among
which are, Havana, (oronme autk Nicholias
avenues; and Olivia, White, Division and Fran-
cis streets. Of course the largest business and
public buildings are, and will continue to bo,
erected upon the broad streets.
Castillo City ihlready boasts of one dry goods
store, one grocery store, o.i-,restaurant and .of.
fee house, one handsome Ifilliard saloon and bar,
one market house, one largo drug store, ete.,
etc.; there are also in course of construction til
this beautiful little "City" ta large and elegitnt
Club Room, barber shop, etc., and just as soon
as these are finished, Mr. Knowles inforiis us
that he will commnoence a largo and spitelous
academy for the benefit of the city, but to re-
main tlhe property of Messrs. Polalski & Co.
These investments are all situated in Castillo

City, which, we will reiterate, is the prettiest
ani neatest of Key West's suburbs, and go a
long way in the chain of evidence to show how
Key West is viewed by Northern capitalists,
and prognosticates a bright future and better
times ahead.
utirht iing to the Motio Crl.st cigar fac.
tory and the owners of the entire Castillo
City" in which the factory is sltuited, we would
like to mention a few minor points, that until
now have escaped us: The first of these is the
almost absolute security front atd protection
against ilre furnished to tlihe "Monte Cristo"
factory; for aside from about 500 feet of hose,
eonnected to a large force Iltillp, there aro sev--
eral hundreds of buckets i lled with water,
place(l around the building, onil the inside, of
each floor, and unless tlhe building was about
half consumed whoenl discovered to be on fire,
the flames could readily be gotten under con-
trol. In addition to these, there are alout flfty
cisterns built for the protection and accominoilia-
tion of this mnammnoth structure, which con-
tain, from 7,000 to 35,000 gallons of water oncli;
hence the 450 or 500 hands now employed by
Mr. Castillo need have no fear of being thrown
out of work through the agency of fire; and
the Now York firm of P. Pohalski & Co., 17
Warren street, can count on an ,t' erago ship-
ment of over 40,000 cigars per day, or over 2530,-
000 per week.
Mr. P. Pohalski, the wealthy senior partner
of the firm, has about retired from the worry
and vexations of an active business life, andi
Uo\w Vnjovs l 'lt soet ', 'f )i.S family, andit coill-
forts and luxuries of life in a magnillcent brown
stone front, situated on Seventy-Third street,
where he is always glad to welcome and oener-
tain his friends,

Mr. D. Pohalski, junior partner of tile firm,
has taken up his residence in a princely man-
sion, on Madison avenue, where lihe will possibly
spend his declining days, though lie ias not
yet begun to approach them, andu at present
one would not care to meet a livelier, more
jolly and pleasant, as well us entertaining eom-
pinllonI, in whose company to whirl away ia few
leisure hours, or to transamt the most imiiportalit
business. It Is all the nainu to Mr. 1). Pohilski
-always lively, always pleasant-whether upon
Ia mission of mliercWy, ):rotit or fun; and his happy,
contented good-inlatlreO alpelars to be epiden'ie
when lie is around, We will be only too glad
to wel'oio hll og 1011011 s ligalli, ildv wlihelh,
we ar 111litnol11(, we will have thie opportunity
to do,
Mr. A. M. Castillo, as we have before said, re-
sides on Phaoliaki avenue, Castillo City, in an
elegant two-story building,
In honor of the faithful services of Mr. A. M.
Castillo and tilhe high esteem in which Ale.srs.
P.Pohalski & Co. hold him, they named their
beautiful little Key Wesot suburb after him-
Castillo City. No higher compliment could
they have paid him, and while Mr. C(astillo is
not vain, yet it. is apparent that lie fully appro-
elates the hlonur Iiheaped upon him by theli fur
of P. Pohalski & CJo.

The Conqueror Cigar Factory,
situated on Whitehead street, has recently been
erected by Messrs. P. Pohalskl & Co., on the old
site of tilhe Monte Cristo factory, in which they

have opened up a large cigar factory, with
Messrs. Nicholis F. Castillo & Co., as the man-
agers, and employ about 125 first-class cigar
makers in tihe ianlufacture of flno Key West
Havana cigars. ThIese two factories, however,
are scarcely ale to 1111 the ruanv large orders
poil'ed iII onil themil fronl Messrs. 1. Pohldski &
Co. Theu manager is a son of Mr. A. 31. Cas-
tillo. In addiltin to the above featories they
have recently started a factory in 1havana
which is ttliriinht out 50,000 (lgars weekly.
Their factory in New York is also working full

The Comparatively New, but Prosper-
ous Cigar Factory of Mr. Herbert C.
In the latter part of 1881, Mr. Ilerlert C.
Pent, while yet a mere vouth, entered tlh large
(igar factory of Mr. J. 11. (dregory, lnow on Fitz.-
patrick street, s alI allpprentieo to lenal tiho
cigar business, with the small compensation of
$1.50 per week, for the first year. At the enl
of the first year Ills salary was raised to the
largo sunm of $3 perII week for tilhe first tire
monithls, with a slight increase from quarter to
quarter, till, towards tlhe latter part of tlhe
second year, when he was given a table with a
journeyman's pay,
Within a few months front the timo of his
promotion, through close application to busi-
ness, and the deon interest lie took in his em-
ployers' interests, 11 o was promoted to their man-
agemlont of the entire establillshimiet.
Mr. Pont continued to work ill this factory
until the latter part of 1880, when lie coneeivedl


Herbert C. Pent.
the idea of investing the sHicnll capital he hlad
saved from his wages in at factory for himself;
atd selecting a piece of land which belonged to
his father, situated oil Simoitoni, lnear Petronil
street, he at once employed ta contractor iandi
builder, and who, hy tlie ;10tli day of January,
1887, had completed his present
which he iihunediatelyv took possession of andii
fitted ci1) within thie necessary tables, chairs, office
fulcrnitu're, etc., and about the hdI or 4th of Feb-
ruary (saIMIe year), hle ad hIls white elephants"
ready for occupancy; but what to do with it
just then Ite hardly knew, for orders had fallen
,IT to t large extent with some of tile oldest amd
largest faiitories ill tie city, aild uiln one of
whom he had rolled for his first and starting
orders. Butt ilev'er daunting, never doubting
butt wlat success was before him whio labored
ail(I persevered, ihe at once begun to make sa-ll-
ples of some of te brands hlie proposed to estab-
lish and forwarded thiim to numerous well-
ikown cigar dealers, and solicited their orders.
Thie fruits of these efforts were soonllp al)iIrent,
indl orders beganI to )1pour' icn upon)c hcimi beyoinud
Iis most scmnguine expectatitons: nil t i tihe lat-
ter part of Marchl, '87 hle was ieniabled toemplov
lchollit tell or twelve cigar lllmakers, iiid a cpropnc;--
ticnate nunimbr of pickers, packers, stripper0,
etc.; aund from this small and uncertain start
spIrung tie hecandisomce and growing blIusiness
t lit lie miv now well feel proud of. ''Te 1dl-
ielnsionis of tihe factory are ahout ix5530 feet,
three stories liigh, iuld ccani furnish i ample uc-
Oinmiodutioins for about sevonty-five cigar
makers anld nearlylv as mIntlly strippers, pickers,
packers, eisers aniu wrapper selectors. But M3r.
Pent is about to consuiminate arrangements
whereby hIe will be enabled to double the force
and increase the size of tihe building, whiieh will
probably be accomplished during thie coming
Among the manisspeelal brands shipped from
this establishment are the Reina id las Au-l
tilles" (QNuoen of the Acitille.e), which, has made
such a ithg hit in New York City among gentlo-
Imen of leisure and wealth, amid among the St.
Louis capitalists, who smoke nothing but ac
clear Havanac cigar; thie Choice," made of it
clear Havana filler within Sumatra wrapper, has
Inade its best hit in St. L[ouis, and is a mlcost ex-
cellent cigar; the La Aurorat" is another excel-
lent brand, and is also best favored inc St. Louis,
and is made of clear lHavanat filler, Sumatrat
wrapler; the" Eldoratlo" is anotlhr very choicee
brand, and finds its patrons away up in
Newark. N. J.; the Superb," is also mnuehlfav-
redm in St. Louis; thln there is thi "Big Chief,"
which lits won such favor in Key West, anl
conclusively proves it to be a most excellent
i1gar. We-might go on for an hour or more
imentioninu g choice brands mctade in this factory,
but we have not the space to give separate mllii-
tlin of ta ntUier of choice brands made U espo-
dally for New York firms.
Whiile this is not one of the largest factories
on the island, yet we can reconiucilend the elgars
madile in it as being first-chlass in every respect,
anud will always prove to be exactly what they
are clahimd to be, for Mr, Pent fias woni hfl
way into public favor, from the elgar table, by
hils straightforward dealings and untiring
energy, coupled with affability and hiis willing-
ness to accommodate at friendci, und is admired
tind respected by all, though envied by a thrift-
less few who have not thiee iiulistry or ambition
to hahitate b .success.
We are proud of the success of this young
man, who Is scarcely in Ihis twenties, and offer
him as a model for the doubting, thriftless few,
and an example to all. Any man with enter-
i Iuse and nerve can come to Key West and do
what lie has done, for the way Is still open to
all who will labor and believe.

Julius Ellinger & Co's. Factory, corner
of Duval and Wall streets.
What Money, Push, Pluck, and Energy have
Acconmplished in Four Years-3i0,000 Cigars
MadoI Per Day.
Our reporter enlled at tie large cigar maintu-
facturing establishment of Messrs. Julius Ellin-
gor & C(Jo., with a view of giving tihe outside
world some idea oif the minagnitude of our cigar
In September, 1884, the firm of Julius Elllin-
gor & Co., of New York, believed they saw ani
opening it Key West to invest a simalI portion
oftiel' surplus capital, at a good advantage to
themselves, acidi at thle sieae thioe have some--
thing to occupy their leisure hours inl their
winter retreat from the rush, push anld hurry of
thie almost Arctic North, aiid slvecting t slite on
Wall street, niair the old pilleapple factory,"
they soon began work, witil Mr. '. f (il Muarrer-a
1is inaiizigIer, aIti a working fore of ofcabout oneI
hundred cigar makers aniid pikers, where the
firm retained, grIadluilly wiiiitgltheir way to
the front, andl sec,4ring a position for their
goods iaimouig til leading brands of tlhe well
known Key West ciginr, until tim great fire,
which oeeur'red in the litter part of Marcli, 1886(,
which leveled their factory, together with miauy
others, to tlie ground. Blut with their indo-
iitable l will, energy aind push, it eould not be
expected that they wouldlong remain idle, and
in May of the samoe year they again comi-
ieoiiciied operations on Angela street, with mor'o
orders iahead for their clicoio brands tliiu they
could possblvy fill for threeoo months ill advance,
aiid which ieI esslitited Iirge additions to their
working force. Here their business began to
assume such proportions, tlhat they were ceom-
polled to erect a inew factory large enough to
contain almost a double force as then employed.
Shelveting it site ocii the corner of Duval iandi
Wall street, not more than three bhloks from
their original site, they undertook to erect at
l)uilding large en(llough" for alny possible e(nier-
geiicv, aind soon haiid col plated a large and
1an)s(m6o structure which is fcl1 orintiment to
the city nitil stalks ia nmoiiuniicst to thi ellnergy,
pIsh liii'd liberality, and to-daty there is hardly
a cigar maker oni the Islanid( who would not
consider it nil honor to say he wvits working at
EIllinger factory."
The building is ia large three story establish-
meitt, 125 feet. long by i5 feet wide, perfectly
venitilated, with tlie regulation triahiguilar wivn-
dows, whhic throw upon the tables of the
workingeni all their vividness, but mild, of the
north light, whichii is conceded to be the filiest
for tihe cigar making business.
T'he o fir is composed of Messrs. Julius and
Ernest Ellinger, both of New York City, but
one of the flrin clan generally be found ii Key
West, especially in tIhe fall. winter and spring,
looking after their interests, whiili has now as-
sum:fed such large proportions.
Recognizing the peculiar fitness iand superior
ability of Mr. Frernaudo Valdc.z to till the nim-
portant miid responsible position of Manager, lie
was wiaitid upon by Mr. Julius Ellinger and
tendered the position, which was accepted, and
soon there were signs of the wisdom of the
selection, and the business has steadily ad-
vanced under his superior imujorslip.
This flir imports all of their tobacco in theo
leaf, thereby giving employment to a large
nuimiber of strippers, and aiding to make Key
West one of the most prosperous cities of its
size in the South. The flriu has two factories
under one roof, )resiled over by the siateO ofm-
cers. Factory No. 09 turns out nothing hut the
finest Spanish cigars, while factory No. 58 uses
Spaiilsh fillers with a Sumnatra wrapper. The
firm have acll agent in Havana who devotes hisl
wholo time ini selecting aid shipping to theiom
the very fluest tobacco to be found.
This firm is also one of the first to introduce
thle fancy lid eligar box, which ihas stamped on
it in golil luild rich colors, figures, flowers, etc.,
indlcetive of the namiie of the brand.
Among tlhe hundreds or cmoro brands made by
the firm, we will only mention the La Bello
Menora," "el Montecro," "el Lorro," Do Witt
Clinton" ,ind Curnet Bouquet," all of which
are aD' e.rcellence.
Tlio average number of cigars made and
shipped per week is about 210,000, or 35,000 per

A Bird's-Eye View of the Large Cigar
Factory of J. H. Gregory,
We have written of ninmany cigar factories on
this.Island, but there Is not one that has given
us more pleasure to mention than the one we
now have in our mind's eye. We allude to the

large cigar factory of Mr. J. H. Gregory, situa-
tod on Fitzpatrick street.
when quite a boy, began the cigar (?) business
In 1852, when his parents had sent hint to school
in Now London, Connecticut, from his home in
Long Island, New York, where his parents then
resided. At this school he made the acquaint-
ance of a little lad who claimed to know some-
thing of the cigar business; and young Gregory
himself lhad given considerable thought to the
subject, and had already, even at that tender
age, becoimo infatuated with the business: and
forming at copartnership with the "young
blool who claiihed to know something of the
cigar business, and taking in one or two other
speciala" friends, they opened up a "cigar fac-
tory," at the sehool-house, under the firm name
of 1'J. I. Gregory & Co.," manufacturers of
"Sweet Fern Cigars (?)" where they made a
cigar from the "sweet fern" or "deer tongue
leaf. This, of course, while it had no tobacco
in it, was very similar, in looks, to the Havana
tobacco, hut it was most excellently flavored,
anid the fumes of it were very pleasant to
the nasal organs of the boys and the girls.
These dainty little cigars were retailed to the
scholars for the low price of one button each.
Strange to say, however, our friend Gregory has
failed to remeoniber whether the firm banked
their large wealth of buttons, or whether they
burled them; if the latter, there is a fine oppor-
tunity offered for some enterprising spiritualis-
tic youth to discover, through the medimn of
his weird profession, a minne of ready made brass
At the close of the war in 1805 Mr. J. H.
Gregory eniue South and visited Cuba, where
he reiiiiilued several months, familiarizing him-
self with the cigar business of that island; and
after lie had becoine almost perfectly posted in
regard to the trade In Havana, he left that city
for Key West, to learn the business, and how it
was conducted in the United States; and in the
carly part of 180 hlie landed int Key West, where
lie commenced to acquaint himself with the
cigar business of this city. In the mean time
he accepted a lucrative position in the Key
West Custom House service, where he remained
until the latter part of 1876. But during all
this period (between 18(19 and 1870) Mr. Gregory
made frequent trips to New York, where he
also failliarized himself with the business from
alpha to oinegaf; and in 1877 lihe returned to Key
West, aind shortly after opened up a cigar fac.
tory on Duval street, opposite thl New Russell
House, under license No. 10; which will be bet-
ter understood when we say that his was the
tent h cigar factory on the island at that time;
although our island now boasts of about 800
cigar factories. We would like to say here that,
although iiany mishaps have befallen Mr.
Gregory, yet lie still retains his first number
No. 10, and has never faltered or gone out of
the business.
In the year 1878 the business of Mr. Gregory
had so increased, owing to the enviable reputa-
tion hlie had gained for his fine Havana cigars,
that he was forced to seek larger quarters
which he soon found on the corner of Wall and
Front street, where he remained and prospered
until the lire of '80, which occurred on March
twenty-ninth or thirtieth, and continued until
the best portion of the island was cQnsumed,
including Mr. Gregory's factory.
At the timnie of the fire, Mr. Gregory was in
Havana purchasing tobacco for his factory, and
we can mnagino his feelings when the electric
wires told lhi that his beautiful and prosper-
ous cigar factory, of which he was so justly
proud, and which li he had taken so much pains
to establish, was in ashes! We presume he hid
himself, and for a few brief moments shed a few
bitter, regretful tears; but when he landed on
the island of Key West all traces of grief for the
factory that wits, had passed away, and he at
once applied his energies towards establishing
another factory, superior, if possible, to the old
one. Of course ho did not expect to accomplish
thins in a moment, for buildings at that time, of
any dimension, were scarce; but he was granted
permission by the masons of this city to use
their hall until lihe could do better. Finding
this building too small for his large and grow.
ing business, Mr. Gregory at once had work
coimmienced on ills lot on Duval street, oppo-
site the New Russell House, and plans, etc., were
drawn up for a large and handsome three-story
factory to be erected on the site. Workmen
were at once put to work, and in August, '80
within a few months from the time he had
the pleasure (?) of seeing his previous factory
leveled by flanies to the ground, he was invited
around to view the ruins of this new factory
which lhad Just been completed, and which he
was ,making preparations to move into, leveled
to the ground by the great gale that visited this
Island ill August, '80. Instead of cursing Luck
Fate and Others," Mr. Gregory said, "Well, it
might have been worse. I anm thankful that I
had not moved into the building." He looked
on the bright side, notwithstanding the fact
that the destruction of this factory by wind,
and the destruction of the former one by fire,
had so completely impoverished his bank ac-
count that he did not have money enough left


to pay the interest on his indebtedness. In
fact, to use his own phraseology, lie waits "con-
siderably worse off than nothing." lie had lost
more than he owned, but withal he was not diM-
couraged, and his well-known energy, integrity
and goaheaditiveness, soon brought friends to
his rescue. The John White Bank opened its
vaults and invited him to take what was neces-
sary to build him another factory, nzid select-
ing a site on Fitzpatrick street, belonging to
the Bank (the other site having proven to be
too unlucky), where he built the large and
beautiful three-story factory,
The leading brand turned out by this factory
is a most excellent brand, one of which we now
have between our teeth, and we can without In-
truding on our conscience or "stretching theli
blanket" in the least, say that it equals if it dot's
not surpass any cigar we have ever pnckered
a lip over." We allude to a most excellent
brand, the Royal Eagle," made from nothing
but the most choice Havana (light colored) to-
baeco; the wrappiersof which cost from $5.00 to
$5.80 per pound. But we do not wish to be un-
derstoo(d as saying that no other extra fine clear
Havana cigars-both wrappers and fillerm-alre
nmiade in this factory, among which are the,
"Branch of Cuba," a very choice eigar, and1
whlich Is almost a peer of the fine brand above
mentioned. However, we will not stop here,
for the La Fraternidad is one of the choice
brands shipped from tills factory, and It is only
a matter of taste (between the mild or strong
cigar) that makes any distinction whatever be-
tween this cigar antM tile "Branch of Cuba,"
both of which, like the Royal Eagle." are
made from the very finest Havana tobacco,.
selected by Mr. Gregory himself; and who. dur-
ing his recent trip to Cuba visited tlie many
plantations there and selected a lot of the
choicest tobacco he could find.

Mr. Teodora Perez has recently had built one
of the handsomest cigar factories to be found
on the island, situated on Virginia and Marga-
rette streets, 88x353 feet and three and one-half
stories high.
THR lutIr S hLOOaM
is divided off into, first, a cozy and handsomely
ful'iiis ied ishiess office, presided over by Mri.
Teoldora PliereCl; tie strilllers, pllJickers, ailltd pack-
em's, department is foremlanize over by Mr. Chas.
Thompson, a first-class cigar maker, who tho-
roughly understandlls every Ibrainh of the busi-
T1 ? SCO('XI AND THIRin looRnS
are both used exclusively b tile cigar lmaker'm,
anld about '1001 men alltre empltoyedl in themll, all of
wliom arei first-class workmen, foreianlized over
by Mri. .Jrili'l- yrni, Jr., who is also one of the
liembliers iof thie thirl.
FOUI'R'l-t 1"'0,l11t.
Tllhis floor Is devoted to the drying of filler
and stolring sl'craps, alnd t'tquently hias $5,00()I or
$4,01)00 worth of totbaoco littered over thie floor,
giving out till rlloifa truly delicious to sliell.
Mr.Te(odora Pere. tirst 'camie to Key West hii
1874, from Sali D)mingo itind entered into the
miercantile business, in whihh Iho remained for
two yelarm.
Il "18TH Mr. Pery, entered into co-partnershpll
with Mr.A.sinliio almorl' and It gan the eigar
business olilt tlie lgl'lner of Whilteliead and Divi-
slon streets, with about lifty workmen, where
tlithey remaiined in co-partnership for about eight
inotiths, wh\ll thle llitI dissolved co-i)artnller-
shilp. Moon alter iMr. T. llerez again formed a
co-pirtiniership with Mr, Joiiqiiin Leon, and
opened up a cilgar factory onil Whitehlieal, be-
tween Caroline and continued for two years, wien the co-partner-
ship was dissolved andi Mr. Pere. continued theo
business in the same place, andi remlnaitd in this

building for about two years longer, when lie
removed to near tlhe present site of Mr. (feo.
Nichols. In this building he remained for
about one year, when he entered into a co-part-
nership with Messrs. Juani Francisco Navarro
and Carlo Manuel de Cespedes under the firm
name of de Cespedes, Perez & Navarro, and re-
moved tilhe factory to Fitzpatrick street, whero
they remained one year, when Mr. Perez bought
out tile interests of his partners and removed to
his old stand near Mr. Nichols' factory, whiero
lie waits burned out during the big tire of March
list, 18M(l. In this fire Mr. Perez lost between
threo and four thousand dollars iIore than lie
actually owned, which lie las since pahid llp,
and iatmtinullated a handsome fortune besides.
However, nothing daunted, within two days
after the smoke of the ruins had cleared away,
Mr. Perez again began tihe cigar business, in co-
partijetrship with Mr. Juan Evri, his present
plartntler, and opened up business onll Eitlln
street, where they only remained for a short
time, when thiley removed to the corner of
Thomas anid Olivia streets, where they did bus-
liies for about one year, when their orders be-
camiile so voluminillous, that larger quarters were
lietessary, and tlhe factory was moved to the
old conilvent building, on Division anld White-
head streets.
About this time tile tirin had purchased a
tratet of land on Catliarino street, anid con-
lnenced the elections of a large three andi onie-
half story fletory, which was finished and
mlloved Into by Messrs. Perez & Co., in about six
Imonthils from the thie they first occupied tilhe
old convent building. During the same period
they halu qulite it number of cottages erected for
tlhe accommodaition of their employees; also a
large store house, it which they now conduct a
large i lnd prosperous general merchandise es-
tabisiillent, all of which were completed and
occuipled in May, 1888. These are all substan-
tial and handsome buildings, and are amllolng
the most valuable property in the city and are
valued at about $25,000; all of whieli llas been
iwcuemulated hi a few years by the flrir.

Among our illustrations of the principal buildings in thi City of Key West is the Cigar Factory of


one of the .largest in the city. The products of this factory are the finest class of Havana Cigars only, and are sold

in every city in the United States and have been exported to Gerniuny.


the successor to the firm of Celestino Palacio & Co., which name the business is still continued under, is also the

sole representative for the United States and Canada of the celebrated Henry Clay and Bock & Co. factories of

Havana, Cuba. The office and salesroom of this firm is No. 2 Burling Slip, New York.


A. dela Rosa.


And a Bird's-.eye View of the Insile
Workings of Ills Large Cigar Factory.
T6. ;' ;,: (:Itmvview O t\\O M\\\\ wnw
claim oiur altteilltion is flie l''fi e ri ti fort t't
Mr. Antonio i). de la Hosa, situated ol Sntlth-
ard, between (rinnell atind Margaret streets;
hiut before wi e exipatiate upon (lithe magnitude
auIl leauties of tlhe factory, uand tlhe excellent
of thle Illiavai s made there, we will first intro-
duce to our renders the founder of the fatotiry
atl thle present yvoiug id po)pulr owner.
Ill 18M8, Mr,. herlurdinlo 1). de la Rosa, father
of thie present Iproprietor, was forced to leave
lHatvana, (iCubl), ontt atoiiult of his poliltial opiln-
lons, itfter first having all of' Ils property co()n-
1Is-atted from hitni by the Spanish (ioverin'lenllt,
atil lhttiding a safe tusylum ill Koe\" West. hle, 1 and
Ills family, settled here. Alntst Intuediatelyt
111)uin Ills arrival it Kvey West, hie was offered
the position of Geot eral Manaluger over the largo
.cigar factory that Mtes.s. Sthidenllcrg & (Co.,
were then just starting. Int tills fatutory Mr. y H.
I). hue la Hosit remained utitil thle great fire of
Maluirlh, I1886, wt hlie left thle firin to enter into
busiinss tfor himself (dutler il hiaf tuobco), atnd
inl which business lih reiainltedul until the timle
of his deulth, .luly $ithi. 18l8.
In the early part of 1878, when Mr. A. 1). de
l ItRosa wias IS v uals old, he wals sent to St.
.()llJohn's ('ollre, I' ordlitlam, N. Y., to complete Ills
EnIglish aui Slpanish tdultionl, where he I re-
imained two years, when lie entered thte PIaeker's
Huisiness Coilege, tof New York City, and whlero
lie graduahtd with honors int 1882, after a two
yveris' couturse. IIv then, otn leaving the (Co)llege,
accepted a iositiotn in tlhe New York ofi te of
Messrs. Seidil(nberg & Co., as assistant book-
keeper, which position hlie fille(I satisfactorily
until the sliIuiiii(er of 188:1, whe l he retu'rlled to
Key West with (the determination of entering
thiol' tgillr bluusiness, undl flhuingt a situation inn
lit- pic)kintg lutul( p[atnking roollm of Messrs. S(ldI-
eollIetrg (& !o's flattorVy lhe immediately buckled li
lilsllft' down to work, Ialways lookl'ig forwarItl
to the day wlien he should he master of Ills
own factory; ndt by closet attention to busi-
iless, industry antd economy li e sltieetedl int
giving i1)up between i t 00nd nl 700 illn about eigh-
teten months, Iantl itn Jly or August, 1884,. hI
entered into co-partnershlp wit hIlls unlel, 31r.
Jos, Jesus. Jorgte, iand bh)egtlan a small uigntr tfu-
tory onil Soiutharid street (next door to Ills pres-
lit sit), where they continued together for
niti-rly tline year, whoen hlls untle died. lelviing
hilli, yiouing though lie was, to continue the
busiIness aIlonle.
Tlhe rapid strides that fMr. A. D. de la Rosa itas
madeh to thle front hI the past two years Is sulf-
filienlt evidenceitoo prove to the outside world
what energy, courtesy, integrity tuli close at-
tentioll to busitiss (.ut ;cie aeotihllh lieh i K West.
Beginning with about ten workmeni, hle has
heen forced, from thle increase ill orders, to
gradually increase his force until now lie gives
emiploymvent to nearly 100 workmlen. One of
tlue gl:uttest reasoits WWe tanll offer for all tills
prosperity is the fiact thliat Mr. d lit Rsa makes
nothing I;ut the finest Hatvana cigars, from the
very chloicest select Spanish tobateo, anml that
nolne bit first-chiss Cuban igatr makllers are
emp loyed.
Thel dimensions of Ills present large mand com-
Imtodious building tree, 75.x:1l feet, three stories
high, and has ample accommodations within its
walls for about 200 elgiar makers, midl which, In
doubt, will be worked to" Its fiullest capeitity
before another twelve months shall have passed.
The following is a list of a few of the leading
vianuwA, of rigr nm I. t -:' ~-,tirl, all of
which are made from pure Spanish tobacco

selected il Cuba especially for their Ilanufie-
ture, and great ealro Is taken inI selecting the
very best that cai Ihe fonald, regardless of tlhe
price; atld It is tills fict that has given them
stilh, prominence mtitd Ilrge sale, to wit: 'The
" ugtienli," one of the I bst-shaiped, finest fill-
ished Iiad most exquisite hiavored eigars Illade-
on the island; thiln I here are the (ldittano,"'
" BHonitn," E'lite," Sltana," iland i number of
others too nume1111111rous to mention, all of which
are madluo ftroiu(t le |irr SN)panishl leaf, both filler
and wrapper, anid are good enough for a king
to silloke.
The yoting manufacturer, Mr. Antonio I). ido
la Riosat, Is july proud of the success he hlias

Mr. J. M. 1, Navarro waN i bo illiva.iait Ii
18:2, and twas ediltted inl tir lTniversity of
H1avala. -6
When he was but little over fourteen years'
old, he entered the CustomI lHouse service li
('arditnas, ( ul)a, andl remained i tltat service
for fifteen years.
In August, 18(111, about the time of the break-
ing out of the revolution in Hllavai, Mr. Na--
varro removed with hils family to Key West,
and soon after his arrival here hli ei igaged in
the wholesialeo nd retail groveery business, inl
whiel hle colttilned until 1877, when he dis-
j)i>til of ],i- r(ery 'y. \nd entered into the
anulfalture of elgars, iand ln which business lie
hais sliie steadily ointtituied, making nothliig
but the finest lhnvalina elgars.
The first (icgar factory of Mr. Navarro wtas es-
tablishedl, iI 1877, on the corner of Whiteheadl
and (Ireen streets, where lie remitaiied bout one
year, when he removed to Fitzpatrick streeoot,
anl opened up with about twenty-five elgar
Imiakers, and remained there until tlihe big fire of
188(1, when lie was burned out, and lost about
twenty thousand dollars. No insurance at all.
In a few weeks thereafter, however, Mr. Nau-
vtarro was enal)led, by the prompt action of Mr.
.ino. Lowo, ,ir.. t move into tihe present large
alnd spacious building, situated oi the corner
ofl Sinlonitou and (lreen streets, which lie, Mr.
Lowe, Ikldlyl had erected for hinm,
'The dimensions of thills building are 120x0;1
feet, three stories high.
The El I inhanlro," Flor de Navarro," May
Alletta," IPalermiio," etc., are a few of the
choice branlds madhe itn tills factory, all of which
are iiiade frotil pure select HIavana ttobelace, an1d
have never failed to give the most perfect satis-
fietion wherever introduced.
In Deenmber, 188), Mr. J. M. J. Navarro also
began the iniiufinfaeture of fine llavaint Cigar-
ettes on a large sa-tle, with Mr. A. Zalamar int
charge, which has site beeI largely increased,
until to-day It is one of the largest cigarette
factories in" the Southern States, and the only
one int Key WVest; and the cigarettes have nol
superior antiywhere, and but few peers.
ion ton Lawn-Tennis." iadle from cotton
rile, water oress, wheat and pectoral paper,
filled with choice short or long-cut ilavanit
tobacco, and are very lhte.
In ctinnection with the elgar and cigarette
imanufatture, Mr. Nattvarro has also extensively
ptigageid In the manItufacture of smokliing to-
haeeo. ciled tIlie" Pileadura," frottm pure Havaitli
tohaeo, whilh has been placed in charge tof
Mr. Jos(' Miguel Navarro, youngest son of Mr.
.1. M. J. Navarro, who thoroughly understands
his business, and turns out a first-elass article,
whieh has a large sale int Key West and other
Florlda cities and towns, as well as i all tilhe
other States of the Union,
"(utarina," liatney," "Aronia de la Flor,"
etc., all llmade froni select Havana tobacco, and
have no equal, both for elgiarettes or the pipe.

In the early part of 1884, Mr It. Dobarganes
left Havana for Key West on account of his
polltital opinions, anid accepted a situatinti in
tie large elgar factory of Mr. E. 11. Gato as
lbook-keeper, where he remttined for about
eighteen months, when lie left Mr. (ato to ate-
cept at situation as general agent for the large
cilgr factory of Mr. E. Canals, and established
his business offilet at No. 1)8 Maiden Lane, New
T rk, Mano 'hwrl her t tImu'itd for six Lintths,
when he again returned to Key West and ac-

cepted a situation In the office of Mr. E. Canals
as head book-keeper, and which position he
held until last March, (1888), when he began
business to lihhself.
Mr. )Doharganes, from his close attention to
business and his polished and courteous man-
nor, coupled with strict integrity, succeeded in
whining the entire confidence atnd respect of all
who knew him, and In the absence of the mneui-
bers of the fIlri,which frequently occurred, and
for long erlodts, lie was placed hi charge of the
inanagemient of the entire business, giving per-
feot sat Isfaction in every instance.
About the middle of March, 1888, Mr. R. Do-
bharganles opened up a small factory for himself
on the corner of Thoimas and Olivia streets, and
employed smine eight or ten cigar makers, but
froi tlhe superior quality of his cigars he was
soon forced to increase his force until to-day he
gives constant employment to forty-five or fifty
cigar makers, all of wholm are rapid, first-class
workitent, and lie employs nothing but the
very finest Spanish or Havana tobacco in mnak-
Ing the cigars, These goods have given the
most perfect satisfaction to every dealer who
has handled their, and orders are pouring in to
the extent that it will be necessary for Mr. Do-
barganes to double his force in a very short
The dilenshions of Ills factory are about 75x40,
three stores high, and will furnish accnmnioda-
thions for about 150 cigar makers stand the neces-
sary corps of pickers, packers, strippers, etc.
Anltong the nanny Ibrands of choice cigars
inaule it this factory, wo can only mention the
" I)ohorina,"" el Itpierlo,"" LaiSultana," etc..all
of which are the peers of any cigar iniae hrtun
the mine class of tohbeco in iHavana, Cuba.
Theso cigars have already won almost a national
reputation from their excellent flavor and per-
feet fnislMi.
Don EKigenlo Fernandez is the Havana agent
for this factory, who supplies it with nothing
but the very best loaf that can be found on the

Mr. Joaquin Marrero Alonso, was born in San
Antonio Hano, Cuba, May 17th, 1841, where he
spent hIlls childhood. At'the age of seventeen.
or eilghteen years he entered the cigar business
and served hils time as an apprentice under the
most skillful operators, fanilliarizngi himself
with all the different branches of that industry.
In 1884 Mr. Alonso.canme to Key West and on-
tered the large cigar factory of' Mr. Francisco
Marrero, ta relative of hIlls, where hlie remained
for quite at while, when lie accepted a more
lucrative situation in the factory of Messrs. A.
del Pino Bros., and later in Mr. E. H. atop'ss
in these factories Mr. Alonso succeeded, bv
Industry and economy, in saving up a small
capital, with which hlie opened up a cigar fac-
tory for himself in tilhe early part of 1887, on
Wliitehead street, where lie remained nearly
tv-o years. manufacturing nothing but the best
cigars, mtd where he succeeded In gaining a
most enviable reputation for his goods; and in
the latter part of 1888, it became necessary for
Iini to increase the number of workmen, which
lie did, and removed his factory to Southard,
tnar tlhe corner of Whitehead street, where lie
lhas since remnalned, doing a prosperous busi-
ness, which is constantly growing.
His present factory is about 4lx850 foot, two
stories high, and is situated in one of the most
beautiful allocations on the Island. Mr. Alonso
employs from twenty-five to forty cigar makers,
according to orders on hand, anId manufactures
a clear Key West Havana cigar, that will coni-
pare favorably with those made in our older
and large factories.
lie also manufactures an excellent Havana
filled and Sumatra wrapper cigar, which giveid
the most perfect satisfaction.

Dr. P. C. Sonieillan, was born in Havana,
Cuba, in 1825, and was educated in the same
city, and left school in 1848, when he began the
study of imedielne soon after.
Dr. Soielllan came to Key West in 1879, hav-
ing been driven from his hoine in Havana on
account of his political opinions-he having been
arrested in 18601 In Calbarlen, Cuba, by the Span-
ish (overninent, on a charge of "treason,"
which was truuped up" against hinm in order
to confiscate his property which they did, and,
after it slain trial he was banished to Fernando
Po, Africa, where lie was kept under close sur-
velltanee for about three and one-half months,
when lie was sent to Baleares Island, in the
Mediterranean Sea, where he remained for about


eleven months, as a prisoner; and from there
he was sent to Madrid, Spain, where he was
placed on his own recognizance, and whore he
remained for nearly one year, when lie received
a passport from the Spanish Government to go
to Mexico-this being Spanish territory, and
the only portion of the globe they would permit
him a passport to. But instead of going to
Mexico he evaded the vigilant watch of the au-
thorities and went to Liverpool, Eng,; where
he remained only a short while when he took
passage on a vessel for New Orleans, La., and
from thence to St. Augustine, Fla., and from
thence to Key West, landing here in November,
In 1885, when Dr. Somnelilan entered the cigar
business, it was merely as an experiment, mid
he only employed some eight or ten cigar tmik-
ers, but owing to the superior quality of his
cigars he was soon forced to increase the nu1i-
ber of his hands, and to-day lie gives employ-
tment to fully 200 workmen, and his busliesi is
steadily growing.

Among the manufacturers of cigars at Key
West whose goods are distributed throughout
the country, few are better or more favorably
known than the firm of which Manuel F. Bar-
ranco is the senior member, and the trade mark
of their factory, El Progreso, was aptly chosen
for from the time when tihe factory coin:ieonced
operations to the present, its history has been
one record of continual progress.
Manuel Barranco was born on August 11,
1845, at Puerto Principe, Cuba, and was educa-
ted at the normal school in Havana, from which
he gradualed with )) gh holmrs,. AJt the thew
the Cubans revolted against tie mother coun-
try, Spain, Mr. Barranco took sides with the
former, and was an ardent supporter of all
measures calculated to secure the Independence
of the island. On this account he was obliged,
at the close of the revolution, to leave Cuba and
go to Key West, where he established a general
store, and in 1870, in partnership with his
brother, began manufacturing cigars. He also,
about this time, opened a store in Wall street
New York, in order to have facilities for exhib-
iting his cigars, and to enable the firm to ship
promptly without the embarrassing delays nec-
essitated by tile imperfect mail service with Key
West at that time. Quito a large retail busi-
ness was also done at this store. After tho-
roughly establishing the reputation of his cigars,
and the fact that they could be obtained in this
city without the delays mentioned above, the
business was removed to Reade and Church
streets, and from there to its present location at
63 and 07 Barclay street, where they have
largely increased facilities. After moving to
Barclay street, the retail department was dis-

Manuel F. Barranco.

continued, thus enablig the irm siind their
y.taff of clerks to devote their entire attention to
the whol.es :o branch. Five years ago Mr.
laiTanleo's brother died; no change wits iimdo
in the style of the firm, however, until June,
'87, when Mr. Benjamin J. (iuerra was admit-
ted to a full partnership, and the name changed
to M. Barranco & Co. Mr. Guerra had been for
over five years the representative of the firm in
New York, holding their power of attorney, and
having entire charge of their business; the
change, therefore, was more nomninal than real.
Thile firm owns the lot and building in Front
street, which was destroyed by the great fire
and re-built, and is occupied, the ground floor
by their store and warehouse and the Iupper
floors by their fiatories No, 4:3 and 71,A were
they have a force of one hundred and lifty to
tWo liundred 111ino, maniuft turing the pure.
Vuelta Abajo goods that are so well known
from Maine to California, under tile brands El
Progreso,L" Lord Byron,""La Flor du uanites,"
" La Egl'c'ia" a1nd others.
Tliey liitely bought a line piece of property
(.OisistNiil'. of two building lots adjoliinig their
present house, and facing Front street, anid In-

tend to build there a big factory, as sooi as a
lease on iaid property be canceled.
M. Barranco & Co., are among the pioneers
of Key West, and take great interest in all en-
terprises promoting the growth and progress of
this City,
This enterprising firm has open account with
over fifteen hundred customers, besides supply-
ing general agencies in Chicago, III.; Atlanta,
Ga. ; Washington, D1). C,; Bailtimore, Md,; Cin-
cinaiti, Ohio: Galveston, Texas; Los Angelos
andi San Fralncisco, Cal.
According to the revenue returns, they manu-
factured near two millions cigars last year.
They have it factory and tobacco warehouse
at IHavaia, Cuba, No. 113 Sanu Miguel Street.
Mr. larraino takes yearly trips visiting the
trade int the States, and spends the rest of the
year in tills City and Cuba, looking after the
factories and making the selection of leaf in tlhe
Vuelta Abajo district, Mr. (uerra, the junior
partner, lies charge of the New York office at (15
and (17 Barclay street, and from there looks after
the business all over the country-who by the
way is one of the pleasantest umen we met in
New York City.

Who is it that is interested in the cigar or
tobacco trade from Portland, Maine, to Port-
land, Oregon, or from the St. Lawrence to the
Island City, whose light marks the entrances,
to the Gulf of Mexico, that doesn't know the
" Baron," as Chas. Baker, senior member of
Baker and DuBois is known? The factory
building, whicj is shown in an accompanying
sketch is their Key West house, antl a itIttor
located building cannot be found in that city,
being situated on Fitzpatrick, one door from

the corner of Front, and about two hundred
yards from Mallory's steamship wharves; it ad-
oins the elegant brick store of Hon. John W.
awyer. This firm has been manufacturing
cigars in Key West for five years, while they
have been actually in the trade for the last
fifteen. Their factory in Key WVest has a capac-
ity of three hundred hands, and In addition to
what it turns out, they have contracts to take
the output of two smaller factories, run under
other nainmes. Their own special factory num-
vwis are itw r d M. T'eyv so rcn ii t \etvry
the city of New York. Mr, W. E. Dubois, 'the
junior member, "holds the fort" in the uietrop-

oils, being located at 102 Pearl St., but the
growth of their business has been so rapid of
late that they have, within the last ten days,
rented handsomner and more commodious quar-
ters at 121 Maiden Lane, where they will soon be
installed. Acquaintance with the firm is enough
to satisfy one with the secret of success-energy,
polished and affable manners, being to both of
them second nature. Their Leading Brands
are "The Baron," "Duke of Wellington,"
"Alexander the Great" and "Macedonian."
However they manufacture many other spe-
cia brands for customers. We couiuewid the


The factory building shown on this page hlias
been occupied since April 1 by the 'well.-disci-
plined workmen inl the emnlloy of Mr. Ueo. W.
Nichols, manufacturer of tlie popular Solace,
and other brands of eiguars. It is 'conveniently
located at Key West, and has ample 'capaclit.y
for so dividing the departments that the very
best results ill the itmanllufacture of cigars can Il e
attained. The building is three full stories and
a half high and one hundred feet deep, with a
frontage of thirty-flve feet, thus giving over teni
tholusaind square feet (if floor space. Under the
direction of Mr. Archie l. Nichiols, who hams
been in Key West for someni months, this space
has ibeenl divided into departments, each illde-
pendent of the other, but iall making it complete
system of factory work. On tihe first floor front
are the general offices, with store room for leaf
tobaco, anid farther back is thie "casing" rooiil,
stripping department and backing room. Thlie
latter occuples the rear of this floor on the side
of the building shown in the cut. The V-
shpod projections from tile side, while not
adding muclh to tile attractive appearance of
the 1huiling, are int Key West most important
factors in the o proper miantufacture of cigars.
(On the reverse sidle of these projections are the
hlargo windows ti'lhrough whlichi coes the true
north light, so essential in packing high grade

This is one of the most minportant adjuncts to
every well-regulated factory, both at Key West
and Havana. Without tle light comes from
the north cigars cannot blie proprlvy and uni-
formly selected, and the varying shades in color
surely detected. In the hen iper grades of cigars
fine packing is not so essential, but for eigrars
of high standard, such as those made by Mr.
Nichols, it is necessary to have absolutely per-
feet packing, aml this can only be accomplished
under the steady and unvairying light that
comes from thie due north.
Tile whole of the second floor of this building
is devoted to the rolling of cigars. Here the
cigarmakers sit at their tables and produce the
many flne sizes and styles whiehi are packed and
marketed under the brands of the factory. The
whole of the third floor, and half floor on the
fourth story, is used for drying the stripped
fillers, maturing and preparing filler tobacco.
Throughout the entire factory the very best
quality of work is done, and only expert opera-
* tives are employed in any of the various depart-
mnents. While Mr. Nichols himself has general
charge of all of the business affairs, much of the
active management of the factory is done by
his two competent sons, Harry and Arehie, who
relieve each other in looking after the interest
of the factory in Key West during the whole
year. Mr. Nicliols is a man who has made
many personal sacrifices to keep the cigars man-
ufactured in his factory up to a very high
standard. It is well known among the trade
that he buys and uses nothing but tobacco
raised in the famed Vuelta Abajo district and

always endeavors to got the very best quality
and that which is specially suited to the die-
muands of the trade in this country.
In uniformity and in quality of output tills
factory is acknowledged to be aiiiong the lead-
ing ones of Key West, and consequently of this
country. The leading Ibrand is, of course, the
Solune, and froni this brand the factory takes
its naiino. It is protected by copyright, reg-
istered in the Patent OfflTe at 'Washington,.
Two of the more recently issued brands
are the La C(orolitu doe Dllantes and Mi
()Ogullo. Both of these brands have strikingly
designed labels, The other brands are El Ray
Climno, hFlor do Las Lonas, Florde Eihl, La
Bella Serralnt, La lEsperanzia, El (nzador, Flor
(1 Ullon, ibsildes severaIl si()eial brands used by
certain dealers whoi have exclusive territory for
their sale, Recently we learned front one of the
best smokers of New York city that lie pro.e-
ferred the clgars made in the Solace factory to
any it had ever been his pleasure to smoke.
We quote from an article published in the C(in-
clinaiat l'Coulitmrcial iUazett, which gives a con-.
versation in which Mr. Edward Stapleford,
manager of the cigar department of tihe house
of Joseph R., Peeles, says "tlfit*hI e would not
hesitate to recoinumiIl their patrons to use the
'Solace' brand manufactured by (heorge W.
Nichols, at Key West."
There is no end to the number of recommnen-
ditiions by dealers wlio have bleen halndlig

thlise elgars and stmoikers who have been ('ton-
sumling them for years, that could he brought
forward its an endorsement of thle product of
this factory. Tile best evidence of tfliir popu-
larity is thle fact that Mr. Nichols cannot, even
in a new and much larger factory than wati
formerly occupied, make cigars fast enough to
supply tile demand.
The output of Cigars for this factory will
exceed five millions for this year.
For the excellent cut of tile new Solace Fac-
tory we are under obligations to Tobacco, 102
Chambers Street.

Among the older factories of Key West, that
of E. Canals & Co. is numbered. Mr. Canals,
the senior member of tlhe firn, for many years
was alone in the business; in fact he placed it
upon ait successful basis, ita long time ago. He,
as are a large number of our prosperous citi-
zens, is it Cuban. He came to Key West early
in 1883, and conmmenced a factory. His present
partner, Mr. It. Penichet, has been with him
since the start, first as book-keeper, and mana-
ger, until he was offered ia partnership in the
firn-a success and honor deservedly gained.
Mr. Canals, as with many other of the leading
business housesof the city,-suffered by tile dis-
astrous conflagration of three years ago, but
undaunted lie secured a building and com.-
menced work two days after. It was not until

1887 that he occupied his present place of busi-
ness, built especially for hhn by Mr. Win. Curry
on Front street,-thlie business street of the city.
The dimensions of this building are 110x40 ft.-
three stories high.

Among the special brands manufactured in
this factory, we shall only makespecial mention
of about three, althliugh this firni makes many
others, all of ta sulpeor class, and made entirely
from a clear Havana or Spanish" leaf by first-
class workmen, and cannot fail to be first-class
cigars in every respect, to wit:
The "La Hkolita," Queen of the Gulf" and
the La Elisa." These brands are deserving of
seclal mention both as to the material of which
they are made as well as to their extra fine fin-
ishi. They look as though they had been carved
out of soeme soft material and then sandpapered
-so finely finished are they. In fact It Is al-
most impossible to detect where the leaf IN
joined. Nor can we allow the extraordinary
flavor of tliese clears to escape special notice,
for no one who ihas ever smoked one of then
will ever smoke any other, provided he can
afford to buy then. One wants no greater en-
Joytmeit than to light one of either of the above
)rands immediately after dinner and lay back
in his artn chair and read his book or paper
until he lhas burned it nearly to his lips.

Mr. E. Canals, residing as he does, with' his
family in Havana, assumes the role of the Ha-
vana Agent, and right well does he execute this
most important mission, for well he knows the
reputation already won for their cigars is largely
dependent upon' his selections of the leaf in
Cuba, and he visits the fields where the tobacco
is being. cut for market and selects the very
finest lhe can fluid, and his long experience in
this business makes hint an expert classer and
the first and only business manager of the firms
of E. Canals, and E. Canals & tCo., as above
mentioned, was admitted into the firmn as ia
partner in the latter part of 1887, when the firm
took possession of their new building on Front
street, and where lie has since continued to fill
the three-fold position of manager, book-keeper
and foreman over the pickers and packers, to
say nothing of his duties as a partner.

nFrom Illustrated New York.
1). L. Trujillo & Sons, Key West, Florida,
manufacturers of fine Havana cigars, 8. Serpa,
sole agent for the United States and Cana-
da, Now York office, No. 119 Water st. Among
the varied business interests of New Yor'
that of cigar taking is of no small inpor.-
ance. The trade is one which gives employ.


inent to a large number of operators, and in
many ways forms an important item in esti-
mating the manufacturing and commercial
importance of this enterprising and thriv-
ing city. The house whose name forms the
caption of this article has become a well-
known one in this branch of manufacture and
has built up a very prosperous trade through-
out the United States. The firm of 1). L. Tru-
jillo & Sons was organized in 1887 with estab-
lishnents in Key West and New York. The
o-partners in the enterprise are 1). L. Trujillo,
Relngio Lopez, Alfred Lopez, and 8. Serpa, all
of whom are natives of Cuba, and all, with the
exception of Mr. Serpa, who is in charge of the
New York establishment, reside in Key WVet,
where the firm have an extensive factory and
enploy some hundreds of hands in the manu-
facturing a fine grade of Havana cigars. The
New York office is elegantly located at the cor-
her of Wall and Water sts., Is finely fitted up
and is heavily stocked with imported Key West
cigara. The firmni only handles the finest class
of goods in this line and the sales of the house
are exclusively of a wholesale character. The
facilities of the house for supplying the trade
with cigars of unsurpassed quality at low rates
are unexcelled by those of any other concern.
The business is conducted upon the strict lines
Of integrity and promptitude and these have
gained for the establishment a large and grow-
Ing business, with every assurance of increased
prosperity in future.
We are in a position to echo thie above, since
our acquaintance with the firm in Key West,
and their enterprise there, more than contfirns
all that is written. In the early part of the
winter they opened another factory in Key
West, where they employ, in addition to the
one first named, fwo hundred workmen. Their
factories are as elegantly situated as any in
the city; they are In tlhe business portion of
the city, on opposite sides of the United
States bonded warehouse. Thle nembersof tile
firm are among our most enterprising citizens
and are always among the first to aid in ally
movement for the improvement of the city; in
fact they are the originators of a scheme, which
if adopted will insure Key West cigars against
being counterfeited.
Their output last year, although only the
second year of their business, was over four mil-
lion cigars, ranking them among the largest of
Key West cigar manufacturers, and this year, so
cotifident are they of doubling this big show-
ing, that Mr. S. Serpa of the New York estab-
lishment has wagered a supper at Delnonieo's
for thirty, and the cost of which will exceed
four hundred dollars, that tile output for '80
will be eight million. He will win If,

In mentioning firms who are inseparably con-
nected with the growth and development of the
Island City, and men whose brains and energies
have contributed much to that end, we should
not forget to mention Mr. Ueo. Alcoes of 2011
Pearl St., New York. Mr. Aloes has the entire
output of cigars of the factories managed for
lifm1 by Romiaulo Perez, factories No. 4 & 2.8,
of Packer st.; of Severe Arimas, factory No. 120,
of Duval street; and of J. V. Velasco, factories
No. 140 & 122, and R. Sereira, factory No. 22. All
of these factories are steadily at work, and that
of Mr. Perez is licensed to employ two hundred
hands. To dispose of the ininionse amount of
goods manufactured by Mr. Aloes' Key West
houses requires a big field, and lie has it from
Maine to California in the United States and
front the Great Lakes to the Hudson Bay in
Canada. Yearly he has seen Ills business, un-
der his skillful management, grow until he is
included in the category of Kuy West larger
factories. Of the hundred thousand dollars
paid out in Key West weekly for making cigars,
Mr. Alces, through Ills agents there, contributes
a big part. He quite often visits his factories
in Key West, so as to guarantee the quantity
of the goods furnished by him. His New York
offices and storage rooms are largely and espe-
cially well located for the trade. They are under
the direct management of his sons, Mr. L.
Alees, Mr. Geoe, Aloes, andi his oldest son, Henry
G. Alces, wlio attend to the large distribution
of his brands of cigars.
Zanita, La Regia, El Alto, Sin Ygual and
Sin Falta are seen on boxes of cigars in all parts
of the United States, and the cigars contained
in those boxes are made by skilled workmen
and of carefully selected Havana tobacco, in
the factories of Mr. Geo. Alces at Key West, Fla.

Personal Notices.

Mr. William Curry, who by thle way is the
oldest settler in Key West living at this writing
on the island, and thle richest man, perhaps, in-
Florida, was born on Green Turtle Key on tile
llth day of September, 1821, and cane to Key
West the d of March, 1837, landing when lie
was but sixteen years of age, and began busi-
ness as a clerk with Messrs. Weaver & Baldwin,
where lie remained for eighteen moiiths, when
this firm retired frontm business and Mr. Curry
accepted a situation with Mr. Win. H. Wall,
dealer Ill gonoeral merchandise, and remained nI
Ills employ until 18411, at or about which time
lie began the miereantile business to himself;
but owing to his limited capital he entered into
co-partnershipl with Mr. (eo. L. IHowito in 1845.
alid began business on tile corner of D)uval and
Front streets, under the firm itaine of Bowne &
Curry, dealers in general iiierchiidne and ship
chandlery, where they remained until 184(,
when their spacious store aInd contenIts were all
either leveled) to the ground or blown away
during the famous hlurrvihltle (of that year; the
firn sustaining a loss of some $10,(001 or ($11,()00.
Noon after the hurricane this irirm purchased
the property on Front street, between Sinioii-
ton and Elizabeti streets, where Mr. Win. Curry
now conducts a large mercantile business.
At the beginning of the late war, in 1861, Mr.
Curry purchased the entire interest of Mr.
Bowne, both real estate and personal property,
and the latter left Key West for the home Iof
his nativit in one of ( the Northern States.
Since that lato (18111), Mr. Curry has lnot h(ad a
partner, and his business has steadily grown,
till to-day he conducts the largest generirl Imer-
chattut. t\\id shiop i,-hiM)j' eitablislihmueivit in

Wm. Curry.-Key West's Leading Citizen.
the State, to say nothing of his large wharf and
way interests, that constantly demand ills
personal alttentioln.
Mr. Win. Curry is a genuine samlplh of self-
inade men, and It can truthfully be said that lioe
has been the "architect of Ills own f'ort'e;"
and right royally lie has carved it out, too. 11eo
is repu ted to Ie worth between three and five
iIll ons of (dollars, though he will not admit
tle clal i1; but on the eontrtrv sns tliat one
nillioni will cover Ils entire wealtf. ''ils, of
course, Is hardly believed, and it Is tile only in-
staneo where we ever heard his word doubted.
The dimensions of his present mereantilo
house are 100x75 feet, to say nothing of a large
store-house hard by, which is near as large;
both together contain goods to the amount of
Mr. Curry still takes a lively interest in the
nanagement of his business tiffairs, aond gives
his personal attention to them, although lie is
ably assisted by his four sons, Messrs. Charles,
George H., Robert 0., and Milton Curry; tile
latter, while the youngest, fills the important
position of book-keeper to thle entire establish-
nment. Of course these young gentlemen are
assisted )by a competent corps of salesmen and
other help.
Mr. Curry has given a first-class collegiate
education to each of his children, and prepared
them with anilple weapons to combat with the
world should misfortune ever overtake them,
which is hardly probable, considering that at
greater portion of their father's wealth consists
In sucli property that is constantly increasing
in value.
Mr. Curry is not alone known in Key West as
being possessed of vast wealth, but he is also
known as one of the most enterprising public
spirited and liberal-hearted citizens on tlhe
island, ever ready to lend a helping hand to a
worthy object, or to encourage ainy public en-
terprise that may be for the good of tile com-
munity; and it is the sincere wish of every citi-
zen in Key West that Mr. Curry may live niany
years yet to enjoy a portion of that fortune',
has so richly won.


The name of the gentleman who heads this
article Is one of the oldest landmarks of the
island, and is revered by every inhaliitant of
Key West. Heo was born on the 20th day of
December, 1811, in Belmnont, Mainoe, and revived
hils education in the same place--never having
rubbedbd ills elbows against a college wall,"
Yet, before he was pearcelvy out of hIlls teens he
was in charge of a small school, which lie taught
with credit to lhimself and profit to his pupils.
However Ills health failed 11iln, and he was ad-
vised by his physicians to come South, and to
this fact Key West owes her good fortune in.
having secured him as a citizen.
In 1842 Mr. White landed in Key West, more
d(lod than alive, from lung and throat trouble.
It Is said by the older residents of the city, who
remembered in as he then looked, that no one
who saw and conversed with hli believed that
he could possibly live more than three months;
but Mr. VWhite came to Key West to live, not to
(lie; and, having an ildoliitable will, and never-
coasing energy, he applied his whole force to thi
one end-to recover his health, in which, as the
sequel will show, lie succeeded most admiral, y.
First he would repair himself to one of tio
beaches, and turn his back to the sun and iake
it, drinking in, at the saine time, great draughts
of the salubrious salt sea breezes. This lie d(id
from day to day, until he had so far recovered
that lie felt able to emn loy himself at work;
and for several years lie devoted his time to the
hardest work hie could perform.
In 1848 hle began the mercantile business,
and continued alone until 18(4, when ho en-
tered into co-partnershil) with Mr, i. W. Fer-
gUisn, (and continued business under the firm
name of White & Ferguson until 18I8, when
Mr. Ferguson drew out and Mr. WhVite conttin-
ued the business until 1872, when lie again en-
tered into co-partnership with Mr. (. W. Fer-
gusion, aind continued with h1i until 1880.
duringg all those years, Mr. White continued to
improve in health, and Dame Fotune smlled
upon lii'u, until gradually he was forced into
the banking business, owing to the fact that
there was not 11, regularr banking house oni the
island at that time.
In 1881 lie invited Mr. Jas. A. Waddell, a
gentleanu of mut l exleriente and undoubted
ability and Integrity, to assist lim ini the bank-
ing iushiness, which lie had then legun in ear-
nest, under the inainle of the "Johnl White
Bank," and continued Ibusiness until 188(I, when
he sold out his entire bmnkiiig and reaml estate
interests, to Mr, Jas. A. Waddell, who has since
continued the business in ta manner that has
gained for him a most enviable reputation as a
fnitanler of tlhe highest type; and at the saine
time gaining the love and respect of the poor
and the confidence of the rich.
In 18115, when Mr. Waddell waits twenty-three
years of age, lie left (Canada for New York City,
wvhcre lie gained business experience for sixtein
In 1881. iby request of Mr. Johnt White, lie
clame to Key West iand entered into the hank-
ing business with thalit goeintlemalln, wlho, llapprle-
eiating worth and iterit, 1as since sold out his
entire )rotertv to himn.
Mr. Wa ldl first miide the acqulaintance of
Mr. White itn 1870, when he visited Key WVest,
and remained aibouit six iitlism, duringg whIch
time he visited nearly all of the in lortant and
larger Keys, with which he "fell fn love," for
the many natural advantages they possess and
offer thIe health and pleasure seeker, Andi
Smartly il consequence of whicli h was Induced
by Mr. White, as above, to take up his pern'a-
nent residence with us oin the 5th day of Janlu-
ary, 1881, where he lhas since resided, gaining
thle love, confidence and respect of all who
know hill.
Too much cannot be said in favor of Mr.
Waddell as a citizen, for lie has perhaps done
as nmuch towards building up our beautiful city
to wlhatt It now ists any mian on the island; and
there Is no public enterprise started but wlint
lie is one of the most liberal and foremost sull-
scribers; and the birth of this "Trade Edition"
is largely due to his liberality.
Of thIe John White Bank we will say that Mr.
Johnli White Is still, nomtinally, its President;
but in reality Mr. James A. Waddell is Presl-
dent, Cashier and Owner, with a capital suffi-
clent to conduct a banking business to any ex-
tent lie nity wish. The capital of the Bank is
$100,000, with a surplus of $150,000, and has the
entire confidence of our business men and cigar
Mlr. John White, the founder of the John
White Bank, is one of the oldest and most in-
fluential citizens of the island, and has ever
been the friend of the poor, and accomnnodat-
ing to tihe rich. He Is one of the pillars of the
Baptist church, and a liberal contributor to its
support, and never turns a deaf ear to thle dis-
tressed and afflicted, regardless of creed, race,
color or social condition. To him Key West is
greatly iCd)ebt) ) or her prcVsent pro ixrity.
ay lie live many years yet to enjoy the fruits
of his labors, is the earnest wish of all who
know him.



lion. James A. Waddell was born in Perth,
Lanark county, Canada, on the Dth itay of
December, 1812. After leaving school, Mr.
Waddell went to New York, where lie accepted
a situation to travel for a largo drug house of
that city, which position he held for about eight
In January, 1881, he visited Key West.to ac-
cept a situation with Mr. John White, who was
at tliat time engaged In tihe general mnerchan-
dising and banking business, with whom hlie re-
mauined until January, 18801, when Mr. Waddell
purchased, verbally, tile entire banking and
real estate interests of Mr. John White, and on
March 1st, of tihe sano year, the property was
transferred to himI by (eed. Thie property con-
sisted of imnerous bhisiness and dwelling houses,
lots and factories, also of the Jolin Whlite Bank,
bank capital, mortgages, notes, etc., and all
other property, real and personal, belonging to
Mr. John White, who was at the tine the
largest real estate owner on the Island. Sineo
then Hon. Jas. A. Waddell lihas added largely,
by purchase, to ills real estate interests, and is
the largest owner of Florida real estate to be
found on tihe island.
Mr'. Edwin A. Waddell, brother of lion. Jas.
A. Wauldell, Is the affable and awcommnodating
Assistant Cashier of the John White Bank, and
junior member of the large hardware establish-
ment of J. W. Johnson & Co., of this city, meon-
tion of which will be found int another column.
On the Oth of October last (1888), while Hon.
Jas. A. Waddell was visiting Philhdelphia, lie
received a telegram informing hini that lie had
been elected Mayor of Key West, mnd Insisting
that lie should qualify at oneo before a judicial
o(leer of Florida, whio was known to be in that
city. For this Intelligence lie was entirely un-
in 'pared, and was taken wholly by surprise, as
lie had never "dabbled in politics, and none
but personal friends even knew his political
As the Mayor of Key West, Mr. Waddell lias
given entire satisfaction, and even those who
differ with nim politically can find no cause for
complaint against his official actions.
President, Mr. Johi White, one of the oldest,
most influential and philanthropic citizens of
Key West (see another columnn.
Cashier, Honu. Jamies A. Waddell, a gentleman
of rare judgment and extraordinary financier-
ing abilities, and the present proprietor of the
Assistant Cashier, Mr. Edward A. Waddell, ai
thorough business man and a polished gentle-
Teller, Mr. Jno. T. Barker, an ex-United
States Commissioner, and (one of the oldest and
most influential business men oin the island.

Hon. (teo. W. Allen, Cashier of the Bank of
Key West, was born in Jacksonville, Fl., Sep-
ten'iber 1st 1854, and received his education
partly in that city and partly in Ithaea, New
York, and began his business life in Key West
in 18iMll in a general merchandise store, in which
business lie remained for about ten years, du r-
ing which tihe he devoted all hils spare time to
the study of law.
In the early part of 1870 lie passed an honor
able examination and was admitted to the bar.
Hi practiced hIlls profession steadily until 1884,
with credit to himself and honor to the profes-
Ini 1818 lie defeated Col. Walter C. Maloney
in tlie State Senatorial contest. And in 188 )lie
was re-elected, defeating lion. Chlias. 11. Penm-
dletonl, where lie remained Ilitil 1883, when lie
resigned his seat lit the Senate to devote hills en-
tire time to tihe practice of hills profession.
In July, 1870, Mr. Allen was appointed
Deputy Revenue Collector, and has since held
the oltice under four administrations. Although
a Republican, lie hal.s the office thus far through
Cleveland's administration in spite of strong
opposition by the Democrats of tlie State; and
he says he intends to hold the office under the
next administration, and we believe he will
keep his word.
On th. 14th day of April, 1884, the
was incorporated with the following incorpora-
tors: George Lewis, of the firm of 1. C. Lewis &
Sons, bankers. Tallahassee, Fla., President;
Eduardo H. Gato, Key West, Vice President;
(Oeorge W. Allen, Key West, Cashier; W. 1).
Cash, Williams & Warren, Jno. W. Sawyer,
Fernando Valdes, Jeremiah Fogarty, Samuel
Filer, V. M. Ybor & Co., Francisco Marrero
and other merchants and manufacturers of Key
West, with a capital of $50,000 and a surplus of
1~. b00, and) has since continued to do a banking
business in this city without a change in its
management, and to-day its credit stands as
high as any bank in the State.

Mr. John Jay Philbrick whose name heads
this article, Is one of Key West's livest and most
enterprising business men-in fact we may say
the most liberal to thie poor and needy, as well
Its towards building up tlhe public, institutions
of the city or aiding religious enterprises.
Mr. Phillbrick was born in Meredith Bridge,
White Mountains, New Hampshire, and re-
ceived a portion of his education in Lowell,
Mass; but ended his college course In Williston
e0mnilnary, smliOe state.
When lihe was but nineteen years of age lie en-
tered the United States navy as Paymaster's
Clerk, and remained there two years, when he
left the navy.
In 1801 hli received the appointment of Pay
hIaster and Naval Station Keeper, and took
charge of the Naval Depot at Key West; and
which position hlie held until after tihe civil war,
in 18611, when lie resigned and made prepara-
tions to purchase the wharf and warehouse at
the foot of Duval street, which he now owns
and runs, which he purchased from Mr. James
Filers, mind which lie has since intinued to
run, giving his persmoh attention to it; and as
a consequence of whlih h lie has succeeded in
building up one of tihe largest wharf businesses
on the island, and is now agent for some of the
largest lines of steamers that ply the (Gulf, in-
cluding the Southern Paclifl Companies steami-
ers, which ply between New Orleans, Key West
and Havanma.
This wharf is one of the finest pieces of prop-
erty on the Island, made so by its location and
the depth of the water-it having the deepest
water of any wharf on the island, and has, for
several years brought indh revenue to Mr. Phil-
brick of over $60,000 per year, and readily pays,
alne year, a handsome interest of $150,000 or
While Mr. Philbrick was not born on tlhe
island, yet lie from his long residence in Key
West, takes as great an interest in the prosper-
ity and growth of the island as any whio were
horn here, and is one of tim most liberal contri-
butors toaniy enterprise looking to the best inter-
ests of Key West, as any who can boast of hav-
ing been born in the Island City.

Mr. Win. I). Cash was born on Harbor Island,
one of the Bahalmas, on the lIth day of May,
18335, and came to Key West Septetmber 20th,
1856(1, and entered into the commercial business,
first aits clerk with Mr. L. M. Shaffer; and later
hlie accepted a situation with Messrs. Wall & Co.
In 18590, Mr. Cash began business for himself,
and opened up a general merchandise store on

W. D. Cash, owner of the Great Salt Pond Property.
the corner of Eaton and Elizabeth street, where
he remained about two years, when lie moved
to the stone building, corner of Caroline and
Whitehead streets, occupying this building for
several years, and (lid a prosperous business,
laying, as it were, the foundation upon which
he has since built his vast fortune.
Mr. Cash also occupied the building where
the Key West Bank now stands for a number
of years, after which lie purchased the property
on the corner of Duval and Front Streets, and
engaged extensively in the ship chandlery
grocery and comnunission business, and remained
there until the big fire of March 31st 188(0,
when his building and several thousand dollars'
worth of goods were destroyed by the flames.
As soon as the ground was sufficiently cool,
however, Mr. Cash erected a tent and began
business in it at once, and remained there for a
short time until he could have his present
building, on Front, near the corner of Duval
street, erected.

As soon as Mr. Cash recommended business
after the fire he took in Mr. W. B. Curry as a
general partner, under the firm name of Cash
& Curry, and the business has since continued
under this name.
Besides his mercantile interests, Mr. W. D.
Cash is one of the largest real estate owners on
the island; his "salt pond" property is the
largest landed property in the county, and con-
tains 850 acres-nearly one-half of the landed
property of the entire island of Key West, and
is destined to become a most valuable property
for residence lots and business sites at an early
(lay, owing to the rapid growth of that portion
of the Island.
The large increase in the number of factories
and dwelling houses has brought all the prop.
erty adjacent to this into use, and if the growth
continues in future as in the past few years,
there will soon be a pressing demand for it.
This property is now for sale and can be bought
at such figures as will give large profits to the

was born on Turks Island, West Indies, on the
12th day of December, 1858, and received a lim-
ited common-school education on the island,
though he may well be classed as a self made
man, in every sense of the word.
In 1871, when he was but eighteen years of
age, lie emigrated to Nassau, Bahama Islands,
and entered into his business life as a clerk in a
general merchandise store, where he remained
four years, and in 1875 he immigrated to Key
West to acept a situation as clerk of Mr. John
Jay Phllbriek's wharf, where he remained un-
til 1884, gaining the confidence and admiration
of all who knew him, both for his affable and
polislied manners, as well for his close attention
o business and moral habits.
In 1884 Mr. Taylor leased one of Mr. Wim.
Curry's wharves, and has since conducted the
wharfage and commission business for himself.
His present wharf is one of thie most convenient
for vessels in the city, though not the largest,
and is situated at the foot of Duval, fronting
Wall street.
In connection with his wharf and commission
business, Mr. Taylor has also conducted a large
sponge business for the past four years, during
which timo lie lihas bought an innense lot of
sponge, besides the large number of bunches he
receives through the different sponging schoon-
ers hlie has an interest in.
In the early part of 1884, Mr. Taylor was ap-
pointed Vice-Consul for Norway and Sweden,
and in March, 1887, he was also appointed Vice-
Consul for Great Britain, which positions he
still fills with becoming dignity; and gives
promise of soon becoming one of the most
wealthy and influential citizens on the island.

Hon. John W. Sawyer, was born in Harbor
Island, Bahamas, May 20th, 1847, where he re-
ceived a common-school education.
In 1802, when he was about fifteen years of
age, lie went to Nassau to accept a situation in
the general merchandise business with Mr. J.
S. Johnson, where he remained until March,
1800, when he came to Key West, and entered
into co-partnership with Mr. J. Isaacs, who left
for Now York soon after to purchase their first
stock of clothing, gents' furnishing goods,
notions, etc., and returned in a few weeks with
the goods all consigned to "J. Isaacs;" and
gave, as his excuse for doing so, the reason that
his relatives north, who endorsed for himn, ob-
jected to him forming an alliance with a (Gen-
tile and giving publicity to the same; hence Mr.
Sawyer was the silent partner, although he
had, in reality, furnished the greater portion of
the original cash capital.
After remaining in co-partnership with Mr.
Isaacs for about eighteen months. Mr. Sawyer
purchased Mr. Isaacs' interest in the business
and continued alone, in the old Costuopolitan
building, on Front street, next door to his pres-
ent handsome brick building, where he remained
until 1880, when lie moved his stock to the large
and handsome two-story brick building he had
just completed for himself, and which was the
first brick store ever erected on the island of
Key West.
VFrom his courteous and Impartial dealings,
and polished manners, coupled with his unceas.
ing energy and go-aheaditiveness, Mr. Sawyer
was not long in building up for himself a large
and prosperous business, and "coined the filthy
lucre hand over fist," and it was not long before
he owned some of the most desirable real estate
in almost every portion of the island. But
clouds will occasionally cover the brightest sky,
and on the 31st day of March, 1886 (during the
"big fire" of that date) the handsome brick
building and othm property longing to Mr.
Sawyer, including his stock of goods, were all
licked up by the angry flames, causing a direct
loss of $i8,000 to him, clear of the small amount
of insurance lie received; and not counting the
time lie was kept out of business, which should
swell the loss to considerably more. After the
lapse of a couple or more of months, Mr. Saw-

-.-- j -


yer again began business in one of his houses
on Whitehead street, where he sold out the
damaged goods he had saved from tile flames.
In the meantime, however, he had engaged
Workmen to rebuild the house he had lost,
which was completed in November, 1887, and
which is exactly like the one destroyed by fire,
Mnd was, for the second time, the first' brick
building erected, and for a time the only one In
Key West, to say nothing about its beauty.
The dimensions of this building are about 0x005
feet, two stories high, three elegant plate glass
show windows in front, which faces Frontt
street, and two on the side that fronts on Fitz-
patrick street, the whole making the most
handsome store building on the island, the

Hon. J. W. Sawyer.
first floor of which is occupied in giving space
to the large and elegant stock of clothing, fur-
nishing goods, hats, caps, boots, shoes, notions
etc. The second floor Is occupied as the United
States court rooms.
Mr. Sawyer soon became one of the most
pwminent and popular young men on the
Island, after his arrival here from Nassau, both
socially and in business, and since his residence
in Key West he has served several terms on the
Board of Aldermen, and was elected by that
Board Mayor of Key West, to fill an unexpired
term caused by the resignation of Judge VW.
Bethel. He has also served several two-year
terms on the Board of County Colnhmissioners,
acting as Chairman of the Board during a por-
tion of the time, and resigned the Chairmanship)
in September, 1887, in order to devote his whole
time to his large and increasing business.

Mr. William R. Kerr was born in Natick,
Mass., on the 27th day of September, 1810,
where he received his earlier education, which
was completed in Boston, Mass., where he re-
mained from 1840 to 1852, when he went to

Washington, D. C., and entered as an appren-
tice under Mr. Geo. Nailor, and served his ap-
prenleshlip as a mechanic.
Mr. Kerr remained in Washington until 1801,
at the breaking out of the late war, when he
went into the United States Civil Engineering
Service, and was stationed at Fairfax Court
House; where lie remained until the Sunmmer
of 1805, after the surrender," when he left the
above place and went to Ft. Foon, on the
Potomac river, to complete the Fort that had
been begun during the war, where lie remained
one yetn, when hoe 't thie (servle.'i '! i t'ot' nited
States entirely, and returned to Washington,
where hlie remained until 1807.
In 1807 Mr. Kerr went to Baltimore, Md., and

engaged in tlhe contracting and building busi-
ness, but was unsuccessful, on account of fail-
ing health, and was advised to come south.
In 18118, Mr. Kerr landed in Savannah, Ga.,
where he secured employment as a mnechanio
and worked six months, after which lie again
began business as a contractor and builder,
which hlie followed with varied success for three
years longer, in Savannah, when lie left for
Cedar Keys, Fla., arriving there in 1871, where
he remained one year, when lie left, for Key
West, and arrived here in 1872, when he formed
a co-partnership with Mr. J. L. McDermott,
and began the contracting and building busi-
ness under the firm name of McDerniott &
HiIggs, and continued the co-partnership until
the latter part of 1884, or the first of 1885, when
the firm dissolved co-partnership by mutual
consent, and Mr. Will. It, Kerr began for him-
self, in the same line of business, on Ann street,
where he Is still conducting a large and pros-
porous business as architect, contractor and
Mr. Kerr now has the contract to build the
Masonic Tomple, in this city, which will be the
finest 'Temtlloin the State, and now has it
more than two-thirds completed. It will have
thile most costly alnd elegant plate glass and
iron front of any building of its size or kind to
be found in Florida; and the entire building
will cost, when completed, about $25,000 or $30,-
000, anid will be a standing mnonlument to the
skill of Mr. Win,. R. Kerr as an architect, con-
tractor mid builder.
Mr, Kerr is also a loverof the beautiful, as Ills
handsome private residence on Mliitontoin street
will verify. It Is said to be most artistleally
and elegantly finished and furnished; each
room having recently been georgeonsly and
artistically frescoed with beautiful seenic and
other designs; many of the designs being exe-
cuted in oil, by tile best artist that could be
found in the State.

Mr. E. J, A raplan was born in Constantino-
>)le, Turkey, A. 1). 1852. lie was educated in
Paris, France, and converses fluently in nine
different languages.
In 1874 he emigrated to the United States
and settled in Now York City, where he soon
after engaged in the importing and commission
buslihess, in which lie has since remained.
In the fall of 1870, Mr. Arapian openel upl) a
brtandi oflieo in Key West, ilild colmllenced to
deal largely in sponge aud cigars; but contin-
ued to have his headquarters at No. 7T1 Pearl
street, New York, until 1883.
In 1883 he formed a co-partnership with Mr.
A. M. Clonney, and removed his New York
office to No. O96 Maiden Lane, and continued to
(do business under the firm name of E. J. Ara-
plan & Co., until March, 1888, when thle firm
dissolved co-partnership-Mr. Arapian contin-
uing the Key West business alone. However,
Mr. Arapian had been giving Ills )trsolnal at-
tention to the Key West office anu wareliou'tc
since 1884.
In March, 1880, during the progress of the
"great fire," Mr. Araplan sustained a loss of
some $5,01)1) or $(1,00 worth of sponge. lie had
no Insurance at tll.
Mr. Araplan li has succeeded in building up the
largest sponge trade on tilhe island, and his ship-
ments of spolnge during tile past year amounted
to nearly $200,000. Besides, lie has mladt, quite
a nulmb)er of lai gi shipments of cigars, vegeta-
bles, fruits, etc., to New York.
lie has no "middle man," but buys his
sponige, etc., directly from the vessels as they
bring them into port and offer them for sale,
and ships direct to dealers, giving the business
his personal attention. lHe s considered to be
one of the finest judges of sponge on the island,
and is, most assuredly, the largest dealer.
His genial ways and polished miannters have
won for him a host of warm friends in Key

Mr. Peter A. Williams, was born in New Bed-
ford, Mass., on the 20th of May, 1818, where lie
spent the first eight years of his life; and on the
1st of January, 1846, his parents emigrated to
Key West, where young Peter was placed in
one of the private schools on the island, in
which hlie was allowed to remain until lie was
sixteen years old, when he was apprenticed to
Mr. Daniel Davis to learn the carpenter's trade.
But at the expiration of about eighteen months
he left the shop of Mr. Davis and entered the
shop of Messrs. Watson & Solomon, where he
completed his apprenticeship.
In 1800 lie entered into co-partnership with
Mr. Robert Watson, one of his former bosses,"
and engaged in contracting and building. And
in )W" tho(v ntiam(Intei tnito A-m fry Warren (hifs resent partner) and continued the
business under the firm name of Watson & Co.,
until 1872, when Messrs. Williams & Warren

purchased the interest of Mfr. Watson in the
Noon after the purchase Messrs. Williams &
Warren gave up contracting and building, and
embarked in the furniture and uundertakiiit'
business, on thel corner of Duval and Char-hs
streets, near where their present place of busi-
ness is now situated, where they have succeeI hd
in building up ample fortunes, and to-day tir,
Williams is registered among our most wealthy
and substantial business men, and withal lie is
liberal and generous to a fault.
In 1870 Mr. Williams was elected a member of
the Board of Education, and wits soon after-
wards elected by the Board as its Chairman,

IIon. P. A. Williams, Pres. Board of Trade.
He served eight years on the Board, when he
About the same time he was elected on the
Board of Education (in 1870) he was elected
member of the County Commissioners and
served for four years on lhtis Board, with honor
and distinction, giving entire satisfaction to the
citizens of Monroe county.
In 1871) Mr. Williams was appointed United
States Marshal, under Hayes's administration,
and filled the office with that honor and dignity
becoming a United States officer, until March,
1887, when the political status of the Govern-
ment was changed, and a Democrat was tip-
pointed in his stead. [The office is now held
by Mr. Peter T. Knight.]
Mr. Williams is also a utember of the Key
West Board of Trade, and has been its Presi-
dent since the early part of 1888.

Sketch of Mr. Benjamin P. Baker.
In 1868, Mr. Benj. P. Baker, the subject of
this sketch, while yet in his teens, entered the
umlertaking and 'buluhling establishmntet of
Watsoni & WiVlliamts on Clharles street as an ap-

B P. Baker.
prentice, where he remained until the latter
part of 1878, when he left that firm and offered
his services to the contractors of Key West as a
journeymen carpenter. Mr. Baker succeeded
from his energy and integrity, in securing all
the work that he could do, and by close econ-
ony lie succeeded in saving up a small capital
in a few years, and in October, 1874, lie entered
Into a co-tpartnership with Messrs. T. R. Russell
and F. vW. Roberts, and bought out the under-
taking establishment of Mr. Robert Morrow,
situated on Wall Street, and started up an'un-
Ai'rtaking Tman om timngl ntnR hui ndeT thk
firm ainae of B. P. Baker & Co.; and in 1876
Messrs. Baker and Roberts bought out the in-
terest of Mr. T. R. Russell, and in a short while


thereafter the firm purchased a lot on Ann
Street, and built a house sufficient in size to
aeeommlodate their twofold butislss.
In 1880 Mr. Balker purchased the interest of
Mr. Roberts, and soon after sold tlhe house and
lot on Ann Street and built ta small house on
Simonton Street (where lie now e(iducts his
large furniture and unidertakinlg business),
where his business prospered largely, and ill
1881 lie m'ioved the shop to tlhe rear of the lot
aind had a large furniture store-.hollse erected,
a11111 placed it, It stIlmall but select stock of fuir-
nitIure. Froli his courteous anltlners anti afflTa-
ble hearing, coupled with industry, enterprise
an i integrity, tlhe business of Mr., Baker contitin-
1ued to grow until in March, 1881, wlien it hliad
assllumed large lproiportions; but, uitif'ortuitely,
the great fire which occurred tlihe last day of
March, 1880, leveled his ho luse to tile ground ilnd
burned up the whole (f his largo stock, without
one dolUlar's worth of Ilsuriance.
Nothing daunted, however lie soon knocked
up a small house on theo old site suflcient to
enaile hhin to earry oil his undertaking busi-
ness, until lie could rebuild his furniture house,
which eli at once took step to rebuild. About
the 12thl day of June of the ainte year, Mr.
Baker had completed a Inrge and roomy three-
story building on the old site, and the very
next day after its completion lie took a steamer
for New York to mrchase a new stock of furni-
ture, caskets, collins, etc., and in the following
August lie returned to Key West with one of
the largest and prettiest stocks of furniture ever
before seen on this island, and at once opened
up and offered his goods for public patronage,
which, from his enterprise and liberal and
longest dealings was not slow in coming in, and
his business prospered and Increased until in
1887 lie was forced to add a large addition to his
build ig, on the east end, nd to-day lie has its
laige and handsome stock of furniture and un-
dertaking goods as can be found in any retail
establishment of the ki ilIn the State of Flor-
Ida. The diieniionts of this
tire (5x60 feet, and three stories high, filled and
packed with furniture, crockery, etc., to reple-
Situated just oppositethe main hulilding, across
thle street, is thle large store room, filled with
furniture, etc., and we will venture the asser-
tioii that tliere is store('ed there more furniture
than is carried in tlhe entire stock of many
other dealers.
is situated in the rear of the furniture house
and is stocked with metallic rose-wood and
mahogany caskets, cases and a cheaper grade
of collins; aniong the most attractive of which
are white coffins for children and young people
who tire not out of their teens when tihy shake
off this mortail coil. These cofllns oi' caskets,
after they have encased tlthe lst mortal renlainhs
of those for wh1omi they are purchased, lire
borne to their last resting place in a beautiful
white hearse, recently imported front New York
hy Mr. Baker. This hearse, as does also the
one used in the burial of older persons, stialds
in neilt tild close carriage houses hard by the
U'ndertakiig Department, as does als(; the
stable, which accommodates a large pair of fat
anil sleek horses (one black and the other
white), each for his own lliearse. The white
hearse, coffin and horse is an innovation into
this city by Mr. Baker, and it hlias never been
iiltated entire by other undertakers In tilhe
city. Mr. Baker certainly deserves tlhe sIeRss
lie lias gained, and we are tprolld to point tto
hiin ais ole of the most enterprising citizens of
Monroe coullty, and one of the largest patrons
of thelo ally Equ'ATroIl)crMOcIAT, whilehi l'-
counts, in ia great mlesure, for his unilprete-
dented Success.

This flrm is composed of Messrs. B. B. and J.
C. Whalton, two of Key West's most enterpris-
ing and public-spirited business men.
is the senior member of the firm, but junior
brother, and is a native of Key West, where lihe
revolved a liberal education. In 1870 lie was
appointed clerk in the Custom House, at this
port, where he remained until 1870. During a1
portion of this period, however, he acted as in-
spector of the Bonded Warehouse, giving entire
satisfaction both to the Uovernment and the
In 1870 he resigned his position in the Custom
House to enter business for himself, and opened
up a general merchandise establishment on the
corner of Duval and Olivia streets, where lie
has since remained, gradually adding ait new ad-
dition to his place of business until now he lilas
four stores in one, all of which are literally
filled with choice family and fancy groceries,
dry goods, clothing, notions, shoes, hats, feed,

paints, builder's material, etc. The stock is re-
plenished and kept fresh by new arrivals on
every steamer.
In 1488 Mr. B. B. Whalton was appointed by
Ex-Gov. Perry meniber of the Key West Board
of Health, which position li he still fills with
credit to himself and to the satisfaction of all
like Ills brother, is a native Keywester, and has
residtd here all his life. lieHo is one of our most
honored and respected 'ltizens and one of tlhe
finest musicians on the Island; and is President
of thei Island City Silver Cornet and Reed Band.
His first business experience of any conse-
quence was gained in the large general mner-
chaidising establishment of Messrs. Wall & Co,
which lie entered in 1861, where he remained
until 1878, when this firing withdrew from busi-
Soon after leaving Messrs. Wall & Co., lie en-
gaged in their merchandising cominllssion and
ctlonep",i", I' useless, for himself, which lie
.,ntl'iodl tili i880, when lie sold out this busl-
nt.:. and accepted a position in hMr. A. F. Tift's
wharf and steamnshlp office, wltbib lie remained
until March, 1888, wlun lie resigned to accept a
situation in the John White Bank.
In December, 1888, Mr. J. C. Whalton resigned
his position in the John White Bank to enter
the general merchandise business with Ills
brother, Mr. B. B. Wlialton, as above stated,
when lie bought half interest in the business,
and is now bending his energies to make this
establishment second to none in the State. And
the necessary ingredients to accomplish this are
not wanting in either member of the flrm, to
wit: push, pluck and go-headlitiveness, coupled
with integrity and affability.
These gentlemen are both familiar with the
typographical business, they having served
their apprenticeship when more youths in the
office of thlie old Key of thlie (iGulf," under Mr.
Wmi. H. Ward, but prefer merchandising to

J. W. JonxsoN & Co.,. HARDWARE, SHIP
Mr. ,John W. Johnson, whose portrait is In
this article, is the senior l6memnber of thle large
wholesale and retail hardware firns of J. W.
Johnson & Co., successors to J. V. Johnson &

J. W. Johnson.
Sons, and is perhaps the youngest head of any
'lcolini'reiT enterprise on the Island, and one of
the shrewdest financiers. lie wa born on thills
island on the 7th day of September, 1860;, where
he lilis sine resided, receiving in our schools a
liberal education.
In 1880, whin lie was hardly seventeen years
of nge, lie entered the hardware and general
mnerchaindise establishinent, in this city, of Mr.
Jno, White, where he received hi.first business
Instruction, and with whom lie remained until
1885, when Mr. White sold out the establish-
mnent to Messrs. Pierce & Johnson (the father of
Mr. J. W. Johnson), and by request of the new
firm lie retained his old position ias head sales-
nman of the establishment. He remained with
Messrs. Pieree & Johnson until the big fire of
March 30th, 188(, when the house and goods
were destroyed by the angry flames.
Soon after thle fire, Mr. J. V. Johnson and
his son, J. W. Johnson, formed a co-partnership
to revive the old business, and the latter was
at once dispatched to New York to purchase a
new stock; and about May 1st, 1886, he re-
turned with a large and well-selected stock of
hardware, groceries and general merchandise,
and at once began business in the present loca-
tion, on Simonton, between Green and Caro-
line streets, under the firm name of J. V. John-
son & Son, and soon, as the saying goes, had
" the run of the town" in trade. About one
year after Messrs. J. V. Johlnson & Son began.
business together, the two younger sons of Mr.
J. (Messrs. T. E. and L. N. Johnson) were added
to the firm, which necessitated a change in the
firm name io J. V. Johnson & Sons,.

On the 12th day of last October, Messrs. J. W.
Johnson and Edlwin A. Waddell purchased the
entire interest of Messrs. J. V. Johnson & Sons,
and at once began to make preparations look-
ing towards the enlargement of their business,
which was soon consunnmmated, and to-day the
neow firm of J. W. Johnson & Co. is said to be
the largest, most solid hardware establishment
in the county. However, hardware is only one
branch of the business, In connection with
which a large and full line of ship chandlery,
sash, doors, blinds, saddlery, paints, oils, mIlould-
inIg, etc., is always kept In stock.
The management of the entire business rests
upon the shoulders of Mr. J. W. Johnson, whose
long experience, coupled with push and pluck,
thoroughly fits him for the position.
The junior member of the firm, Mr. Edwin A.
Waddell, is brother of Mr. J. A. Waddell, the
popular Cashier of the John White Bank, and
holds a responsible position inI said llBank, than
whomu no bettor business iman or polished cour-
teous gentleman call be found, and of whom we
shall peak in another column.

Mr. John Lowe, Jr., was born on Green Turtle
Key, Bahaima Islands, on the 11th day of May
1833; but his parents emigrated to Key West
When he was an infant.
It can truthfully be said of him that hlie is a
self-made mnan, for in those days Key West was
in her Infancy, and the educational facilities
offered were very limited.
In 1848, when hlie was but fifteen years old, he
entered the general merchandise and ship
chandlery establishment of Mr. Wil. Curry,
where he received his business education.
Mr. Lowe remained it this establishment from
1848 to 1878, about thirty years; however for
several years before leaving Mr. Curry, he on
gaged itl the grocery and sponge business, in a
sniall way for hiilnAelf, etligaginig ta clerk to nln-
nge It fol1 hi while lie gave his own time to
his employer's business. But in the latter year
(1878) lie tendered Ills resignation and left Mr.
Curry, to devote his whole thite and attention
to merchandisig and the sponge business.
Purchasing a lot on the corner of Caroline and
Elizabeth streets (Just opposite his first stand)
lie had a large and roomy store-house built and
engaged iIn the mIiercantile business at once. He
also engaged largely in the purchasing and ex-
porting of sponge; buying, as often as his capi-
tal would permit of if, sponging vessels of his
His vast experience, which lie had gained dur-
ing these thirty odd years of continual residence
on this ishlad, coupled with his natural finan-
cliering abilities, taught lihn to believe that Key
West, from her many natural advantages and
uniform climate, would some day, in the near
future, lie an important commerce al and manu-
facturing city; hence hlie shrewdly Invested all
his spare el'lpital, as it was accumulated, in real
estate; and now lie il the largest property
owner on the island, with perhaps one or two
exceptions, and his wealth Is counted, not by
the thousands, but by the hundreds of thou-
Mr. Lowe continued to conduct his business
on the corner of Caroline and Elizabeth streets
for about four years, when lie purchased a largo
tract of land between Siontoton street and tie
hay, near, if not quite on Green street, where
lie built a large storehouse and wharf, some
distance out into the haty, and "filled in" with
stones, etc., which has since become one of the
most valuable pieces of property on the island.
He has since had a large lumber shed erected
on a portion of this luade" land, just in front
of his store, with a largo hall or room above,
which is now occupied as a cigar factory, with
a lumber yard" below.
His general merchandise and ship chandlery
business has already assumed imanmmoth pro-
portions, and the number of sponges lie ships
each year is simply immense. At present he
own and controls between fifteen and twenty
sponging vessels; which are constantly oil the
go. He also owns the large three-antsted
schooner, Rollin Sanford," which is constantly
engaged in bringing lumber from Pascagoula
for tlie large lumber business he has succeeded
in buikling up.
The Emmla Lowe," a large and beautiful
two-masted schooner also belongs to Mr. Lowe,
and cost hihni to have built over $20.000. She is
now engaged as a freight vessel plying between
Key West .u.d the South and Central American
ports, where she makes periodical trips for
tropical fruit~ etc.
Mr. Lowe is also one of our shrewdest busi-
ness men, and was never known to build "air
castles" or embark in a "bubble" enterprise;
and whatever he undertakes it can safely be
calculated that he will bring it to a profitable


Biographical Sketches of Messrs. Chas.
R. Pierce & Co.
Perhaps one of the largest and prettiest (and
at the sane time best selected stuok of goods)
retail clothing houses in South Florida is that
of Messrs. Chas. R. Pierce & Co., situated on
the corner of Simonton and Oreene streets.
The gentlemen composing this flrin are Messrs.
Chas. R. Pierce, one of our liveliest young bus-
iness men, and
father-in-law of Mr. Pierce, one of our oldest
and most substantial business men, who has
resided in Key West for nearly a half century
-he having come to this island with his parents
about 1840, when lie was but eight years oldh
and where he has since resided. He entered
the commercial field early in life, and carried
on a large dry goods, clothing and notion es-
tablishmnent, on the corner of Eatoi and El,1a--
beth streets, for nearly twenty years where,
from industry and close attention to blsinesss
he succeeded, not only in accumulating a hand-
some fortune, but in winning the confidence
and respect of all who know himli; and to-day
lie has the entire confidence and respect of both
old and young, and is looked nip) to as being
one of the best financiers and shrewdest busi-
ness men on the island, owing, to his long resi-
dence and business career in Key West, during
the whole of which time he has never made a
business failure or defrauded an Individual out
of a dollar; and knowing hisextreme modesty
and aversion to newspaper notoriety, we will
leave him where lie Is-loved, respected and
admired by all.
MR. CIIA8.. n. PIERnC,
Senior member of the above firm, though
younger than his junior partner and son-in-
law by about two score years, is none the less
deserving of respect for his excellent business
qualities, and we hope that our readers will
pardon us in delaying the promised description
of one of the prettiest and largest clothing es-
tablishments on the island, to devote a short
space in this article to introduce more perfectly
to our younger inhabitants and recently made
citizens, the gentleman whose intue appears i i
"small caps Iabove.
In the year 1835, the subject of this sketch
first saw thie light of day in a s nail fishing vil-
lage situated on the Oulf of Mexico, near the
Southern coast of Florida, on at small island
then known as Cayo Hueso, but which Is now
more familiarly known as Key West, where,
under proper training by indulgent but Chris-
tian parents, he soon grew up to be an obedient
and industrious youth. Like other boys, he
had to receive a certain ainount of home and
common school training before he was prepared
to enter college; but in the course of human
events and, birch switches, that period finally
dragged its weary course around, and in tihe
yvar 1872 hlie was sent to the well-known college
In Oxford, Ga., to complete his education and
fit him for business. While in Oxford he re-
ceived the sad Intelligence qf the death of his
father Mr. L. E. Pierce, who was carrying on a
large dry oods and notions business with Mr.
Win. R. Albury, an uncle of Chas. R, Pierce,
when he returned to thle island and remained a
couple of weeks, after which he returned to Ox-
ford and resumed his studies for some months
after, when he again received a letter of mourn-
ing,. this time his uncle, Win. R. Albury, his
father's partner, and in which he was called
home to wind up the business of the firm; and
in October, 1870, he returned to Key West and
devoted himself to. the task of settling up the
business of the firm, which he finally accom-
plished in a satisfactory manner to all con-
cerned, although this was his first business ven-
ture of any magnitude.
About the fall of 1881, Mr. L. W. Pierce, who
was then, as now, carrying on a clothing and
dry goods establishment on the corner of Si-
nmonton and Front street, while making prepa-
rations to go to New York to purchase a now
stock of goods for his establishment, succeeded
in securing the services of Mr. Chas. R. Pierce
to take charge of his establishment during his
absence; and on his return a few weeks later
he was so well pleased with Mr. Chas. ItR.
Pierce's management that he offered hinm a per-
manent situation, which was accepted, and he
continued in the employ of Mr. L. W. Pierce for
about four years, giving entire satisfaction to
both his employer and the patrons of the
house, and gaining the entire confidence and
respect of the public.
In September, 1885, Mr. Chas. R. Pierce entered
into co-partnership with his father-in-law, Mr.
S. S. Lowe, and erected a handsome two-story,
glass front building and opened up a large
clothing and' gents' furnishing store, near the
corner of Simonton and Green sts., where they
did an excellent business from the start, owing
to the fact that both members of the firm were
known as reliable, honest and enterprising bqs-
iness gentlemen. But like all businesses, re-
verses will come, and about six months from
the time they began business, March 80th 1886,
their new and elegant building, like the majority
of the business houses in Key West, was also

visited by the angry flames of the "big fire" of
that date, and this new firm sustained a loss of
about $1,500, without a dollar's worth of insur-
ance. However, they saved a considerable por-
tion of their goods, and in a few days after the
fire they were doing a thriving business in one
of Mr. S. S. Lowe's buildings on Elizabeth
street, near the corner of Eaton, where they
remained until they could have another store-
house built on the corner of Simonton and
Green streets, which was completed in Septem-
her, 1880; but it became evident that it was
necessary to add a large addition to the estab-
lishinent for the accommnnodation of their largo
and growing Shoe and Hat business; for these
gentlemen, then, as now, made a specialty in
Cuban styles of Shoes, Hats, and other goods;
and on the first of October, 1887, the addition,
which is about 20x45 foot, which also has a
French plato glass window, which makes theo
entire front look like one solid sheet of French
plate glass, as it were.
At this writing the clothing establishment of
Chase. R. Pierce & Co., corner of Siimonton and
(reen streetstiAled with its $80,000 worth ele-
gant Gents' and Boys' Sulto of the very latest
patterns, Pantaloons, Ge its' and Boys' Fur-
nishings, Notions, Gents', Children's aitn laulies'
Boots and Shoes, Hats, Caps, Trunks, Valises,
Hand Satchlls, Umbrellas, in fact, everything
usually found in a first-class Clothing lmlpor-
ium, is a curiosity to some and a wonder to

Mr. R. W. Southwick was omrn in Pough-
keepsie, N. Y., on the 8d of March, 185m, and
graduated in the l)utchess County Academy,
In 18110 lie accepted a situation in thie omffce of
the New York Central and Hudson River Rail-
road, where lie remained about seven years,
when lihe resigned h!; position to accept a sit-
untion as purser on tihe steamship City of Aus-
tin, of the Mallory Line, plying between Now
York and Florlda points.
Mr. Southwick served the Company in the
capacity of p)urser for alu nit three years, at the
expi ration of which tinie lie was promoted to
the agency of tile comlmni and stationed at
lrunswiek, Ga., and Fernalndina, Fill., where
lie renuiined until about the 1st of Flebruary,v
1888, when he was sent from Ferianidlnin to
take charge of the Key West oflce of the Mal-
lory and Plant steams lip) Lines, where he has
since remained, giving entire satisfr'etion both
to the company and to the patrons of the lines
Mr. Southwick is a genial, accomniodatihig,
polished gentleman, and has made hosts of
friends among our citizens, all of whom admire
him for his quiet, business-like and unassuming

In 1808, Mr Maximo M. Diaz, after having
studied pharmacy in Cuba, under the tutorage
of an eminent pharnmaceutist, determined to
leave that island and enter an American uni-
versity; and selecting the city of Mobile, Ala.,
he first entered the Sprfghilll College, where he
remained about one year, when he decided to
enter thie university of Louisiana, where lie re-
minaed for about live years and graduated with
high honors.
In 1874 Mr. Diaz returned to his native home,
in Sagua la Grando, Cuba. where his parents
resided, and remained until 1880, when he again
decided to visit New Orleans, La., with the in-
tention of studying medicine. He was not sat-
isfied with himself, and believed that his edu-
cation was incomplete as a pharmacist unless
lie thoroughly'linderstood all branches of med-
icine. But on his way to New Orleans. he
stopped in Key West to pay a flying visit to
friends and relatives on flie island and while
Here he was introduced to Dr. R. J. Perry, who
then conducted a nice drug business on Flem-
ing street, and by dint of persuasion lie was int-
duced to remain over in the city for a few
After remaining on this island for about four
months Mr. Diaz, still fully determined to study
medicine, left for New Orleans, with the inten-
tion of entering a medical college in that city;
but soon after his arrival in the metropolis of
Louisiana lie was taken ill with a severe attack
of bronchitis, and suffered great agony before
lie was able to return to the home of hiis nativ-
ity (Sagua la Grande, Cuba), which lie did
about the last of November, 1880.
Soon after his arrival in Cuba, the subject of
this.sketch Mr. Diaz, was invited to Key West
by Dr. R. J. Perry, to take charge of Iris drug
business, which invitation was accepted about
March or April, 1881, and in the same month
Mr. Diaz landed in Key Vest with the intention
of trying his fortune on our island. Mr. Diaz,
from his polite manners and courteous bearing,

succeeded in making friends of all with whom
lie came in contact, and by the early part of
1882 his many friends ihad succeeded in persuad-
ing him to make Key West his permanent home
and to comumnmence business for himself, which
advice he accepted after having faithfully aind
satisfactorily served Dr. It. .1. Perry for omie
year, and opened Iup ineat. drug business for
himself on iDuval street, where Mr. Win. MeKil-
lip now keeps it jewelry store, and In wlhicli
plae hlie remnaied for six months until MAir.
.ohin White could have the large and spnciotns
building, known as the La Central," on i)Duvvl
street, built for him, and In the summnier of tlit
same year (1882), Mr. Diaz took possession of his
elegant quarters and opened up business with
one of the largest and prettiest stocks of drugs,
chelmieals, perfuitnory, toilet and fancy goods
over brought to Key West, and this, coupled
with his polite and obliging maniiners, soon
drew a largo patronago to hils house.
In this building Mr. Diaz remained for two
years, when he sold out his business and the
good name thereof to Mr. Gallol with the in-
teution of embarking ini the cigar business, but
soon after abandoned that iden and determined
to reconnmence the drug business, and in about
six nmonthls fromin the thnime of his selling out to
Mr, Gallol he made that gentleman an offer to
repurchase the business, but failing in his at-
temipt, Mr. Diaz soon after purchased a largo
and well-solected stock of drugs, inmedicines,
chemicals, perfumnery, toilet and fancy articles,
ink fact everything usually kept in a first-class
ilrug establishment, anud recomminenced business
on tihe corner of Duval and Petronia street,
where he has since remained, doing a large and
prosperous business. Each month has brought
Imlia new customers and friends, till to-day he
can boast of having thie most prosperous and
pretty drug business in tIne city.
Ills present building, though apparently large
and conmmlodious enough to hold it sufficient
supply of goods in his line to supply the whole
of Key West for twelve montlis, yet we are re-
liably Infornmed that the business las already
outgrown the house, and Mr. Diaz has been
comipelled to occupy the second story of the es-
tablishment as a store room for a large portion
of hisn drugs, niedicines land chemlncals; iI fact
every available space in the building is literally
packed with goode)s, and there is nothing in the
drug line of bush tess that cannot bo purchased
there. Mr, l)Diaz takes a pride in the business
lmld give's it his peIoius il attention, and nowhere
inI t lie State can be found a ignore complete
ismmortenet of goods or it neater, better kept es-
tablisliment, which gives to the establishment
uni nir of prosperity, and the owner is justly
proud of hls success.
The old proverb tht all men have their enoe-
mules," cannot be applied to Mr. Maxihno M.
JDiaz, for during hls enitlre residence on the
island of Key West ho Ihas signally failed ini
making enemies, and ihas been content to apply
his courteous and affable manners to the unak-
ing ofl personal andi business friends, and how
well lie has succeeded can be seen fromi a glance
at his cash book. "Quick Sales and Small
Profits" is his motto, iiidl he is content to abide
by it.

Mr. Samuel Otis Johnson was born in Nassau,
Bahama Islands, September 1st, 1848. In 1850
Ills widowed mother emigrated to Key West
and entered young Sawmuelin one of the private
schools on the island, where he remained until
18062, occupying his vacations as clerk in a gen-
eral merchandise establishment.
In 1802 lie opened up a green grocery estab-
lishiment, in which ho has since continued with
abundant success,
In April, 1880, two days after the great fire,
which occurred on the last day of March, lie
began the same business on Eaton, between
Duval and Simnonton streets, where his present
plaeo of business is located, and where lie hias
since remained, gradually working into the
family grocery business, in connection with his
green grocery. Possessing a genial, affable
nature, Mr. Johnson has succeeded in winning
the admiration and confidence of his fellow cit-
izeons, who extend to him a liberal share of their
atronaoge; and in consequence of which lie lins
been enabled to add largely to his worldly stole e .
His private residence, adjoining his busmiv;w.
house, is one of the prettiest two-story frani,
dwellings on the Island.

Mr. Enrique Estevoz was born in Puerto Prin-
cipe, Cuba, in 1852, and emigrated to Key West
in 1875, when he accepted a situation as clerk
in the general maerehaindise establishment of
Mr. M. lBaranco, where he remained several
years, during which time he succeeded, by strict
economy in saving a small capital, with which
lie began a small retail grocery store. In the
course of couple of years, or more, his bushi


ness had ihereased to time extent that lie was
forced to fiid it more roomy building; hiein(u i
188 2 lie remlloved Ills stock to the large "stonll
building" oni the cornerr of Whilteheind andi Car-
oline streets, where he remained until 1885,
when he loe sed the property on which his pros-
ent plae, of business is established (two (doors
west of the stone building," on VWhitehead
street), anid soon afterwards lie purchased tilhe
lot aludi iiide large additions to the store hoiise,
besides liuilding a pretty residence on a lportioni
of thel lot.
1'ri'iin his courteous and polite treatment of
all, Mr. Estevoel has succeeded in lulliing tiup
ia large retail business, which is ,second to lnone
in his line; aind his check is good for ii30,01A)0 any
day; all of which has been accuiiulated in Key
West in tile past few years.
Mr. Friinelso VeIlnso, for a uiimnlber of y 'ears
thlile illit iieand oomnodating business iitimt-
ge'r, lilas lately beeln given a oiie-thiird working
interest it the business, in appreciation of Ill his
earnest and untiring labors and tihe deep inter-
est lie manifested iti behalf of his emoiployer'
business interests,

Geo. S. Waite's Large Clothing, Geiints'
Furnishing Goods and Boot anid
Shoe Emporium.
In 1873, when a micre youth, Mr. flco. S.
Waite, the subject of this ketchll, cattle to Key
West, from Savannliah, (hi., with his widowed
mother and sister andl a brother, and being of a
restless, energetic nature, lie was oil tlhe island
but a few days before li began to iimake lprepa-
rations to center some ki(u,. (if ( ttei(luittt'nt th\it
Wvu)iiJJ tf 't' V" JjjS !ni', nn) JJt Jth ".';a)Jt' thmi '
aid in thie support of the family. About this
time fishing was one of tile leading industries of
the island, anid the only indistr.y at the time
that offered a slmflcient comiipeinsatloli to young
George Waite, for the sniall amount of capi-
tal he could raise; aind forming a co-partnership
with his younger brother, Win. Hlernidoni Waite,
tiie young fisihernieen procureii a tsiall fishing
boat and piarmnphernallia andI t o nc embarked
in the (to theii) new enterprise. In this busi-
ness Mr. Waito reiimained for about one year,
during which tinoe hle had iunionsclously muilt
up for himself a most enviable reputtation its all
Industrious, intelligent and lioliest young nian
-a reputation, at Ills tender years, that was
worth liore to lilin than gold, as tihe sequel
will prove.
In 1874. about one year from Ills arrival in
Key VWest, Mr. J. 1. (Gregory, who was then
conducting it grocery and liquor store on Duival
street, offered yollug (loorgoe S. Walte itn position
us eler'k in his estalilshmiiient, which was
promptly aee pted, and thie co-partnership of
"VWaite & VWalto" (in the fishing business) was
dissolved by mutual consent. In this establishi-
niont Mr. Waito remaiiined, where lie succeeded,
by Ills courteous treatment and polite manners,
in inakiig a warin friend out of everyone who
knew himi, until Novemniber, 1870, when Hon.
John WV. Sawyer, who hiad his attention at-
tracted to hihn from the reasoiis above given,
offered him a ipernimanent situation as salesman
in hills large clothing house, which was acce pted
by Mr. Waite, and which position he filled for
ten years, giving entire satisfaction to his emu-
ployer and endearing himself in the hearts of
all who knew hini. About this time (1880) Mr.
Waite began to think of entering into the coni-
mnercial world "in his own 'c)nto'," and about
three months before tlhe expiration of his tei'th
year with Mri, Sawyer, he formined a co-pamrtner-
ship with Mr. L. WV. Pierce, and ordered about
a i$i,000 stock of clothing and mIenits' furnishing
goods, intending to begin business Alpril 1st, inl
the Gwnn building, onil Front street (now oc-
cupled by Messrs. Russell & Co.) and onil March
thie 28th, 1886, about $l1,000 wortli of Ills goods
ordered had arrived and halid been stored int this
building. But, aliis! our foudest hopeIs iare
too often blighted," (is was proveii In 1i te iitso
of Mr. Walte, for on thie night of Mahirh 29th,
1880, the great fire of that year began, iand Ini a
few short hours tile new firm of (ho,. S. Wilite
& Cox's. store building and $1,000 worthli of goods
were lying sminouldering oni tlihe ground, and the
firn was $1,000 out of pocket hoforei they had
began business, aund not one dollars of this
amount was covered by insurance. Nothing
daunted, however, from tihe heavy loss, the thi'in
ait once put their heads together to devise
"ways anid means" for another building large
enough to contain the remainiln g *8,000 worth
of goods which, by this time, had begun to air-
rive, and in about two weeks they had sue-
ceeded in rolling a house belonging to Mr. L.
W. Pierce, situated on Rocky Road, down to
Mr. Pierce's lot on the corner of Minmonton aind
Front streets, and in a very few divs tliereafter
the firmi of (eo. S. Waite & Co. had couinenolced
business in earnest, with alhiiost an unprece-
dented success front tlihe first, and in less than
three imoinths it blo'amlt' evidoet to Mr. XWaVttt
that the house was too siaffl for tile business,
which had "outgrown itself "in so short a tmhne.
We would like, here, to impress upon the
minds of our readers that this $0,000 stock of
goods was entirely purchased on credit, and the

only cash pald out was iI the shape of freight.
Yet beginning as they did, $)9,000 in debt andl
only $8,001) (first imst) worth of goods to pay it
with, thie fl'ri was soon enabled to comlliuence
the construction of a large two-story building
on the corner of Dluval and Wall streets, besides
meeting their paper promptly (a it fell du(e.
The first year's sales of tihe flrin, under Mr.
(lo. Wialte's popular management, reached tihe
enormous summ of $41,000. This, alone, proves
louder than anything we could say tile great
flhuiaelerling ability 'liid popularity oft (eo. S.
Wailte. This gentlemliani also appilecates thel
value of prilntcr's ink, as will be proved by ref-
crele to another oliiiiinU in this paper, and
who, )by thie w1y, Hlippremtlates his own worth so
little that lie give priliter's ink credit for a large
proportion of his smluccess.
By December tihe 1st, same year (1880), the
situiatedl on tie corner of D)iil and Wall
streets, as above described, was completed nadil
ready for octcupanc'y, and on thie t3rd iday iof tlhe
samliiie lonitlh,-iii lllit monithi f)tiuin lio t hu
Mr. Wailte first beagdiithie business oni thie cor-
ner of Fronit and Shnonton streets-the firlii
had their largo stock of clothing, etc., removed
into it and handsomioly and attractively dis-
'fie (dimensions of this building are (1x40 feet,
two stories high, with ita cupola, frilnm wilch it
most beautiful view of the entire island Imill the
surrouliding Keys can e o had. This building
was built at at cost of $5,100, and is one of tihe
prettiest structures in that portion of the city.
Oni tle 15th day of November, 1887 Mr, Walite
purchased the entire fiterest of Mr, L. VW.
evew u the trw, hAthi w hemWt( ttl1 ((\d<
2'u)l-c.%atm, midI th 'rm na mne oI t( w I usi'h's
was then changed to eoo. S. Waite, and still
continues under that firni name. During the
past twelve months Mr. Waito increased his
sales from $41,000 for the first yeiir to over $50,-
(100, and the business is rapidly growing and
the amount of goods kept li stock has this sea-
son been increased to thie enllorlmous Um1i of
$25,000, and will cominpare favorably with any
strictly retail- clothing house and gents' furnish-
ing goods Inm the State.
The secret of the whole business is that Mr.
Waite watches thle market closely, and always
takes advantage in prices when ever offereil.
This is also the secret why lie call sell you eloth-
ing at front 20 to 2.1 per cent. cheaper than tihe
saimee can be bought hfi New York at retail.
Another secri'et is that he pays his bills iiromptly;
hence lie can biuy at cash prices. Mr. (ot. H.
Waite is a living monument (of what a poor
boy, whio is endowed with commiiion seII'se, uon--
esty, energy anid go-ahcaditivoness Can llI ieil-
plish in Key West. It seems almost iunreason-
able that this day three years ago Mr1'. Waltit
was a clerk oni a slhiary of $75 per month, and
wais not worth $50(1 in cash; anid to-day lie is
thle owner of a large and handsome two-story
building, situated in the most desirable portion
of the city, filled with *25(,000 worth of the most
elegant goods to blie found almost anywhere
South of Now York, and a credit that ls almost
unlinmited-all accumulated in less than three
ears. At first sight one would imagine that
his profits must be extremely great; but that is
not the secret, It is his great popularity amliiong
all lhiasses of ouir citizens, coupled with hlls
niotto, quk rth/', andl snll profit v," that
has gained for hilm his present wealtli and bus-
iness and social standing.
Among the most prominent of the salesmen,.
and who have proven themselves efficient,
courteous salesilmen, are Messrs. Wim, 0. Nor-
C'ross, (lieldl salesimaii,) Wll, Herndon lWalteo, (ait
brother of thie proprietor,) V. (i. lEspimnosa,
Robert Lowe and Bertie Rose, all of whom
have succeeded in gainhig the entire confidence
of their employer and thli love and respect of
the patrons of tlie house.

Mess's. Day & Allen, Successors to
(lark & Lofttus, Dealers in Furni-
iture aiid House Furiishing Goods.
The business eoiterprlse that niow attracts our
speoci'l attention is the large furniture house of
Mess'rs. Day & Allen, situated onil Eatoln Street,
niear the corner of Duval, next door to Porter
& Ridgell's drug store. Before e begin with
this firm, it will be necessary for us to go back
ta few years-to April Ist, 1886-when AMessrs.
Clark & Loftus first established tlhe business on
the corner of Thomas and Olivia streets, with
Mr. J. A. Day, the senior member of the firm
which leads this article, as manager, and was
the original installment furniture house in Key
West. This location, however, was only tem-
porary, until the large building of Messrs. Cruzx
Bros., waecomipletedl; which was finished about
the last of August or the first of Septoimlber,. of
the same y'erv, whn Mp 1M y tM vs session and moved into this bufdifng oni the
ground floor. In this building the business
prospered, under the courteous management
and liberal dealings of Mr. Day, until it became
necessary for him 'to find more commodious

quarters, which lie did in the present location
of the firm,-a now building, then in course of
construction, and which was finished sonietino
in April, 1888-and on the first day of May, 1888,
lie moved into his new, large and elegant quar-
ters, situated its above described, and where he
has since remained, first as manager and then
itas senior partner.
Mr. J. A. Day's connection with the furniture
business dates back to 188., when he first began
with Messrs. Clark & Loftus, of Jacksonville,
the pioneers of the Installment plan in fur-
niture in this State. lie had been with this firm
but a little over a year, when, by close attention
to business and the deep interest lie manifested
In the business success of his employers and his
courteous treatment of the many customers of
the firmn, coupled with his energy and Integrity
and correctness as an accountant, he had won
the entire respect and confidence of his employ-
ers, who proposed to him that if hlie would un-
dertake tile management of a branch furniture
business in Key West, which they were then
thinking of establishing, they would guarantee
hli an interest in the business, at the expira-
tion of two years, provided lie succeeded in es-
tablishing the business on a firm basis; or if he
preferred, they would sell out the entire busi-
ness to liln,. Preferring (lithe last clause In this
unwritten agreement, lie and his partner, Mr.
J. W. Allon, mado a proposition to Messrs.
Cark & Loftus last ,July, which was accepted
and the business turned over to them on tho
26th day of the same month.
Mr. J. W. Allen, the junior member of tho
firm, Is too well known in Key West for us to
attempt to introduce himn-he having been
raised on this island. Heis froni one of tlie first
families of the State, and a brother of Mr.
Sivorge> Alliit, Ithe lilu ,moin, ad ipopilar
Cashier of the Bank of Key West.
Mr. J. W. Allen is also Deputy Revenue Col-
lector for the County of Monroo.
Mr. J. A. Day, the senior member of the firm
(anid upon whose shoulders the entire business
and responsibility of the firm rests), Is an Ohio
"boy," who first visited Jacksonville in search
of health, in 1884, and we Wresume he found it;
for to look at iiim, as he files hither and thither
over the large floor, squeezing in between sets
of furniture, one would say that he had never
had a day's sickness in his life, and from his
genIteel manners and jovial, whole-souled dispo-
sition, hlie has suciceded in building up one of
the largest furniture businesses, both cash and
on the "iiistallmint plan," to be found in South
Florida; and at the slme tihe lie has made
warm and true friends of all who know him,
and the business standing and credit of the firn
rates ts high as any 1in the city.
This flrni carries about a $1i,000 stock of fur-
niture, consisting of elegant parlor, bedroom,
dliiing-rooim and library sets, inediumn and cheap
sets, sofa-beds, odd pieces of furniture, such as
inarble top tables, fine arm and rocking chairs,
children's chairs and bedsteads, bedtling, mat-
tresses, bed-springs, safes, carpets, rugs, mnats,
crockery, lamps, chandeliers, oil paintings
chroinos, engravings, mouldings, stoves and
stove pipes, and in fact, everything usually
found in a first-class furniture and house fur-
nishing emiporiumi,and biesles all this the firi
carries over $20,000 on their books (goods sold
on the installment plan "), all good debts.
Their present large
is one of the most roomy buildings in the city,
its dimensilons being 50x0O feet and three stories
high, neatly painted and furnished up elegantly,
both outside and ini, triumled on the eaves ai(nd
around tie sides, with several of the largest and
prettiest signs to be found anywhere. The let-
ters are In gold and colors, and can be read from
almost any portion of the Island.

Mr. John R. Scott was born in Terre Haute,
Indiana, on the 1st day of July, 1808, where
he was educated for an architect, and served
his apprenticeship as a nechanie under his
father, Mr. Joseph Scott; and when lie was but
seventeon years of age, after lie had served his
time as an apprentice, lie went to St. Louis,
where lie worked for three years with Messrs.
Kigan Bros., contractors and builders.
When lie was but twenty years of age he
canmo to Florida and took large contracts in the
young and growing town of Sarasota, gain
an enviable reputation as being master of Ihis
trade, doing tilhe greater part of his work for the
Florida Mortgage and Investment Co., at that
In April, 1880, soon after the "big fire" of that
year, Mr. Scott came to Key West, where he has
since resided, and hlis work can be seen in almost
every portion of the city, all of which he might
w*A te\l pvw\N ml vt ?ott, a otat%.or,
built the large and handsome brick store house
of Hon. Jno W. Sawyer, on Front and Fitz-
patrick streets; the large furniture store of F.
E. Harwell, on Shnonton street, twenty cot-
tages and one or two large business houses, and


a cigar factory for P. Pohalski & Co., and the
large and elegant residence of Mr. F. Figuerdo,
and other buildings, were built by him, all of
which give ample evidence of his skill. As a
draughtiman, architect, contractor or builder,
Mr. Scott has no superior in the city,

Dr. J. V. Harris, the obliging and courteous
Collector of Customs of the port of Key Woest,
was born in the Abbeville district, South Caro-
lina, in 18890. His parents emigrated to South
Carolina from Georgia, and in 1846 they moved
to Columbus, Miss. The doctor graduated int
the University of Mississippi with high honors
in 1859. He studied inedicine and graduated in
the Medical Department of the University of
Louisiana in 1801.
Immediately after graduating he returned to
Columbus, Miss. where he married, and soon
after he enlisted as a private soldier in the
Second Mississippi and Alabama regiment of
cavalry, at the beginning of the war.
After the battle of Shiloh, Dr. Harris was ap-
pointed Assistant Surgeon, C. S. A., and served
with credit and distinction as such until 1864,
when he was appointed Assistant Surgeon, C.
S. Navy, ranking No. 8 on examination. He
was soon afterwards ordered to Mobile, Ala.,
where he served until the close of the war at
which time he was attached to the Flagship
In 1870 Dr. Harris gave up cotton planting
and came to Florida in search of health (which
he found in Key West in abundance)-his
health having been seriously impiair'.d iio .
constant exposure during the war.
Dr. Harris is a staunch Democrat and a
shrewd politician, and was one of the political
leaders of Monroe county in 1876, when he was
a delegate to the National Convention at St.
L'ius; and acted as inember of the National
Executive Committee for Florida, vire Col.
Dyke, of the Tallahassee Floridian." He was
also Secretary of the Committee of Notification,
aind read tile address of the Commaittee to Mr.
Tilden, at his residence in Gramercy Park.
Dr. Harris was also elected to the Florida
Legislature in 1876, where lie served with honor
to himself, and credit to the State. Ho was also
a prominent candidate for Congress in 1SS0 be.
fore the Cedar Key Convention, but was de-
feated by Mr. Davidson,
During all these years, when not serving his
constituents politically, lie was administering to
and healing the sick and afflicted, and succeeded
in working his way to the top of the medical
profession in Key West.
In 1885 Dr. Harris was appointed Collector of
Customs for the Port of Key West, and which
office he has since tilled to the entire satisfac-
tion of even his worst enomles. It is to be
ho ed that lie will be allowed to serve to the
end of his term, which expires June 16th, 1890,
for there is no man on the island better loved,
admired and respected for Ills good moral
character and personal qualities than is Dlr. J.
V. Harris.


One of Our Leading Furniture Dealers.
Mr. F. E. Harwell, the owner of the large fur-
niture house that now claims attention in these
columns, is comparatively a stranger in Key
West, he having come to tills city from Fulton,
Miss., in the latter part of November, 188:1.
The reason that induced Mr. Harwell to visit
Key West was two-fold; the first reason wias
that he was in search of a more salubrious el1-
mate than was his Mississippi home, and the
second reason was to find a good business place
that would offer sufficient inducements for lhimi
to invest the small capital lie then had at his
command. This capital, we would like to im-
press upon our readers, was very small and
would not exceed $150. From what he knew
and had heard of Key West he believed this
was the very place he was in search of.
As above mentioned, in the latter part of
November, 1885, Mr. Harwell lauded In Key
West, when he was not long in making up lis
mind that he was satisfied with our beautiful
Island City; and leasing the Moffat building,
on the corner of Whitehead and Caroline street,
he soon had a pretty and well selected stock of
lamps, chromos, engravings, paintings, etc.
tastefully displayed in his establishment, and
invited public patronage, which, from his cour-
teous manners and liberal dealings, was not
slow in coming in. Fortune, as she always does
to the industrious and polite, seemed to smile
on him, and by the spring of 1880, he found it
necessary to find more roomy quarters; for by
this time he had decided to go into the furni-

ture business in connection with his other bus-
iness; and finding a suitable site on the corner
of Simonton and Eaton streets, opposite the
Stone Church, lie soon had a large x6035 feet,
two-story building erected, which he moved
into about the last of March or the first of
April, 1880, and opened up with a large and
handsome stock of furniture, bedding, mat-
tresses, bed-springs, carpets, mats, rugs, lamps
and lamnp-fixngs, etc., in fact everything that
is usually kept by a first-class furniture house.
In this building the business rapidly increased,
until to-day in less than three years from its es-
tablishment, Mr. Harwell carries a stock of
about $",000 in goods and $10,000 on his books.
Mr. Harwell is the ploneer of the "Install-
muent Plan" in Key West, and he always has
on his books at least three times the amount of
stock on hand; hence it will readily be seen
that to carry a three thousand dollar stock, at
lerst a twelve or thirteen thousand dollar capi-
tt is necessary.
But Mr. Harwell has other investments, as
will be seen below, the capital invested in tihe
same will swell iis present fortune to over $3',-
000, most of which lias )'0en accumulated in
Key West during the sniort period of three
In February, 1887, Mr. F. E. Harwell opened
up a branch furniture house in Pensacola, Fla.,
which is now under tile management of Mr.
Joel E. Crawford, on Palafox street, and which
has since grown to ibe one of the largest Furni-
ture houses in thie State.
On the 1st day of last May, Mr. F. E. Har-
well left this city on a two-fold visit to Tennes-
see. The first was to enter into a life co-part-
nership with Miss Florence Harwell, a distant
relative of his, and one of Nashville, Tennes-
se' s., -most eharmidng and accomplished Vl'os,:
and thlie second was to establish a branch furni-
ture house in Knoxville, Tenn.
Soon after the marriage had been consumnina-
ted, which was shortly after Mr. Harwell's ar-
rival in Nashville, he and his young bride went
on a bridal tour to Ashoville, N. C., and while
there hlie became so attached to that beautiful
city of some 10.000 inhabitants, that lie estab-
lished a branch house there, before visiting
Knoxville; and soon after, in August, lie and
his wife left for that city (Knoxville, Tenn.),
where lie also established a large branch furni-
ture house, and where they are now domiciled;
and Mr. Harwell reports to Ills manager here,
Mr. Frank Marston, that lie is doing a rushing
business, both for cash and on the installinment
plan. Of course, in a city of 30,000 or more in-
habitants, a much larger capital is required to
conduct a first-class furniture business than in
this city, and we have been reliably informed
that hfs business in Knoxville was second to
none in that city.
Mr, and Mrs. Harwell, in future, will proba-
bly take up their rosidened in Knoxville, but
spend their winters in Key West.
Mr. Frank Marston, the gentlemanly, popular
and affable manager of Mr. Harwell's Key West
interests, is the right man in the right place,
and Mr. Harwell should be congratulated upon
his success in securing the services of one so
well fitted from experience for thie position.
Mr. Marston has been with Mr. Harwell. since
June 1880.

Dr. A. L. Pendleton was born in Eliz.abeth
City, North Carolina, in 1855. Ile received his
early schooling in the Elizabeth City Academy,
and later was sent to Hartford, Conn., where
lie graduated.
Dr. Pendleton, after quitting school, entered
thile College of Physicians and Surgeons, Balti-
more, Md., where he studied medicine fori a
couple of years, when lie entered the Jefferson
Medical College of Philadelphia, where he grad-
uated with high honor on March 29th, 1884.
After leaving College Dr. Pendleton settled
in Cornyock, N. C., where he practiced his pro-
fession for about one year, when lie determined
to join his brother, Hon. C. B. Pendleton, in
Key West, Fla., arrived here about the middle
of 88.5; and in September of the same year lie
began the drug business on the corner of Eliza-
both and Eaton streets, where his present large
and handsome drug store is now situated, and
where lie has since remained, each year increas-
ing his trade and adding largely to his stock.
)r. A. L. Pendleton has succeeded in win-
ning the confidence and respect, both as a citi.
zen and physician, of every one who knows
himn, and stands at the head of his profession in
Key West.

Mr. D. T. Sweeny was born in New York
City March 81st, 18390, where he was also edu-
In 1858 he visited a friend of his Mr. Jno.
Ryan, of Savannah, Ga., who was at the time
conducting a large soda water and bottling fac-

tory, and where Mr. Sweeny was induced to
engage as an apprentice to learn the business,
In this establishment he reunained until 1800,
when he began the business for himself in Co-
lumbus, Ga. whore he remained about one year,
when he sold out and returned to New York,
where in 1802, hlie again began the manufacture
of soda water, syrups, etc., in which business
he continued until April 21st, 1804, when he
closed up his business and accepted a position
secured for him in Gen. Burnside's corps as
"citizen" Forage Master, and where he re-
mained until thie latter part of July following
when lie returned to New York ard reopened
his soda-water business, in which he remained,
with tolerable success, until about the last of
October, 1874 when lie again closed out the
business and began to cast about for more prof-
itable fields In which to operate; and his
" good star" directed lilimn to Key West, where
lie landed on the 18th of November, 1874.
Moon after landing in Key West, Mr. Sweeny
opened upl) a soda-water factory, on Whitehead
street, where lie remained until June, 1870,
when his business had grown to such propor-
tions that it was necessary for him to find
larger quarters. And leasing a piece of prop-
erty from Mr. John Jay Phillbrick, on Simonton
street, lie at once erected a large factory build-
ing and moved into it. After remaining inthis
place about four years, Mr, Sweeny purchased
the entire property, on a portion of which is
now situated his private residence, which, by
the way, is one of the handsomest and most
elegantly finished, frescoed and painted on the
inside of any residence in tihe state; and it is
furnished to correspond with the artistic and
costly decorations,
One of the first things that Mr. Sweeny did
allvrT ri-pu nshiuh rtVins prolrivy -was ti eomvnre
and remodel hlis soda-water and bottling fac.
tory, whlic was necessary at this time in order
to get sufficient room to store the large quanti-
ties of Ibeers, wines, liquors, etce., which he then
had on hand, from the fact that he had entered
largely into the wholesale trade in these goods.
Hence lie largely increased the dimensions of
his factory, which is now O50x50, with a 25x25
foot wing. He also had a deep cellar dug un-
derneath, which is now two stories deep, which
are used to store wines, beers, liquors, mineral
waters, etc., and the temperature stands tlhe
smile thing on either floor of the cellar, the
year round-never rising or falling from 80 de-
The top floor, or factory proper, is used as a
soda-water and bottling factory, with six large
fountains in which lie makes his soda water.
His bottling and other machinery are also on
this floor. It is also literally packed with cases
of fine wines, beers, soda water, ready for mar-
ket, etc., as are also the two lower floors, and
Mr. Sweeny supplies nearly the entire island
with these goods, from this establishment. He
also keeps one or two teams on the trot all the
time supplying his many customers. And al-
though lie has a monopoly on the Island, lie
handles nothing but the very best goods, and
for which he is satisfied to receive a small pro-
Mr. Sweeny is also engaged in the Hotel bus-
iness, and his house is one of the favorite resorts
for many of the commercial men who visit our
city, which is known as
situated on Duval, near the corner of Green
streets, and is conducted on the European plan,
and is flnt-class in every respect. Terms, for
rooms only, one dollar per day, or five dollars
per week. A first-class restaurant is conven-
iently situated adjoining the hotel. Also one
of the finest billiard parlors and saloons to be
found in the State is connected with the hotel,
where accommodating and polite attendants
can always be found to serve their tempting
vintage to the weary and thirsty.
Alt hough Mr. Sweeny came to Key West
comparatively a poor man, and liad a hard fight
to introduce his soda water, etc., and to get a
"foot-hold," he is to-day one of the largest
property owners, with perhaps two or three ex-
ceptions, on the island; and has perhaps done
as much towards building up the city to what
she is to-day as any other one person.
Mr. Sweeney has served one or two terms on
the Board of Aldermen, and is one of our most
prominent, influential, and active members of
the Board of Trade.
In 1880 he ran for Mayor of the city against
two other candidates, but was defeated by a
small majority by Dr. J. V. W. R. Plummer,
with Mr, Sweeny second in the race.

The Finest Hotel in the Southern Por.
tion of the State.
Mr. 0. T. Merrill, the proprietor of the New
Russell lus', which is one of the finest hotels
south of St. Augustine, came to Key West in
1870, and engaged in the mercantile business,
in which he remained until the spring of 1881,


when h1 took charge of the "old(" Itussell
House, situated on lDnval, between Oreen iand
Front streets, which he leased from Mr. Win. A.
Russell; his father-in-lahw managed it success-
fully until March 31st, 18,;, when It was licked
uill by thlu IlaIIum of the great contlagration of
that year,
In the following fall (ISS() tit(he foundation of
the present structure of the Now tRussell I Hous
was laid, but was Inot c'm)Ipl'ted uintll May,
1887, and was opened for hei' reception of guests
ill Decemner, 1887, under most favorable ans-
pli.es, and has been opened to our citizens and
tlhe traveling pulibl., exceptt i few months dur-
ifg the past sunn11'0r, wlheu the proprietor Went
Tile dimensions of I his house ore illx11)08 foot,
with wing of 7(Ixl.iO feet, thireeo ad (oie-half
stories high, with veraiidaus oin each lloor ex-
tendintg all Iround; al d ('a)( Iod with ia Ilost
beautiful anitd lolftvy clu)1pol, from which one (of
tile finest views of tile city and unIirouiuling
Kevs can be had.
'lills house also contains seventy-Ilvo hand-
soiNly firnishedlid rooms, with stair's and imlls
elegaiitly triinutledi a1mlt arl t d; tleh whole
given to be, bly tou'rists, tilitil nest in the soltil-
ern portion of the Statte.
is situated, first, tile elegant business office;
next the parlor, elegantly aid rlhily furnishlled;
further down the hall, to tihe east, we enter tlhe
large and sp lious dilning-roomll, the floors and
walls of whihil have recently beenu richly
painted and frescoed.
This floor also contains it largo saloon and
bill;rdl p;r')r, *-WYj) rv .'aMt) to be the ) ) .' lc
and best furnished iln the State. A well ap-
pointed roading-room, alrber shop and six or
eight "sample rooms" lre also situated on this
floor, all lof whici have their (charms for tlhe
cornmerelal tourist and other guests.
The building is also furnished throughout
with electric bells and other conveniences. Also
a large bath house hlus been built, wheic one

little, may be sure that It will be promptly at-
tended to, and their interests carefully guarded.
Their' long experience in the business Inakes
thellm especially useful to their customers in case
of loss lI securing them a speedy adjustment
1ul payment of their claims. Mr. 11utchinson,
thlie junior ember of the firm, is well known to
lllmany of our citizens, f'roi having spent a con-l-
siderable tiIne in this city i tlihe interest of his
ilrmii. His ifiillirlity witii our city and people
enables him to ilake sueh represelntatioiis to
the Insturance Cos. that lie is able to secure
from tlem policies and terms that tno other
Ih'ru can oiler.

To the fleet of ten large steamers now belong-
ng to thills line an eleventh Is to be added for
thle early fall trade. This steamer Is behig built
at tle Itoioh shipyards, where o all the vessels
belonging to tihe line have been construct(edl.
Slie Is to lie of about 11,4(m) tonls burden, built
upon tile genoeril plan of theta' lueeos, with
stateroolms above tnil tiait dock-liglht, roomy,
atl thorolugily venltiflaited-so that her limssen-
gerl accomuliodatiotls will be a5s complete alnd
omifortabole as it ls possible to make them.
Thie recent co(mpletlon of the Fort Worth and
Denver and other railroad lines in tilhe south-
west makes it possible for passengers to be
taken (quickly and at low rates by tile Mallory
lines and their extensive railroad connections to
all points hi Mexico, California, Texas, Colo.
rado, Florida and other parts of thle west and
southwest. Arralngmoiieni ts have been completed
byj which l r (ugh-l'( cuO on tickets are issued
from Now York and other eastern points to all
interior towns and cities in that part of tilhe
country leaving railroad connections. Tieo
Mal'hlory lines are already ill possession f a large
business through Unalveston to points as far
east as IDenver, and via Key West to Havana,
Cuba, and all Florida cities, while the rapid
compll'tioii of new railroad lines In the west is

Mallory Steamship Alamo.

can luxuriate in salt-water baths from morning
till night, if lie wishes. In fact every modern
improvement hlias been attached to this houso,
anid there Is nothing wanting for the comfort of
its guests.
This is, in fact, the only real first-class hotel
in the city, and the only thoroughly drained
and ventilated, having its own sewer, which
extends into the (fuilf. It Is also lighted by gas
from cellar to dome. The furniture of the
house are all of the latest designs and of the
finest material, of the antique patterns, oak
and walnut, furnished hv the Phmilx Furniture
Co., of (frand iRapids, Mich).
The bar is elegantly furnished, and has three
or four of the fioest llliard tables ever sent out
by the Br'unswik-Hlake-Colilender Co., and a're
of the very latest patterns.
The lhoiuse was reo wined to the public, for
this season, (on tie first of November, under
ii (most anspi)cious circillumlstanies, and the in-
c'eased travel iai patronage thill season bids
fair to make tills house one of the nost popular
ln the State.

The Insurance Brokerage firm of Wemnple &
lhutchinson is well known in New York and In
this city. Mr. William R. Weinple, thie senior
member of the firm, Is a native New Yorker,
and a veteran unilderwriter. Ho is the eldest
son of the late C. Y. Wemple, who organized,
and was for many years the Vice President of
the Manhattan Life insurance Co., one of the
most solid of New York's financial institutions.
Mr. Wemuple first entered the Fire Insurance
Brokerage business in 1818, and illn 1878 he was
Joined by Mr. S. L. Ilutlchinson, who had for
some time been engaged in the same business
when tile present firm was organized. Prom
small beginnings thle business lias grown to largo
proportions, and they now nlutiber amtlong
their customers inany well known individuals
and firms,
The secret of their success lies in the close,
intelligent and conscientious attention to their
customers' interests. Every one entrusting
their business to them, whether it be muoh or

constantly increasing the number of places
which travelers mav reach by this route.,
While speaking o this line it would not be In-
vidious to say that Key Vest's past business and
future prosperity is inseparably connected with
it. Mr. Chas, H. Mallory, Capt. Spicer, and tile
younger Mr. Mallory (l1. R.), have ever shown
a kindly disposition, and taking into consldera-
tion the fact that they have neverrenlly hlad
any real opposition in the carrying trade from
New York to Key West, their reduction of rates,
at all ttlnes, when fair representations were
made, oftentimes without suggestions, show
that they appreciate thle trade and interests of
the Island City. In connection with this article
we reproduce an excellent engraving of the
steamship Ahlnoo. A trip to Key West in such
steamer and under tropic sky and sun is well
worth thope asagin money WVo are nfornmed by
the management that it is thle Intention at a
very early late to have semi-weekly ships to
the Island City.

Among the large manufacturing firms doing
business in Key West, none represents larger
wealth than the above house. The house is
located on the corner of 1st Ave. and 81st St.,
Now York City; in 1884 they established a
branch house In Key West which was destroyed
by the iniemorable fire of March, 1880.
Their business was established by Geoo. Wicke
forty years ago, five years later the present
head of the house-Willian, younger brother of
George-was taken into e-lpartnership, later on
being sole owner. In 1868 Mr. August Roesler,
junior member of the coinpany, was admitted
Into co-partnership. In 1855 they were work-
nlg 5 men, to-day they employ nearly one thou-
sand hands, turning out 25,000 cigar boxes per
day and weaving 200,000 yards of silk ribbons.
They do everything connected with their vast
business, which Includes furnishing cigar manu-
facturers with everything required In their busi-
ness, say from a cheap (bel to a costly litho-
graph, from an ordinary paper box for cigarettes
to the costliest inlaid cigar box of Spanish
cedar-from a cheap ribbon to the fanciest and

heaviest. In fact they have 270 looms alone
weaving silk ribbons. Both gentlemen of the
fir 3 are gracious, pleasant gentlemen, easy of
approach, giving their Uimense business per-
sonal supervision, yet so well arranged and sys-
temized is it, that they find plenty of time to
entertain friends and to take the world easy.
They are both very popular in Key West where
they are personally known,


Hon. Chas. B. Pendleton, editor-in-chief and
owner of the dally Equator-Democrat, and
owner of the Equator Pub, and News Co., is a
native of North Carolina; was born at Eliza-
both City on the 4th of April, 18.57. He went
to Florida In 1872, and at that early age taught
the public school at Fort Ogden for six months.
Leaving there, he spent two years in Northern
Texas, Indian Territory and the Northwest, re-
turning In 1875, from which date he has per-
manently resided In Florida. He has been
actively engaged In political and newspaper life.
Before leaving Manatee County for Key West
lie was tendered the nomination for the Legisla-
tnre of that county, but hlad to decline, being
under ag. liHe was a delegate to both State
maid Congressional Conventions for that county
before hlie was twenty. In 1880 he started the
Democrat in Key West, in 1886 he founded the
Equator-El Ecuador-an English and Spanish
daily; a year later lie discontinued tlie Spanish
departmlent,and consolidating the Equator with
the Democrat made the present daily. During
this time Mr. Pendleton has seen fully a score of
papers, sohme of them in existence at the time,
others started to break him down, die or be-
come his property by purchase-to-day lie has
no opposition. In 1882 he was nominated for
the State Senate by the lDemocratic party; after
it (contest made before two successive Senates he
was awarded his seat. He would have been
nominated in 1881, but his nomination, made at
Pensacola, for Congress, turned him aside. He
did, In this memorable campaign,what probably
no other Democrat In the South has ever done,
divide tilhe Doemocratic vote of hid district with
the regular Democratic nominee-Escambia
County, for instance, giving him 1500 majority-
where the regular Democratic candidate In the
previous campaign received a majority of about
20. Monroe County, his home, gave him nearly
Sthe entire Democratic vote. The Republicans,
as a rule, voted against him. He was elected
Alderman of the city of Key West in December,
1888, and Is Chairman of both the cemetery and
street committees. He is an active member of
the Board of Trade and Chairman of the Exec-
utive Board of the Merchants' Protective Asso-
cilation. Mr. Pendleton has lived to see many of
his former bitter enemies and violent opposers
his sincere friends; while it Is said of him, that
friends once his are so forever."

The management of this paper regrets that
the large factory of C. Soria, besides several
other important firms, are not given fuller men-
tion, but want of space at the last moment pre-
vents only mention of those who have taken
advantage of our offer at the start. The issue
was advertised long enough In advance to allow
of no excuse, while our canvasser tried In every
way to see every man Interested.
We would also like to mention the kindly aid
and gentlemanly suggestions made by Mr.
Joseph Gantz, manager of the Publishers' Print-
ing Co., of 157 William St., and attaches of the
office, in the production of this paper.
We are also under obligations to our most ex-
cellent exchange, Tobacco, for cuts of Mr. Bar-
ranco and of the factory buildings of G. 8.
Nichols and Horace B. Kelly & Co.




Leading Cldthier, and Gents', Boys' and Youths' Furnisher.


Underwear, Hats, Caps, Boots, Shoes, Collars, Cuffs, Scarfs, Neckties, Gloves, Trunks, Valises, Umbrellas, Etc.,

-7- z-

One of the Cheapest Retail Houses in the State.

Also Dealer in all kinds of Sporting' Goods,

Corner of Front and Fitrpatriok Streets,




"Mallory Lines," to Texas, Florida, Georgia, & South Carolina.

8.B. .............. .. ..Building
" NUECEt ....................8,867 tons
C OOMAL.....................2,980 "5
" LAMPABAB................2,942 "
* ALAMO............ .........2,942 *
" BAN MAROOS.............. 2,840 "

For GALVESTON, TEX., Every Wed. & Sat., 3 P.M.
For FERNANDINA, FLA., Every Friday, 3 P.M.
For KEY WEST, FLA., Every Saturday, 3 P.M.
For PORT ROYAL, S.C., Every Friday, 3 P.M.
For BRUNSWIOK, GA., Every Friday, 3 P. M.

O UOURADOA............2.... From GALVESTON, TEXAS, Every Wed. & Sat.
RIO GRAND A.............. 2,56 From FERNANDINA, FLA., Every Thursday.
STATE OF TEXAS ........ 1,6962 From KEY WEST, FLA., Every Saturday.
OITY of SAN ANTONIO... 1,652 From PORT ROYAL, 8.0., Every Filday.
OCARONDLET............. 1,508 From BRUNSWICK, GA., Every Thursday.
Nothing haa been overlooked in the construction of these vessels: and their fine model, full power and excellent sea-goling qualities,
have won for them the enviable reputation they possess. Passenger accommodations, both Cabin and Steerage, are unsurpassed. Staterooius
being above the main deck, are light, roomy and thoroughly ventilated, thus assuring to the Traveler the greatest degree of comfort attainable.
Connections are made at all the ports at which tese Steamners touch with all Itailroads and Steamboats. Through Cooupon
Tickets are on sale, and Through Rates of Passage and Freight are named to interior towns and cities, including those of California, Mexico, New
Mexico and Arizona. No other Passenger Steamers run between New York and the ports named above, except Fernandina.

27V. Botts of Pr.4ht Peassages printed omact.,
sand l.,erasi 4,forrnation, addroso,

C. H. MALLORY & CO., General Agents, Pier 20 E.R., NEW YORK.

SETH SPRAGUE, General Eastern Agent, 8 Old State House, Boston. H. McMURTRIE, Agent, 8d and Chestnut Sts., Phila. FORCE &
WATERBURY Agents 102 Commerce St., Baltimore. J. N. SAWYER & CO., Agents, Galveston, Texas. J. M. CUTLER, Agent, Jacksonville,
Fla. G. R. HUBBYAgent, Fernandina, Fla. THOMAS FULLER, Agent, Brunswick, Ga. J. J. WITT, Agent, Port Royal, S.C. R. W.
SOUTHWICK, Agent, Key West, Fla. W. J. YOUN., Uen. So. Pass, Agent, San Antonio, Texas.





Manufacturers of Fine Clear Havana Cigars,

(Duval Street,)







" La Rapedez," the finest Cigar made on the Island ; Sin Pretension," Antonio y Cleopatra,',
"La Nina," Solitaire," and "Fillplna," are also par excellence itself, and are made front the finest
Havana Vuelta Abajo Leaf Tobacco, and cannot be surpassed for excellence in flavor and finish.

Our Havana Factory manufactures the following Brands:
The La Africa," Pablo y Virginia," La Admirable," "Ramillete de Aro.
ma," "Imperial Sport," and Earnest Merck," all of which are manufactured
at our La Africana" Cigar Factory, in Havana, Cuba, from the Finest
Selected Spanish Tobacco to be found on the Island of Cuba.

J. A. DAY.







Accommodating Terms of Credit to all. (Agents for the Wheeler & Wilson, and the Royal
St. Johns Sewing Machine.) Come and see us at our palatial parlors.
Respectfully, Etc.,

I Have in Stock the Largest ani finest Selection
Diamond Ear-rings, Breast and
Scarf Pins, Watches, Rings,
Bracelets, Necklaces,
Charms, Eto.
A Full Line of Plain Gold and
Silver TIatches, Plain Gold
Jewelry of all Kinds, and all
Kinds of Jewelry, etc., Set
With Rubies, Pearls and other
Precious Stones.
My Stock of Silverware is Large and Complete.
A full Line of Clooks of Every Variety.
Prompt Attention Given to the Repairing of Watches,
Clocks and Jewelry.

Patent Medicines, Perfumety,
Toilet Soaps, Toilet and Fancy
Articles of All Kinds.
WPrescriptions carefully compounded by
Experienced Pharmacists.
I have a large and complete stock of every.
thing usually found in a First-Class Drug House
(Duval St., bet, Front and Green.)
*sucus O To

Special Attention Given to Consignments of
91 and 93 0Xatne St., tw Or6u, Lt.

Baton St., next to Porter & RidgetV# Drug Store.


sm, I










Florida Sponges Shipped to the Trade only








FACTORY No. 1.93.

Prompt attention given to Orders and satisfaction Guaranteed.



KEY WEST, FLORIDA. Choic F lamiiy Groceries,
SA 7FA TURES OFHas A R the Finest Assortment of Fresh Canned
FIN E H AV A NGA CARoods of any retail House on the Island.
New York Office: 119 Water Street, cor. Wall St. Fresh Vegetables and Country Pro-
Selling Agent for the West: G. GOLDSMIITH, 125 La Salle St., Chicago duce always on Hand.
*- Ft J T je T TTT 'li f *IH t*

Notions, Fancy Goods and Hosiery,

No. 56 Worth Street, N. Y. Nos. 76 & 78 Canal Str'eet, New Orleans.



Commission Merchants.

1'. 0. Box 2W13.




Cigar Boxes s Ribbons




Spanish Cedar, and other Cigar Box Lumber.


Cor. 1st Avenue and 3ist St., New York.

S5. U. JU N I UNt,
WeolIUls us Xort! Dollol in

Beef, Pork, Mutton,
Dressed Chickens, Turkeys and Game.
Eggs, Cheese, Lard, Hams, Fine Familv Flour,
Preserves, Salt Meats, Canned Goods of all kinds,
Pigs' Feet, Tongues, Vegetables, Fruits and
Country Produce of all kinds; in fact, a large and
full line of everything usually found in a first.
class establishment.
Soup Seasoning a Specialty.
8. 0. JOHNSON,
Key West, Florida.

Commission Merchants
Staple, Family and Fancy Groceries,
Feed, Hardware, Crockery, Etc.
0oo. Dliw.r& J* to any &art of the Idd.
Special attention given to all Consignments of Merohandise,
Poultry and Country Produce.
Prompt returns, and satisfaction guaranteed.
Faor BssTM', KEY WEST, LA,.

Oor. Dural & Green Sts., Key West, Fla.
Gents', Youth.' and Boya'

Clothing i Furnishing Goods

Merchant Tailoring

I' I.









Best Anthracite and Bituminous Coal.








Furniture Emporium,
B. P. BAKER, Proprietor,
Simonton St., Key West, Fla.

Of any House South of Jacksonvlle,



Dining-Room Sets.

Elegant Window Shades,
Chains, Curtain Poles,
Clocks, Crockery, Queens-


Consignments Solicited, and Prompt Attention to Discharging and Re-
shipping Cargoes, which will be Stored in a Fire-proof Warehouse. Gangs of
Laborers Furnished at Short Notice.

ware, Toilet Sets,


Pictures, and Children's
Velocipedes, Tri yc e I e s,
Hobby Horses, Etc.



Vpon reoeipt of Photographs, TIn.Typei or Bketches of Portraits, Buildlngu Monument., Decorative Design., Carriages,
Steamboat, Anit lI, qewpaper Head|uKa B lll of Fare. Menu Cards, usineMs Cards, letter Hleads, Catalogue Covers, Pat-
encot aevnot, .si nery, La~rto-nBteto,, Handn.mely Finlhed, Hard Mietal-Faced Cuts, will be made on short notice at reason.
aceoiopt o ad reture, raim y u or theiprea ., we prepared to reprduce pen-drawing, or prints within ten hours after re-
ceipt o same, and mount them ready for the prntor.
Bend for specmenas and quotations. We can please you as to time, quality and prices
PHOTO PLATE ENGRAVING CO., 57 Beekman St., New York.
The engravings In this edition were executed by the above company.


Fipe Havapa Oigars,
P. 0. BOX 0D,





General Commission Merchant,


Hardware, Pocket and Table Cutlery, Tools, Glass and Crockery Ware,
Brick, Lime, Cement, Plaster, Laths, Shingles, and all kinds f Lumber,
Paints, Oil, Varnish, Brushes, Stationery, and
Upholsterers' Paper,
Cotton, Canvas, Doors, Sash, Blinds, Glass, Hay, Corn, Oats, Firewood.

Besides a lIrge Assortment of Fancy and Useful Articles not found else-
where in the City.




General Merchandise,
Dry Goods, Notions, Boots, Shoes, and Hats a specialty,
of which I have a large and full assortment.


Having been thoroughly renovated, is now
open to guests. Strictly first-class in all its ap-
pointments. Gas, Electric Bells, Salt Water
Baths, and all modern improvements. Drainage
perfect. Only Hotel in the City properly




Wholesale Grocers
71 Tohoupitouls aand 10 7ouoher 8ts.

Excelsior Clothing Store,
Key West, Florida.

Largest Stock. Latest Styles.

Furnishing Goods,


The most Elegant and Complete Stock
of Goods in their line, of any
house in Monroe County.

Goods Sold at Wholesale and Retail.
Satisfaction guaranteed in every Instanoe.


General JierchaniIse.
A Large and Complete Stock of Dry Goods, No-
tions, Fancy Goods, Toilet Sets, Vases, Crock.
ery, Glass Ware, Queens Waro, .Chin
Ware, Wood and Willow Ware, Cut.
lory, Toys, Clocks, Jewelry, etc.
Family, Fancy and Staple Groceries
Three stores virtually In one. Goods delivered to any part
of the Island Free of Chare,.
Cor. of Elisabeth ant Iqind a s,



Nos. 15 &' 17 BEEKMAN ST., NEW YORK.
BRANCH OFFICEs No. 81 to 37 East Houston Street, "Puck" Building.

All kinds of Paper for Printers and Publishers on hand. Also Papers
for Cigar AManufacturing purposes. Paper in this edition
furnished by IIH. Lindenmeyr.
(NOTE--We have been purchasing paper from the above firm for ten years.)

E. OANALS, Havana, Ouba.


'. PENIOVIT, Key West, Florida.

& CO.,


Clear Key West Havana Cigars,

Among the Favorite Brands of Fine Cigars manufactured in this Factory from the Choice
Vuelta Abajo Leaf Tobacco-the very Finest Tobacco raised on the Island of Cuba-are the
" La Belita," the "Queen of the Gulf," the La Elisa," etc. These Cigars, as well as all the
other Choice Brands made in this Factory, are manufactured from the very finest Spanish To-
bacco, by First-Class Cuban Workmen.



Pferftirery, Toilet Articles,

Druggists' Sundries, Fine Cutlery,

Agent for Hawke's Spectacle and Eye Glasses,

*Atlanta, Ga.

Diamond Eye Glasses and Spec-
tacles, Philadelphia, Pa.


M. Ziemians & Bro's,

Cor. Eatou and Eliabeth Streets,


fumiture House
Cor. of Simonton and Eaton Sts.

Parlor, Bed, Dining Room and Kitchen


All of which will be sold cheap for cash, <
on easy weekly or monthly payments.




Key West, Ftleis.

Elegant icGcommodations

TERMS: $1.OO per Day, or $5.O(
per Week, for Rooms only.

Finest Bar and Billiard PtrWr







and Builder,










Estimates for Contracts

Furnished at Short Notice.



Merchk ants

and Auchioneers,




Receive by each Steamer and Sail from New York and New Orleans a Fresh Supply of
Have Always in Stock a Large andl Well-sclecttil Asstrtinont of Ship Chandlery, Crockery, Glass, Tin and Hardware,
Carpenters' Tools, Paints, Oils, Varnishes, Furniture, Stationery.









Personal attention given to sale and satisfaction guaranteed. Goods received by every steamer from New York, New Orleans,
Tampa, Manatee, Cedar Keys, and Produce from the adjacent Keys.







Ship. Chandlery,


Groceries, Hardware,

Cutlery, Tools, Glass

Crockery, Tin and Wooden Ware. Cement, Shingles and Lumber of all
kinds. Paints, Oils, Brushes, Cotton, Canvas, Firewood, etc.
Fine Family Flour and Staple Groceries of all Kinds a Specialty,
JOHN LOWE, JR., Cor. Elizabeth and Greene Sts., Key West, Florida.

4- J ... "-







Plans and Specifications furnished

on application.

P. PORAT,SKI & CO., New York. A. M. CASTILLO, Key West.
"ERADO Supt. Public Instruction,'. Fey West.


(SUCCoassoS To B. B. WHALTON.)

Corner of Duval and Olivia Streets.




Dry Goods, Millinery, Hosiery, Boots, Shoes, Hats, Notions' Trunks, Valises,
House Furnishing Goods, Builders' Materials, Paints,
Staple Family and Fancy Groceries, and Provisions of All Kinds.
Each Department is Complete in Every Particular, and will be kept so by Fresh Arrivals by
Every Week's Steamer.
No trouble to show goods, whether you purchase or not.

SPlANT S. S. 61JlE,
Carrying Send-Weekly ,United States and Foreign mails between Tampa, Key West and Havana,
Said service having commenced with the steamship Mascotte, having left Tampa on Nov. 2d.

Tampa and Havana Service.
Beginning Jan. 1st, 1889, thejhips of this Line will run as follows :
Leave TAMPA........Monday and Thursday, Arrive HAVANA-....Wednesday and Saturday
Arrive KEY WEST... .Tuesday and Friday, Leave HAVANA... .Same Days.
General Manager. Traffic Manager. Agent, Key West.


PACTORIE8 69 and 88.
Office and Salesroom 51 Murray St., N. Y.


Fine Clear Havana


BRANCH OFFICE: 82 Warren St., New York.


All-Havaia Gigars,
Made from Cotton, Rice, Water
Cress, Wheat and Pectoral Paper,
composed of the Finest Havana
Tobacco. Also manufactu-
rer of Fine Havana
"Ploaa1ura" SnmoFlng ToM acco.

"El Habanero," "Flor de Na-
varro," "May Alletta,"
"L'alermo," Etc.
"Bon Ton-Lawn Tennis,"
(P. 0. Box No. 09,)


Key West, Tampa, Cedar
Key and Pensaoola, Fla.,
Mobile, Ala., and
Calveston, Tex.
Making Railroad Connections and giving
Through Rates and Bills of Lading to all inter-
ior points.
For freight rates, sailing date and other intforation,
apply to
N. A. BANNER & O.,
19 Old Blip, New York.
Cor, Elizalbeth and Caroline StB. KEY WET, PLOF A.


aeneral81 Jercaan1lse,
Ship Chandlery, Provisions, Family,
Fancy and Staple Grooeries, Feed,
Crockery, Glass and Wooden-
ware, Eto., Etoc
In Fact a Full and Complete Stock of
everything usually found in a First-Clas.

-f -P-L E )




& CO.,



















Key West, Florida, and 17 Warren Street, New York.


Pure Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, Perfumery, Toilet Articles, &c.



-0* ?RgzscRzvprzox



We keep in stock all the Standard Patent Medicines. We have a large and well-seleote tok
Sponges, Chamois Skins, Trusses, Supporters and Shoulder Braces,
Package Dyes, Dye Woods and Dye Stuffh.





Toilet Soaps, Bath Soaps, Face Powders, Tooth Powders, Infant Powders. Sachet Powders. Toilet Oases, Dressing and Fine Combs.



gtationerfg, Writiqg paper and EnVelopes, plain and Fancg Boxed 'tatione g, Autograp] t Ibum, MiNmorandum Booik, Eto.
Hair, Cloth, Tooth, Nail, Flesh, Artists, Marking and Whitewash Brushes, Camels' Hair Pencils
and Dust Brushes In Great Variety. '



CALL AND SEE US. Your patronage is always appreciated, and you may rest assured it will be our con-
stant aim to give our customers the best goods that can be obtained, and at reasonable prices.










,7,000 ACRES
Well situated in a High, Dry 'aid Htalthy Neighborhood, the most Beauti-
ful portion of the State of Florida, near the Beautiful and growing town of Myers,
the home of the Cattle Kings of this State, and of the renowned Electrician Ediso,,.
Price, $5 to $1oo per acre, according to locality.
N.B.-The Caloosahatchie River heads in Lake Okeechobee and empties into
the Gulf of Mexico, at Punta Rassa, the most Southern portion of Charlotte Harbor,
and about. i io miles from Key West, and passes through the most fertile portion of
Florida. This river is given up to be, by tourists, the most picturesque of any river
in the State.
For further particulars relating to any of the above property, apply to the






- = $100,000.
- 150,000.

Is Now

Ready for the Better
and the


of Friends



And Certificates of Deposits Issued.

Exchange on New York, New Orleans and Havana Bought
and Sold at their place on Greene St., near Telegraph Office.




, Wooden Ware,







Also Sole Agents for the celebrated Dolson's White Lead and Zinc, put up in tins from one to 100 pounds.





Manufacturer of Fine Cigars







. .___

Afit aMM


GEO. LEWIS, President. EDUARDO H. GATO, Vice.President. GEO, W. ALLEN, Cashier.
F, R. MALONEY, Assistant Cashier.

CAPITAL, $50,000.
SURPLUS, $10,000.




Issues Letters of Credit, Buys and Sells Bills of Ezcha ge,

Aounts of KXrohants, Xnufactunn, Corporationa ani Inaividuala Btaive..

The Importers and Traders National Bank .......... .......................... New York.
The Louisiana National Bank...................... ........ ................ ................. Now Orleans.
The First National Bank of Florida........ ........... ................... Jacksonville.
The First National Bank of Tampa......... .................................... .................... Tampa.
The Pacific Bank........................... .... ...... .... ..... ....... ....... ....... San Francisco.
Mechanics Bank ................... ............. ... .. .... .. ..... ........St. Louis.
M essrs. Lawton Brothers............. ........................ ............ ... ......... ... .... Havana.
M essrs. c0, Low is Sons ................... ... ........ ..... ............ ......... ......... Tallahassee.


Fine Key West Havana Cigars,
FACTORY No. 188.



Correspondence Solicited and Satisfaction Guaranteed.



Cor. of Thomas and Olivia Ste.
Orders Solicited and Satisfaction Guaranteed, Send for Samples and Price List,


Manufacturer of Fine Key West Havana Cigars
The "Engeala," one of:the Best Shaped, Finest Finished, Best Flavored Cigars made on the Island.
The "Oaditano," 'Bonita," "Elite," "Sultana," ete., ete., are made from the same class
of Tobaeoo, all clear Havana both Filler and Wrapper. Correspoudence Soliiled.,.


Convent of Mary Immaculate

The Classes were Re-opened
on Monday, September
3rd, is8g.
For particulars address Mother Superior,
St. Joseph's College.
The classes were re-opened tnder
the charge of the Sisters, on FIRST
The Rev. Rector of St. Mary, "Star of the Sea."
Montfly Terms, Primary Dep't,
GRADES--6th and 5th, 50 cents; 4th
and 3rd, 75 cents; 2nd and ist, $i.
Advanced Department.
GRADES-8th and 7th, $1.25 ; 6th and
5th, $1.50; 4th, 3rd, 2nd and Ist, $2.

$t Fraqilci Xavier'i school
Was re-opened on the FIRST TUESDAY

See Out of Oonvent among Reading Matter





Good Received by Every Steamer.
Fine Flour, Sugars, Teas, Cof-
fees, and the Best
Canned Goods.
Provisions, Feed, Ice, Coal and Wood
always in stock,


Country Produce, Fresh Butter, Eggs,
Chickens, Vegetables, Fruits, Ci-
gars, Tobacco, etc., the very
best the markets can afford.

Goods Delivered Free to all parts
of the Island.






Francisco Marrero,


















1\ M. M. D







The Largest Stock of Drugs, Chemicals, Patent Medicines, Perfumeries,
Combs, Brushes and F:tncy Goocs& of all Kinds Ever Brought to Key Wes
In Fact, a/ L. and Complete Stock of Everything usually ~ Ke t in a First-class Drug Store






CODE, Also P


roprietor of TAYLOR'S WHARF.






18 PEARL ST., P. 0. BOX 8080,



Clothing, Hats, Cap and Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods.

)UT"dL Ste.,




voice Key West Havana p.,"

These Cigars have no Superiors and but Few Peers for Excellent Flavor and Pine Finish; Manufactured b)
Class Cuban Workmen, from the PFinest Select Havana Tobacco. No Finer Cigars are manufactured in
World. Every Box Guaranteed to be Exactly as Represented. Correspondence Solicited.

E. H. GATO, Simonton


I Palace



WhT-n You Visit

the Island.

St., Key West, .Floi


City Don't g;o



Fr io~ie


side of the Taland to the other, for the




(EET Q*R$, b

small saou of Fi ..



*. '