• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Citations
 Use of the key
 Alphabetic list of genera...
 Flow charts of taxa included in...
 Key to the genera of the araeo...
 Illustration sources
 References for illustration...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - Cooperative Extension Service. University of Florida ; 885 (technical)
Title: Illustrated key to the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the order Araeolaimida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086512/00001
 Material Information
Title: Illustrated key to the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the order Araeolaimida
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Keppner, Edwin J
Tarjan, Armen Charles, 1920-
Publisher: Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1991
 Subjects
Subject: Nematoda -- Identification   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 17-18).
Statement of Responsibility: Edwin J. Keppner and Armen C. Tarjan.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October 1991."
General Note: Series reads : Bulletin 885 (Tech.) issued by the Cooperative Extension Service. Numbering, however, would indicate it is issued by the Agricultural Experiment Station.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086512
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 25249004

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Abstract
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Acknowledgement
        Page 1
    Citations
        Page 1
    Use of the key
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Alphabetic list of genera and figures
        Page 3
    Flow charts of taxa included in key
        Page 4
    Key to the genera of the araeolaimida
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Illustration sources
        Page 16
    References for illustration sources
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text



October 1991


Bulletin 885 (Tech.)


Illustrated Key to the Genera of Free-living
Marine Nematodes of the order
Araeolaimida


Edwin J. Keppner and Armen C. Tarjan


Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
John T. Woeste, Dean


too

gL?5







































































Cover drawing: Onchlum porcellatum from Luc, M. & DeConinck, L.A. P., 1959, fig. 77, p. 161.


E.J. Keppner, National Marine Fisheries Service, Department of Commerce; A.C. Tarjan, Department of Entomogy and Nematology,
University of Florida.







Contents
Abstract .......................................................................................................... 1

Introduction .................................................................................................... 1

Acknowledgments .......................................................................................... 1

Citations ........................................................................................................ 1

Use of the Key ............................................................................................... 1

Alphabetical List of Genera and Figures ................................................... 3

Flow Charts of Taxa Included in Key .............................................. .............4

Key to the Genera of the Araeolaimida ....................................................... 5

Illustration Sources .....................................................................................16

References for Illustration Sources ................................... ............................17









Abstract
A pictorial key to 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes of the Araeolaimida is presented. Only
those genera containing more than one species are
included in the key. Specific anatomical features
are illustrated to facilitate use of the key.

Introduction
The following non-phylogenetic pictorial key to
the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the
order Araeolaimida is the second in a planned se-
ries of keys to the genera of free-living marine
nematodes. The reader should refer to Keppner
and Tarjan (1989) for introductory material.
Lorenzen (1981) presented a classification of
free-living nematodes based on a phylogenetic
analysis in which he did not recognize the order
Araeolaimida. He placed the families of the
Araeolaimida among the Chromadorida,
Leptolaimina and Monhysterida. Platt and
Warwick (1983 & 1988) followed Lorenzen's classi-
fication in their pictorial keys to the Enoplida and
Chromadorida of the British Isles.
The purpose of the present key is to present a
compilation of the published literature. The key
relies on the classifications given by Lorenzen
(1981), Gerlach and Riemann (1974), and Andrassy
(1976); it does not reflect phylogenetic relation-
ships. The goal was to provide a means of identifi-
cation of the genera included in the key, and not to
present a new classification. It follows the mode of
presentation in the key of Tarjan (1980).
The key includes 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes included in the Araeolaimida by Gerlach
and Riemann (1974). The decision as to which gen-
era should be included in the key was difficult and
in some cases arbitrary. An attempt was made to
include those genera which have been reported pri-
marily from estuarine and marine environments
and those that the present authors have collected.

Acknowledgments
We express our sincere appreciation to Dr. W. D.
Hope of the National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution who painstakingly re-
viewed this manuscript and offered many corrective
suggestions. We are also thankful to Dr. R. P.
Esser of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services;
and Dr. K. B. Nguyen of the Department of Ento-
mology and Nematology, University of Florida who
reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful sug-
gestions.


Citations
Andrassy, I
1976 Evolution as a basis for the systematization
of nematodes. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest,
288 p.

Gerlach, S. A., and F. Riemann
1974 The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nema-
todes. Ver6ff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven,
Suppl. 4, 736 p.

Keppner, E. J., and A. C. Tarjan
1989 Illustrated key to the genera of free-living
marine nematodes of the order Enoplida. U. S.
Dept. Commerce, NOAA Tech. Rpt.
NMFS 77, 26 p.

Lorenzen, S.
1981 Entwurf eines phylogenetischen systems der
freilebenden Nematoden. Ver6ff. Inst.
Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, Suppl. 7, 472 p.

Platt, H. M. and, Warwick, R. M
1983 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 1. Brit-
ish Enoplids. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cam-
bridge, 307 p.
1988 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 2. Brit-
ish Chromadorids. Linnaean Society of London
and the Estuarine and Brackish-water Sciences
Association, 502 p.

Tarjan, A. C.
1980 An illustrated guide to the marine nema-
todes. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Florida,
Gainesville, 135 p.

Use of the key
Couplet numbers down the far-right margin of
the page refer to the location of related lower
ranked taxa. When one arrives at a family or sub-
family name on the right side, rather than another
couplet, the genera included in that taxon immedi-
ately follow in couplets designated by indented
lower case letters on the left. For example, couplet
6(5)A ends with the family Axonolaimidae. The
genera included in that family are in couplets "a"
through "1" immediately following. The parentheti-
cal portion of the couplet number [e.g., (5) in 6(5)A]
indicates the referent couplet, allowing one to work
backward, as well as forward, through the key.
Numbers in parentheses within the couplet descrip-
tions refer to the figures.









Abstract
A pictorial key to 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes of the Araeolaimida is presented. Only
those genera containing more than one species are
included in the key. Specific anatomical features
are illustrated to facilitate use of the key.

Introduction
The following non-phylogenetic pictorial key to
the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the
order Araeolaimida is the second in a planned se-
ries of keys to the genera of free-living marine
nematodes. The reader should refer to Keppner
and Tarjan (1989) for introductory material.
Lorenzen (1981) presented a classification of
free-living nematodes based on a phylogenetic
analysis in which he did not recognize the order
Araeolaimida. He placed the families of the
Araeolaimida among the Chromadorida,
Leptolaimina and Monhysterida. Platt and
Warwick (1983 & 1988) followed Lorenzen's classi-
fication in their pictorial keys to the Enoplida and
Chromadorida of the British Isles.
The purpose of the present key is to present a
compilation of the published literature. The key
relies on the classifications given by Lorenzen
(1981), Gerlach and Riemann (1974), and Andrassy
(1976); it does not reflect phylogenetic relation-
ships. The goal was to provide a means of identifi-
cation of the genera included in the key, and not to
present a new classification. It follows the mode of
presentation in the key of Tarjan (1980).
The key includes 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes included in the Araeolaimida by Gerlach
and Riemann (1974). The decision as to which gen-
era should be included in the key was difficult and
in some cases arbitrary. An attempt was made to
include those genera which have been reported pri-
marily from estuarine and marine environments
and those that the present authors have collected.

Acknowledgments
We express our sincere appreciation to Dr. W. D.
Hope of the National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution who painstakingly re-
viewed this manuscript and offered many corrective
suggestions. We are also thankful to Dr. R. P.
Esser of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services;
and Dr. K. B. Nguyen of the Department of Ento-
mology and Nematology, University of Florida who
reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful sug-
gestions.


Citations
Andrassy, I
1976 Evolution as a basis for the systematization
of nematodes. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest,
288 p.

Gerlach, S. A., and F. Riemann
1974 The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nema-
todes. Ver6ff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven,
Suppl. 4, 736 p.

Keppner, E. J., and A. C. Tarjan
1989 Illustrated key to the genera of free-living
marine nematodes of the order Enoplida. U. S.
Dept. Commerce, NOAA Tech. Rpt.
NMFS 77, 26 p.

Lorenzen, S.
1981 Entwurf eines phylogenetischen systems der
freilebenden Nematoden. Ver6ff. Inst.
Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, Suppl. 7, 472 p.

Platt, H. M. and, Warwick, R. M
1983 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 1. Brit-
ish Enoplids. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cam-
bridge, 307 p.
1988 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 2. Brit-
ish Chromadorids. Linnaean Society of London
and the Estuarine and Brackish-water Sciences
Association, 502 p.

Tarjan, A. C.
1980 An illustrated guide to the marine nema-
todes. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Florida,
Gainesville, 135 p.

Use of the key
Couplet numbers down the far-right margin of
the page refer to the location of related lower
ranked taxa. When one arrives at a family or sub-
family name on the right side, rather than another
couplet, the genera included in that taxon immedi-
ately follow in couplets designated by indented
lower case letters on the left. For example, couplet
6(5)A ends with the family Axonolaimidae. The
genera included in that family are in couplets "a"
through "1" immediately following. The parentheti-
cal portion of the couplet number [e.g., (5) in 6(5)A]
indicates the referent couplet, allowing one to work
backward, as well as forward, through the key.
Numbers in parentheses within the couplet descrip-
tions refer to the figures.









Abstract
A pictorial key to 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes of the Araeolaimida is presented. Only
those genera containing more than one species are
included in the key. Specific anatomical features
are illustrated to facilitate use of the key.

Introduction
The following non-phylogenetic pictorial key to
the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the
order Araeolaimida is the second in a planned se-
ries of keys to the genera of free-living marine
nematodes. The reader should refer to Keppner
and Tarjan (1989) for introductory material.
Lorenzen (1981) presented a classification of
free-living nematodes based on a phylogenetic
analysis in which he did not recognize the order
Araeolaimida. He placed the families of the
Araeolaimida among the Chromadorida,
Leptolaimina and Monhysterida. Platt and
Warwick (1983 & 1988) followed Lorenzen's classi-
fication in their pictorial keys to the Enoplida and
Chromadorida of the British Isles.
The purpose of the present key is to present a
compilation of the published literature. The key
relies on the classifications given by Lorenzen
(1981), Gerlach and Riemann (1974), and Andrassy
(1976); it does not reflect phylogenetic relation-
ships. The goal was to provide a means of identifi-
cation of the genera included in the key, and not to
present a new classification. It follows the mode of
presentation in the key of Tarjan (1980).
The key includes 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes included in the Araeolaimida by Gerlach
and Riemann (1974). The decision as to which gen-
era should be included in the key was difficult and
in some cases arbitrary. An attempt was made to
include those genera which have been reported pri-
marily from estuarine and marine environments
and those that the present authors have collected.

Acknowledgments
We express our sincere appreciation to Dr. W. D.
Hope of the National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution who painstakingly re-
viewed this manuscript and offered many corrective
suggestions. We are also thankful to Dr. R. P.
Esser of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services;
and Dr. K. B. Nguyen of the Department of Ento-
mology and Nematology, University of Florida who
reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful sug-
gestions.


Citations
Andrassy, I
1976 Evolution as a basis for the systematization
of nematodes. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest,
288 p.

Gerlach, S. A., and F. Riemann
1974 The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nema-
todes. Ver6ff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven,
Suppl. 4, 736 p.

Keppner, E. J., and A. C. Tarjan
1989 Illustrated key to the genera of free-living
marine nematodes of the order Enoplida. U. S.
Dept. Commerce, NOAA Tech. Rpt.
NMFS 77, 26 p.

Lorenzen, S.
1981 Entwurf eines phylogenetischen systems der
freilebenden Nematoden. Ver6ff. Inst.
Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, Suppl. 7, 472 p.

Platt, H. M. and, Warwick, R. M
1983 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 1. Brit-
ish Enoplids. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cam-
bridge, 307 p.
1988 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 2. Brit-
ish Chromadorids. Linnaean Society of London
and the Estuarine and Brackish-water Sciences
Association, 502 p.

Tarjan, A. C.
1980 An illustrated guide to the marine nema-
todes. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Florida,
Gainesville, 135 p.

Use of the key
Couplet numbers down the far-right margin of
the page refer to the location of related lower
ranked taxa. When one arrives at a family or sub-
family name on the right side, rather than another
couplet, the genera included in that taxon immedi-
ately follow in couplets designated by indented
lower case letters on the left. For example, couplet
6(5)A ends with the family Axonolaimidae. The
genera included in that family are in couplets "a"
through "1" immediately following. The parentheti-
cal portion of the couplet number [e.g., (5) in 6(5)A]
indicates the referent couplet, allowing one to work
backward, as well as forward, through the key.
Numbers in parentheses within the couplet descrip-
tions refer to the figures.









Abstract
A pictorial key to 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes of the Araeolaimida is presented. Only
those genera containing more than one species are
included in the key. Specific anatomical features
are illustrated to facilitate use of the key.

Introduction
The following non-phylogenetic pictorial key to
the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the
order Araeolaimida is the second in a planned se-
ries of keys to the genera of free-living marine
nematodes. The reader should refer to Keppner
and Tarjan (1989) for introductory material.
Lorenzen (1981) presented a classification of
free-living nematodes based on a phylogenetic
analysis in which he did not recognize the order
Araeolaimida. He placed the families of the
Araeolaimida among the Chromadorida,
Leptolaimina and Monhysterida. Platt and
Warwick (1983 & 1988) followed Lorenzen's classi-
fication in their pictorial keys to the Enoplida and
Chromadorida of the British Isles.
The purpose of the present key is to present a
compilation of the published literature. The key
relies on the classifications given by Lorenzen
(1981), Gerlach and Riemann (1974), and Andrassy
(1976); it does not reflect phylogenetic relation-
ships. The goal was to provide a means of identifi-
cation of the genera included in the key, and not to
present a new classification. It follows the mode of
presentation in the key of Tarjan (1980).
The key includes 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes included in the Araeolaimida by Gerlach
and Riemann (1974). The decision as to which gen-
era should be included in the key was difficult and
in some cases arbitrary. An attempt was made to
include those genera which have been reported pri-
marily from estuarine and marine environments
and those that the present authors have collected.

Acknowledgments
We express our sincere appreciation to Dr. W. D.
Hope of the National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution who painstakingly re-
viewed this manuscript and offered many corrective
suggestions. We are also thankful to Dr. R. P.
Esser of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services;
and Dr. K. B. Nguyen of the Department of Ento-
mology and Nematology, University of Florida who
reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful sug-
gestions.


Citations
Andrassy, I
1976 Evolution as a basis for the systematization
of nematodes. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest,
288 p.

Gerlach, S. A., and F. Riemann
1974 The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nema-
todes. Ver6ff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven,
Suppl. 4, 736 p.

Keppner, E. J., and A. C. Tarjan
1989 Illustrated key to the genera of free-living
marine nematodes of the order Enoplida. U. S.
Dept. Commerce, NOAA Tech. Rpt.
NMFS 77, 26 p.

Lorenzen, S.
1981 Entwurf eines phylogenetischen systems der
freilebenden Nematoden. Ver6ff. Inst.
Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, Suppl. 7, 472 p.

Platt, H. M. and, Warwick, R. M
1983 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 1. Brit-
ish Enoplids. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cam-
bridge, 307 p.
1988 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 2. Brit-
ish Chromadorids. Linnaean Society of London
and the Estuarine and Brackish-water Sciences
Association, 502 p.

Tarjan, A. C.
1980 An illustrated guide to the marine nema-
todes. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Florida,
Gainesville, 135 p.

Use of the key
Couplet numbers down the far-right margin of
the page refer to the location of related lower
ranked taxa. When one arrives at a family or sub-
family name on the right side, rather than another
couplet, the genera included in that taxon immedi-
ately follow in couplets designated by indented
lower case letters on the left. For example, couplet
6(5)A ends with the family Axonolaimidae. The
genera included in that family are in couplets "a"
through "1" immediately following. The parentheti-
cal portion of the couplet number [e.g., (5) in 6(5)A]
indicates the referent couplet, allowing one to work
backward, as well as forward, through the key.
Numbers in parentheses within the couplet descrip-
tions refer to the figures.









Abstract
A pictorial key to 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes of the Araeolaimida is presented. Only
those genera containing more than one species are
included in the key. Specific anatomical features
are illustrated to facilitate use of the key.

Introduction
The following non-phylogenetic pictorial key to
the genera of free-living marine nematodes of the
order Araeolaimida is the second in a planned se-
ries of keys to the genera of free-living marine
nematodes. The reader should refer to Keppner
and Tarjan (1989) for introductory material.
Lorenzen (1981) presented a classification of
free-living nematodes based on a phylogenetic
analysis in which he did not recognize the order
Araeolaimida. He placed the families of the
Araeolaimida among the Chromadorida,
Leptolaimina and Monhysterida. Platt and
Warwick (1983 & 1988) followed Lorenzen's classi-
fication in their pictorial keys to the Enoplida and
Chromadorida of the British Isles.
The purpose of the present key is to present a
compilation of the published literature. The key
relies on the classifications given by Lorenzen
(1981), Gerlach and Riemann (1974), and Andrassy
(1976); it does not reflect phylogenetic relation-
ships. The goal was to provide a means of identifi-
cation of the genera included in the key, and not to
present a new classification. It follows the mode of
presentation in the key of Tarjan (1980).
The key includes 63 genera of free-living marine
nematodes included in the Araeolaimida by Gerlach
and Riemann (1974). The decision as to which gen-
era should be included in the key was difficult and
in some cases arbitrary. An attempt was made to
include those genera which have been reported pri-
marily from estuarine and marine environments
and those that the present authors have collected.

Acknowledgments
We express our sincere appreciation to Dr. W. D.
Hope of the National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution who painstakingly re-
viewed this manuscript and offered many corrective
suggestions. We are also thankful to Dr. R. P.
Esser of the Division of Plant Industry, Florida De-
partment of Agriculture and Consumer Services;
and Dr. K. B. Nguyen of the Department of Ento-
mology and Nematology, University of Florida who
reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful sug-
gestions.


Citations
Andrassy, I
1976 Evolution as a basis for the systematization
of nematodes. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest,
288 p.

Gerlach, S. A., and F. Riemann
1974 The Bremerhaven checklist of aquatic nema-
todes. Ver6ff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven,
Suppl. 4, 736 p.

Keppner, E. J., and A. C. Tarjan
1989 Illustrated key to the genera of free-living
marine nematodes of the order Enoplida. U. S.
Dept. Commerce, NOAA Tech. Rpt.
NMFS 77, 26 p.

Lorenzen, S.
1981 Entwurf eines phylogenetischen systems der
freilebenden Nematoden. Ver6ff. Inst.
Meeresforsch. Bremerhaven, Suppl. 7, 472 p.

Platt, H. M. and, Warwick, R. M
1983 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 1. Brit-
ish Enoplids. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cam-
bridge, 307 p.
1988 Free-living marine nematodes. Part 2. Brit-
ish Chromadorids. Linnaean Society of London
and the Estuarine and Brackish-water Sciences
Association, 502 p.

Tarjan, A. C.
1980 An illustrated guide to the marine nema-
todes. Inst. Food Agric. Sci., Univ. Florida,
Gainesville, 135 p.

Use of the key
Couplet numbers down the far-right margin of
the page refer to the location of related lower
ranked taxa. When one arrives at a family or sub-
family name on the right side, rather than another
couplet, the genera included in that taxon immedi-
ately follow in couplets designated by indented
lower case letters on the left. For example, couplet
6(5)A ends with the family Axonolaimidae. The
genera included in that family are in couplets "a"
through "1" immediately following. The parentheti-
cal portion of the couplet number [e.g., (5) in 6(5)A]
indicates the referent couplet, allowing one to work
backward, as well as forward, through the key.
Numbers in parentheses within the couplet descrip-
tions refer to the figures.







The term stoma is used throughout the key to
designate modification of the anterior end for feed-
ing. Stoma refers to both the mouth opening that is
present in all nematodes and the buccal cavity
which can be well-developed or greatly reduced.
Illustrations used in the key were copied and
drawn from published references or are original
drawings. In some cases, portions of the anatomy
shown on the drawings are labelled or emphasized


Amphid shapes



09


20



3Q




4Qn


with ink. Sections of some illustrations have been
deleted or modified to better portray the structures
of interest. Credit is given for each illustration
used. Because this key is proposed for nonprofit
educational purposes, it is not considered to be an
infringement of the United States Revised Copy-
right Law. Amphidial shapes referred to through-
out the key are depicted below.


11





120


1. Circular.
7,8. Unispiral.


2,3,4. Broken circles. 5. Hidden spiral.
9. Looped. 10. Hook-shaped.


6. Spiral.
11. Oblong.


12. Oval.


Abbreviations used in the key
a amphid rp ring pore
c cuticularized cap s stoma
es cephalic sensilla sp supplement
es esophagus as subcephalic sensilla
1 lip region t tooth









List of genera included and
figure number


Genus


Aegialoalaimus
Acmaeolaimus
Acontiolaimus
Alaimella
Alaimonema
Anguinoides

Antomicron
Anomonema
Anonchus
Aphanolaimus
Apodontium
Araeolaimoides
Araeolaimus
Ascolaimus
Assia
Axonolaimus
Camacolaimoides
Camacolaimus
Campylaimus
Caribplectus
Chitwoodia
Chronogaster
Cricolaimus
Cynura
Dagda
Deontolaimus
Didelta
Diodontolaimus
Diplopeltis
Diplopeltoides
Diplopeltula
Disconema
Halaphanolaimus
Haliplectus
Ionema
Leptolaimoides
Leptolaimus


Figure


33
42B
51
31
26
47

58
56
73
72
16
27
25
28a
32
1,2,15
52
45
12
64,68
41
67
59
69
62
60
44
61
39
36
40
35,42A,38
54,71
5
50
57
13,53


Genus


Listia
Manunema
Margonema
Metaraeolaimoides
Namibnema
Nicascolaimus
Odontophora
Odontophoroides
Onchium
Parachromagasteriella
Paraphanolaimus
Pararaeolaimus
Parascolaimus
Paratarvaia
Parodontophora
Plectolaimus
Procamacolaimus
Pseudaraeolaimus
Pseudolella
Rhabdolaimus
Setoplectus
Southerniella
Stephanolaimus
Synodontium
Synodontoides
Tarvaia


Figure

65
55
23
.30
20
21
6, 10
17
49
34
4,70
28
22
43
14
3, 9, 63
46, 48
25a
19
8
7
29
66
18
24
11, 37







Chart 1. Flow chart of taxa included in the key

ARAEOLAIMIDA
Superfamily
Superfamily
I


HALIPLECTOIDEA

Family


Haliplectidae
I
Genus

Haliplectus
Setoplectus


ARAEOLAIMOIDEA


I
Rhabdolaimidae
I
Genus
Rhabdlaimus
Rhabdolaimus


Chart 2. Flow chart of taxa included in the key.

ARAEOLAIMOIDEA
I
Family
(continued on Chart 3)
I


Axonolaimidae
I
Genus
I
Apodontium
Ascolaimus
Axonolaimus
Margonema
Namibnema
Nicascolaimus
Odontophora
Odontophoroides
Parascolaimus
Parodontophora
Pseudolella
Synodontium
Synodontoides


Cylindrolaimidae







Subfamily


Alaimellinae Cylindrolaiminae
I I
Genus Genus
I I
Alaimella Aegialoalaimus
Assia
Parachromagasteriella


Araeolaimidae

Genus
1
Alaimonema
Araeolaimoides
Araeolaimus
Metaraeolaimoides
Pararaeolaimus
Pseudaraeolaimus
Southerniella


Ca


I
Diplopeltidae







Subfamily


pylaiminae Diplopeltinae
mpylaiminae Diplopeltinae


I
Genus

Campylaimus


I
Genus
I
Acmaeolaimus
Chitwoodia
Didelta
Diplopeltis
Diplopeltoides
Diplopeltula
Disconema
Paratarvaia
Tarvaia









Chart 3. Flow chart of taxa included in the key.

ARAEOLAIMOIDEA

Family


Subfamily
I -
Procamacolaiminae


Genus

Anguinoides
Procamacolaimus


I
Halaphanolaimidae


Subfamily
I
Halaphanolaiminae


Genus

Aphanolaimus
Halaphanolaimus
Paraphanolaimus
Paraphanolaimus


Camacolaiminae


Genus
I
Acontiolaimus
Camacolaimoides
Camacolaimus
lonema
Onchium


Leptolaimidae


Subfamily
I
Anonchinae


Genus

Anonchus


Subfamily

I
Peresianinae


Genus
I
Anomonema
Manunema


Leptolaiminae


Genus

Antomicron
Caribplectus
Chronogaster
Cricolaimus
Cynura
Dagda
Deontolaimus
Diodontolaimus
Leptolaimoides
Leptolaimus
Listia
Plectolaimus
Stephanolaimus


Key to the genera of the Araeolaimida
Araeolaimida De Coninck & Stekhoven, 1933
Definition: Cephalic sensillae variable in number; subcephalic sensillae sometimes present. Amphids cir-
cular, oval, spiral, loop-shaped, or hook-shaped, sometimes quite large and occasionally situated on a cuticu-
lar plaque. Cuticle smooth, transversely striated, or punctate (two genera, two species). If cuticle is punc-
tate, the stoma is funnel-shaped with small anteriorly directed teeth. Esophagus, cylindrical, clavate, with
or without a muscular bulb.
1. A. Precloacal supplements of male present or absent, if present, not cuticularized, papilliform
(Isp) or blister-like (2sp); amphids generally thick-walled, circular (7a), hooked-shaped (10a),
or loop-shaped (14a); if amphid small and circular, then posterior bulb of esophagus muscular
with strongly cuticularized lum en........................................................................................... 2
B. Precloacal supplements of male present or absent, if present, cuticularized, tubular (3sp) or
cup-shaped (4sp); amphids generally a thin-walled spiral (9a) or circle with central blister
(72a), if thick-walled, then amphid elongate (57a)..............Araeolaimoidea (in part)............9


I
Camacolaimidae


!











2 3 4

sp ip- sp





sps



a.
e 8





12/1

a0 a s
rli) ~~~ CI -~AI --~i



es 12










a tlO ss
;bzs



9./ 1I1v
~ i


'' S6












19 14 21




IIc


















19 a 20 21







S- ::':
.. ....
A ~-















70






































28a


29



















36


40


42B







2(1). A. Esophagus with posterior, muscular bulb; bulb with strongly cuticularized lumen (5es);
amphids minute or circular; cephalic sensillae present or absent.......Haliplectoidea................3
B. Terminal swelling of esophagus present or absent, if present, then glandular and without
strongly cuticularized lumen (6es); amphids often large, circular, elongate or
hooked....................................................................................Araeolaim idea (in part)...............4
3(2). A. Amphids circular and conspicuous (5a); cephalic sensillae present or absent........Haliplectidae
a. Four short cephalic sensillae (7cs) present.. ................................... Setoplectus Vitiello, 1970
Cephalic sensillae absent (5).............................................................aliplectus Cobb, 1913
B. Amphids small, oval to circular, inconspicuous (8a); cephalic sensillae absent........................
....Rhabdolaimidae....Rhabdolaimus De Man, 1880 (= Pseudorhabdolaimus Soos, 1937).
4(2). A. Amphids an open circle (9a) or hooked (10a), never situated on a cuticularized plaque; stoma
elongate with cuticularized walls (13s); oral opening always axial.......................................... 5
B. Amphids often very large (lla), elongate; often situated on a cuticularized plaque; stoma short
without cuticularized walls; oral opening sometimes adaxial (12s)..........Diplopeltidae............8
5(4). A. Subcephalic sensillae (10ss) often numerous; stoma shallow, narrow to spacious with
cuticularized w alls (10s).............................................................................................................. 6
B. Subcephalic sensillae not apparent (13cs); stoma an elongate, cuticularized tube (13s)...............
..................C ylin drolaim idae..................................................................................................... 7
6(5). A. Stoma funnel-shaped (10s) or with parallel cuticularized walls (14s); prominent protrusible
teeth present or absent at anterior end of stoma (10t)..........................................Axonolaimidae
a. Stom a w ith teeth (10t)........................................................................................................... b
Stom a w without teeth (15)......................................................................................................... j
b(a). Amphid elliptical (16a); male with one testis................................ Apodontium Cobb, 1920
Amphid not elliptical; male with two testes.........................................................................c
c(b). Fem ale with one gonad........................................................................................................... d
Fem ale w ith tw o gonads.......................................................................................................... e
d(c). Stoma with four distinct anterior teeth and lateral plate-like teeth (17t)...............................
.................................................................Odontophoroides Boucher & Helleouet, 1977
Stoma with anterior circlet of 12 minute, closely packed (18t) ...........................................
.......................................................................................................... Synodontium Cobb, 1920
e(c). Stom atal walls parallel (14s).................................................................................................. f
Stomatal walls not parallel; stoma funnel-shaped (10s).........................................................g
f(e). Stomatal walls curve outward at base (19s)...................................... Pseudolella Cobb, 1920
Stomatal walls straight (14s).................................................arodontophora Timm, 1963
g(e). Cuticle punctate....................................................................................................................... h
Cuticle not punctate................................................................................................................. i
h(g). Cuticle with ring pores (20rp) ............................................... icascolaimus Riemann, 1986
Cuticle without ring pores (21)........................... amibnema Vincx & Furstenberg, 1989
i(g). Stoma with large eversible teeth located behind labium (10t).Odontophora Biitschli, 1874
Labium with small claws (22t)..............................................Parascolaimus Wieser, 1959
j(a). Male with one testis [figure of head (23)]........................................... Margonema Cobb, 1920
M ale w ith tw o testes................................................................................................................ k
k(j). Lateral subcephalic sensillae present and opposite posterior portion of stoma (24ss)..............
................................................................................................... Synodontoides H opper, 1963
Lateral subcephalic sensillae absent....................................................................................... 1
l(k). Body elongate (a = 64-75); tail conical (28a)............................Ascolaimus Ditlevsen, 1919
Body not as long (a = about 35); tail subclavate to clavate......Axonolaimus De Man, 1889
B. Stoma narrow, tubular with weakly cuticularized walls (25s); teeth present or
absent...................................................................................................... .......... .Araeolaim idae
a. Stoma with three very small teeth at anterior end; subcephalic sensillae present
(26ss)............................................................................................... A laim onem a Cobb, 1920
Stoma without teeth; subcephalic sensillae absent............................................................b
b(a). Esophagus with distinct, muscular bulbar region; esophageal glands not enclosed in
ventral diverticulum ............................................................................................................... c
Esophagus without distinct, muscular bulbar region; esophageal glands enclosed in
ventral diverticulum (25a)..........................................Pseudaraeolaimus Chitwood, 1951
c(b). Amphid an open, thin-walled circle, a thick-walled circle, or in the shape of a shepherd's
crook (28a).............................................................................................................................. d
10







Am phid. an oval loop (27a)....................................................................................................... f
d(c). Amphid a thick-walled circle or shepherd's crook (28a)...................................... ...............e
Amphid a thin-walled circle broken posteriorly (29a)...............Southerniella Allgen, 1932
e(d). Lip region cuticularized (281)....................................................Pararaeolaimus Timm, 1961
Lip region not cuticularized (251) ...............................................Araeolaimus De Man, 1888
f(c). Cervical region elongate (30a); amphids 7-10 head diameters from anterior end...................
................................................................................. M etaraeolaimoides De Coninck, 1932
Cervical region not elongate; amphids close to anterior end (27a)........................................
................................................................................................ A raeolaim oides D e M an, 1893
7(5). A. Stoma very narrow almost absent; cephalic sensillae distinctly longer than head diameter (31);
precloacal supplements absent.... ..................... Alaimellinae..........Alaimella Cobb, 1920
B. Stoma a distinct cylinder (13s); cephalic sensillae usually shorter than one head diameter;
precloacal supplements present....................................................................Cylindrolaiminae
a. Stoma barrel-shaped (32s)................................................................... Assia Gerlach, 1957
Stoma narrow, tubular, not barrel-shaped.......................................................................... b
b. Amphid large, circular to spiral (33a); esophageal lining cuticularized.................................
.............................................................................................A egialoalaim us D e M an, 1907
Amphid large, thick-walled spiral (34a); esophageal lining not cuticularized......................
.......................................................................arachromagasteriella Allgen, 1933
8(4). A. Ventral arm of amphid extremely elongate (12a); stoma adaxial (12s).....................................
......................................................................Campylaiminae...Campylaimus Cobb, 1920
B. Amphidial arms generally of equal length; amphids loop-shaped, spiral, or a hidden spiral;
stom a axial or adaxial.......................................................................................... D iplopeltinae
a. Am phids loop-shaped (36a).................................................................................................. b
Amphids spiral (37a) or a hidden spiral that appears as a closed loop (38a)......................e
b(a). Amphid situated on a cuticularized plaque (39a)............................Diplopeltis Cobb, 1905
Amphid not situated on a cuticularized plaque (35a)....................................... ................ c
c(b). Stomatal opening generally adaxial (40s); four cephalic sensillae present...........................
...................................................................................................... D ip lopeltula G erlach, 1950
Stomatal opening axial; four or ten cephalic sensillae present............................ ............ d
d(c). Ten cephalic sensillae present (41cs)............................................ Chitwoodia Gerlach, 1956
Four cephalic sensillae present (36cs)................................... iplopeltoides Gerlach, 1962
e(a). A m phids spiral (43a)............................................................................................................. f
Amphids a hidden spiral appearing as a closed loop, i.e. a circle (38a & 42Ba)...................g
f(e). Head with four cephalic sensillae (37cs).........................................Tarvaia Allgen, 1934
Head with ten cephalic sensillae (43cs)....................Paratarvaia Wieser & Hopper, 1967
g(e). Amphid situated on a cuticularized plaque (44a).................................... delta Cobb, 1920
Amphid not situated on a cuticularized plaque (35a)....................................... ................ h
h(g). Amphid situated posterior to cephalic sensillae (42Aa).............. isconema Filipjev, 1918
Amphid situated at level of cephalic sensillae (42Ba)........... Acmaeolaimus Filipjev, 1916
9(1). A. Dorsal wall of stoma armed with a thick, spear-like tooth (45t).........Camacolaimidae..........10
B. Stom a without spear-like, dorsal tooth...................................................................................... 11
10(9). A. Precloacal supplements of male, protrusible tubes (46sp)............................Procamacolaiminae
a. Spear-like tooth bilobed at base (47t)...................................Anguinoides Chitwood, 1936
Spear-like tooth not bilobed at base (48t)........................Procamacolaimus Gerlach, 1954
B. Precloacal supplements of male absent or in the form of cuticularized rings if present................
.........................................................................................................................C am acolaim inae
a. O celli present......................................................................................................................... b
O celli absent........................................................................................................................... c
b(a). Amphid prominent, spiral to loop-shaped (49a); cuticle striated..........Onchium Cobb, 1920
.................................................................................................... (=O nchulella Cobb, 1920)
Amphid faint, not spiral to loop-shaped (50a) cuticle smooth.................Jonema Cobb, 1920
.................................................. ........................................ ......... (=N em ella Cobb, 1920)
c(a). Tooth broad, tip blunt................................(45t)..........( .........Camacolaimus De Man, 1889
and........................(t......................... Acontiolaimus Filipjev, 1918
[De Coninck & Stehoven (1933) separated on basis of tooth entirely embedded in esopha-
gus in Camacolaimus versus free at tip in Acontiolaimus]



































60


62












Tooth narrow, anterior end of tooth sharply pointed, needle-like (52t).................................
............................................................ Camacolaimoides De Coninck & Stekhoven, 1933
11(9). A. Stoma narrow, cylindrical to funnel-shaped (13s & 53s) or with anterior cuticularized ring
(59s).........................................................................................Leptolaim idae.................. 12
B. Stoma short, relatively wide, faint or prominent(54s), without anterior cuticularized ring.........
..............................................................................................H alaphanolaim idae.................13
12(11). A. Anterior part of body conspicuously and rapidly narrowing, bent ventrally (55); stoma
extremely long, 1/3 total length of esophagus; somatic sensillae robust..........Peresianinae
a. Amphid aperture circular (55a)................................................Manunema Gerlach, 1967
Amphid aperture oval with elongate amphidial pouch (56a)...Anomonema Hopper, 1963
B. Anterior part of body not narrowing rapidly or bent ventrally; stomatal tube not longer than
1/5 total length of esophagus; somatic sensillae small..........................................Leptolaiminae
a. Amphid circular to elongate with double contour (57a & 59a); stoma without teeth............b
Amphid unispiral with single or double contour (60a); stoma with or without teeth............d
b(a). Amphid greatly elongate (57a); stomatal cavity elongate, tubular, heavily cuticularized
.................................................................................................Leptolaim oides Vitiello, 1970
Amphid elongate to circular (58a & 59a); stomatal cavity not heavily cuticularized..........c
c(b). Amphid circular (59a); stoma with anterior cuticularized ring (59s) and denticles...............
.................................................................................................. Cricolaim us Southern, 1914
Amphid elongate; stoma without anterior cuticularized ring and denticles (58)..................
......................................................................................................... A ntom icron C obb, 1920
d(a). Stoma with teeth; anterior end of esophagus without teeth.............................. .............. e
Stoma without teeth; anterior end of esophagus with or without teeth.................................g
e(d). Stoma with single elongate tooth (60t); and a row of unique ventral cuticular depressions
in the esophageal region (60sp)............................................Deontolaimus De Man, 1880
Stoma with two or three short teeth; cuticular depressions absent........................................f
f(e). Stoma with two apical, subventral teeth (61t); stoma walls heavily cuticularized
(61s).................................................................................D iodontolaim us Southern, 1914
Stoma with three teeth; stoma walls not heavily cuticularized(62s)Dagda Southern, 1914
g(d). Stoma short, funnel-shaped (63s)...................................................................................... h
Stoma elongate, tubular (13s & 53s).............................Leptolaimus De Man, 1876.........aa
aa. Precloacal and preanal supplements absent in males and females.....(sub. gen)...........
....................................................... oveelaimus Aleksyev & Rassadnikova, 1977
Precloacal supplements present in males, preanal supplements may be present in
fem ales.................................................................................................................. bb
bb(aa). Precloacal and preanal tubular supplements present in both males and females............
..............(sub. gen.)............................Tubulaimus Aleksyev & Rassadnikova, 1977
Precloacal supplements present only in males............................................................ cc
cc(bb). Males with both cup-shaped and tubular precloacal supplements... (sub. gen) ............
.........................................................................................Leptolaim us D e M an, 1876
Males with cup-shaped precloacal supplements only (sub. gen.).................................
............................................................ Alveolaimus Aleksyev & Rassadnikova 1977
h(g). Anterior end of esophagus with two subventral tooth-like structure (63t)............................
........................................................................................................ Plectolaim us Inglis, 1966
Anterior end of esophagus without tooth-like structures (64)...........................................:i
i(h). Esophagus without valve-like expansion; amphid a faint oval or prominent unispire............j
Esophagus with valve-like expansion about one to two head diameters posterior to base of
stom a; am phid unispiral (63a)............................................................................................. k
j(i). Amphid faint; males with tubular precloacal supplements only................................................
........................................................................................Stephanolaim us Ditlevsen, 1918
Amphid a prominent unispire (65a); males with both tubular and cup-shaped precloacal
supplements (65sp) and cuticular depressions extending to the esophageal region..............
............................................................................................................ istia Blom e, 1982
k(i). Amphid faint (67); females with a single gonad............................ Chronogaster Cobb, 1913
Amphid prominent (68a); females with two gonads..........................................................1
l(k). Tail of both sexes with cuticularized cap (69c).......................................... Cynura Cobb, 1920
Tail of both sexes without cuticularized cap............................Caribplectus Andrassy, 1973









13(11). A. Amphids large, directly posterior to cephalic sensillae; cephalic sensillae as long or longer
than diameter of head; stoma faint, not barrel-shaped .............................Halaphanolaiminae
a. Stoma short, broad, walls cuticularized...... (70s)...._Paraphanolaimus Micoletzky, 1923
Stoma faint, walls very weakly cuticularized.................................................................b
b(a). Amphid a broken circle (71a)...................................... alaphanolaimus Southern, 1914
Amphid circular with central bubble-like swelling (72a)...... Aphanolaimus De Man, 1880
B. Amphids small, located at base of stoma; cephalic sensillae shorter than one head diameter;
stoma prominent, barrel-shaped (73s)..................Anonchinae............Anon n....nonchus Cobb, 1913


Illustration sources


Fig. no.


Original drawing
Keppner 1988, fig. 30, p. 90
Keppner 1988, fig. 18, p. 81
Keppner 1988, fig. 7, p. 83
Andrassy 1973 fig. 6d, p. 251
Keppner 1988, fig. 14, p. 85
Vitiello 1971b, fig. 19c, p. 673
Meyl 1954, fig. 7a, p. 437
Keppner 1988, fig. 2, p. 81
De Coninck and Stekhoven, 1933, fig. 91,
p. 109
Vitiello 1974b, fig. b, p. 145
Timm 1961, fig. 58a, p. 69
Timm 1961, fig. 63a, p. 73
Boucher 1974, fig. VB, p. 226
Wieser and Hopper 1967, fig. 60a, p. 335
Cobb 1920, fig. 62, p. 277
Boucher and Helleouet 1977, fig. 5c, p. 99
Cobb 1920, fig. 65, p. 280
Tarjan and Khuong 1989, fig. 13, p. 388
Riemann 1986, fig. 1B, p. 120
Vincx and Furstenberg 1989, fig. 1G,
p. 232
Wieser 1959, fig. 70a, Plate XXIX
Cobb 1920, fig. 27, p. 248
Gerlach 1957a, fig. 12a, p. 446
Timm 1963, fig. 1E, p. 37
Chitwood 1951, fig. 10D, p. 649
Cobb 1920, fig. 107, p. 327
Wieser 1956, fig. 188a, p. 13
Timm 1961, fig. 59a, p. 69
Luc and De Coninck 1959, fig. 59, p. 148


29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42A
42B
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55


Vitiello 1971b, fig. 23a, p. 675
Luc and De Coninck 1959, fig. 75, p. 159
Blome 1982, fig. 1E, p. 14
Gerlach 1957a, fig. 13n, p. 449
Jensen 1978, fig. 13, p. 228
Wieser 1956, fig. 189a, p. 17
Vitiello 1969, fig. 5a, p. 505
Platt and Warwick 1983, fig. K, p. 61
Vitiello 1974b, fig. 5A, p. 145
Vitiello 1969, fig. 7a, p. 507
Gerlach 1962, fig. Tafel 6g, p. 97
Gerlach 1962, fig. Tafel 7a, p. 102
Jayasree 1976, fig. Id, p. 441
Vitiello 1969, fig. 5a, p. 505
Filipjev 1918, fig. 81 (Table 11)
Wieser and Hopper 1967, fig. 65a, p. 337
Vitiello 1969, fig. 4b, p. 505
Wieser and Hopper 1967, fig. 64a, p.336
Gerlach 1962, fig. Tafel 8b, p. 103
Chitwood 1936, fig. 3A, p. 12
Vitiello 1974b, fig. 5B, p. 667
Gerlach 1962, Tafel 8g
Timm 1963, fig. 4F, p. 45
Filipjev 1918, fig. 36a (Table 6)
De Man 1922, fig. 12a, p. 225
Vitiello 1971a, fig 3a, p. 424
Southern 1914, Plate 1, fig. 2B,
Vitiello and De Coninck 1968, fig. 2,
p. 202
Hopper 1963, fig. 19, p. 853
Vitiello 1971a, fig. 6a, p. 430
Vitiello 1971a, fig. 2b, p. 422
Southern 1914, Plate 2, fig. 6B









Lorenzen 1969, fig. 7a, p. 205
Vitiello 1974a, fig. 3B, p. 661
Bresslau and Stekhoven 1940, fig. Tafel
12, 63A
Keppner 1988, fig. 2, p. 81
Andrassy 1973, fig. 5A, p. 247
Blome 1982, fig. 2A, p. 19
Vadhyar 1981, fig. Ib, p. 314
Gerlach 1954, Tafel XI, fig. 16a
Andrassy 1973, fig. 4A, p. 245
Andrassy 1973, fig. 5D, p. 247
Keppner 1988, fig. 9, p. 83
Southern 1914, Plate 1, fig. 2B
Goodey 1963, fig. 169b, p. 312
Gerlach 1957b, fig. 8a, p. 159


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Keppner, E. J.
1988 Six new species of free-living marine '
nematodes (Nematoda: Araeofaimida, Enoplida)
from two estuaries in northwest Florida, U. S. A.
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