Title: House that Jack built : the preservation management information stystem
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Title: House that Jack built : the preservation management information stystem
Physical Description: Article/Paper
Language: English
Creator: Kesse, Erich J., 1959-
Affiliation: University of Florida -- University Libraries -- Preservation Department
Publisher: Erich J. Kesse
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Information management
Preservation of library materials
 Notes
General Note: Preprint. Published with the same title in ADVANCES IN PRESERVATION AND ACCESS, Barbara Buckner Higginbotham, editor (Medford, NJ : Learned Information, Inc., 1995), pp. 180-189.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00086094
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

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1 The House that Jack Built:
2 The Preservation Management Information System,
3 A Primer for Design
4
5
6 Erich J. Kesse
7 Chair, Preservation Department
8 George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17 INTRODUCTION
18
19 This paper discusses prerequisites for the design of an automated, relational, and fully
20 integrated Preservation Management Information System (MIS). Although it does not address
21 technical issues such as operating systems, programming, or record length and structure, it
22 examines the nature of the system's architecture. Rather than providing a proposed
23 construction, this paper discusses shape and function; its purpose is to inform design.1
24
25 The Book of Knowledge, a rambling compendium which served the children of America's 1920s
26 as an encyclopedia, described the human body as "the house that Jack built," after Randolph
27 Caldecott's rhyme. "These are the lungs that give the body breath ..."; it paraphrased the
28 verses every child knew by heart. Metaphors of building, architecture, and design could easily
29 be used to teach any child who had ever played with blocks.
30
31 An architecture for a Preservation Management Information System might be described in
32 similar terms. The house that Jack built was first constructed, laid out to facilitate human
33 activity, then populated by the different types of creatures for which it was intended. Similarly,
34 construction of the Preservation MIS requires us to identify and assemble building materials,
35 use these in relation to defined needs, and populate the resulting structure with data that
36 facilitates its use.
37
38 As in the building trade, an understanding of demand must precede and fashion supply. Simply
39 put, the question must be asked, "What need is there for a preservation MIS?" Much like
40 analyses of economic indicators, one assumes that the recent proliferation of systems in
41 support of preservation signifies a demand. Management information systems satisfy
42 information needs (Stanford University's Conservation On-Line (COOL) information service).3
43 They document condition and treatment of collections (the National Library of Australia's
44 conservation treatments database).4 They assess and prioritize preservation needs within
45 collections (the Research Libraries Group's Preservation Needs Assessment Package,
46 PreNAPP).s Management information systems reduce human labor and costs (the University
47 of Florida's FILMLOG and similar reformatting systems).6 And, they facilitate preservation
48 decision-making (Cornell University's brittle books processing systems).7
49






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


50 THE ANTECEDENTS OF DESIGN
51
52 The MIS must satisfy demand, and it can do so only by facilitating existing activities. This view
53 assumes that evaluation and streamlining of current functions occur periodically, and that
54 operations change to meet new or divergent circumstances and needs. Thus the prerequisites
55 of design include compatibility with current activities, as well as the flexibility to assume new or
56 different shapes characterized by standardized components.
57
58 Harking back to the building trade, the cost of construction will not be cheap. And in libraries (a
59 small market with limited internal expertise, where preservation represents one of many
60 concerns clamoring for automation) the Preservation MIS will be made affordable for the
61 majority only when personnel, ideas, and other resources are pooled and shared. This
62 assumes that preservation programs, though differentiated by local needs, are similar enough to
63 allow cooperative systems development and that cooperative development will reduce costs
64 and duplication of effort.
65
66
67 THE MODULAR APPROACH TO MIS DESIGN
68
69 Like houses, Preservation MI systems may vary to satisfy individual needs and tastes, but each
70 will share certain basic components. Thus, component or "modular" construction must be an
71 additional design prerequisite. Just as houses have certain rooms planned for specific
72 purposes, preservation MI systems must have modules or subsystems designed to
73 accommodate discrete activities, such as binding, conservation, disaster preparedness,
74 environmental monitoring, etc. As the layout of rooms within houses relates to functions
75 performed within them-a kitchen, for example, connects to a dining room-juxtaposition of MIS
76 modules must be relational-a brittle books processing system, for example, can be connected to
77 a reprographics/imaging system.
78
79 Knowing that certain activities adjoin or are dependent on others has no practical use unless
80 one understands how operations communicate or interact. System design becomes a study of
81 motion and workflow. It requires the assembly and study of procedures and products, in order
82 to determine how information should move through the Preservation MIS's modules; at the
83 same time, it makes use of the structure these provide.8 While several sources compile
84 preservation procedures, workflow documents, and workforms that can be used to inform the
85 design of Preservation MIS modules,9 there has been little analysis to suggest the uniform
86 procedures, the consistent definition and use of data elements, required for rule-based
87 computer processing of information. The Automation Vendors Information Advisory Committee
88 (AVIAC) Working Group on the Communication of Binding Data Elements, for example, has
89 analyzed documentation, standards, and thesauri for binding to suggest a standard information
90 structure which can be used to automate the binding process.10 However, procedural steps for
91 other individual components have yet to be clearly laid out and reviewed by the appropriate
92 communities.
93
94 One can typically find an inventory of preservation program components and their relationships
95 in the planning documents, procedure manuals, and thesauri of subject terms used in this and
96 allied fields. A detailed but concise map comprehensively listing the components of
97 preservation is required, just as blueprints are necessary for building a house. And, if the
98 components of preservation-binding, repair, reformatting, etc.-may be thought of as rooms
99 within a house, the facets of these components may be likened to locations within a room. A






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


100 closet or a sleeping alcove in a bedroom, for example, can be compared to subdivisions of
101 preservation microfilming such as queuing, filming, or quality control. Mapping preservation in
102 toto, as well as the facets of its individual components, affords MIS planners the ability to
103 prioritize the development of modules and allows developers to be mindful of the relationships
104 between and among the various elements." 11 12 This design activity will show us what the
105 house and its rooms should look like, after they have been built.
106
107 The term, "component module," despite its seeming redundancy, will be used to express the
108 compound notion that:
109
110 1) A Preservation Management Information System is composed of several
111 preservation management information subsystems, i.e., "modules,"
112 and
113 2) Each module is the automated representation of an individual "component,"
114 function, activity, or subroutine of a preservation program or administrative
115 structure.
116
117 This paper proposes that component modules may be developed either cooperatively or
118 independently; in either case, set standards for communication of the information common to
119 each module are essential. These modules may stand alone or together, and may be used in
120 any combination to reflect the needs of any preservation organization.
121
122
123 TRANSFORMING LOCAL PROCEDURE INTO GLOBAL DESIGN
124
125 The component modules of the Preservation MIS are capable of running appliances. These
126 appliances or programs may generate binding slips or microfilming targets, monitor and regulate
127 environmental conditions, or index and deliver literature supporting preservation, much like
128 common household devices turn on light bulbs, brew coffee, monitor home security, or access
129 cable TV. If appliances run by one institution are to be run by another, they must share a
130 common structure for which standardized procedure is a prerequisite. It must either exist
131 beforehand, or be agreed upon as a product of the design process.
132
133 AVIAC's work on binding data elements, for example, demonstrates the necessity to rethink
134 aspects of earlier automation. The automated binding systems such as ABLE (Automated
135 Binding Library Exchange), with which most librarians are familiar, do not interface with library
136 online public access catalogs (OPACs). These systems assume a work environment separate
137 from catalog and circulation systems, so that bibliographic information must be duplicated in the
138 binding system, and binding status cannot be communicated to library patrons by the OPAC.
139 AVIAC's proposed standardization defines a structure that remedies this problem.13
140
141 Because one institution may require elaborate procedures but another needs something much
142 simpler, individual data elements should be designated as either mandatory or optional. A
143 series of mandatory data elements will define the structure of a base system, while optional data
144 elements allow for enhancement and differentiation. Local Preservation MI systems, then, may
145 differ from one another but still achieve communication and data exchange.
146
147 Proliferation of Preservation MIS modules representing a single component or supporting a
148 single activity should be kept at a minimum. Systems should differ only at the level of operating
149 system, programming language, or shell (the application in which programming is done):






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


150 interfaces should be as similar as possible. Preservation staff can expect to change MI systems
151 as often as they move to a new institution; however, they should be able to operate different
152 systems supporting the same activity as readily as they can operate faucets in different houses.
153
154
155 DEVELOPING A PRESERVATION VOCABULARY
156
157 Common structures and shared systems require uniform terminology, if information is to be
158 shared or fully exploited. If Preservation MIS component modules are to be used in various
159 locations, there must be agreement upon terms used to describe the same activities. Several
160 early proposals for Preservation MI systems used classification schemes as a means of
161 standardizing terminology. Public Archives Canada's PHOCUS successfully normalized the
162 lexicon of photographic conservation, in language-neutral Universal Decimal Classification,
163 converted from English or French thesauri terms.14 It is likely that MIS programming will
164 process information in similar fashion, converting standardized natural language input to
165 standardized object code, to allow consistent interpretation of recorded data.
166
167 Though many sources publish thesauri, few products have been authorized by professional
168 organizations, and even fewer approved through a national standards review process. Often
169 multiple, differing thesauri attempt to govern use of terminology in a single component field of
170 preservation. And, authorized thesauri only infrequently conform to the structure required by the
171 American National Standards Institute (ANSI). structured thesauri have the potential to
172 provide Preservation MIS with both consistent terminology and indication of its context and
173 application, but terminology has yet to be standardized.
174
175
176 A CHIP OFF THE OLD BLOCK:
177 THE CLIENT-SERVER RELATIONSHIP
178
179 The Preservation MIS must also be thought of as a component module of a much larger library
180 MIS. Just as elements within the Preservation MIS must demonstrate interconnectivity-a brittle
181 books processing module must communicate with the imaging module into which it feeds-the
182 Preservation MIS must interface with other library MIS modules. In particular, the Preservation
183 MIS should pass information to and from acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, and collection
184 management systems. Data elements in each of these systems that contain or are capable of
185 containing preservation information must be identified, if information is to be exchanged or
186 shared and duplication avoided.
187
188 However information is shared, whether within or among component modules of the
189 Preservation MIS or between the Preservation MIS and other library systems, the exchange
190 occurs within what is called a client-server relationship. This association assumes that
191 information resides in the MIS where it is generated and therefore most useful; when it must be
192 employed beyond that location, it can be delivered ("served) to another MIS or component
193 module (the "client"). The relationship is economical because it reduces duplication and thus
194 saves time and disk space. For example, using standardized formats16 Preservation MIS
195 component modules (acting as clients of cataloging MIS or bibliographic utilities) are served
196 various types of information-author, title, barcode number. This information facilitates
197 management and tracking of items selected for preservation review or treatment. Conversely,
198 Preservation MIS component modules, acting as servers to other management information






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


199 systems, supply information about condition, status, and so forth-information created as a result
200 of review or treatment.17
201
202 Before the recent proliferation of Preservation MIS component modules, it was thought that
203 preservation-related data could be accommodated by a single field in either the U.S. Machine-
204 Readable Cataloging format (USMARC) for bibliographic objects, or the Canadian Heritage
205 Information Network (CHIN) format for museum objects. An early proposal for what eventually
206 became the USMARC 583 (Preservation Actions) field suggested this type of consolidation.18
207 New thought, however, has afforded MI systems a more sophisticated ability to extrapolate data
208 and share information. The University of Florida's FILMLOG system, for example, formats
209 technical information generated during preservation microfilming as USMARC 007, 533, 265,
210 and 583 fields, for export to bibliographic systems.19
211
212
213 PREREQUISITES TO DESIGN: AN OUTLINE
214
215 Systems analysis and design processes have been discussed at length in the literature.20 This
216 paper has attempted to relate that discussion to the design of a Preservation MIS. It is a small
217 effort, compared to the actual work of design. The outline of prerequisites to design, which
218 follows, is simple-but the work it implies is tremendous.
219
220 I. Market survey conducted to determine need
221 II. Rationale written for the Preservation MIS, as well as its component modules
222 II. Partnerships established, assuming:
223 A. Cooperative development
224 B. Economy of resources
225 IV. Partners commit to:
226 A. Compilation of documentation, including:
227 1. Planning documents
228 2. Organizational charts
229 3. Workflow charts, policies, and procedures
230 4. Workforms
231 5. Procedural standards and material specifications
232 6. Thesauri
233 B. Inventory of preservation program organization, expressing:
234 1. Structured hierarchy
235 2. Mapped relationships, which may be used to document communication
236 between:
237 a) The Preservation MIS and other library and vendor management
238 information systems
239 b) Component modules of the Preservation MIS
240 c) Facets of component modules
241 d) Subroutines of facets
242 C. Critical evaluation of current operations
243 D. Standardization of procedures and terminology
244 E. Design of systems characterized by:
245 1. Compatibility with operations
246 2. Flexibility to:
247 a) Accommodate new procedure
248 b) Accommodate change






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


249 c) Allow delimitation or expansion in order to reflect local preservation
250 program organization
251 3. Component/modular construction with:
252 a) Standardized parts
253 b) Mandatory and optional implementation schedules
254 c) Juxtapositions based upon workflow and relatedness of activities,
255 subroutines, etc.
256 4. Client-server relationships, compatible with other MIS and information
257 sources
258 5. Use of standardized data interchange to assure the construction of linked or
259 integrated systems
260
261
262 CONCLUSION
263
264 This discussion assumes that a system's design will provide a well-considered superstructure
265 for building the system itself, and that design, therefore, must precede development. But, it also
266 recognizes that preservation is not as affluent as many other library and archival communities;
267 average annual preservation expenditures among ARL libraries is below 5 percent of total
268 budget. It seems likely, therefore, that the Preservation MIS will be built much as the poor man
269 builds his castle, room by room, component module by component module. And, it seems just
270 as likely that preservation programs will build different component modules, in various orders, at
271 divers times, to meet the needs and abilities of each.
272
273 The work to follow will require coordination and commitment to the creation of systems that can
274 be used beyond the programming institution, or linked in such a way as to contribute to an
275 integrated Preservation MIS. It will require great will simply to evaluate and document current
276 operations, as well as to standardize them and the terms used in their execution.
277
278
279 NOTES
280
281 1. A proposal for a system consistent with this discussion is also available: Erich J. Kesse, "A
282 Suggested Preservation Management Information System Architecture" (Paper, available
283 electronically from the Conservation On-Line (CoOL) information service based at Stanford
284 University).
285 For additional information about access to this paper via CoOL, contact the service
286 administrator, Walter Henry, at his current address: WHENRY@LINDY.STANFORD.EDU.
287 For an electronically mailed copy of this paper, contact the author at his current address,
288 ERIKESS@NERVM.NERDC.UFL.EDU.
289
290 2. Mention of automated Preservation MIS (component modules) is significantly lacking from
291 national preservation planning documents. Library automation itself is a development of the
292 last 25 years and, as such, has served acquisitions and catalog management well.
293 Preservation MIS were first envisioned in the early 1980s, and programming developed
294 slowly thereafter. Listed chronologically, these early proposals are documented by:
295 (A) Pamela W. Darling, "Management Options for Preservation" (Paper presented to a
296 break-out session at the American Library Association's Collection Management
297 Institute, New York, N.Y., 1982). This paper envisions an automated system integrated
298 with USMARC bibliographic records that documents collection management and






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


299 preservation information and is capable of analyzing this information to support or
300 prompt decision making.
301 (B) Jeffrey Abt, "A Computer-Based Approach to Conservation Administration," in Preprints
302 of Papers Presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for
303 Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (Washington, D.C.: American Institute for
304 Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1984), 1-10.
305 This paper describes microcomputer-based systems design (specifically, proposed
306 features and function) for records of conditions and treatments.
307 (C) Erich J. Kesse, "The Preservation Management Information Field" (Proposal submitted
308 by the University of Florida Libraries to the Library of Congress' USMARC and Network
309 Development Office, 4 December 1984). This proposal calls for integration of coded
310 preservation information into USMARC cataloging and implies use of an interfaced
311 search engine to index and analyze this information for management purposes. While
312 not directly related, the USMARC 583 field, developed by the Library of Congress in
313 association with preservation specialists, is an out-growth of this proposal.
314 (D) Nancy E. Elkington, "The Design and Implementation of a Database Management
315 System for Preservation Information" (Paper presented to the 2nd Annual Conference
316 of the Library and Information Technology Association, Boston, Mass., 1988). This
317 paper examines microcomputer-based applications required to facilitate specific
318 preservation activities.
319 (E) Erich J. Kesse, "A Sketch for a Preservation Management Information System" (Paper
320 presented to the Research Libraries Group, Mountain View, Calif., March 1989). This
321 paper is the first detailed outline of a comprehensive Preservation MIS. It calls for
322 system design with integrated, relational database construction, based on an inventory
323 of management activities divided along lines of common organizational structure for
324 preservation. Abstracted in: Research Libraries Group, "Preservation Information
325 Management System" (Paper released to Research Libraries Group Preservation
326 Committee members by RLG, Mountain View, Calif., 1990).
327 (F) Gay Walker, "Automating the Future: Preservation and Programs" (Paper presented to
328 the American Library Association's Preservation of Library Materials Section program
329 "Bring on the Empty Horses," San Francisco, June 1990). This paper envisions a future
330 MIS which provides both management information about preserved items and
331 electronic access to the preserved items. It inventories and attempts to prioritize
332 management activities that might be automated. Unlike Kesse, Walker assumes that
333 the MIS will be constructed component by component, without a fully developed master
334 plan.
335 (G) Washington Research Library Consortium, "Proposed Preservation & Collections
336 Conservation Expert System" (Proposal to National Endowment for the Humanities
337 Office of Preservation, Lanham, Md., 1 June 1992). This proposal is one of the first
338 plans to envision the translation of preservation activities and decision-making to a rule-
339 based logic unnecessary for the design of expert systems. The proposal remains
340 unfunded; in the judgment of some, it failed to divide work into manageable
341 components.
342
343 3. Walter Henry, "Conservation OnLine (COOL) Delivers Full Text via Internet," Abbey
344 Newsletter 16 (December 1992): 102103.
345 Other online information resources include the Getty Conservation Institute's Conservation
346 Information Network (for a description see the Institute's Newsletter 2 (Winter 1987): 1-2)
347 and several electronic list services, among them the Conservation Distribution List (also






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


348 administered by Walter Henry) and the Research Libraries Group's Preservation List (RLG
349 Pre-L) and PREFIS.
350
351 4. Colin Boreham, Feasibility Study for a National Conservation Treatments Data Base
352 (Canberra: National Library of Australia, Automated Data-Processing Systems Branch,
353 1983). For a description of similar applications see Computer Technology for Conservators:
354 Proceedings of the 11th Annual IIC-CG Conference Workshop, May 13-16, 1985, Halifax,
355 Canada, ed. John Perkins (Halifax: International Institute for Conservation, Atlantic Regional
356 Group, 1986).
357
358 5. Research Libraries Group, Guide to the Preservation Needs Assessment Package
359 (Mountain View, Calif.: Research Libraries Group, 1993).
360 The Package is similar to CALIPR, developed by the University of California at Berkeley for
361 the California State Library. See also: Barclay Ogden and Marilyn Jones, CALIPR: An
362 Automated Tool to Assess Preservation Needs of Book and Document Collections for
363 Institutional or Statewide Planning, version 2.1 (Sacramento: California State Library, 1991).
364
365 6. University of Florida Libraries, "FILMLOG" (Unpublished application programming disk and
366 demonstration documentation presented to the Research Libraries Group's workshop "Great
367 Collections Preservation Microfilming Project, Phase 2," Gainesville, Fla., 15 March 1990).
368 FILMLOG automates the processing, cataloging, and management procedures used in
369 preservation reformatting; it was the first system to map and automate these procedures.
370 Similar systems, some based on the FILMLOG model, are in use in the libraries at Harvard
371 University and Stanford University, as well as the New York Public Library and the
372 Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET).
373
374 7. A description of these systems may be found in the transcript of "Bring on the Empty
375 Horses," a program presented by the American Library Association's Preservation of Library
376 Materials Section in San Francisco, June 1990.
377 To date, few decision-support systems are used in preservation.
378
379 8. The role of procedures in MIS design is described, albeit in relation to museum collections
380 management, in Museum Documentation Systems: Developments and Applications, ed.
381 Richard B. Light. D. Andrew Roberts, and Jennifer D. Stewart (London: Butterworths,
382 1986).
383
384 9. System and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) Kits are compiled periodically by the
385 Association of Research Libraries, Office of Management Services (Washington, D.C.);
386 some focus on preservation issues.
387 Preservation SPEC Kits include "Basic Preservation Procedures" (SPEC Kit 70), "Brittle
388 Books Programs" (SPEC Kit 152), and "Preservation Guidelines in ARL Libraries" (SPEC Kit
389 137).
390
391 10. See Automation Vendors Information Advisory Committee, Working Group on
392 Communication of Binding Data Elements, "Binding Data Elements" (Unpublished third draft
393 standard, prepared for submission to the National Information Standards Organization,
394 March 1993).
395
396 11. In "A Sketch for a Preservation Management Information System", Kesse suggests a map of
397 preservation in toto.






The House that Jack Built: The Preservation Management Information System, A Primer for Design
Erich J. Kesse


398
399 12. Klaus Hendriks and Diane Hopkins, with their map of photograph conservation, suggest a
400 model for mapping components: "Establishing Nodes for a Conservation Information
401 Network," Preprints of Papers Presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of the American
402 Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (Washington, D.C.: American
403 Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1984), 63-69; Public Archives
404 Canada, Picture Conservation Division, PHOCUS (Ottawa: Public Archives Canada, 1985).
405
406 13. For additional discussion, see Bruce Jacobsen, "Automation of Bindery Preparations," New
407 Library Scene 8:2 (April 1989): 15-17.
408
409 14. Public Archives Canada, Picture Conservation Division, PHOCUS.
410
411 15. National Information Standards Organization, American National Standard Guidelines for
412 Thesaurus Structure, Construction and Use. ANSI/NISO Z39.19-1993 (New York: American
413 National Standards Institute, 1993).
414
415 16. Standardized information (i.e., data) exchange formats include:
416 (A) National Information Standards Organization, American National Standard for
417 Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library
418 Applications. ANSIINISO Z39.50-1988 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers,
419 1988).
420 This standard has been adopted for exchange of data among library information
421 systems. A 1992 version has been approved but has not yet been published.
422 (B) National Information Standards Organization, American National Standard for
423 Information Sciences-Bibliographic Information Interchange. ANSIINISO Z39.2-1985
424 (New York: American National Standards Institute, 1986).
425 This standard has been adopted for exchange of data among bibliographic information
426 systems using USMARC.
427 (C) American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Electronic Data
428 Interchange. ANSI X.12-1991 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1991).
429 This standard has been adopted for exchange of data among business information
430 systems.
431
432 17. Preservation information has typically been placed in the 007 (Physical Description
433 [Microforms]), 533 (Photoreproduction), and 583 (Preservation Actions) fields in USMARC
434 bibliographic cataloging and the 5750 (Current Condition), 5810 (Treatment) and related
435 fields in Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN) museum object cataloging.
436
437 18. Erich J. Kesse, "The Preservation Management Information Field" (Proposal submitted by
438 the University of Florida Libraries to the Library of Congress' USMARC and Network
439 Development Office, 4 December 1984).
440
441 19. University of Florida Libraries, "FILMLOG."
442
443 20. Analysis and design processes are discussed by Diane Hopkins, "Systems Analysis and
444 Design: Overview," in Computer Technology for Conservators: Proceedings of the 11th
445 Annual IIC-CG Conference Workshop, May 13-16, 1985, Halifax, Canada, ed. John Perkins
446 (Halifax: International Institute for Conservation, Atlantic Regional Group, 1986), 41-62.




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