SCHOOL READING BY GRADES
NEW YORK-:. CINCINNATI.:. CHICAGO
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1897, BY
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.
80H. READ. FOURTH YEAR.
w. P. 82
THE paramount object of this book, no less than of the lower numbers
of the series, is to help the pupil to become a good reader. To be a good
reader, one must not only be able to pronounce all the words in a given
lesson, but lie must have so thorough an understanding of the selection
to be read that he involuntarily makes the thoughts and feelings of the
author his own. An exercise in reading should, therefore, always be a
pleasure to those who participate in it. It should never in any sense be
regarded as a task. Children who like to read are pretty sure to become
good readers; and the easiest way to teach reading is to make, every
recitation full of interest and a source of delight. But this is not all.
Careless habits must be avoided. Distinct enunciation and correct pro-
nunciation must be insisted upon and secured. It is not enough that the
reader himself understands and is interested. He must make his hearers
understand also, and that without effort, and he must give them such
pleasure that they shall not soon become weary of listening to him.
The lessons in. this volume have been prepared and arranged with a.
view towards several ends: to interest the young reader; to cultivate a
taste for the best style of literature as regards both thought and expres-
sion; to point the way to an acquaintance with good books; to appeal to-
the pupil's sense of duty, and strengthen his desire to do right; to arouse
patriotic feelings and a just pride in the achievements of our country-
men; and incidentally to add somewhat to the learner's knowledge of
history and science and art.
The illustrations will prove to be valuable adjuncts to the text. Spell-
ing, defining, and punctuation should receive special attention. Difficult
words and idiomatic expressions should be carefully studied with the aid
of the Word List at the end of the volume. Persistent and systematic
practice in the pronunciation of these words and of other difficult com-
binations of sounds will aid in training the pupils' voices to habits of
careful articulation and correct enunciation.
While literary biography can be of but little, if any, value in culti-
vating literary taste, it is desirable that pupils should acquire some slight
knowledge of the writers whose productions are placed before them for
study.. To assist in the acquisition of this knowledge, and also to serve
for ready reference, a few pages of Biographical Notes are inserted
towards the end of the volume. The brief rules given on page 6 should
be learned at the beginning, and carefully and constantly observed.
Daniel Webster's First Speech .
Bisons and Buffaloes .
Fortune and the Beggar .
The Piper's Song . .
Two Surprises .. .
Freaks of the Frost .. ..
Going East by sailing West ..
Daybreak . .
Turtles on the Amazon .
How the Thrushes crossed the Sea
The Haymakers- Old Style .
The Haymakers-New Style
The Reaper and the Flowers
The Day is done . .
The Declaration of Independence
Little Jean . .
Henry's Breakfast . .
Woodman, spare that Tree .
A Leap for Life . .
The Stagecoach . .
The English Slave Boys in Rome
The Uprising -1775 .
Sif's Golden Hair ..
The Meeting of the Ships .
Those Evening Bells .. ..
. . . .
. . . .
. Ivan Kriloff. .
. William Blake .
. . . .
. Hannah F.' Gould
. Henry 1W. Longfellow
. Mayne Reid
SHenry C. McCook
. . . .
. Henry W. Longfellow .
. Henry W. Longfellow .
. . . .
. Franqois Coppe .
. . . .
. George P. Morris .
. George P. Morris .
. Thomas Hughes
. Edward A. Freeman
. Thomas Buchanan Read
From "The Story of Siegfried"
. Thomas Moore .
. Thomas Moore .
Searching for Gold and finding a River ..... .122
Beavers at Home . ... William Bingley .128
The Iron Horse . .
Little Bell . .
The Little Man . .
Our Country . .
Something about Cotton .
Maggie Tulliver and the Gypsies
The Fairies of the Caldon Low .
The Good Samaritan ..
The Concord Hymn .
The Two Offas ..
The Star-Spangled Banner .
America . .
The Prodigal Son . .
From The Horse Fair"
. . .
. . .
Ralph Waldo Emerson .
Edward A. Freeman .
Francis Scott Key
Samuel F. Smith .
From The Gospel of St. Luke"
How Duke William made Himself King Charles Dickens 181
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ........ . 193
WORD LIST ....... .. .. ....... .196
PROPER NAMES PRONOUNCED . .. .. ... 208
The publishers desire to acknowledge their obligations to the per-
sons named below for their generous permission to use selections from
their copyright works in this volume: The Century Company, for the
extract from "The Horse Fair"; Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., for
the selections from Henry W. Longfellow and Ralph Waldo Emerson;
The J. B. Lippincott Company, for the poem by Thomas Buchanan
Read; Dr. Henry C. McCook, for the story of which he is the author;
and Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons, for the selection from "The StorS
TO THE YOUNG LEARNER.
To be able to read well, there are several simple rules which you should
remember and try to observe: -
Before attempting to read any selection aloud, read it to yourself in order
that you may acquaint yourself with its difficulties.
If there is any part of it that you do not comprehend, read it again and
try to get at its meaning.
Study to understand every peculiar expression and every difficult word.
From the Word List at the end of this volume, or from a dictionary, learn
the meaning of every difficult word.
Practice reading aloud to yourself at home.
Try to discover and correct your own faults.
Be sure to pronounce, clearly and properly, every syllable and every
If any combination of sounds is hard to articulate, practice pronounc-
ing it until you can speak it properly and without effort.
In reading aloud try to read in the same natural tones that you use in
talking. Be careful to avoid all strained, harsh, or discordant tones.
Remember that good reading is only conversation from the book, and
that it should always give pleasure to both the reader and his hearers.
Avoid all careless habits of expression.
It will be easier to read well if you sit or stand with your head erect and
your shoulders thrown well back; then you can breathe easily,
freely, and naturally, and it will not be hard to speak each word
clearly and properly.
Try so to render each thought or passage as to interpret, in the most
natural and forcible manner, the meaning intended by the author.
Study to appreciate the beauty, the truthfulness, the appropriateness of
that which you are reading.
Ask yourself constantly: "Am I reading this so well that my hearers are
pleased and interested ? "
Try to improve every day.
DANIEL WEBSTER'S FIRST SPEECH.
On a farm among the hills of New Hampshire,
there once lived a little boy whose name was Daniel
Webster. He was a tiny fellow, with jet-black hair
and eyes so dark and wonderful that nobody who
5 once saw them could ever forget them.
He was not strong enough to help much on the
farm; and so he spent much of his time in playing
in the woods and learning to know and love the
trees and flowers, and the harmless wild creatures
1o that lived among them.
But he did not play all the time. Long before
he was old enough to go to school, he learned to
read; and he read so well that everybody was
pleased, and no one grew tired of listening to him.
15 The neighbors, when driving past his father's
house, would stop their horses in the road, and call
for Dannie Webster to come out and read to them.
*At that time there were no children's books, such
as you have now; and there were but very few
books of any kind in the homes of the New Hamp-
shire farmers. But Daniel read such books as he
could get; and he read them over and over again
till he knew all that was in them. In this way he 5
learned a great deal of the Bible so well that he
could repeat verse after verse without making a mis-
take; and these he remembered as long as he lived.
Daniel's father was not only a farmer, but he was
a judge in the. county court. He had great love for 10
the law, and he hoped that Daniel when he became
a man would be a lawyer.
It happened one summer that a woodchuck made
its burrow in the side of a hill
not far from Mr. Webster's house. 15
On warm, dark nights it would
--_ come down into the garden and
eat the tender leaves of the cab-
bages and other plants that were growing there.
Nobody knew how much harm it might do in20
Daniel and his brother Ezekiel made up their
minds to catch the little thief; but for a long time
it was too cunning for them. At last they built a
strong trap where the woodchuck would be sure to 25
walk into it; and the next morning there he was.
"Here he is at last! cried Ezekiel. "Now, Mr.
Woodchuck, you've done mischief enough, and I'm
going to kill you."
But Daniel took pity on the poor beast. "No,
don't hurt him," he said. Let us carry him over
5 the hills far into the woods, and let him go."
Ezekiel had not so tender a heart as his brother.
He was bent on killing the woodchuck, and laughed
at the thought of letting it go.
"Let us ask father about it," said Daniel.
o1 And so they carried the trap, with the woodchuck
in it, to their father, and asked what they should do.
Well, boys," said Mr. Webster, "we will settle
the question in this way. We will hold a court
right here. I will be the judge and you shall be the
15 lawyers; and you shall each plead your case for or
against the prisoner."
Ezekiel opened the case. He told about the mis-
chief which the prisoner had done, and showed that
all woodchucks are very bad creatures and can not be
20 trusted. He said that a great deal of time and labor
had been spent in catching this thief, and that if
they should set him free he would be a worse thief
than before, and too cunning to be caught again.
He then went on to say that the woodchuck's skin
25 was worth a few cents; but that, to make the most
of it, it could not be sold for half enough to pay for
the cabbage that had been eaten. "And so," he
said, since this creature is only a thief and of more
value dead than alive, he ought to be put out of the
way at once."
Ezekiel's speech was a good one, and it pleased his
father very much. What he had said was true and 5
to the point, and the judge could not think how
Daniel was going to make any answer to it.
Daniel began to plead for the life of the poor animal.
But Daniel looked up into the judge's face, and be-
gan to plead for the life of the poor animal. He said:
"God made the woodchuck. He made him to live 1o
in the bright sunlight and the pure air; to enjoy the
free fields and the green woods. The woodchuck
has as much right to life as any other living thing;
for God gave it to him.
God gives us our food. He gives us all that we
have; and shall we not spare a little dumb creature
that has as much right to his share of God's gifts as
we have to ours ? Yes, more; the woodchuck has
5 never broken the laws of his nature or the laws of
God, as man often does.
He is not a fierce animal like the wolf or the fox.
He lives in quiet and peace; a hole in the side of a
hill, with a little food, is all that he wants. He has
to harmed nothing but a few plants which he ate to
keep himself alive. He has a right to life, to food,
to liberty; and we have no right to say that he shall
not have them.
Look at his soft, pleading eyes. See him tremble
15 with fear. He can not speak for himself, and this
is the only way in which he can plead for the life
that is so sweet to him. Shall we be so selfish and
cruel as to take from him that life which God gave
20 By this time the tears had started in the eyes of
the judge. The father's heart was stirred within
him, and he felt that God had given him a son
whose name would some day be known to the world.
He did not wait for Daniel to finish his speech.
25 He sprang to his feet; he dashed the tears from
his eyes, and cried out: "Ezekiel, let the wood-
BISONS AND BUFFALOES.
Not many years ago there lived on the grassy
plains of the West great herds of animals called
buffaloes. In many ways they were like wild cattle,
but they were larger and stronger, and had never
been tame. They were not true buffaloes, but 5
bisons. Sometimes there were thousands of these
bisons in a herd. The largest herds were made up
of a great many small herds which came together at
certain times or places and then moved apart again.
When left to themselves, they wandered slowly io
from place to place, eating the tall grass as they
went. In the early summer their
course was commonly toward the
north; but when the days began
S to grow shorter, they turned and 15
made their way back toward the
The American Bison. With their big heads and long,
thick manes, bisons have not a very pleasant look.
But they are not as fierce as you might think. Huge 20
as they are, they are timid animals. If they are let
alone, they are not likely to hurt any one. They
know their strength, but they use it only in taking
care of themselves.
Their bodies are not so clumsy as they seem. On
the plains they could move very quickly when they
tried, and they traveled very fast. When a great
herd of bisons was once set to going, nothing could
5 stop it. Over hilly and rocky country where a horse
could hardly walk, these animals would move at a
rapid rate. Did they come to a broad river ? They
would leap in and swim across. Those in front did
not dare to stop, for then they would be run over
to by those that came behind.
Every herd was commonly followed by wolves.
These beasts were always on the lookout for any
weak or lame straggler that might fall behind, or
wander from the herd; and woe to any little bison
15 that strayed too far from its mother's side.
When white people first came to this country, the
bison was the only animal of the ox kind that they
found. It lived then among the great woods as
well as on the prairies. But as the country became
20settled, these timid animals fled farther and farther
west, trying to find some place where they could
live in peace and safety. Go where they would,
however, there was not much safety for them.
As long as there were bisons on the great plains,
25the Indians of the West would not leave off their
wild, roving habits. They would rather hunt these
animals for food than do any kind of work. They
killed hundreds of bisons every year; but the next
year there were hundreds of young bisons to take
the place of those that had been killed, and so the
herds were as large as ever.
In winter, hunters and Indians often had no other 5
meat than the dried flesh of the bison. It was pre-
pared by cutting the fresh meat into strips and hang-
ing these strips over a fire until they were quite hard
and almost black. It was very much like smoked
beef, and the Indians called it "pemmican." The lo
tongue and hump of a bison were the best parts.
White hunters would often kill the animals for these
parts alone, and then leave the rest of the body to
be eaten by the wolves. When railroads were built
across the plains, it was soon all over with the bisons. 15
They were killed for their skins and their horns.
They were killed for mere sport and cruelty. Men
went from the cities to "hunt" them. They shot
them sometimes from the car windows. They killed
them, just to be killing, without any thought of the 20
suffering that was caused. The man who could shoot
the largest number of bisons in a day thought him-
self a great hero. So many were killed that in some
places the ground for miles was covered with the
dead bodies or the white bones of the poor beasts. 25
And so there are now no more great herds of
bisons. They are no longer known in the places where
they once roamed. Now and then you may see a
bison in a show or a menagerie; and it is said that
there are two or three small herds in certain of the
great parks of our country. These are all. It is
5 likely that in a few more years not one of these
animals will be left alive in all the world.
The true buffalo is very different from the bison.
It is found in Africa and India and in the south
of Europe, but not in America. There are several
to kinds of buffaloes, some wild and some tame. The
wild buffalo is a savage animal. He is so large and
strong that he is a match for almost any other animal.
These buffaloes, like the bisons
of our country, live in large herds.
15 They like to browse in marshy
ground where it is easy to find
plenty of water. They are very
fond of rolling in the mud. Some-
times they sink themselves until The Cape Buffalo,
20 the eyes and nose are all that can be seen above the
In the southern part of Africa there lives another
kind of buffalo, called the Cape buffalo. The horns
of the Cape buffalo are large and long, sometimes
25 measuring five feet from tip to tip. Near the head
they are so large that they cover the eyes, like the
visor of a cap. On this account, an old buffalo when
grazing is sometimes unable to see things just in front
of him. A hunter may walk safely in the path be-
fore him, if he is careful to make no noise, and does s
not brush against the bushes as he passes along.
The Cape buffalo is about as large as a common
ox, but a great deal stronger. It is the fiercest ani-
mal of its kind. It has often been known to hide
among the tall. grass or underbrush, and then rush lo
suddenly out upon any passer-by.
This buffalo is not an easy animal to kill, for the
skin is so tough that it will often
turn aside a bullet. To shoot one
of these animals and fail to kill 15
it at once is a dangerous thing
Sto do; for a wounded buffalo is a
far more terrible foe than an un-
The Indian Buffalo,
In India tame buffaloes are very 20
common -as common as cows and oxen in our coun-
try. They are used to draw wagons, to carry bur-
dens, and to do much of the work of a horse on the
farms. Sometimes, also, the buffalo cow is useful for
the milk which she gives. From this milk the people 25
make a kind of blue butter which is used in that
The care of the buffaloes belonging to a farm-
house is often intrusted to a small boy. In the
morning he climbs upon the back of the leader of
the herd and rides slowly out to the pasture fields
5 which are sometimes a long distance from the house.
The other cows, seeing their leader moving, fall
one by one into line, and with many groans and
grunts follow her along the oft-trodden path. When
at last the pasture is reached, the boy jumps from
10 the leader's back and turns her loose to graze. For
a while the herd is busy nipping the short grass,
moving slowly here and there among the hillocks
and stones, and always keeping close together.
The little herdsman, while keeping an eye
15 upon the herd, amuses himself in a variety of
ways. He whistles and sings. He makes
little baskets of twigs and long grass in
which to imprison grasshoppers, or perhaps
a green lizard or two. And so he contrives to
20 make the earlier part of the long day pass with
some comfort and pleasure.
As for the buffaloes, when the noon sun grows
hot, they seek out some marshy place where there
is water and plenty of mud. There they lie down
25 and roll until they have covered themselves with
a thick coating of slime. Some of them bury them-
selves in the mud until only their heads can be seen
SCH. READ. IV.-2
above the surface. Their young master, knowing
that they will stay here the rest of the day, finds
some shady spot and lies down to sleep, or to look
up for hours together into the calm blue sky above
him. But when the sun begins to sink in the west, a
Not even a tiger is a match for them.
he calls his herd from their muddy baths, mounts the
leading cow, and sets off slowly towards home.
Even though he should be belated and night should
set in before he reaches the house, the lad has no fear
of any wild beast that may be prowling around. His lo
buffaloes are afraid of nothing, and they are very
strong. Not even a tiger is a match for them; and
if one should be so foolish as to venture in their
way, they will use their great strength and heavy
horns to such good advantage as to make short work
-FORTUNE AND THE BEGGAR.
5 One day a ragged beggar was creeping along from
house to house. He carried an old-wallet in his
hand, and was asking at every door for a few cents
to buy something to eat. As he was 'grumbling at
his lot, he kept wondering why it was that folks
to who had so much money were never satisfied but
were always wanting more.
"Here," said he, "is the master of this house
I know him well. He was always a good business
man, and he made himself wondrously rich a long
15 time ago. Had he been wise he would have stopped
then. He would have turned over his business to
some one else, and then he could have spent the rest
of his life in ease. But what did he do instead ? He
began building ships and sending them to sea to
20 trade with foreign lands. He thought he would get
mountains of gold.
"But there were great storms on the water; his
ships were wrecked, and his riches were swallowed
up by the waves. Now his hopes all lie at the
bottom of the sea, and his great wealth has vanished
like the dreams of a night.
"There are many such cases. Men seem to be
never satisfied unless they can gain the whole world.
As for me, if I had only enough to eat and to 5
wear I would not want anything more."
Just at that moment Fortune came down the
street. She saw the beggar and stopped. She said
to him: "Listen! I have long wished to help you.
Hold your wallet and I will pour this gold into o1
it. But I will pour only on this condition : All that
falls into the wallet shall be pure gold; but every
piece that falls upon the ground shall become dust.
Do you understand ? "
Oh, yes, I understand," said the beggar. 15
"Then have a care," said Fortune. "Your wallet
is old; so do not load it too heavily."
The beggar was so glad that he could hardly wait.
He quickly opened his wallet, and a stream of yellow
dollars was poured into it. The wallet soon began 20
to grow heavy.
Is that enough ?" asked Fortune.
"Isn't it cracking? "
"Never fear." 2
The beggar's hands began to tremble. Ah, if
the golden stream would only pour forever!
"You are the richest man in the world now! "
"Just a little more," said the beggar; "add just
a handful or two."
There, it's full. The wallet will burst."
"Just a little more," said the beggar,
S But it will hold a little more, just a little more!"
Another piece was added, and the wallet split. The
treasure fell upon the ground and was turned to
dust. Fortune had vanished. The beggar had now
nothing but his empty wallet, and it was torn from
10 top to bottom. He was as poor as before.
From the Russian of Ivan Kriloff.
THE PIPER'S SONG.
Piping down the valleys wild,
Piping songs of pleasant glee,
On a cloud I saw a child,
And he, laughing, said to me,
"Pipe a song about a lamb,'
So I piped with merry cheer.
"Piper, pipe that song again,"
So I piped, he wept to hear.
"Drop thy pipe, thy happy pipe,
Sing thy songs of happy cheer." 10
So I sang the same again,
While he wept with joy to hear.
"Piper, sit thee down and write
In a book that all may read."
So he vanished from my sight; 15
And I plucked a hollow reed,
And I made a rural pen,
And I stained the water clear,
And I wrote my happy songs
Every child may joy to hear. 20
A workman plied his clumsy spade
As the sun was going down;
The German king with his cavalcade
Was coming into town.
n The king stopped short when he saw
the ml ii -
"My worthy friend," si.id h,.
"Why not, (_eae \\,work at fv.jin-
When the laborer-
should be fi te .
I do not
the old -
man said, .-
lo "And I amn
Though I work from
the time I leave my bed
Till I can hardly see."
"How much," said the king, "is thy gain in a day? "
Eight groschen," the man replied.
15 "And canst thou live on this meager pay?" -
"Like a king," he said with pride.
" Two groschen for me and my wife, good friend.
And two for a debt I owe;
Two groschen to lend and two to spend
For those who can't labor, you know."
" Thy debt ? said the king. Said the toiler, Yea, 5
To my mother with age oppressed,
Who cared for me, toiled for me, many a day,
And now hath need of rest."
" To whom dost lend of thy daily store ?"
"To my three boys at school. You see, 10
When I am too feeble to toil any more,
They will care for their mother and me."
"And thy last two groschen ?" the monarch said.
"My sisters are old and lame;
I give them two groschen for raiment and bread, 15
.All in the Father's name."
Tears welled up in the good king's eyes-
Thou knowest me not," said he;
"As thou hast given me one surprise,
Here is another for thee. 0
"I am thy king; give me thy hand "-
And he heaped it high with gold -
"When more thou needest, I command
That I at once be told.
"For I would bless with rich reward
The man who can proudly say,
That eight souls he doth keep and guard
On eight poor groschen a day."
FREAKS OF THE FROST.
5 The Frost looked forth one still, clear night,
And whispered, Now I shall be out of sight;
So through the valley and over the height
In silence I'll take my way.
I will not go on like that blustering train -
10 The wind and the snow, the hail and the rain -
Who make so much bustle and noise in vain;
But I'll be as busy as they."
Then he flew to the mountain and powdered its crest;
He lit on the trees, and their boughs he dressed
15 With diamond beads; and over the breast
Of the quivering lake he spread
A coat of mail, that it need not fear
The downward point of many a spear
That he hung on its margin, far and near,
20 Where a rock could rear its head.
He went to the windows of those who slept,
And over each pane, like a fairy, crept;
Wherever he breathed, wherever he stepped,
By the light of the morn were seen
Most beautiful things: there were flowers and trees, 5
There were bevies of birds and swarms of bees;
There were cities, and temples, and towers; and these
All pictured in silver sheen.
But he did one thing that was hardly fair:
He went to the cupboard, and finding there 10
That all had forgotten for him to prepare -
"Now, just to set them a-thinking,
I'll bite this basket of fruit," said he,
" This costly pitcher I'll burst in three;
And the glass of water they've left for me 15
Shall 'tchick I' to tell them I'm drinking."
Iannah F. Gould.
GOING EAST BY SAILING WEST.
About four hundred years ago there came to Spain
an Italian sailor who believed that the earth is
round. Such a belief may not seem at all strange
to us, but to the people of that time it appeared to 0
be very foolish and unreasonable. Almost every-
body laughed at the Italian, and called him a silly
Have you eyes ?" they asked. If so, you need
only to open them and look about you to see that
5 the earth is as flat as the top of a table."
"You may think it is flat," he answered, "and
indeed it does appear to be so. But I know it is
round; and if I had only a good ship or two, and
some trusty sailors, I would prove it to you. I
to would sail westward across the great ocean, and in
the end would reach the Indies and China, which
must be on the other side of the great round world."
"Whoever heard of such nonsense!" cried the
learned doctors in the university of Salamanca.
15 "Everybody knows that China and the Indies are in
the far East, and that they can be reached only by
a dangerous voyage through the Mediterranean Sea,
and long journeys with camels across the great
desert. Yet, here is Mr. Crack-brain, an Italian
2o sailor, who says he can go to the East by sailing
west. One might as well try to reach the moon by
going down into a deep well."
But you don't understand me," answered the
man whom they had called Mr. Crack-brain. "Here
25 is an apple. Let us suppose that it is the earth. I
stick a pin on this side, and call it Spain. On the
other side I stick another pin, and call it the Indies.
Now suppose a fly lights upon the apple at the point
which I have called Spain. By turning to the right,
or eastward, he can travel round to the Indies with
but little trouble; or by turning to the left, or west-
ward, he can reach the same place with just as much 5
ease, and in really a shorter time. Do you see ?"
Do we see ? answered the doctors. Certainly
we see the apple, and we can imagine that we see
the fly. It is very hard, however, to imagine that
the earth is an apple, or anything like it. For, sup- io
pose that it were so: what would become of all the
water in the seas and the great ocean? Why, it
would run off at the blossom end of the apple, which
you call the South Pole; and all the rocks and trees
and men would follow it. Or, suppose that men 15
could stick to the lower part of the earth as the fly
does to the lower part of the apple--how very silly
it would be to think of them walking about with
their heads hanging down !"
"And suppose," said one of the doctors who 20
thought himself very wise -" suppose that the earth
is round, and suppose that the water should not spill
off, and suppose you should sail to the other side, as
you want to do, how are you to get back? Did
anybody ever hear of a ship sailing up hill ? 25
And so the learned doctors and professors dis-
missed the whole subject. They said it was not
worth while for wise men to spend their time in
talking about such things. But the man whom they
had called Mr. Crack-brain would not give up his
theory. He was not the first man to believe that
5 the earth is round this he knew; but he hoped to
be the first to prove it by sailing westward, and
thus finally reaching the Indies, and the rich coun-
tries of the far East. And yet he had no ship, he
was very poor, and the few friends whom he had
10 were not able to give him any help.
My only hope," he said, "is to persuade the king
and queen to furnish me with a ship."
But how should an unknown Italian sailor make
himself heard by the king and queen of the most
15 powerful country in Europe ?
The great men at the king's court ridiculed him.
"You had better buy a fisherman's boat," they
said, and try to make an honest living with your
nets. Men of your kind have no business with kings.
20 As to your crazy theory about the shape of the earth,
only think of it! How dare you, the son of an
Italian wool-comber, imagine that you know more
about it than the wisest men in the world ?"
But he did not despair. For years he followed
25 the king's court from place to place. Most people
looked upon him as a kind of harmless lunatic who
had gotten a single idea in his head and was unable
to think of anything else. But there were a few
good and wise men who listened to his theories, and
after studying them care- 5
fully, began to believe that
there was some truth in
"-L One of these men was
Father Perez, the prior of lo
Sthe convent of La Rabida;
and, to please this good
Convent of La Rabida.
prior, the queen at last
sent for the sailor and asked him to tell her all
about his strange theories and his plans for sailing 15
west and reaching the East.
"You say that if you had the vessels and the men
you would sail westward and discover new lands on
the farther side of the great ocean," said the queen.
" What reasons have you for supposing that there 20
are any such lands? "
"My first reason is that, since the earth is round
like a ball, the countries of China and the Indies
must lie in a westward direction and can, sooner or
later, be reached by sailing across the sea," was the 25
answer. "You, yourself, have heard the story of St.
Brandon, the Scottish priest, who, eight hundred years
ago, was. driven by a storm far across the ocean, and
how at last he landed upon a strange and unknown
5 shore. I doubt not but that this
country was one of the outlying islands .
of the Indies, or perhaps the eastern
shore of China.
"Not very long ago, Martin Vincent,
o1 a sea captain of Lisbon, ventured to go I:
a distance of four hundred miles from
land. There he picked up a piece of '
wood, with strange marks and carv- Queen Isbella,
ings upon it, which had been drifted from the west
15 by strong winds. Other seafaring men have found,
far out in the ocean, reeds and light wood, such as
travelers say are found in some parts of the Indies,
but nowhere in Europe. And if any one should want
more proofs than these, it would not be hard to find
20 them. There is a story among the people of the far
north which relates that, about five hundred years
ago, some' bold sea rovers from Iceland discovered a
wild, wooded country many days' sail to the westward.
Indeed, it is said that these men tried to form a
25 settlement there, and that they sent more than one
shipload of grapes and timber back to Iceland. Now,
it is very plain to me that this country of Vin-
land, as they called it, was no other than a part of
the northern coast of China or Japan."
It is not to be supposed that the queen cared
whether the earth was round or flat; nor is it likely
that her mind was ever troubled with questions of 5
that kind. But she thought that if this man's
theories were true, and there were lands rich in gold
and spices on the other side of the ocean, it would be
a fine thing for the queen and king of Spain to pos-
sess them. The Italian sailor had studied his subject to
well, and he certainly knew what he was talking
about. He had told his story so well that the queen
was almost ready to believe that he was right. But
she was very busy just then, in a war with the
Moors, and she had little time to think about any- 15
thing else. If the Italian would wait till everything
else could be settled, she would, see whether a ship or
two might not be fitted out for his use.
For seven years this man with a new idea. kept on
trying to find some one who was able and willing 20
to help him carry out the plans which he had so
much at heart. At last, broken in health and almost
penniless, he gave up hope, and was about to leave
Spain forever. It was then that one of his friends,
Luis St. Angel, pleaded his case before the queen. 25
Columbus at the Court of Ferdinand and Isabella.
It will cost but little to fit out two or three ships
for him. If the undertaking should prove to be a
failure, you would not lose much. But if it should
succeed, only think what vast riches and how great
honor will be won for Spain "
"I will take the risk!" cried the queen, at last.
"If the money can not be had otherwise, I will sell
my jewels to get it. Find him, and bring him
before me ; and let us lose no more time about
this business." 10
St. Angel hastened to obey.
"Do you know whether Christopher Columbus has
passed out through this gate to-day?" he asked of
the soldier who was standing guard at one of the
gates of the old city of Granada. 15
Christopher Columbus ? Who is he ?" asked the
He is a gray-bearded man, rather tall, with a
stoop in his shoulders. When last seen he was rid-
ing on a small, brown mule, and coming this way." 20
Oh! Do you mean the fellow who has been try-
ing to make people believe that the earth is round ?"
"Yes, that is the man."
"He passed through here not half an hour ago.
His mule is a very slow traveler, and if you follow, 25
you can easily overtake him before he has gone far."
St. Angel gave the rein to his swift horse, and
galloped onward in pursuit of Columbus. It was not
long until the slow-paced mule, with its sad rider,
was seen plodding along the dusty highway. The
man was too busy with his own thoughts
5 to heed the sound of the ringing hoofs
"Christopher Columbus! cried his
friend, "turn about, and come back with
me. I have good news for you. Queen '
to Isabella bids me say that she will help i
you, and that you shall have the ships
and the men for which you ask in order Christopher Colmnbus,
to find a new way to the East, and perhaps discover
unknown lands on the farther side of the great ocean.
15 Turn about, and come back with me !"
One morning in August, 1492, there was a great
stir in the little seaport town of Palos in Spain. At
break of day the streets were full of people. Every-
body had risen early and was hurrying down toward
20 the harbor. Long before sunrise the shore was lined
with anxious men, women, and children. All were
talking about the same thing; some were weeping;
some appeared to be angry; some were in despair.
"Only think of it," said one. "Think of sailing
25 into seas where the water is always boiling hot."
"And if you escape being scalded," said another,
"then there are those terrible sea beasts that are
large enough to swallow ships and sailors at a single
mouthful. Oh, why should the queen send men on
such a hopeless voyage as this ?" b
It is all on account of that Italian sailor who
says that the world is round," said a third. "He
lias persuaded several persons, who
ought to know better, that he
can reach the East by sailingo1
Moored near the shore
were three small ships.
They were but little larger
than fishing boats; and in 15
The Santa Maria. these frail vessels Columbus
was going to venture into the
vast unknown sea, in search of strange lands and
of a new and better way to distant India.
Two of the ships, the Nina and the "Pinta," 20
had no decks and were covered only at the ends
where the sailors slept. The third, called the
"Santa Maria," was larger and had a deck, and from
its masthead floated the flag of Columbus. It was
toward these three ships that the eyes of the people 25
on shore were directed; it was about these ships and
the men on board of them that all were talking.
On the deck of the largest ship stood Columbus,
and by his side was good Father Perez, praying that
the voyagers might be blessed with fair winds and
a smooth sea, and that the brave captain might be
5 successful in his quest.
Then the last good-byes were
spoken, the moorings were cast
loose, the sails were spread;
and, a little before sunrise,
o1 the vessels glided slowly out
of the harbor and into the vast
western ocean. The people stood
on the shore and watched, while
the sails grew smaller and small- The Pinta.
15 er and at last were lost to sight below the line of sea
"Alas! We shall never see them again." said
some, returning to their homes. But others re-
mained all day by the shore talking about the
20 strange idea that there were unknown lands in the
Two hundred miles southwest of Palos there is a
group of islands called the Canary Islands. These
were well known to the people of that time, and
25 belonged to Spain. But sailors seldom ventured be-
yond them, and no one knew of any land farther
to the west. It was to these islands that Columbus
first directed his course. In six days the three little
vessels reached the Canary Islands. The sailing had
been very slow. The rudder of one of the ships had 6
not been well made and had soon been broken. And
so, now, much time was wasted while having a new
rudder made and put in place.
It was not until the 6th of September
that Columbus again set sail, pushing 10
westward into unknown waters.
Soon the sailors began to give
way to their fears. The
thought that they were on
Shseas where no man had before 15
ventured filled them with
S- alarm. They remembered all
the strange stories that they
had heard of dreadful monsters and of mysterious
dangers, and their minds were filled with distress. 20
But Columbus showed them how unreasonable
these stories were; and he aroused their curiosity
by telling them wonderful things about India -
that land of gold and precious stones, which they
would surely reach if they would bravely perse-25
And so, day after day, they sailed onwai'd, not
knowing where they were nor toward what unknown
region their course was directed. The sea was calm,
and the wind blowing from the east drove the ships
steadily forward. By the first of October they had
5 sailed more than two thousand miles. Birds came
from the west, and flew about the ships. The water
was full of floating seaweed. But still no land could
Then the sailors began to fear that they would
lo never be able to return against the east wind that
was blowing. Why should we obey this man,
Columbus?" they said. "He is surely mad. Let
us throw him into the sea, and.then turn the ships
about while we can."
15 But Columbus was so firm and brave that they
dared not lay hands on him; they dared not disobey
him. Soon they began, to see signs of the nearness
of land. Weeds, such as grow only in rivers, were
seen floating near the ships. A branch of a tree,
20 with berries on it, was picked up. Columbus offered
a reward to the man who should first see land.
"We must be very near it now," he said. Before
another day we shall discover it."
That night no one could sleep. At about two
25 o'clock the man who was on the lookout on one of
the smaller vessels cried : "Land land land "
Columbus himself had seen a distant light moving,
some hours before. There was now a great stir on
board the ships.
Where is the land ? cried every one.
There there Straight before us."
Yes, there was a low, dark mass far in front of 5
them, .which might be land. In the dim starlight, it
was hard to make out what it was. But one thing
was certain, it was not a mere expanse of water, such
as lay in every other direction. And so the sailors
brought out a little old-fashioned cannon and fired it o
off as a signal to the crews of the other vessels.
Then the sails of the three ships were furled, and
they waited for the light of day.
When morning dawned, Columbus and his com-
panions saw that they were quite near to a green 15
and sunny island. It was a beautiful spot. There
were pleasant groves where the songs of birds were
heard. Thousands of flowers were seen on every
hand, and the trees were laden with fruit. The
island was inhabited, too; for strange men could be 20
seen running toward the shore .and looking with
wonder at the ships.
The sailors, who had lately been ready to give up
all hope, were now filled with joy. They crowded
around Columbus, and kissed his hands, and begged 25
him to forgive them for thinking of disobeying him.
The ships cast anchor, the boats were lowered, and
Columbus, with most of the men, went on shore.
Columbus was dressed in a grand robe of scarlet, and
the banner of Spain was borne above him.
As soon as the boats reached the shore, Columbus
5 stepped out and knelt down upon the beach and
gave thanks to God; then he took possession of the
island in the name of the king and queen of Spain,
and called it San Salvador. It was thus that the
first land in America was discovered on the 12th of
to October, 1492.
The natives were filled with wonder at what they
saw. At first they were awed and frightened at
sight of the ships and the strange men; but they
soon overcame their fears and seemed delighted and
15 very friendly. They brought to Columbus gifts of
all they had,-bananas, yams, oranges, and beauti-
"Surely," they said, "these wonderful beings who
have come to us from the sea are not mere men like
20 ourselves. They must be messengers from heaven."
Columbus believed that this island was near the
coast of Asia, and that it was one of the islands of
India; and so he called the people Indians. He did
not remain here long, but sailed away to discover
other lands. In a short time the ships came to a
large island where there were rivers of fresh water
flowing into the sea. On every hand there were
bright flowers and climbing vines and groves of
palms and banana trees. The air was sweet with 5
He took possession of the island.
the breath of blossoms; the sky was blue and clear;
the sea was calm; the world seemed full of joy and
peace. This island was Cuba.
Let us live here always cried the sailors; for
surely this is paradise." to
And so, for three months and more, Columbus and
his companions sailed among scenes of delight, such
as they had never before imagined. They visited
island after island, and everywhere saw new beau-
ties and new pleasures. The natives were simple-
hearted and kind. "They love their neighbors as
themselves," said Columbus. They looked with
5 wonder upon the bright swords of the white men
and upon their brilliant armor; and when the little
cannon was fired, they were so filled with alarm that
they fell to the ground.
It was on the 15th of the next March that Colum-
o1 bus, after a stormy homeward voyage, sailed again
into the little harbor of Palos, from which he had
started. And now there was a greater stir in the
little town than there had been before. Christo-
pher Columbus has come back from the unknown
15 seas was the cry that went from house to house.
Did he reach the East by sailing west ? Has he
really been to far-off India?" asked the doubting ones.
"He has, indeed!" was the answer. "He has
discovered a new world."
2o Then the bells were rung, guns were fired, and
bonfires blazed on the hilltops. Everybody rejoiced.
Everybody was willing now to say that the Italian
was right when he declared the earth to be round.
Make haste and carry the news to the queen!"
25said the governor of the town. Tell her that
Columbus has returned, and that he has really found
a new way to India."
A wind came up out of the sea,
And said, 0 mists, make room for me !"
It hailed the ships, and cried, Sail on,
Ye mariners, the night is gone "
And hurried landward far away, 5
Crying, Awake, it is the day! "
It said unto the forest, Shout!
Hang all your leafy banners out!"
It touched the wood-bird's folded wing,
And said, "0 bird, awake and sing! 10
And o'er the farms, 0 chanticleer,
Your clarion blow; the day is near !"
It whispered to the fields of corn,
"Bow down, and hear the chiming morn!"
- r' eI through the belfry tower, 5i
'Awarke, 0 bell! proclaim the hour."
It crossed the churchyard with a sigh,
And said, "Not yet! in quiet lie."
-Henry W. Longfellow.
TURTLES ON THE AMAZON
The Amazon River is in South America. It is the
longest and largest river in the world. During the
rainy season it is not unlike a great inland sea. In
the dry season, when the stream is at its lowest,
5 vast sand banks crop up, here and there, above the
water, and line the shores on either side. The
greater part of its course is through a wild forest,
and there are no great cities upon its banks.
One pleasant evening a few years ago, a young
to lad and an Indian guide landed from a canoe upon
a great bank of white sand which stretched for
miles along the river. Here they made ready to
pass the night. They gathered a heap of driftwood
and kindled a large fire to keep off the wild beasts,
15 of which there were many kinds in the forest. After
they had eaten a slight luncheon, they agreed to
keep watch by turns during the night.
The lad, whose turn came first, seated himself
upon a pile of sand and did his liest to keep awake.
20 But he was very tired, and, in spite of himself, fell
into a nap, from which he was awakened by sliding
down the sand hill, and tumbling over on his side.
He jumped up quickly and looked around to see if
any creature had ventured near.
25 Yes, there, on the other side of the fire, he saw
a pair of dull eyes looking at him. Close to them
he saw another pair, then another, and another, until,
having looked on every side, he saw that he was
in the center of a circle of eyes! It is true
they were quite small eyes, and some of the s
heads which he could see by the blaze were
small. They had an ugly look, like the
heads of serpents.
The boy stood for some moments uncer-
tain what to do. He believed that the eyes 0o
belonged to snakes which had just crept out of the
river ; and he feared that any movement on his part
would lead them to attack him. Having risen to
his feet, his eyes were above the level of the blaze,
and he was able in a little while to see more clearly. 15
He- now saw that the snake-like heads belonged
to creatures with large oval bodies, and that, besides
the fifty or more which had come up to look at
the fire, there were whole droves of them upon the
sandy beach beyond. As far as he could see on all 20
sides, the bank was covered with them. A strange
sight it was, and most fearful. For his life he could
not make out what it meant, or by what sort of
wild animals he was surrounded.
He could see that their bodies were not larger 25
than those of small sheep; and, from the way in
which they glistened in the moonlight, he was sure
they had come out of the river. He called to the
Indian guide, who awoke and started to his feet
in alarm. The movement frightened the creatures
round the fire; they rushed to the shore, and were
5 heard plunging by hundreds into the water.
The Indian's ear caught the sounds, and his eye
took in the whole thing at a glance.
"Turtles," he said.
"Oh," said the lad; turtles, are they ?"
10 "Yes, master," answered the guide. "I suppose
this is one of their great hatching places. They are
going to lay their eggs in the sand."
There was no danger from turtles, but the fright
had chased away sleep, and the two travelers sat by
s the camp fire for some time, talking about these
strange creatures. The turtles of the Amazon meet
together in great herds every year. Each of the
herds chooses a place for itself some sandy island
or great sand bank. They then crawl ashore at
20 night in vast multitudes, and each turtle, with the
strong, crooked claws of her hind feet, digs a hole in
the sand. Each hole is about three feet across and
two feet deep. In this she lays her eggs from
seventy to one hundred and twenty in number -
25white, hard-shelled, and somewhat larger than the
eggs of a pigeon. She then fills the hole with sand,
leveling the top to make the sand bank look as
smooth as before; this done, her work is at an end.
In a few days the great army betakes itself to the
water, and scatters in every direction. 5
The sun, shining upon the sand, does the rest,
and in less than six weeks the young turtles, about as
broad as a silver dollar, crawl out of the sand and at
once find their way to the
water. They are afterwards lo
seen in shallow pools or lakes
far from the place where
They were hatched. How
they find these pools, or
A Mother Turtle and Little Ones. whether their mother know
whether their mothers know is
their own young ones and lead them thither, nobody
An old mother turtle is often seen swimming with
as many as a hundred little ones after her. Now,
are these her own, or are they a collection which 20
she has picked up here and there ? Would it not be
strange if each mother turtle should know her own
young? Such a thing seems scarcely possible, and
yet there may be some instinct which gives her the
power to tell which of the little ones among the 25
millions really belong to her. Who can say?
HOW THE THRUSHES CROSSED THE SEA.
In Egypt, not far from the pyramids, a mother
thrush had spent a pleasant winter with a fine brood
of young thrushes. But as the days began to grow
warmer, a strange restlessness began to warn them
5 that it was time to take their flight to a more
northern country and a less sunny clime.
The mother thrush gathered her children together,
and having joined a flock of friends from the banks
of the upper Nile, they spread their wings and flut-
0o tered away toward the Mediterranean Sea. There
in due time they arrived, and alighted not far from
"Where shall we go now?" asked one of the
young birds, whose name was Songful.
15 "We must cross the great sea," said his mother.
What!" cried another, who was called Think-
little. "How can we do that? We shall drown
before we are halfway across."
Then a third, whom everybody knew as Grumbler,
20 began to complain. Oh dear !" he cried. You
have brought us here only to drown us in the sea."
Then Songful, and Thinklittle, and Thankful, the
rest of Mother Thrush's family, all joined in the cry
of Grumbler. "You have brought us here only to
25 drown us in the sea "
SCH. READ. I7. -4
"Wait a little while," said their mother, quietly.
"We must find a ship to carry us across."
Ah! sighed Songful, "but I am afraid of ships!
They often carry some of those creatures called boys,
who shoot arrows and throw stones at little birds 5
"True enough!" said Thinklittle. "Ships are
"And you brought us here only to be shot and
stoned by bad ship boys!" cried Grumbler.
But the patient mother bird said, "Wait a little 10
while Wait a little while !"
The very next day a strange sound was heard
high up in the air: "Honk! honk! honk "
There are our ships! cried Mother Thrush.
"What do you mean?" piped Thinklittle. And 15
he hopped upon a twig, looked up into the sky, and
shook his wings. "I see nothing but a flock of
those clumsy storks that wade in the mud by the
river banks or sit on the high columns of the old
temples. I know all about them." 20
"Ha! ha! laughed Songful. "Do you expect
to see ships coming from the sky? Look toward
the sea, brother!" And then he sang one of his
"What great awkward fellows those storks are!" 25
said Grumbler. "There is no more music in them
than in an Egyptian water wheel." And with that
he began to whistle a merry tune to show how much
better he was than the birds he despised.
But his mother only nodded her head and said,
"Wait a little while!"
5 The storks settled down upon the shore, quite
near to the little company of thrushes. There, for
a while, they fed among the tall plants that grew
by the 'margin of the water. But soon they began
to make a great stir; and they called to one another
10 among the reeds, Honk, creek! Honk, creek!"
"There said Mother Thrush. "They're going!
Get ready, my children! We must go with them."
How are we going to do that?" cried Grumbler.
"Yes, how?" said" Thinklittle. "We are not
la strong enough to keep up with those storks."
"Silence!" cried Mother Thrush, now much ex-
cited. "Say not a word, but do as I do."
The storks slowly raised their awkward bodies and
spread their huge wings. Then they soared into
20the air, trailed their legs behind them, and crying
hoarsely, took their course straight across the sea.
"Now! cried Mother Thrush. "Be quick!
Follow me, and do as I do!"
She darted into the midst of the flock of storks,
25 with her four broodlings close beside her. For a
moment or two, she fluttered over a gray-winged
stork, and then settled down upon the bird's broad
back and nestled between her wings. All her family
followed, and cuddled down beside her. For a short
time they felt so strange in their odd resting place 5
that they kept very still. But after a while the
young ones began to talk.
This is a pleasant voyage, indeed," said Think-
little. -- How nice to ride on the backs of these big
storks! The people who ride on camels, or on the o1
little donkeys that trot to and from the pyramids,
have not half so pleasant a time."
Now I understand what mother meant when she
spoke of ships," said Songful. "I wonder if she
thinks our stork will carry us all the way across." 15
Indeed, she will! said Mother Thrush.
"Yes," said Grumbler; she may, if she doesn't
shake us all off and drown us!"
They rode on for many and many a mile, some-
times being a little frightened as the stork fluttered 20
to and fro, or sank and rose again. But now and
then they ventured to peep out between the wide-
spread wings, and look down upon the green sea
that rolled beneath them.
Mother," at last said Thankful. 25
"Well, my dear."
"Don't you think that the stork must be very
tired, and that we ought to do something
to comfort and cheer her as she flies?"
5 "Hush!" cried
Thinklittle. If the
stork finds that we are
here, she will toss us off
of her back.'' "--'
10 "Oh, who cares if. the
stork is tired," said Grumbler. "She can
feel no worse than we do."
Thankful was silent for a little while.
Then she crept close to her brother Songful, and the
15two twittered softly together for a moment. At
last, without a word to the others, they lifted their
heads and broke forth together into song. The notes
of the duet rose sweet and clear above the fluttering
of the stork's wings and the whistling of the shrill
20 north wind.
Ah cried Thinklittle, as he heard the song; it
is very sweet, indeed, and I feel almost like singing
too. But what if the old stork should hear us! "
"Yes, indeed," said Grumbler. "It is very fool-
25 ish to let her know that we are here."
But the stork listened to the song with pleasure
and was not at all angry. More than once she
turned her head backward, and out of her deep round
eyes looked kindly upon the singers.
"Thank you,'' she said when the song was ended.
"You have cheered the way with your pleasant song.
I am so glad that you chose to come with me." 5
Thinklittle was ashamed of himself, and began to
warble a pretty tune; and then Grumbler forgot to
complain, and joined in the song.
From that time on, all the way across the sea, the
carrier stork was made happy by the melody of the 1o
grateful thrushes. At last the northern shore was
reached, and the thrushes rose from the back of the
great bird that had carried them so far and so safely.
Then breaking into a chorus of song, with sweet
words of farewell, they flew away to make the rest is
of the journey home upon their own wings.
When they reached the green fields and broad
canals of Holland, they found the good stork and
her friends already at home on the tall chimneys of
an old town; and after friendly greetings they set 20
to work building their own nests.
Now it happened that this story was much talked
about in Holland, and so from that day to this the
little song birds which cross the sea on the backs of
the great storks are said to warble all the way. 25
And the storks are glad to carry them, because of
their sweet songs. -Henry C. McCook.
THE HAYMAKERS -OLD STYLE.
It is five o'clock. The morning is clear and
fresh. A hundred birds, -yes, five hundred are
singing as birds never sing except in the morning.
Will it rain to-day? The heavens overhead look
5 like it, but the barometer says, No." Then a few
rounds with the scythe before breakfast, by way of
getting the path open 1
There they go, a pretty pair of mowers! The
blinking dewdrops on the grass tops wink at them
0oand pitch headlong under the stroke of the swing-
ing scythe. How low and musical is the sound of
a scythe in its passage through a thick pile of grass!
There sounds the horn Breakfast is ready. All
the children are farmer's boys for the occasion.
15 Bless their appetites It does one good to
see growing children eat with a real '
hearty appetite. Mountain air, a free
foot in grassy fields and open groves, --
plain food and enough of it these
20 things kill the lilies in the cheek and
bring forth roses.
But we must hasten and make hay
while the sun shines. Already John Dargan is
whetting his scythe, John, as tough as a knot,
a strong as steel, famous in all the region for plow-
ing, and equally skillful at mowing -turning his
furrow and cutting his swath alike smoothly and
evenly. The man of the farm strikes in first; John
follows, and away they go uphill toward the sun.
Round and round the field they go, with steady 5
swing, the grass plot growing less at every turn.
Meanwhile all the boys have been at work spread-
ing grass. The noon hour comes on. It passes, and
the sun begins to slope toward the western horizon.
It is time to house the hay. The day is gone, and to
the night comes.
With another morning, and that Saturday morn-
ing, comes up the sun without a single cloud; the
... .air is clear as crystal. No mist on the river;
no fleece on the mountains. 15
f ^ '. nYet the barometer is sinking has been
sinking all night. It has fallen more than
S^ a quarter of an inch and continues slowly
S : to fall. Our plans must be laid accord-
singly. We will cut the clover, and pre-20
pare to get in all yesterday's mowing before
Eaking-Old Style, two o'clock. One load we roll in before
dinner. While snatching our hasty meal, affairs
grow critical. The sun is hidden. The noon is dark.
Now, if you wish to see pretty working, follow the 25
cart. The long forks fairly leap among the hay; to
a backward lift they spring up, poise a moment in
the air, and shoot their burdens forward upon the
load, where they are caught by the nimble John, and
in a twinkling are in their place.
We hear thunder and see the lightning flash on
5 the horizon. There are no lazybones here! All the
girls and ladies come forth to the fray. Delicate
hands are making lively work, raking up the scat-
tered grass, and flying with right nimble steps here
and there, bent on cheating the rain of its expected
And now the long windows are formed. The
last load of hay from the other fields has just rolled
into the barn! Down jumps John, and rolls up the
windows into huge round piles. We follow and
is glean with the rake. The last one is finished.
A drop patters down on my face, -another, and
another. Look at those baseless mountains that
tower in the west, black as night at the bottom,
glowing like snow at the top edges! Far in the
20 north the rain has begun to pour down upon old
Greylock! But the sun is shining through the
shower and turning it to a golden atmosphere.
Only a look can we spare, and all of us run for the
house and in good time. Down comes the flood, and
25 every drop is musical. We pity the neighbors who,
not warned by a barometer, are racing and chasing
to secure their outlying crop.
THE HAYMAKERS-NEW STYLE.
It is now nearly seven o'clock in the morning -
but early enough for laboring men to be in the field.
Ten hours five before noon, and five after is a
long day's work, and nobody, save the farmer and his
boys, can be expected to do more. And here come 5
the mowing machines, one, two, three, four, each
drawn by a team of sturdy but spirited horses.
What elegant pieces of mechanism these mowers are!
And yet, how simple, how light, how strong! Not
much like the first rude contrivances, that were 10
made for the same purpose some forty years ago.
Open the gate, Patrick, and let them drive into
the field. Johnson, with the team of sprightly
blacks, will take the lead; for he is a careful driver,
and his fast-walking horses will keep well out of the s1
way of those that follow. Now, while they are
making ready for the start, cast your eye over the
sea of waving timothy before you. Thirty acres of
the finest meadow land in the country -level as a
floor, and not a stump or a stick or a stone in the 20
way. What would your grandfather have done in
such a field, with only an old-fashioned scythe or
two, and so much grass to be cut?
And now the work begins The sickle bars are
let down. The drivers, on their comfortable spring 25
seats, give the word to the horses, and they start
off gayly enough, but steadily for they know that
this is to be no holiday for them. Clicket-clicket-
clicket-clicket-clicket! sings the row of sharp knives,
5 sickle, as it flies
back and forth
faster than your \
eye can follow it.
It spares nothing
o that comes in its
way. The tall ,
timothy, the strag- Johnson takes the lead.
gling bl e grass, the blossoming clover, fall prostrate
as it passes. No need now for the boys to toss the
15 hay with their pitchforks ; for it is already spread,
and much more evenly than they could spread it.
Johnson takes the lead, keeping his blacks close to
the fence and driving them right over a road's width
of standing grass. But never mind that. When he
20 has gone once round, he will turn back upon it, and
his machine will take up and cut all that is now.
being overrun. The other mowers follow in order
and at short distances apart. Talk about the music
of the old-fashioned scythe! Clicket-clicket-clicket-
2 clicket! Only listen to the flying sickles of these
four mowers as they cut their way through tall
grass and short alike! They are the quartette
of the hayfield singing in unison the song of the-
-As to the blinking of dewdrops, who cares for
them, nowadays? The sooner the sun disposes of
them, the better. And the birds ? Well, if any lark 5
has foolishly built her nest among the sheltering
tufts of blue grass, let her make haste to leave it -
for mowing machines have no hearts of pity for such
creatures. And woe to the young quails whose wings
are not yet strong enough to carry them out of the 1o
reach of danger! It is not likely that any bird dares
to sing in the midst of this destruction and terror.
If he does so, his song is unheard.
Each mower has gone seven times round the field.
The sun pours down scorching hot, turning the cut is
grass into hay almost as fast as it falls. The horses
are reeking with sweat. The men in their comforta-
ble spring seats are warm and hungry, but not tired
in the true sense of the word. More than half of the
thirty acres has been mowed. In a single forenoon 20
they have done as much as your grandfather and
three of his mowers, with John Dargan besides, could
have done in a week and they have done it better,
After a long noon hour they are at it again. And 25
now come Patrick and the two big boys with the
rakes. No miserable hand rakes to blister your palms
and make your back and shoulders ache but genu-
ine horse rakes with a wheel at each end and a nice
seat for the driver above. One of them
will pile up more hay in a minute
a than you could put together
with a pitchfork in an hour;
and there is no labor about
it except for the horse.
See how quickly the long ". '::....
1o windows are thrown together S
C Raking- New Style,
all round the field! And
neither the girls nor the ladies have helped.
What if the barometer is sinking ? Let the mow-
ers keep on with their work. With all this machin-
15 ery to help us, we can snap our fingers at the rain.
And now the great wagons come to the field.
The horse pitchforks are set to work. The loading
of the long windows is the hardest work of all, but
it is done with speed. The thunder clouds begin to
20 mutter far away in the west. The mowers stop.
A small square of timothy--three or four acres,
more or less--is still standing in the center of the
field; but it will be easy to finish that to-morrow.
Johnson and the other drivers lead their teams to the
25barn, and leave off work for the day. What care
they whether the hay which they have cut be housed
or not ? That is no. part of their business.
But it is safely housed. The last monster load is
driven under the great sheds just as the big drops
begin to patter down from the clouds. Quick work
this But what may we not do when we have horse
power and cog wheels and cold iron to help us ? 5
Not much poetry in it, did yon say ? Ah, no And
to tell the truth there was not much poetry in the old
style of haymaking, save to those who stood a good
distance away and looked on. To the haymakers
themselves there was more backache than romance, 10
and more weariness than music. And so the world
ever changes from the old to the new, but who can
tell whether the former times were better or worse
than our own?
THE REAPER AND THE FLOWERS.
4 iAmiong all our American poets no one is more 15
Swiil.ly known and more generally loved than
Henry W. Longfellow. The sweetness of his
s.:.igs and the simple beauty of his ballads
1 re a source of never-ceasing delight to all
S classes of readers. Many of his best 20
known poems were composed during
/ the earlier part of his life, when he ap-
peared as in this'portrait. "The Reaper
\ ,' and the Flowers" was written in De-
Scember, 1838, "with peace in my heart, 25
Henry W. Longfellow, and not without tears in my eyes."
There is a Reaper whose name is Death,
And, with his sickle keen,
He reaps the bearded grain at a breath,
And the flowers that grow between.
5 "Shall I have naught that is fair? saith he;
"Have naught but the bearded grain ?
Though the breath of these flowers is sweet to me,
I will give them all back again."
He gazed at the flowers with tearful eyes,
10 He kissed their drooping leaves;
It was for the Lord of Paradise
He bound them in his sheaves.
My Lord has need of these flowerets gay,"
The Reaper said, and smiled;
15 Dear tokens of the earth are they,
Where he was once a child.
"They shall all bloom in fields of light,
Transplanted by my care,
And saints, upon their garments white,
20 These sacred blossoms wear."
And the mother gave, in tears and pain,
The flowers she most did love;,
She knew she should find them all again
In the fields of light above.
rr mtne ramn y J UamUbac. En~pred by E. HUlemnao.
"'T was an angel visited the green earth."
Oh, .not in cruelty, not in wrath,
The Reaper came that day;
'Twas an angel visited the green earth,
And took the flowers away.
STHE DAY IS DONE.
The day is done, and the darkness
Falls from the wings of Night,
As a feather is wafted downward
From an eagle in his flight.
I see the lights of the village
Gleam through the rain and mist,
And a feeling of sadness comes o'er me
That my soul can not resist -
A feeling of sadness and longing,
That is not akin to pain,
And resembles sorrow only
As the mist resembles the rain.
Come, read to me some poem,
Some simple and heartfelt lay,
That shall soothe this restless feeling,
And banish the thoughts of day.
Not from the grand old masters,
Not from the bards sublime,
8CH. READ. IV.-5
Whose distant footsteps echo
Through the corridors of Time.
For, like strains of martial music,
Their mighty thoughts suggest
Life's endless toil and endeavor; 5
And to-night I long for rest.
Read from some humbler poet,
Whose songs gushed from his heart,
As showers from the clouds of summer,
Or tears from the eyelids start; 10
Who, through long days of labor,
And nights devoid of ease,
Still heard in his soul the music
Of wonderful melodies.
Such songs have power to quiet 15
The restless pulse of care,
And come like the benediction
That follows after prayer.
Then read from the treasured volume
The poem of thy choice, 20
And lend to the rhyme of the poet
The beauty of thy voice.
And the night shall be filled with music,
And the cares that infest the day,
Shall fold their tents, like the Arabs, 26
And as silently steal away.
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
It was not until more than a year after the battle
of Lexington that the people of the American colo-
nies began seriously to think of independence from
Great Britain. True, the laws of the king of Eng-
5 land had been openly opposed; an army had been
formed, with George Washington as commander in
chief; there had been sharp fighting in more than
one place, and the British soldiers had been driven
out of Boston. But the Americans were contending
o0 only for their liberties as British subjects. Give
us," said they, the rights that properly belong to
us, and we will submit."
But the king and his counselors refused to listen.
Matters grew rapidly worse and worse. The breach
15 between the colonies and the mother country became
wider and wider every day. Men were everywhere
losing their feeling of attachment to England. At
last the question of independence began to be openly
20 The Continental Congress was sitting in the old
State House at Philadelphia. The men who com-
posed it represented the people of the thirteen colo-
nies; among them were many whose names afterwards
became famous in the history of our country. They
25 pondered this question long; they discussed it in all
its bearings; they studied it from every point of
view. To submit, and make peace with Great Britain'
now, would be but to fasten the chains of slavery
upon the colonies ; to go on with the conflict might
result only in disaster. At last, on the 7th of June, 5
1776, Richard Henry Lee arose and, in clear, sharp
tones that rang into the very street, offered this reso-
lution: "Resolced, That these United Colonies are,
and ought to be, free and independent States, and
all political connection between us and the State of 1o
Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved."
John Adams seconded the resolution, and at the
same time made a speech, so full of fervor and pro-
phetic ardor, that every man who heard him was car-
ried away by its eloquence. A committee was named 15
to write a Declaration of Independence, and further
action upon the resolution was postponed until the
1st of July.
When the appointed day came, Mr. Lee's resolu-
tion was taken up, in committee of the whole, and 20
nine colonies agreed to it. On the following day,
July 2d, the final vote was taken upon it by Congress,
and all the colonies, except one, voted in favor of it.
In the meanwhile, on the 28th of June, the Decla-
ration of Independence had been submitted. It was 25
the work chiefly of Thomas Jefferson; but the task
of urging its adoption by Congress fell mainly upon
From tle P tinting by John Trumbull.
Engraved by E. Heineoma.
Signing the Declaration of Independence,
John Adams. No sooner was Mr. Lee's resolution
disposed of than the Declaration was taken up and
read. Each article was considered and separately
discussed. The whole matter was bitterly opposed
by some of the members; but after a debate which 5
lasted for nearly three days, the Declaration, as it
now stands, was adopted.
It was signed on the 4th of July, by John Han-
cock, the president of Congress, and published on the
same day; but not until the 2d of August, after it to
had been engrossed, were the names of the other
members affixed to it.
The famous painting by John Trumbull represents
the interior of the hall as it was supposed to be at
the moment when the Declaration was finally passed. 15
In the president's chair sits John Hancock, before
him stand Jefferson and Adams and Franklin, while
around the hall, in dignified silence, sit or stand the
other delegates from the colonies great men all,
whose names will be remembered so long as our 20
Republic shall endure.
The following story, more fanciful than true, is
often told of the manner in which the adoption of
the Declaration was made known to the world: -
There was tumult in the city,
In the quaint old Quaker town,
And the streets were rife with people
Pacing restless up and down:
5 People gathering at corners,
Where they whispered, each to each,
And the sweat stood on their temples,
With the earnestness of speech,
As the bleak Atlantic currents
0o Lash the wild Newfoundland shore,
So they beat against the State House,
So they surged against the door;
And the mingling of their voices
Made a harmony profound,
15 Till the quiet street of chestnuts
Was all turbulent with sound.
"Will they do it ?" "Dare they do it ?"
"Who is speaking ?" What's the news?"
"What of Adams ?" "What of Sherman ?"
20 "Oh, God grant they won't refuse "
"Make some way, there !" "Let me nearer !"
I am stifling "Stifle, then;
When a nation's life's at hazard
We've no time to think of men."
So they beat against the portal -
Man and woman, maid and child;
And the July sun in heaven
On the scene looked down and smiled:
The same sun that saw the Spartan a
Sled his patriot blood in vain,
Now beheld the soul of freedom
All unconquered rise again.
Aloft in that high steeple
Sat the bellman, old and gray; 10
He was weary of the tyrant
And his iron-sceptered sway;
So he sat with one hand ready
On the clapper of the bell,
When his eye should catch the signal, 15
Very happy news to tell.
See! see the dense crowd quivers
Through all its lengthy line,
As the boy beside the portal
Looks forth to give the sign! 20
With his small hands upward lifted,
Breezes dallying with his hair,-
Hark! with deep clear intonation,
Breaks his young voice on the air.
Hushed the people's swelling murmur-
List the boy's strong joyous cry !
"Ring! he shouts aloud; "Ring Grandpa,
Ring Oh, ring for liberty !"
5 And straightway, at the signal,
The old bellman lifts his hand,
And sends the good news, making
Iron music through the land.
How they shouted! what rejoicing!
10 How the old bell shook the air,
Till the clang of freedom ruffled
The calm gliding Delaware.
How the bonfires and the torches
Illumed the night's repose,
1s And from the flames, like Phoenix,
Fair liberty arose!
That old bell now is silent,
And hushed its iron tongue,
But the spirit it awakened
20 Still lives forever young !
We'll ne'er forget the bellman,
Who, twixtt the earth and sky,
Rung out our independence;
Which, please God, shall never die!
A Christmas Story.
/ Once upon a time, so long ago that everybody
has forgotten the date, there was a little boy whose
name was Jean. He lived with his aunt in a tall
old house in a city whose name is so hard to pro-
nounce that nobody can speak it. He was seven 5
years old, and he could not remember that he
had ever seen his father or his mother.
The old aunt who had the care of little Jean was
very selfish and cross. She gave him dry bread to
eat, of which there was never enough; and not more to
than once in the year did she speak kindly to him.
But the poor boy loved this woman, because he
had no one else to love; and there was never a day
so dark that he did not think of the sunlight.
Everybody knew that Jean's aunt owned a house 15
and had a stocking full of gold under her bed, and
so she did not dare to send the little boy to the
school for the poor, as she would have liked to do.
But a schoolmaster on the next street agreed to
teach him for almost nothing; and whenever there 20
was work he could do, he was kept at home.
The schoolmaster had an unkind feeling for Jean,
because he brought him so little money and was
dressed so poorly. And so the boy was punished
very often, and had to bear the blame for all the
wrong that was done in the school.
The little fellow was often very sad; and more
5 than once he hid himself where he could not be seen
and cried as though his heart would break. But at
last Christmas came.
The night before Christmas there was to be sing-
ing in the church, and the schoolmaster was to be
to there with all his boys; and everybody was to have
a very happy time looking at the Christmas candles
and listening to the sweet music.
The winter had set in, very cold and rough, and
there was much snow on the ground; and so the
15 boys came to the schoolhouse with fur caps drawn
down over their ears, and heavy coats, and warm
gloves, and thick high-topped boots.
But little Jean had no warm clothes. He came
shivering in the thin coat which he wore on Sundays
20 in summer; and there was nothing on his feet but
coarse stockings very full of holes, and
a pair of heavy wooden shoes.
The other boys made many jokes
about his sad looks and his worn-out clothes. But
25 the poor child was so busy, blowing his fingers and
thumping his toes to keep them warm, that he did
not hear what was said. And when the hour came,
the whole company of boys, with the schoolmaster at
the front, started to the church.
It was very fine in the church. Hundreds of wax
candles were burning in their places, and the air was
so warm that Jean soon forgot his aching fingers. 5
The boys sat still for a little while; and then while
the singing was going on and the organ was making
loud music, they began in low voices to talk to one
another; and each told about the fine things that
were going to be done at his home on the morrow. to
The mayor's son told of a monstrous goose that
he had seen in the kitchen before he came away; it
was stuffed, and stuck all over with cloves till it was
as spotted as a leopard. Another boy whispered of a
little fir tree in a wooden box in his mother's parlor; 15
its branches were full of fruits and nuts and candy
and beautiful toys. And he said that he was sure of
a fine dinner, for the cook had pinned the two strings
of her cap behind her back, as she always did when
something wonderfully good was coming. 20
Then the children talked of what Santa Claus
would bring them, and of what he would put in their
shoes, which, of course, they would leave by the fire-
place when they went to bed. And the eyes of the
little fellows danced with joy, as they thought of the 25
bags of candy and the lead soldiers, and the grand
jumping jacks which they would draw out in the
But little Jean said nothing. He knew that his
5 selfish old aunt would send him to bed without any
supper, as she always did. But he felt in his heart
that he had been all the year as good and kind as he
could be; and so he hoped that kind Santa Claus
would not forget him nor fail to see his wooden shoes
1o which he would put in the ashes in the corner of the
At last the singing stopped, the organ was silent,
and the Christmas music was ended. The boys arose
in order and left the church, two by two, as they
15 had entered it; and the teacher walked in front.
Now, as he passed through the door of the church,
little Jean saw a child sitting on one of the stone
steps and fast asleep in the midst of the snow. The
child was thinly clad, and his feet, cold as it was,
20 were bare.
In the pale light of the moon, the face of the
child, with its closed eyes, was full of a sweetness
which is not of this earth, and his long locks of yel-
low hair seemed like a golden crown upon his head.
25 But his poor bare feet, blue in the cold of that winter
night, were sad to look upon.
The scholars, so warmly clad, passed before the
strange child, and did not so much as glance that
way. But little Jean, who was the last to come out
of the church, stopped, full of pity, before him.
"Ah, the poor child! he said to himself. "How 5
sad it is that he must go barefoot in such weather as
His poor bare feet were sad to look upon,
this! And what is still worse, he has not a stocking,
nor even a wooden shoe, to lay before him while he
sleeps, so that kind Santa Claus can put something
in it to make him glad when he wakens." 10
Little Jean did not stand long to think about it;
but in the goodness of his heart, he took off the
wooden shoe from his right foot and laid it by the
side of the sleeping child. Then, limping along
through the snow, and shivering with cold, he went
down the street till he came to his cheerless home.
You worthless fellow!" cried his aunt. "Where
5 have you been? What have you done with your
Little Jean trembled now with fear as well as with
the cold; but he had no thought of deceiving his
angry aunt. He told her how he had given the shoe
o0 to a child that was poorer than himself. The woman
laughed an ugly, wicked laugh.
"And so," she said, "our fine young gentleman
takes off his shoes for beggars! He gives his wooden
shoe to a barefoot! Well, we shall see. You may
15 put the shoe that is left in the chimney, and, mind
what I say! If anything is left in it, it will be a
switch to whip you with in the morning. To-mor-
row, for your Christmas dinner, you shall have
nothing but a hard crust of bread to eat and cold
20 water to drink. I will show you how to give away
your shoes to the first beggar that comes along! "
The wicked woman struck the boy upon the cheek
with her hand, and then made him climb up to his bed
in the loft. Sobbing with grief and pain, little Jean
25 lay on his hard, cold bed, and did not go to sleep till
the moon had gone down and the Christmas bells
had rung in the glad day of peace and good will.
In the morning when the old woman arose grum-
bling and went downstairs, a wonderful sight met
her eyes. The great chimney was full of beautiful
toys and bags of candy and all kinds of pretty
things; and right in the midst of these was the 5
wooden shoe which Jean had given to the child,
and near it was its mate in which the wicked
aunt had meant to put a strong switch.
The woman was so amazed that she cried out
and stood still as if in a fright. Little Jean lo
Heard the cry and ran downstairs as quickly as
he could to see what was the matter. He, too,
stopped short when he saw all the beautiful things
that were in the chimney. But as he stood and
looked, he heard people laughing in the street. 15
What did it all mean?
By the side of the town pump many of the neigh-
bors were standing. Each was telling what had
happened at his home that morning. The boys who
had rich parents and had been looking for beautiful 20
gifts, had found onlylong switches in their shoes.
But, in the meanwhile, Jean and his aunt stood
still and looked at the wonderful gifts around the
two wooden shoes. Who had placed them there?
And where now was the kind, good giver? 25
Then, as they still wondered, they heard the voice
of some one reading in the little chapel over the
way: "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least
of these-" And then, in some strange way, they
understood how it had all come about; and even the
6 heart of the wicked aunt was softened. And their
eyes were filled with tears and their faces with
smiles, as they knelt down together and thanked the
good God for what he had done to reward the kind-
ness and love of a little child.
-Adapted from the French of Frangois Oopple.
lo Henry's father was fond of asking him puzzling
questions. One day he said, "How many people do
you suppose helped to get the breakfast that you
ate this morning?"
"Two," answered Henry, without stopping to
15 think. Mother made the coffee, and Mary broiled
the steak and fried the eggs and did all the rest of
Mr. K. Yes, but that was only a small part of
what was done in order that you might begin the
20 day with a good, wholesome meal. Many people
whom you never saw were at work weeks and
months ago, helping to get that breakfast.
8CH. READ. IV.-6
Henry. I don't see how that could be.
Mr. K. Well, let us begin with the coffee.
Henry. Yes. Mother made that.
Mr. K. She only made it ready for you to drink.
Away off in the southern part of Arabia, or per- 5
haps it was in the sunny land'of Brazil, a young
Sj man gathered and dried the berries of which
the coffee was made. Another man carried the
coffee berries to market; a trader in coffee
bought them; one of his servants packed them, to
with more than a bushel of such grains, in a
strong coffee sack; a sailor carried the coffee
on board of a ship, and another sailor took it
down into the ship's hold. The ship sailed across
the sea, and after it had reached New York the 15
coffee was taken out of the hold, and other men
carried it to the shore. A truckman hauled the
bags away from the wharf, a commission merchant's
workmen stored them in a warehouse. By and
by the village grocer bought some of the coffee, 20
and among it were the very berries that were used
for you this morning. The expressman carried it
to the grocery store; the grocer's clerk ground the
berries in his coffee mill; and the grocer's boy
brought the crushed coffee to your mother yester-25
day. Now, how many persons helped to make your
coffee and get it ready for you to drink ?
Henry. Fourteen or fifteen, besides mother.
Mr. K. But you have not counted all. Your
coffee was made up in large part of water which
somebody must have drawn up from the
5 well or forced through the water pipes
from the waterworks. It also contained
milk or cream, which the milkman brought
to the door.
Henry. Oh, yes, I see. And there was
0o sugar in it, too, which came from -
Mr. K. The sugar came from Louisiana, or it
may be from Cuba. A good many people took part
in the making of that sugar. One man planted and
is cultivated the sugar cane; another cut it, and hauled
it to the mill; a third passed it through great rollers
which squeezed all the juice out of it; a fourth
saw that the juice was emptied into boilers or
evaporating pans; a fifth kept the fire burn- ._
20 ing underneath the boilers; a sixth drained ',
off the sirup from the granulated sugar; a 'I. "I;
seventh put the sugar into a barrel and made it
ready for shipment; an eighth rolled the barrel into
a wagon; and a ninth hauled it to the wharf at the
25 bank of the river. Indeed, it would be hard to say
how many people, first and last, helped you to that
spoonful of sugar. At least fifty, I should say.
Henry. And all that labor for a cup of coffee I
never thought of it before.
M1r. K. All that, and more too! If we knew
the entire history of the coffee which you drank so
thoughtlessly and yet with so much relish, we should 5
find that it required the labor of several hundred
persons to make it ready and bring it to you.
Henry. Mary brought it to me. But the coffee
was only a small part of my breakfast.
3Mr. K. True! There was the bread. It was made to
From wheat which I suppose grew in Dakota.
Think of the man that sowed the wheat, of him
that reaped it, of him that threshed it, of him
That hauled it to market-and then of the
millers and merchants and grocers and bakers 15
S who groimd it and bought and sold the flour
and prepared it for your use. You may count
Them for yourself if you can.
Henry. I am sure I could never count them. But,
now that I think of it, there were the baking powder 20
and the salt. It must have taken a good many men
to make them, too.
Mr. K. There is no doubt about it. Then, be-
sides the coffee and the bread, there is the beefsteak
which Mary broiled so nicely for you. A few weeks 25
ago it was a part of a living animal roaming at will
in the grassy fields. How many people do you
think were engaged, first in taking care of the ox,
and then in preparing his flesh and bringing it to us,
all ready for the broiling ?
Henry. I should think fifty, at least.
5 Mr. K. Then, you had potatoes, didn't you?
The gardener brought them in from his own fields,
and so they did not pass through very many
hands. You have already spoken of the
salt. It came, no doubt, from the salt '_
o wells of Michigan, or of New York. and ;
many men found work in the making of .
it. The pepper with which you seasoned
your potatoes was brought from the East
Indies, on the other side of the world.
15 Henry. It makes me feel quite rich to think that
so many people have been at work getting things
for my breakfast.
Mr. K. Yes; you might say that you have ser-
vants in every part of the world, and that more
20than a thousand persons whom you never saw are
busy every day, preparing and getting together and
carrying the good things that you use for food.
Henry. But they work for other people as well as
for me. Indeed, it seems as if everybody is working
25 for everybody else.
Mr. K. It is just so. And if we should speak of
your clothing and of your books and of your amuse-
ments, we might number your servants by the tens
of thousands. Here, indeed, is the great difference
between a civilized people and a barbarous people.
In civilized life everybody is served by every-
body else. But the savage does everything for 5
himself. He raises his own corn, he prepares
his own food, he makes his own clothing, he
S builds his own house. His wants are few and
simple. He has no servant but himself.
Henry. Haven't you forgotten his poor wife? I10
have heard that she is his servant.
Mr. K. That is true. In fact, she does the greater
part of his work, and she alone gets his breakfast.
There is nobody on the other side of the world pick-
ing coffee berries for him. No .ships are sailing is
across the sea to bring him spices and sugar. No
steam cars are hurrying over the land, laden with
bread and meat for him. Do you think that he can
enjoy his breakfast as well as you do yours?
Henry. I don't see how he can. 20
Mr. K. Well, a great deal depends upon what a
person is accustomed to. The savage has never
known anything about the luxuries which we have,
and he would not know how to use them if he had
them. He enjoys himself in his own rude way; but 25
his pleasures are few and selfish, and he knows
nothing of the real joys of life.
WOODMAN, SPARE THAT TREE.
Woodman, spare that tree!
Touch not a single bough!
In youth it sheltered me,
And I'll protect it now.
5 'Twas my forefather's hand
That placed it near his cot;
There, woodman, let it stand,
Thy ax shall harm it not!
That old familiar tree,
10 Whose glory and renown
Are spread o'er land and sea,
And wouldst thou hew it down?
Woodman, forbear thy stroke!
Cut not its earth-bound ties;
15 Oh, spare that aged oak
Now towering to the skies!
When but an idle boy,
I sought its grateful shade;
In all their gushing joy
20 Here too my sisters played.
My mother kissed me here;
My father pressed my hand;
Forgive this foolish tear,
But let that old oak stand.
My heartstrings round thee cling,
Close as thy bark, old friend!
Here shall the wild bird sing,
And still thy branches bend.
Old tree! the storm still brave 5
And, woodman, leave the spot;
While I've a hand to save,
Thy ax shall harm it not.
A LEAP FOR LIFE.
Old Ironsides at anchor lay
In the harbor of Mah6n; 10
A dead calm rested on the bay,
The waves to sleep had gone,
When little Jack, the captain's son,
With gallant hardihood,
Climbed shroud and spar, and then upon 1B
The main truck rose and stood.
A shudder ran through every vein,
All eyes were turned on high;
There stood the boy with dizzy brain
Between the sea and sky. 20
No hold had he above, below;
Alone he stood in air!
At that far height none dared to go,
No aid could reach him there.
We gazed, but not a man could speak;
With horror all aghast,
In groups, with pallid brow and cheek,
We watched the quivering mast.
5 The atmosphere grew thick and hot,
And of a lurid hue,
As, riveted fast to the spot,
Stood officers and crew.
The father came on deck. He gasped,
1o 0 God, thy will be done! "
Then suddenly a rifle grasped,
And aimed it at his son.
"Jump far out, boy, into the wave!
Jump, or I fire! he said.
15 "That chance alone your life can save;
Jump! jump, boy! -He obeyed.
He sank, he rose, he lived, he moved,-
He for the ship struck out.
On board we hailed the lad beloved.
20 With many a joyous shout.
His father drew, in silent joy,
Those wet arms round his neck,
Then folded to his heart the boy,
And fainted on the deck.
George P. Morris.
Eighty years ago there were no such things as
railroads; and so, when Tom Brown was sent down
to Rugby to the famous boys' school which is there,
he had to ride in a stagecoach. The story of his
| .. _~ ~ .. .. .
The coachmen gather up their horses and pass one another,
journey is told in a delightful book called "Tom 5
Brown's School Days." This book, which has given
pleasure to many thousands of young readers, was
written by Thomas Hughes, an Englishman; and
the story of the ride to Rugby is about as follows:
It is three o'clock in the morning of a November lo
day, and Tom Brown and his father are in a little
wayside tavern waiting for the fast coach that is
expected to pass some time before daylight. Tom's
father has ordered a luncheon to be served, and their
last hour together has passed very pleasantly.
5 The lad has swallowed his last mouthful, and is
winding his comforter round his throat and tucking
the ends into the breast of his coat, when the sound
of the horn is heard. The next moment they hear
the ring and the rattle of the four fast trotters and
lothe town-made coach as they dash up to the door
of the tavern.
Anything for us, Bob ?" says the burly guard,
dropping down from behind and swinging his arms
to keep warm.
15 "Young gentleman, Rugby; three parcels, Leices-
ter; hamper of game, Rugby," is the answer.
Tell the young gent to look alive," says the
guard, throwing in the parcels. "Here, make a
place for this satchel up a-top- I'll fasten it soon.
2o Now then, sir, jump up behind."
Good-bye, father my love at home."
A last shake of the hand.
Up goes Tom, the guard catching his hat box and
holding on with one hand, while with the other he
2 claps the horn to his mouth.
Toot, toot, toot! the four bays plunge forward,
and away goes the tnllyho into the darkness.
Tom stands up on the coach and looks back at his
father as long as he can see him there under the
flaring tavern lamp. He wonders if the folks at
home have already begun to miss him. Then he
settles himself in his seat, and finishes his buttonings 5
and other preparations for facing the three hours
before dawn ; -no joke for those who cared for the
cold, this riding on a fast coach in chilly November.
But it had its pleasures, the old dark ride. For
there was the music of the rattling harness, and the io
ring of the horses' feet on the hard road, and the
glare of the two bright lamps through the steaming
frost, and the cheery toot of the guard's horn, and
the looking forward to daylight, and last, but not
least, the delight of having the feeling return to 15
your numbed toes which you thought had certainly
been frozen off your feet. Then the break of dawn,
and the sunrise; where can they ever be seen so well
as from the roof of a stagecoach ?
And now the tallyho is past St. Alban's, and Tom 20
is enjoying the ride, though half-frozen. The guard,
who is alone with him on the back of the coach, is
silent, but has muffled Tom's feet up in straw, and
put the end of an oat sack over his knees. In the
darkness, Tom has gone over his little past life, and 25
thought of all his doings and promises, and of his
mother and sister, and his father's last words. He
has made fifty good resolutions, and means to bear
himself like a brave Brown as he is, although a young
one. He is full of hope and life, in spite of the
cold, and kicks his heels against the
5 back board, and would like to sing,
only lie doesn't know how his friend
the guard might take it.
And now the dawn breaks, and
the coach pulls up at a little road-
1o side inn with huge stables behind.
There is a bright fire gleaming .
through the red curtains of the win-
dows, and the door is open. The
coachman catches his whip into a
15 double thong and throws it aside; /,
the steam of the horses rises straight /'.
up into the air. He has put them along fast, over
the last two miles, and is two minutes before his
time; he rolls down from the box and into the inn.
20 The guard rolls off behind. "Now, sir," says he
to Tom, "you just jump down and warm yourself up
a bit! ".
But they are soon out again, and up. The coach-
man comes last, swinging himself up on to the box
25- the horses dashing off in a canter before he -falls
into his seat. Toot, toot, toot! goes the horn, and
away they are again, five and thirty miles on their
road, and the prospect of a warm breakfast soon.
Now it is light enough to see, and the early life of
the country comes out-a market cart or two, men s
going to their work pipe in mouth, a pack of hounds
jogging along at the heels of a huntsman.
The sun comes up, and the mist shines like silver
gauze. An up coach meets them, and the coachmen
gather up their horses and pass one another with a io
lift of the elbow, each team going eleven miles an
hour, with a mile to spare behind if necessary.
And here comes breakfast.
"Twenty minutes here, gentlemen!" says the
coachman, as they pull up at half-past seven at15
the inn door.
There is the low wainscoted room
hung with sporting prints; the hat-
stand by the door; the blazing fire; the
S table covered with the whitest of cloths 20
and china, and bearing a pigeon pie, a
ham, a round of cold boiled beef, and
the great loaf of household bread on
a wooden trencher. And here comes
the stout head waiter puffing under a tray of hot 2
foods: chops and steaks, poached eggs, buttered toast
and muffins, coffee and tea, all smoking hot.
The table can never hold it all; the cold meats
are taken away -they were only put on for show
5 and to give us an appetite. And now fall on,
gentlemen, fall on!
"Tea or coffee, sir ? says the head waiter, com-
ing round to Tom.
Coffee, please," says Tom, with his mouth full of
1o muffin and chops.
Our coachman, who breakfasts with us, is a cold-
beef man, and he shuns all hot drinks. He must
keep his nerves in trim for the long drive that is
still before him. Tom has eaten of the
15 pigeon pie,. and drank coffee, till his little
skin is as tight as a drum. Then he
has the further pleasure of paying the
head waiter out of his own purse, after
which he walks out and stands before
20 the inn door to see the horses put to _
the coach. No hurry about this. The
coachman comes out with his waybill;
and the guard is soon there, too.
"Now, sir, please says the coachman. All the
25 passengers are up; the guard is shutting the door.
The horses are impatient to be going.
Let 'em go, Dick "
Away we fly through the market place and down
the High Street, looking in at the first-floor windows,
and seeing several worthy gentlemen shaving before
them. And, as we rattle past, all the shopboys who
are cleaning the windows, and the housemaids who 5
are washing the steps, stop and look pleased as if
we were a part of their morning's amusement.
We clear the town, and are well out between the
hedgerows as the town clock strikes eight. Before
noon, we shall be in Rugby. 10
_THE ENGLISH SLAVE BOYS IN ROME.
When the English people first settled in the
island which is now called England, they were
little better than savages. They were a
heathen people, and worshiped Odin and
Thor, and had many rude and cruel'cus-16
toms. This was more than fourteen hun-
dred years ago.
It so happened that, some time later,
there was living in Rome a good and kind
priest whose name was Gregory. As this 20
o0rgory. priest was one day walking in the market
place, he stopped to see some men, women, and
children who had been brought from a distant
land and were to be sold as slaves. 'Among them
were some beautiful boys, with fair skin and long
fair hair. Their looks so pleased him that he could
r not pass them by. He asked from what part of the
world they came, and whether they were Christian
or heathen. He was told that they were heathen
boys from the island of Britain. Gregory was sorry
to think that forms so fair without should have no
1o light within, and he again asked what was
the name of their nation.
"They are Angles," was the answer--
for that was the old form of the word
15 "Angels cried Gregory; they have the ,'
faces of angels, and they ought to be made .- "
fellow heirs of the angels in heaven. But
The Slave Boys.
what is the name of their king ? "
"He is called JElla," said one who stood by.
20 zElla! Surely, then, Alleluia must be sung in
Gregory then went to the Pope and asked if he
would not let him go to England to convert the
Angles who lived there. The Pope was willing;
2 but the people loved Gregory so much that they
would not agree to part with him. So nothing
came of the matter for some time.
SCH. READ. IV.-7