• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Preface
 List of Tables
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Skeletal material
 Summary
 References cited
 Plates I-XIII
 Back Cover














Group Title: Contributions of the Florida State Museum
Title: Indian Burials from St. Petersburg, Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086047/00001
 Material Information
Title: Indian Burials from St. Petersburg, Florida
Series Title: Contributions of the Florida State Museum
Physical Description: 29 p. : illus. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Snow, Charles E ( Charles Ernest ), 1910-
Publisher: University of Florida,
University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1962
Copyright Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Indians of North America -- Anthropometry   ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mounds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- Saint Petersburg (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "References sited": p. 27-29.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086047
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01806407
lccn - a 62009337

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Preface
        Preface
    List of Tables
        List of Tables
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Skeletal material
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Summary
        Page 25
        Page 26
    References cited
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Plates I-XIII
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Back Cover
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text
/ ,


CONTRIBUTIONS

OF THE

FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM



Social Sciences

Number 8





INDIAN BURIALS FROM ST. PETERSBURG, FLORIDA

Charles E. Snow


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Gainesville
1962





























ROuL S COLLEGE
N LIBRARY















PREFACE


In the study of pre-Columbian Florida we are interested not only
in the history of the cultural attainments of the early inhabitants of
our state but also in them as physical people. Archaeological and
environmental studies can tell us much about their way of life but
actual skeletal remains are needed for any physical or racial consi-
derations.
Until recently adequately documented skeletal material for Flor-
ida has not been available. The Museum's excavation at the Bayshore
Homes site in St. Petersburg gave us one of our first collections of
recently excavated material sufficiently well preserved to permit physi-
cal anthropological study.
This issue of the Contributions, Social Sciences, records Charles E.
S Snow's study of this skeletal series. Professor Snow came to the
Museum as a Collaborator during August 1959 to study and measure
the bones. Subsequently, he prepared this report at the Department
of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. He
has written many reports on skeletal material from other parts of
southeastern United States.
Ripley P. Bullen
Curator of Social Sciences














LIST OF TABLES
Page
1. Census By Age and Sex -------------------- 2
2. Cranial Measurements ----------__ ___ ________ 5
3. Cranial Indices ------------------- 9
4. Supplementary Cranial Measurements _______-____ __ 11
5. Dental Arch Measurements -------.-.-- ------ ....-_ ........ 11
6. Teeth Measurements ---------------- __ 13
7. Postcranial Measurements -------____________ 16



LIST OF PLATES


I. Typical Skulls from the Bayshore Homes Site
II. Additional Female Skulls
III. Front View of a Male and a Female Skull
IV. Side View of a Male and a Female Skull
V. Skulls from Perico Island, Florida, and Moundville, Alabama
VI. Variations in Bayshore Homes Skulls
VII. Other Variations in Bayshore Homes Skulls
VIII. Dental Variations
IX. Comparisons of Various Limb Bones
X. Arthritic Limb Bones
XI. Pathological Conditions of the Skull
XII. Additional Inflammatory Examples
XIII. Long Bones from Burial 14, Probably Syphilitic

















CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION -----


SKELETAL MATERIAL -


Skulls


Skull Comparisons ---


Teeth


Teeth and Jaw Measurements


Postcranial Bones ----


Pathology -


SUMMARY -. ---------


REFERENCES CITED


Page


1


4
--- --- ---- -- 4





--- - - - -- - - -----.. . 4


-------------------.- 8














INTRODUCTION


This paper describes some 115 prehistoric Indian individuals ex-
cavated in 1958 by William H. Sears of the Florida State Museum
from Mound B of the Bayshore Homes site in northwest St. Peters-
burg, Florida. It is his belief that these burials are representative of
the total number interred, estimated to be about 500 (Sears 1960: 24).
The fragmentary condition of the skeletal remains at the time of
their study at the Florida State Museum can be explained by the type
and manner of burial so clearly described by the excavator. They were
evidently secondary burials from a charnel house, so inter- and co-
mingled as to render the task of description virtually one of individual
identification (Sears 1960: P1. III).
Only a few adult individuals were well enough preserved to pro-
vide thorough descriptive measures and classification. However,
every possible routine measurement was made and supplementary
methods of description devised in order to abstract additional infor-
mation.
Census of the burials (Table 1) indicates a high mortality (nearly
80 per cent) before the age of 35 years. This mortality rate is similar
to that of other prehistoric American Indian populations as well as
those from ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome and prehistoric
Hawaii (Montagu 1960: 543; Snow n. d.). Indeed, recent information
gathered by the World Health Organization likewise reveals that
almost all underdeveloped nations without benefit of modern medical
science show a similar curve of early age mortality.
On the other hand, the fact that over 20 per cent of this population
lived beyond this age of death is remarkable when compared to some
other prehistoric groups. Only 5 per cent of the Indian Knoll series
(Snow 1948: 386) and of Oahu Hawaiians (Snow n. d.) lived to be
over 35. Willey (1949: 164) reports a very high sub-adult mortality
(50 per cent) among the skeletons from a mound at Cockroach Key,
Florida, while the Bayshore Homes series has only 36 per cent.
The greatest number of individuals for whom no sex could be
assigned were under 12 years of age, as is to be expected since sex









INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


characteristics of individuals at this growth period are not well devel-
oped and recorded in the bones.
Skull parts of only 35 individuals (14 males and 21 females) were
sufficiently well preserved to measure (Pls. I-IV, VI). These data are
presented in Tables 2 and 3.


TABLE 1

CENSUS BY AGE AND SEX

AGE AT SEX TOTAL PERCEN-
DEATH Unknown Male Female TAGES

Fetus 2 2 1.7
Under 1 7 1 8 7.0
1 2 6 1 7 6.1
3-5 5 1 1 7 6.1
6 12 4 4 2 10 8.7

13 20 4 3 7 6.1
21 25 10 13 23 20.0
26 35 1 15 9 25 21.7
36 50 13 12 25 21.7
Unknown 1 1 9

Total 26 48 41 115 100.0


As mentioned, the fragmentary nature of the skeletons made it
imperative to obtain as much information as possible. In this effort,
additional brain case measurements were taken on each of the major
bones of the vault. Both are and chord sizes were obtained for frontal,
parietal and occipital bones; along with the larger arcs, transverse
from portion to portion through bregma and from nasion to opisthion
in the median sagittal plane. In addition, impressed with the massive
and very often thick bone of the cranial vault, thickness measurements
were taken near the center of the parietal boss (or as close to the boss
as the curved arms of the spreading caliper permitted). Similarly,
thickness of the frontal bone was obtained near its center. With few








INTRODUCTION


exceptions, orbital roofs were so fragmentary that one caliper arm
could be introduced through them to obtain the measurement. De-
tailed results are presented in Table 4. Thus, in many instances where
only a single bone of the skull vault was present, it was still possible
to obtain some descriptive and useful information.
This report is the result of the efforts and cooperation of many
people. Ripley P. Bullen, Curator of Social Sciences of the Florida
State Museum, who requested my services for this study, and Adel-
aide K. Bullen, Associate in Anthropology of the Museum, were most
considerate and helpful associates. Ernest Nielson's skill in mending
broken bones and restoring skulls helped immeasurably. William
H. Sears was generous with his time and concise interpretations of
the burial placements and their interrelationships as revealed by ar-
chaeology.
Interpretation of bone pathology, perhaps the most outstanding
contribution of this paper, was possible through the interest and co-
operation of Ellis R. Kerley and his associates, Drs. Lent C. Johnson
and Walter Putschar, at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; T.
Dale Stewart, Curator of Physical Anthropology, United States National
Museum; and Dr. Nicholas R. Greville, Assistant Professor of Surgery
(Division of Orthopedics), College of Medicine, University of Florida.
Alice M. Brues, Anatomist at the Oklahoma Medical School, assisted
the author in this problem by sharing illustrations and descriptions
of similar pathology.
I am grateful to these people and also to Hazel O. Smith, secretary
of the Department of Anthropology, University of Kentucky, who
typed the manuscript; and my wife, Katherine B. Snow, who recorded
and compiled the data and assisted in preparing the manuscript.













SKELETAL MATERIAL


SKULLS
Measurements taken on the skulls are presented in Tables 2-4.
Morphological observations are presented descriptively rather than
in the form of a table. These data are available at the Florida State
Museum and through the Museum of Anthropology at the University
of Kentucky, should interested physical anthropologists care to exam-
ine the compilation of detailed and classified observations made on
the various skull features.
In general horizontal circumferences (Table 4) are below average.
Vaults are fairly short from front to back, but quite wide and high
with fairly wide foreheads for American Indians (Table 2; Pls. III-IV).
All these dimensions are undoubtedly influenced by head shaping
practices which deformed the adult skulls (P1. VI). These vault dimen-
sions in combination, as expressed in terms of volume (Table 3), des-
cribe a large-sized brain case. Vaults are oval in shape with flattened
occipital contours typical of shaped heads. Major bones of the vault
are notably thicker (P1. I, 42) than in most American Indian skulls
(Hrdlicka 1922: 86).
There is rugged muscle relief in the areas of the neck, temporal
regions, mastoid processes, malar bones, angles of the jaws, and as
indicated by expanded ascending rami and forward extensions of
coronoid processes (Pls. I-IV).
Brow ridges are primarily divided with both males and females
showing some of the continuous form (P1. VI). Typical sex differ-
ences separate the large brow ridges in men and the smaller ones in
women (Pls. I-II). Large degrees of postorbital contriction of the
temporal region are present in both sexes (P1. VI). The bosses, par-
ticularly on men, are small, and only a few females show the typically
large form of parietal and occipital bosses. Most of the skulls lack
parietal foramina.
Along with the high number of deformed skulls, both sexes show
considerable fullness of temporal and parietal bones (Pls. I-II). Typical
sex differences are noted in the large size of the male mastoid processes
and supramastoid crests (Pl. IV). Sphenoid depressions are medium
in both sexes. In the occipital region, females show more medium








TABLE 2


CRANIAL MEASUREMENTS
(in millimeters)


MEASUREMENT MALE FEMALE
No. Average Range No. Average Range

Glabello-occip. Ig. 11 177.6 167-194 18 169.7 161-181
Maximum breadth 13 145.2 136-150 19 140.0 133-148
Basion-bregma ht. 7 142.7 137-149 7 138.4 130-154
Porion-apex height 7 123.7 118-134 9 122.3 111-135
Basion-nasibn Ig. 6 104.0 100-108 7 100.7 96-104

.Basion-gnathion Ig. 1 119.0 ---- 2 109.5 106-113
Basion-porion ht. 6 22.3 20-25 8 21.6 14-26
Basion-prosthion Ig. 4 101.3 96-104 5 99.8 95-103
Min. frontal diam. 14 97.3 89-116 18 92.8 86-100
Max. frontal diam. 12 120.8 110-126 17 107.5 107-124

Mean th., It. pariet. 14 .5.7 4.7-9.0 21 5.4 3.0-8.0
Bizygomatic diameter 11 147.2 137-153 15 137.6 130-149
Mid-facial breadth 5 106.6 105-110 9 102.0 95-111
Nasion-gnathion ht. 4 131.5a 130-133 10 120.6b 105-132
Nasion-prosthion ht. 6 76.0 72-79 12 72.6 62-81

Internal orbital br. 7 102.9 99-106 12 97.5 91-105
Subtense orbital br. 7 16.7 12-20 12 16.2 14-20
Biorbital breadth 6 104.2 100-108 10 100.2 94-106
Anter. interorb. br. 7 23.4 20-26 12 20.8 19-22
Left orbital breadth 7 44.7 40-48 14 43.5 38-47

Left orbital height 8 35.8 33-39 14 34.9 30-39
Breadth of malar bone 11 59.0 55-67 12 54.7 50-57
Height of malar bone 12 54.5 51-60 12 52.8 49-61
Nasal height 6 55.3 53-58 12 52.1 44-58
Nasal breadth 6 27.5 25-31 11 26.0 23-28

Minimum nasal breadth 6 10.2 7-12 11 9.0 7-12
Subtense to nasal br. 5 4.0 3-6 10 4.0 3-5
Br. of nasal bridge 3 60.3 53-65 5 59.2 54-68
Subt. ht. nasal bridge 3 20.7 18-23 3 19.3 17-21
Maxillo-alveolar Ig. 7 58.0 53-61 10 55.5 52-62

Maxillo-alveolar br. 7 68.1 65-75 9 65.0 60-70
Total face angle 3 80.70 80-820 5 81.80 80-840
Alveolar angle 3 64.30 58-680 5 67.80 64-710
Mandibular length 6 110.5 102-114 13 103.5 98-107
Height to condyles 5 58.8 50-68 9 63.1 55-77

Bigonial diameter 5 115.8 108-123 14 '104.1 98-112
Gonial angle 5 120.60 115-1250 14 118.00 110-1280
Height of symphysis 8 38.0 35-42 15 34.4 23-39
Min. br. left ramus 12 40.2 38-42 15 37.7 32-44
Thickness man. at PM2 12 14.5 13-18 15 14.0 13-15


'Average tooth wear 2.8 mm.


aAverage tooth wear 3. 3 mm.









INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


to pronounced curves and typically presented smooth inion regions.
Males and females, however, do present small to medium tori, fairly
evenly distributed between ridges and mounds in torus form. Suture
serration is medium in both sexes, and pterion forms on both sides are
K. A single Inca-bone occurs in a female; one man has an open
metopic suture.
Measurements at basion confirmed observations that the occipital
base extends deep below the porionic plane, with men showing more
high elevated condyles. Pharyngeal tubercles are rare but occur more
frequently and are larger in the male. Depths of the lower jaw socket
(tempero-mandibular joint), the postglenoid processes, and the thick-
ness of tympanic plates are generally medium to large in males and
medium in females (Pls. IV, VI). The form of the auditory meatus
is ellipse for men and oval for women. Petrous depressions run small
to medium in both sexes. The fragile external pterygoid plates, where
they are preserved, are medium to large.
Dimensions of the face are large in both directions (Table 2). Fore-
heads are quite wide for American Indians; measurements of malar
bones are medium to large in females and large to very large in males;
orbits are big in both dimensions; however, noses are moderate in
both heights and widths. Both jaws present rather long, broad out-
lines with heavy, strong bone development. Jowls are wide and chins
deep.
Observations of the malar bones show the following characteristics.
They project forward to form large blunt planes and flare sideways to
make conspicuous mound-like projections on both side of the face in
front of the ears. Only a few individuals show a right-angled jut (a
forward bone projection on the lower edge) where the malar bones ar-
ticulate with the maxillae. Most of the man have a well-developed
tubercle and the sub-maxillary notch is rated as medium in females
but deep in men.
Orbits tend to be rhomboid in shape for both sexes and are set
at medium inclinations (Pls. I-II). Some of the females have a small
downward tilt. Infra-orbital sutures are rare with females having rela-
tively more detectable suture lines.
Depressed notches at nasion are small for most of the men and all
the women with typical sex differences. In both sexes most of the
nasal roots are low and breadths of nose bones near nasion runs from
small to medium. Nasal bridges are of medium height and their pro-








SKELETAL MATERIAL


files concavo-convex, sills are usually dull but more women than men
have medium to sharp nasal edges, spines uniformly run from small
to medium. Subnasal grooves are more common among females.
Preservation of alveolar tissue is usually quite good with absorption
of the borders through loss of teeth in older individuals. Palate shape
for both sexes is predominately hyperbolic, height ranges from medium
to high. Torus development in the maxillae is rare; transverse sutures
run anteriorly and postnasal spines, whenever present, are small to
medium in size.
Mandibles are large for men and medium sized for women. Alveolar
and total facial projections are medium to large in both sexes for the
alveolar region and medium for the total facial measurement, with
two females showing pronounced facial bulges. While chin types
are usually medio-bilateral, those of the men are more rounded with
fairly prominent and high chin eminences while those of the women
are more pointed and lower. A rather small chin projection is typical
but almost one-third of the women have projecting pointed chin emin-
ences. Arches under the chin are found in one case for each sex and
rocker-jaw contours (Marshall and Snow 1956: 416) are evident in four
females.
Genial tubercles are small to medium with usually a small to
medium development of the mylo-hyoid ridge. In three females there
are bridges of bone covering the mylo-hyoid nerve grooves; this is
thought to have genetic significance. Just as there is a sex difference
in the muscular development of the gonial region, so there is in the
version of the gonial angle. Females have less version (from a small
amount to actual inversion of both gonia) while males run from me-
dium to pronounced flares.
When various skull dimensions are related to form ratios, the
resulting numbers or indices may be used as shape representations.
All of these proportions (Table 3) describe the broad-vaulted rather
massive-boned people typical of the southeastern morphological type
described by Hrdlicka (1922, 1940) as Gulf, von Eickstedt (1934) as
Centralid, Newman and Snow (1942) as Koger's Island, and Neumann
(1952) as Walcolid. The high, rather short, and very broad vaults with
moderately proportioned faces, orbits, and noses as well as the meas-
urements, outside the vault diameters affected by deformation, found
in the Bayshore Homes series represent rather clear-cut features typ-
ical of the southeastern "Walcolid" physical type.








INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


As shown in Table 3, there is usually a fairly clear-cut sex differ-
ence in many of the indices of the vault and face. However, an ex-
ception is the cranial index (so clearly effected by head-shaping). Here,
again, we should note that there is usually a higher value for the fe-
males but it is obscured by the cultural custom of binding infants'
heads.
SKULL COMPARISONS

When the Bayshore Homes skulls are compared with available
cranial series, we can see how they rank among prehistoric Indians of
the southeast. In Florida we have a series from Perico Island, across
the mouth of Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg, remeasured by New-
man in 1941. To the west of Florida are the earlier Tchefuncte people
of Louisiana (Collins 1941; Snow 1945). Those from Moundville in
Alabama (Snow 1941a; Bass 1956), Copena and Middle Mississippi
populations on the Tennessee River (Newman and Snow 1942), the
Irene Mound group in Georgia (Hulse 1942), and finally the Tennes-
see Cumberland population in Central Tennessee (Newman personal
communication) are also available.
All of these series contain some deformed skulls. Measurements of
length, breadth, and height of the skull vault are obviously affected by
the forces of deformation as are probably other measurements, includ-
ing facial breadths.
Probably all of these series except Tchefuncte represent the Wal-
colid type of American Indian, which in the late prehistoric period
dominated the southeastern region of the United States. The Tche-
functe skulls, with their larger and longer skull vaults, show the great-
est deviations and are considered to have lived during an earlier ar-
chaeological horizon.
In general, both males and females of the non-Florida series show
remarkable resemblances to the Perico Island and Bayshore Homes
skulls. The last series, with more deformed individuals, is limited by
number; however, their close similarity in measurements to the much
larger series from nearby Perico Island would indicate that they prob-
ably are of the same populations.
It should be indicated that Newman, when he remeasured the
Perico Island crania at the United States National Museum in 1941,
calculated and compiled the standard deviations for each measurement
and index. Examination of such measures of variability indicate that









SKELETAL MATERIAL


TABLE 3

CRANIAL INDICES

INDICES MALE FEMALE
No. Average Range No. Average Range

Capacity (cc.)a 7 1523.3 1415-1640 9 1383.4 1250-1500
Cranial module 6 154.5 150-158 6 149.3 146-158
Cranial 11 82.1 77-90 16 82.4 79-86
Length-height 6 81.1 79-87 6 81.4 76-86
Breadth-height 7 96.3 91-100 6 99.0 91-108

Mean height 6 88.6 86-93 7 89.3 83-96
Length-auricular ht. 6 70.9 67-78 8 72. 1 65-75
Flatness, cran. base 6 15.7 13-18 4 16.7 16-18
Transv. fronto-par. 9 67.1 62-70 15 66.2 60-74
Frontal 10 85.4 78-94 14 83.7 78-90

Total facial 4 88.8 87-91 8 86.6 79-92
Upper facial 4 51.5 50-54 10 52.8 47-57
Mid-facial 4 70.8 69-74 7 72.3 70-74
Trans. cranio-fac. 7 99.9 97-106 13 97.6 92-101
Zygo-frontal 8 67.1 64-72 12 67.0 63-71

Facial flatness 7 16.2 12-19 11 16.3 13-19
Ant. interorbital 4 21.8 20-25 9 20. 9 19-22
Left orbital 6 78.9 72-82 12 80.2 71-95
Malar bone, ht./br. 13 91.7 86-98 11 95.9 89-107
Nasal 5 49.3 46-57 9 49.7 47-56

Nasal bone 5 41.1 27-56 9 41.0 33-50
Nasal bridge 3 34.5 29-40 3 35.0 30-59
Palatal 7 117.6 110-128 8 116.2 107-122
Fronto-gonial 4 115.2 110-120 9 113.6 101-132
Zygo-gonial 5 79.1 76-85 8 75.2 68-83

Mandib. 1 (1g.-br.) 4 103.9 99-110 12 97.2 89-109
Mandib. 2 (Ig.-ht.) 5 53.4 46-61 9 60.6 53-69


aBy Pearson's "All Races" formula (Montagu 1951: 484).









INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


the Perico Island and Bayshore Homes Indians were quite homo-
geneous and both groups therefore represent true samples of the
prehistoric people who made Tampa Bay their home. If the contem-
poraniety of these two neighboring skeletal series could be demon-
strated, we could regard them as of the same genetic population.
Plates III-V show the close resemblance of individuals who well
represent the physical type present.
Skulls previously excavated from various mounds in peninsular
Florida, before the archaeology of the Southeast was well known, are
also marked by the same rugged features of vault and face as those
described from St. Petersburg and Perico Island.
Harrison Allen, M.D., in 1896, illustrated and described five skulls
from a mound on the St. Johns River (northeastern Florida) in some
detail, both by anatomical features and by measurements, some of
which he also devised. Two male skulls had bizygomatic diameters
of 150 mm., malar bone heights of 51.3 mm., and malar bone breadths
of 55.5 mm. Female malar bones measured 45 and 48 mm., for the
same dimensions. Also pertinent are the arcs of each of the skull
vault bones for 3 males: frontal arc 127.7 mm., parietal arc 119.3 mm.,
and occipital arc 120 mm. Horizontal circumferences read 520 mm.
for the males.
These are very close indeed to the measurements of the Bayshore
Homes males (Tables 2 and 4). The shorter parietal arcs probably
indicate the shortened skull vaults found in deformed skulls, even
though Allen made no mention of skull deformation.
Similarly, Hrdlicka (1922, 1940) measured and described a large
number of Florida skulls and limb bones. Both he and Allen, as well
as Wyman in 1871, were quite enthusiastic in their descriptions of
the rugged, heavy-boned, deeply muscle-marked, big faced, deep-
jawed Indian skulls from Florida. This physical type with its charac-
teristic cranial features is emphasized here because the Bayshore
Homes skeletal material is the same.

TEETH
The large size and excellent quality of the teeth of the individuals
in this series are impressive. Data on the teeth are presented in Tables
5-6 to demonstrate their size and sex differences and to indicate that
much valuable information can be gained from such genetic entities
as the dentition.









SKELETAL MATERIAL


TABLE 4

SUPPLEMENTARY CRANIAL MEASUREMENTS
(in millimeters)

MALE FEMALE
MEASUREMENT
No. Average Range No. Average Range

Horizontal circumference 8 508.2 492-520 16 491.8 478-537
Frontal chord 13 116.9 112-131 17 110.2 103-123
Frontal arc 13 127.8 122-142 17 120.5 113-132
Parietal chord, br.-lam. 11 109.4 101-123 19 103.7 96-116
Parietal arc, br.-lam. 11 122.7 111-140 19 116.5 105-133

Occip. chord, lam.-opis. 10 100.0 95-108 18 100.4 88-111
Occip. arc, lam. -opis. 10 116.7 111-126 16 116.6 100-133
Nasion-opisthion arc 9 367.7 358-376 14 356.1 341-398
Transverse arc 10 326.1 310-344 16 316.5 302-337

Thickness of parietal
bone near boss 16 9.5 5-15 20 9.0 6-14
Thickness of frontal
bone near center 14 7.9 4-11 16 7.7 5-11





TABLE 5

DENTAL ARCH MEASUREMENTS
(in millimeters)

MALE FEMALE
MEASUREMENT
No. Average Range No. Average Range

Length to Ml 5 34.4 32-38 8 33.1 29-37
Breadth to Ml 6 62. 2 59-69 9 59.0 55-62
Length to M2 5 43.0 41-48 6 42.8 36-48
Breadth to M2 6 67. 5 65-75 6 63.3 60-66
Bicanine diameter 2 41.5 41-42 -

Bi-PM1 diameter 2 49.0 48-50 -
Length, PM1-M3, maxilla 10 43.2 39-47 6 41.3 40-44
Length, PMl-M3, mandible 7 46.3 44-49 8 44.5 39-48
Ratio, L to M1/BiMl 5 177.0 163-184 7 177.7 162-200
Ratio, L to M2/BiMZ 2 152.8 137-158 5 147.6 134-172








INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


There is very little tooth loss among these Florida Indians but with
increase of age there is a like increase in the number of teeth lost
during life. Tooth wear is medium to deep (Pls. VII-VIII) with an
estimated average of 3.3 mm. in adults. There are no observed caries
in any of the adults. One possibly "sick" young female (age 12-13
years) shows occlusal caries in almost unworn second molars (P1. VIII).
Evidence of abscesses, however, are present in the older individuals
where mechanical abrasion of the teeth has exposed the pulp chambers
with subsequent necrosis (Pl. VII). Infection of the bone tissue,
perhaps pyorrhea, is evident in more than half of both sexes.
There is mid-line twist of the upper central incisor teeth (medio-
palatal torsion) in 100 per cent of both sexes (P1. VII). Medium and
pronounced degrees of shovel-shaping in the incisor teeth are com-
mon and three females show unusual concavity of the facial surfaces
along with marginal enamel-ridges to present the "double-shovel"
(PI. VII; Dahlberg 1951: 141). Most of the individuals show either
an edge or slight overbite. Dental arches are well formed with no
crowding of teeth. Cusp pattern for upper molars are 4-4-4, for lower
molars typically 5-5-5. Extra cusps are present on the deciduous teeth
of several children whose remains were found in the same burial plot,
apparently of the same family (P1. VIII). The eruption of all four
third molars was observed in all but four adults.

TEETH AND JAW MEASUREMENTS

In measuring dental arches (external alveolar dimensions) the usual
outside points of maximum size were used to determine lengths and
breadths. Other dimensions useful in describing the dental structures
include two lengths-one measured from the most anterior point in
the median line between the upper central incisors back to the line
across the posterior surfaces of the first molar teeth and the second
length measured in the same way to the posterior surfaces of the sec-
ond molars. The breadth measurements were obtained across the
canines as maxima to the most lateral curves of the crowns. A sec-
ond breadth was taken likewise at the level of the first premolars, the
third across the first molar teeth, and the last across the second molars.
The measurements, presented in Table 5, indicate that these In-
dians have moderate- to large-sized palates which tend to have lower
external palatal index than the Tchefuncte, Copena, Tennessee River








SKELETAL MATERIAL


TABLE 6

TEETH MEASUREMENTS
(in millimeters)

MALE FEMALE
MEASUREMENT
No. Average Range No. Average Range

Maxillary Teeth

CI FL 1 8.0 8-8 -
MD 10.0 10-10 -

C FL 2 9.5 9-10 4 8.2 8-9
MD 9.0 9-9 8.5 8-9

PM1 FL 3 9.5 8-10 2 9.5 9-10
MD 8.0 8-8 8.2 8-8.5

Ml FL 6 13.0 13-13 11 12.2 11-13
MD 7 12.0 11-13 11.6 10-13

M2 FL 6 12.7 12-14 8 11.5 10-12.5
MD 5 11.0 10-12 10.5 10-11.5

Mandibular Teeth

C FL 2 9.0 9-9 1 8.0 8-8
MD 8.0 8-8 7.0 7-7

PM1 FL 2 9.0 9-9 1 8.0 8-8
MD 8.0 8-8 7.0 7-7

Ml FL 5 12.0 12-12 9 11.6 11-13
MD 12.6 12-13 11.9 11-13

M2 FL 3 12. 1 12-13 8 10.9 10-12
MD 12.0 12-12 11.5 11-13








INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


and Cumberland series mentioned earlier. Curiously enough, de-
tailed dental arch data are available only for American whites (Moor-
rees 1959) and for ancient Hawaiians (Snow n. d.). The Bayshore
Homes Indians, of course, have much larger mouths, palates and teeth
than New England American whites.
The Hawaiians and these Indians have palates that are almost
identical in size in both length and breadth dimensions. The Hawaii-
ans are characterized in part by the straight sides of their palates. This
distinctive shape yields breadth dimensions which are less than those
possessed by broad-faced Asiatics with wider, more rounded palates
of parabola shape.
An effort was made to gauge the gross size of individual teeth,
following the usual crown (maximum) measurements of the tooth in
the mesio-distal (inter-tooth) and facio-lingual (inside-out) dimensions.
In addition, the tooth row composed of the first and second premolars
and the three molars (five teeth in all) was measured from the anterior
surface of PM1 to the posterior surface of M3 (Flowers' measurement).
This composite dimension was measured where possible on both the
maxillary and mandibular dentition. Table 6 includes these dimen-
sions which are absolutely large (megadont) for both sexes (Martin
1928: 987). Indeed, these Florida Indians, males in particular, are
next to the extinct Tasmanians with the largest tooth rows in the
world.
Measurements of tooth crowns of Indian teeth are scarce and
there are only a few studies available for comparative purposes. Nel-
son (1938) measured the teeth (both sexes together) of the Indians of
Pecos Pueblo and Dahlberg (1951: 164), who has measured the teeth
of living Pima Indians in Arizona, lists many other comparative data.
Moorrees (1959) has published the largest tables of tooth dimensions
for many groups throughout the world. The crown dimensions of the
Bayshore Homes teeth (Table 6) are absolutely large for the canines,
premolars and molar teeth. When the modules, which are the aver-
ages of the length and breadth dimensions added together, are com-
pared, their great size is again apparent.
The crown index data reveal something of crown shapes which
are determined largely by genes involved with tooth structure. In
general, we can say that these teeth individually are wider for both
the maxillary and mandibular teeth in both sexes with the exception
of the first and second mandibular molars than others available for
comparison.








SKELETAL MATERIAL


POSTCRANIAL BONES

Every major part of the postcranial bones, however fragmentary,
was measured. The main value of these measurements, presented
in Table 7, is to discover a clue to body size and build.
Estimate of height in life must depend on standard formulae which
have been worked out for different racial groups (Trotter and Gleser
1958: 120). Utilizing the formulae for bones of Mongoloid ancestry
we find that the Bayshore Homes people were above average stature,
169 cm (5 feet 61/2 inches) for males and 164 cm (5 feet 41/2 inches)
for females.
The usual sex differences are present as well as the typical finding
of some women taller than some men (P1. IX, right).
Of equal importance is the fact that almost all of the bones show
an unusual degree of muscular development. Muscular ridges, grooves,
tubercles, depressions, and fossae are plainly marked and well devel-
oped on most of the bones (P1. IX, left). In some instances, shaft and
joint diameters are absolutely large, attesting to the fact that many of
the people were big, well-developed individuals (Hrdlicka 1922: 86).
The same sex difference, however, is evident here as in stature and
some of the women must have had a rather slender and wiry type of
body build (P1. IX, right).
The upper arm bones of both men and women show both oblong
and trapozoid midshaft sections. Like many other skeletal series
(both Indian and Hawaiian), over 50 per cent of the women have septal
perforations (supracondyloid foramina) but not a single man. Condylo-
diaphysial angles measured on the elbow ends of the upper arm bones
show that these Indians had straighter arms than some from Alabama
(Snow 1940). Possibly this elbow joint is subject to variations as-
sociated with functional adaptations on the part of the individual.
Well-developed interosseous crests were observed in the more mus-
cular lower arm bones of the men.
Significant characteristics of the lower limb bones include the
following points. Well-developed femoral pilasters are common.
Marked slopes of the tibial plateau are found only in three rugged
men, while most of the women have slight to small tilts of this knee
joint surface. This retroversion (backward slope) is associated with
individuals who habitually walk with their knees bent. Squatting
facets occur most often among the men at the ankle joint of the tibia











16 INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


TABLE 7

POSTCRANIAL MEASUREMENTS AND INDICES Part 1

MEASUREMENT (mm.) MALE FEMALE
AND INDICES Left Right Range Left Right Range
No. Ave. No. Ave. L. & R. No. Ave. No. Ave. L. & R.

HUMERUS
Maximum length 3 305.7 7 329.4 307-358 7 306.5 8 302.2 207-319
Physio. length 3 303.3 5 319.8 297-345 4 304.8 7 299.0 286-317
Max. diam. head 10 45.4 8 45.7 40-49 7 41.1 10 40.9 38-44
Max. middle diam. 7 24. 7 10 25.3 20-30 8 21.5 10 22.6 20-26
Min. middle diam. 7 18.0 10 19.1 15-24 8 16.0 10 15.8 14-19

Mid. circum. 7 69.1 10 73.4 57-81 8 61.1 10 63.1 58-76
Mid. index 7 72.8 10 76.1 62-100 8 74.7 10 70.1 62-90
Index robustness 3 21.3 7 23.1 19-27 6 19.9 8 20.6 19-22
Con. diaph. angle 5 87.90 11 85.80 80-930 9 86.20 12 84.30 80-90

ULNA
Maximum length 6 279.0 3 275.3 264-300 5 253.0 1 235.0 235-267
Mid. circum. 6 51.7 4 55.2- 48-61 5 45.0 1 49.0 38-58
Index robustness 6 18.5 3 20.3 18-22 5 17.8 1 20.8 15-23
RADIUS
Maximum length 6 247.5 6 253.3 232-279 2 235.5 4 235.2 222-254
Mid. circum. 6 42.0 6 47.6 34-52 2 39.0 4 42.0 38-45
Index robustness. 6 17.6 6 18.8 14-22 2 16.6 4 17.7 15-19

CLAVICLE
Maximum length 2 155.5 3 148.0 145-161 5 137.4 6 133.2 130-143
Mid. circum. 2 45.0 3 41.6 42-48 5 34.6 6 34.5 27-43
Index robustness 2 28.9 3 30.1 28-32 5 25.2 6 25.9 20-32
PELVIS
Innominate height 4 211.8 2 199.0 198-214 5 191.2 1 188.0 185-194
Innominate breadth 3 156.3 2 150.0 150-165 4 144.0 2 147.5 139-153
Innominate index 3 71.7 2 75.4 72-80 4 74.7 1 79.8 72-79
Pubis length 2 78.0 1 91.0 87-91 2 85.0 1 80.0 80-86
Ischium length 2 88.5 3 91.0 87-91 2 85.0 1 82.0 82-86
Ischio-pubic index 2 88.2 1 86.8 86-91 2 100.0 1 97.5 95-100

Bi-iliac breadth 1 239.0
Min. bi-isch. br. 1 154.0
Inlet, ant. -post. 1 116.0 2 108.5 106-111
Inlet, lateral 1 126.0
Brim index 1 88. 1

Sacral height 2 119.5 105-134
Sacral breadth 2 114.5 113-116 2 112.5 108-117
Sacral index 2 97.4 84-110

LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
Anterior height 2 130.0 1 135.0
Posterior height 2 133.0 1 132.0
Lumbar index 2 102.3 .1 97.7











SKELETAL MATERIAL


TABLE 7 (Continued)

POSTCRANIAL MEASUREMENTS AND INDICES Part 2

MEASUREMENT (mm.) MALE FEMALE

AND INDICES Left Right Range Left Right Range
No. Ave. No. Ave. L. & R. No. Ave. No. Ave. L. & R.


FEMUR
Maximum length
Bicondyl. length
Max. diam. head
Subtro. ant. post.
Subtro. lateral

Mid. ant. post.
Mid. lateral
Mid. circum.
Subtro. index
Midshaft index
Index robustness

TIBIA
Maximum length
Mid. ant. post.
Mid. lateral
Mid. circum.
Midshaft index
Index robustness

FIBULA
Max. length
Mid. circunm.
Index robustness


3 432.3
3 424.0
8 45.8
4 26.8
4 31.8

5 34. 2
5 27.0
6 92.2
4 77.4
5 75.5
3 20.4


1 379.0
4 35.0
4 24.0
4 92. 7
4 68.6
1 25.8


3 356.3
3 53.3
3 15.1


3 425.0 401-448
3 418.3 393-440
3 46. 1 3-49
4 27.0 21-29
4 33.2 26-36

4 31.5 30-39
4 26.0 24-29
4 89.5 83-98
4 81.7 72-93
4 82.6 64-85
3 20.8 19-23


4 468.2 333-387
4 34.7 32-40
4 25.7 23-29


5 99.0
4 74.2
4 26.1


3 362.6
3 57.6
3 15.9


CALCANEUS
Max. length 4 75.2 9 73.4
Max. breadth. 4 42.5 9 42.9
Project. height 4 44.2 9 45.0
Length-br. index 4 56.3 9 55.9

TALUS
Max. length 3 57.0 8 54.2
Max. breadth 3 45.3 8 47.8
Project. height 3 30.7 8 31.1
Length-ht. index 3 53.8 8 57.3

BODY BUILD (inter-membral indices)
Humero-radial 2 79.0 2 78.0
Humero-clavicular 2 48.6 1 50.2
Humero-femoral 2 71.8 1 76.2


Tibio-femoral

STATURE
In centimeters
In feet


2 86.5 1 84.6


88-111
64-76
24-30


344-370
50-60
14-17


73-84
41-45
42-54
52-58


51-63
42-50
29-36
53-67


78-80
46-51
70-76
85-87


415.7
417.1
41.7
23. 6
31.0

27.5
25.0
81.1
76.3
90.8
19.2


354.7
31.7
22.3
85.3
70. 5
24. 2


67.0
36.0
41.7
57.0


49.5
42.2
27.8
56.1


77.6
46.2
72.0
84.0


427.6
422.3
41.2
24.6
31.6

26. 1
25.5
82.8
78.0
89.8
19.2


343.3
29.8
21.0
80.2
70.9
23.2


68.0
39.0
40.8
56.7


404-441
400-435
37-44
21-27
27-35

25-32
23-27
74-88
66-90
81-108
18-20


315-373
26-34
19-24
70-94
65-73
20-28


64-70
37-41
39-43
54-59


48.9 47-53
43.4 39-45
27.4 27-29
56.0 54-59


80.0
46.4
73.5


77-80
44-48
70-75
84-84


(33 bones) 168.9 162-184 (28 bones) 164.0 157-175
5.5 5.3-6.0 5.4 5.2-5.7








INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


and the talus. However, they are found at Poirier's facet at the hip
joint in both men and women. These extra facets (dense joint bone)
are formed by deep squatting wherein the buttocks come to rest on
the heels with feet flat on the ground, a characteristic resting position
of all children and the world's chairless people. Shin bone cross
sections are often Hrdlicka's Types II (thin) and III (muscular tri-
angle), both shapes indicate well-developed lower leg musculature.
The three measures of the foot (Table 7) are medium sized com-
pared with those of Indian Knoll (Snow 1948), Hawaii (Snow n. d.)
and Ancient Greece (Angel 1946). Observations of the calcaneus
and talus bones indicate that these people tended to walk on the out-
side of their feet with toes widespread, especially the great toe. This
is revealed by the greatly diverted head of the talus bone and by the
lack of lateral tuberosities on the heel bones. The astragular facets
of the calcaneus are about evenly divided between separate forms
and those which fused.
The intermembral indices (Table 7) reveal that some individuals
have relatively long forearms exceeding the Negroes and Australians
listed by Schultz (1937: 293-302), quite broad shoulders like present-
day American whites, and moderately long shanks. However, these
are not all bones of the same persons-they represent only the intact
limb bones available. The one female body index (hips-stature) of
14.6 is quite similar to modern American whites and Hawaiians (Snow
n. d.) and indicates a broad-shouldered, narrower-hipped woman than
Angel's Ancient Greek type (Angel 1946).
I believe it is reasonable to characterize these people as a group
as above average in stature with strong, well-developed, muscular
bodies. These people living on the western shoreline of the Florida
peninsula not only had an abundance of sea food and other tissue-
building dietary items, but enjoyed optimum climatic conditions.
It is probably safe to infer that they were able to realize most of
the potential of their genetic endowment (Hrdlicka 1922: 86).

PATHOLOGY

There is evidence of disease in both the skulls and the postcranial
bones, as well as a few injuries and congenital or developmental ab-
normalities.








SKELETAL MATERIAL


Healed fractures in the postcranial bones of females are rare but
include a right ulna and a humerus with backward and sideward dis-
placement. Among males are a left ulna, a humerus, a right fibula,
a right clavicle, and several lower ribs.
Congenital and developmental abnormalities that were observed
are: dehiscences or gaps in the auditory floor (found more often in
young females) in one man, uneven annular rings in the dentition of
one male indicating an arrested growth period early in his life, pre-
mature closure of the sagittal sutures of two women, two females
with "tilted" heads, one to the right and one to the left (P1. VII), the
lower jaw of one female with an unusual foramina located below and
behind the right mandibular foramen, and, finally, the peculiar an-
terior-posterior bowing of the tibia (boomerang shins) of a young girl.
The broken edges of the teeth of one older woman are fractures
which must have occurred during her life. Infection of the dentition
include apical abscesses in five women and one man (PI. VII), in which
the teeth are worn through the dentine penetrating and exposing the
pulp; and pyorrhea-like bone recession and necrosis in one man and
one woman.
Osteo-arthritis is a common affliction in these Bayshore Homes
Indian skeletons (P1. X). Its painful and crippling effects are noted
in many parts of the skeleton. We note osteophytic outgrowths in
the sacro-iliac joint as well as on the bodies of the vertebrae of the
lower spine where it is prevalent. Two men and two women have
arthritic foot joints (both feet). Diseased wrist joints are found in two
men, one on each side, and in the elbows of two men. Two men show
right shoulder complications involving the acrominal end of the right
clavicle. Three older men have hip and knee joint lipping, all notably
on the right side. The tempero-mandibular joints of one man and
one woman are also arthritic.
Inflammatory lesions are the most prevalent form of bone disease
in the post-cranial skeleton. A common condition which the author
dubbed "coral disease," because of the characteristic fine perforations
that often extended in multiple rows resembling coral, is a unique
finding. In some instances the bone also had a bloated appearance.
"Coral disease" porosity was found in individuals of all ages from
infants (P1. XI) to middle-aged adults. It was found on the forehead,
cheekbones, lower jaw, across the left nasal area involving the nose
bone and maxillae of one female skull (P1. XII, 57), the frontal bone









INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


surfaces of one man and two women, as well as the clavicle of two
men and two women and in several arm, leg and foot bones.
Suspecting the possibility of syphilis, a bloated femur, tibia, and
phalanx from Burial 14 (FSM Cat. No. 94387) were taken by the
Bullens to the College of Medicine, University of Florida, for exam-
ination. Nicholas R. Greville, M.D., of the Division of Orthopedics
reported:
After inspecting the . bones (P1. XIII, left, top and last)
and having them X-rayed I believe that the lesions presented
in these bones are most likely those of syphilis osteitis. The
appearance of the phalanx . is particularly characteristic.
The appearance of the other bones is quite compatible both
grossly and radiologically with this disease. Dr. Reeves the
Radiologist concurred with this opinion.
These same bones plus others from the "coral disease" series were
then taken to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington
by the Bullens for analysis. The report by Ellis R. Kerley follows:
The entire question of whether or not syphilis existed in the
New World before the advent of Columbus is a very complex
one that is not easily resolved by any present techniques of
investigation or examination. Syphilis has been known as a
disease entity for many generations, and it was originally de-
scribed and defined on the basis of its gross, clinical signs and
symptoms. As such, it was well-defined and well-known by
physicians of the day, its victims and the populace at large.
Since that time, syphilis as a disease has been re-defined in
terms of the presence of spirochetes, and-more recently-
positive serologic reactions.
Naturally, one is hard pressed to demonstrate the presence
of fossilized spirochetes or plus-four Wasserman reactions in
archeologic specimens. However, tertiary syphilis often leaves
its characteristic traces on the bones of people who have been
its unappreciative hosts. While it is not possible to state un-
equivocally that any lesion of dry, archeologic bone was caused
by the presence of Treponema pallidum, some evidence can
be brought to bear on the problem: (1) the opinions of indivi-
duals who have some experience in examining bone changes
in known cases of syphilis, (2) direct comparison of X-rays and








SKELETAL MATERIAL


gross specimens of known syphilis with the specimens in ques-
tion, and (3) the negative evidence that syphilis is the only
known entity that commonly produces changes of a specific
type.
With this in mind, the following observations are offered
concerning the specimens submitted for examination. These
observations and their interpretations were arrived at after
consultation with Dr. Lent C. Johnson (pathologist), Dr. Walter
Putschar (pathologist) and Dr. T. Dale Stewart (physical an-
thropologist).

94442: A portion of an olecranon process with acute inflam-
mation and partial destruction of the joint surface [not illus-
trated]. This is quite typical of pyogenic osteomyelitis. Sim-
ilar specimens from the Civil War can be seen in the Army
Medical Museum.

94456: Medio-lateral portion of clavicle [P1. XII, lower left].
There is a sharply incised lesion of the anterior surface directly
underlying the skin. The lesion is definitely inflammatory,
and may well have resulted from a local skin infection.

94387: Femur, tibia and metacarpal [P1. XIII, left, top and
last]. The metacarpal appears to represent a simple osteomy-
elitis. The portions of tibia and femur present multiple, low
grade inflammatory lesions. Syphilis is quite possible, though
not definite. X-ray comparison with known syphilis shows
definite similarity. Also, syphilis is the most likely low-grade
osteitis that would result in such lesions over wide areas of
the bone or skeleton.

94402: Part of rib with exostosis [PI. XII, below skull]. This
specimen is difficult to interpret, but could be the result of
trauma to the rib or ribs.

94403: Tibia with thickened shaft [not illustrated]. X-rays
and section show this to be a diffuse, generalized hyperostosis
of the greater part of the diaphysis. While this is not uncom-
mon in archeologic material, no satisfactory explanation can
be offered. One case of familial hyperostosis which resembles
this somewhat has been seen at the Armed Forces Institute








INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


of Pathology. In that case, all bones were involved. If only
the tibia was involved in this case, it might be a local, slight
osteitis. It does not appear syphilitic.
94437: An ulna, with thickening, sclerosis and multiple lesions
[P1. XII, center right]. There is also probable ante-mortem de-
struction of the elbow joint. This appears to be a pyogenic os-
teomyelitis.
94438: Mandible, maxilla, parietal and frontal bones. [P1. XI,
top and left]. All exhibit areas of porosity. However, sec-
tions and X-rays show that these areas represent more than
a simple porosis. In the localized areas, there is destruction
of the cortex with an overlay of cortical hyperostosis. The
diploe has been replaced by areas of fine lamination combined
with the "hairbrush" effect seen in Cooley's and sickle-cell
anemia. The gross appearance and distribution of the lesions
correspond with what Hrdlicka has given the descriptive term
"osteoporosis symmetrica." This condition, seen only in chil-
dren and early adolescents is not well-understood. The ad-
dition of periosteal bone would tend to rule out nutritional defi-
ciencies, which usually result in a porous paucity of bone. It
may well be inflammatory in nature. Favus, a mycotic infec-
tion of the scalp, affects the frontal and parietal bones, but
would not account for the lesion of the mandible. Aside from
the anemias, congenital heart malformation with an arterio-
venous shunt blocking the emmissary veins might cause this
condition, but these are largely speculations. The etiology is
unknown.
94456: Great toe phalanx and metatarsal [not illustrated]. The
metatarsal presents destructive lesions, sinus tracts and sclerotic
reaction that are typical of osteomyelitis. The toe phalanx is
slightly thickened in the shaft with a small, local lesion on the
superior surface. This might have resulted from a skin and
soft tissue infection over the lesion.
94458: Part of a right parietal with considerable destruction
of the outer table [PI. XI, lower right]. There is a smooth,
irregular hole penetrating the inner table near the sagittal
suture. The condition of the specimen makes interpretation








SKELETAL MATERIAL


problematical. However, the general appearance strongly sug-
gests some type of inflammatory process. Direct comparisons
with X-rays of known syphilis were not very convincing. This
condition could have resulted from extensive injury of the scalp
and periosteum with subsequent infection.
Some of the specimens examined (94387 [P1. XIII]) appear
quite similar to modern cases of known syphilis, particularly
in X-ray comparison. The gross appearance of these bones is
also compatible with the changes produced by syphilis. While
these changes might have been produced by viral osteomyelitis,
by far the most common cause is syphilis.
The lesions of all specimens except those of one burial were
explained as osteomyelitis (pussy inflammation of the bone), osteitis
(inflammation of bone substance), "osteoporosis symmetrica," or severe
skin infections. Specimens from Burial 14, a femur, tibia and meta-
carpal from the same individual (94387), are outstanding because
probable syphilis was diagnosed at both institutions. The other
tibia, other femur, lower arm bones (P1. XIII) and frontal bones of this
individual also show involvement. Such additional involvement
would be expected if syphilis were the cause of these lesions.
After these diagnoses were received, Bullen examined all the
Bayshore Homes bones carefully, comparing those with lesions to
the above specimens. He found leg and arm bones from seven burials
with lesions he believes are similar. Examination and X-ray of these
bones by an experienced pathologist might increase the number of
possible syphilitic specimens in this series.
The problem or question of syphilis in prehistoric Indians is not
a new one. Hrdlicka (1922: 87-88) stated his firm impression of the
commonness of inflammatory processes called periostitis and osteo-
periostitis in Florida Indian bones. He suggested an origin of syphilis
and indicated that the problem of pre-Columbian syphilis in the
Americas could be settled in Florida if anywhere. Stewart and
Spoehr (1952) have treated the related problem of yaws which occurs
in the tropics and semitropics.
The evidence of syphilis in this series adds to the growing evidence
(Brues 1958, 1959; Snow 1948: 506; Newman and Snow 1942: 467-68;
Goldstein 1957) of its presence among pre-Columbian Indians in the
Southeast. For anyone concerned with this historic problem, the








24 INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


Bayshore Homes specimens are available at the Florida State Museum
for further study.
It is relatively simple to detect grossly diseased from non-diseased
bones. A difficult problem is the diagnosis in terms of present-day
medicine. We could do well to note that pathogenic organisms today
have evolved just as all other forms of life have, so there is a very
real challenge in identifying dry-bone pathology of past populations.














SUMMARY


We have described to the best of our ability the skulls and meas-
urable limb bones of the adult population buried in Mound B at the
Bayshore Homes site, St. Petersburg Florida. The size of the sample
was small and analysis complicated by poor condition of the bones
which undoubtedly came from a charnal house.
The census indicates that 29.6 per cent of the burials made in
this mound were children, 26.1 per cent sub-adults, and the remainder
or 43.4 per cent fully-grown adult individuals.
Limb bones indicate very sturdily built individuals averaging in
stature about 169 cm. (5 feet 61/2 inches) for the men and about 164
cm. (5 feet 41/ inches) for the women. This is almost exactly the
stature found in other Indian series in the Southeast.
Many of these individuals were very muscular with pronounced
ridges, tubercles, deep fossae, and channelling of the bone surfaces.
The inter-bone indices suggest a fairly broad-shouldered heavy-set
people, very much like modern American whites, with broad should-
ers and narrow hips. They undoubtedly were fairly heavy in weight.
However, there were a few, particularly some women, who were
slender and fairly tall.
Comparisons made with other cranial series of populations that
both preceded and followed the Bayshore Homes people reveal, both
in their metric and morphologic similarities, significant resemblances
that indicate that these Tampa Bay Indians were part of a widespread
prehistoric Indian population representing in Florida the "South
People" (Walcolid). They had deformed broad and high heads, blunt
faces, and well-muscled, massive skulls. Neumann has described
them as the Walcolid physical type and Hrdlicka as Gulf.
Detailed measurements of the jaws and teeth indicate that these
Bayshore Homes Indians had deep jaws, large-sized mouths with
caries-free, large-sized teeth evenly spaced around hyperbolic-shaped
palates. Almost everyone, children included, had a noticeable to
pronounced degree of shovel-shaped incisors and all adults had mesio-
palatal torsion of the central incisors. Prominent enameled ridges
on the facial surfaces of the upper incisor teeth were very common








INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


and in a few individuals so pronounced as to form the "double-
shovel."
Teeth of most of the adults were deeply worn, particularly in older
individuals, to the point where the entire enamel layer was worn
off and the pulp exposed through the dentine. Apical abscesses are
thus the natural sequence with resulting necrosis and destruction of
the alveolar tissue. Foot bones indicate that these people, like most
prehistoric populations, have well formed muscular feet and wide-
spread toes. The bones indicate further that most individuals prob-
ably walked on the outside borders of their feet.
Most of the older-aged adults were afflicted with the symptoms of
arthritis which was very common in the lower back, but affecting
virtually all of the other major limb joints. Fractures were rare, and
all of them but one healed with good alignment. Inflammatory lesions
are fairly common in the bones of the post-cranial skeleton.
Many of the long bone shafts show swollen, lumpy bone-tissue
commonly associated with osteitis, periostitis, and osteomyelitis. Of
particular significance are several leg bones with characteristic lesions
which have been diagnosed as syphilis. These findings are also in
agreement with those made by Hrdlicka in 1922 and in other skeletal
series cited herein from the surrounding states. It looks very much
indeed that a disease similar to syphilis as we know it today was wide-
spread among pre-Columbian Indians in the Southern United States.
















REFERENCES CITED


Allen, Harrison
1896. "Crania from the Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida." Journal
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Ser. 2, Vol. 10,
Part 4, pp. 367-448.

Angel, J. Lawrence
1946. "Skeletal Change in Ancient Greece." American Journal of Physical
Anthropology, n. s., Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 69-94.
Bass, William M., III
1956. "Indian Crania from Moundville, Alabama." Master's Thesis, Uni-
versity of Kentucky.
Brues, Alice M.
1958. "Skeletal Material from the Horton Site." Bulletin of the Oklahoma
Anthropological Society, Vol. VI, pp. 27-32.
1959. "Skeletal Material from the Morris Site." Bulletin of the Oklahoma
Anthropological Society, Vol. VII, pp. 63-70.
Bullen, Ripley P.
195g. "Archaeology of the Tampa Bay Area." The Florida Historical Quar-
terly, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 51-63.

Collins, Henry B., Jr.
1941. "Relationships of an Early Indian Cranial Series from Louisiana." Jour-
nal of the Washington Academy of Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 145-55.
Dahlberg, Albert A.
1951. "The Dentition of the American Indian." In Papers on the Physical
Anthropology of the American Indian (W. S. Laughlin, ed.), pp. 138-76.
The Viking Fund, Inc., New York.
Goldstein, Marcus S.
1957. "Skeletal Pathology of Early Indians in Texas." American Journal of
Physical Anthropology, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 299-311.
Hrdlicka, Ales
1922. "The Anthropology of Florida." Publications of the Florida State
Historical Society. Deland.
1940. "Catalogue of Human Crania in the United States National Museum
Collections." Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol.
69, No. 5.










INDIAN BURIALS, ST. PETERSBURG


Hulse, Frederick S.
1942. "The People Who lived at Irene; Physical Anthropology." In Irene
Mound Site, Chatham County, Georgia (Caldwell and McCann), pp.
57-68. Athens.

Marshall, Donald Stanley, and Charles E. Snow
1956. "An Evaluation of Polynesian Craniology." American Journal of Physi-
cal Anthropology, n. s., Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 405-28.

Martin, Rudolf
1928. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. Jena.

Montagu, M. F.
1960. An Introduction to Physical Anthropology, 3rd Edition. Springfield.

Moorrees, Coenraad F. A.
1959. The Dentition of the Growing Child. Cambridge.

Nelson, Carl
1938. "The Teeth of the Indians of Pecos Pueblo." American Journal of
Physical Anthropology, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 261-93.

Neumann, Georg K.
1954. "Archeology and Race in the American Indian." In Yearbook of Physi-
cal Anthropology 1952 (J. N. Spuhler, ed.), pp. 213-55. Wenner-Gren
Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc. New York.

Newman, Marshall T., and Charles E. Snow
1942. "Preliminary Report on the Skeletal Material from Pickwick Basin,
Alabama." In "An Archeological Survey of Pickwick Basin in the
Adjacent Portions of the States of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee,"
pp. 393-507. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 129.

Schultz, Adolph H.
1937. "Proportions, Variability and Asymmetries of the Long Bones of the
Limbs and the Clavicles in Man and Apes." Human Biology, Vol. 9,
pp. 308-438.

Sears, William H.
1960. "The Bayshore Homes Site, St. Petersburg, Florida." Contributions of
the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 6.

Snow, Charles E.
1940. "Condylo-Diaphysial Angles of Indian Humeri from North Alabama."
Museum Paper 16. Geological Survey of Alabama.
1941a. "Indian Skeletons from the Museum Burials at Moundville." In "Anthro-
pological Studies at Moundville." Museum Paper 15, Part 1, pp. 7-52.
Geological Survey of Alabama.










REFERENCES CITED


1941b. "Possible Evidence of Scalping at Moundville." In "Anthropological
Studies at Moundville." Museum Paper 15, Part 2, pp. 55-59. Geological
Survey of Alabama.
1945. "The Skeletal Remains." In "The Tchefuncte Culture" (Ford and
Quinby). Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, No. 2,
pp. 99-110.
1948. "Indian Knoll Skeletons." University of Kentucky Reports in Anthro-
pology, Vol. IV, No. 3, Part II, pp. 371-555.
n. d. "Old Hawaiians on Oahu." Manuscript at Bishop Museum Press,
Honolulu, Hawaii.

Stewart, T. Dale, and Alexander Spoehr
1952. "Evidence on the Paleopathology of Yaws." Bulletin of the History
of Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 538-53.
Trotter, Mildred, and Goldine C. Gleser
1958. "A Re-evaluation of Estimation of Stature Based on Measurements
of Stature Taken During Life and of Long Bones After Death." Amer-
ican Journal of Physical Anthropology, n. s., Vol. 16, No. 1, p. 79-123.

Von Eickstedt, Egon
1934. Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menscheit. Stuttgart.

Willey, Gordon R.
1949. "Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast." Smithsonian Miscellaneous
Collections, Vol. 113.
Wyman, Jeffries
1871. "Observations on Crania and Other Parts of the Skeleton." Report of
the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard
University, No. 4, pp. 10-24.








Sir


PLATE I. TYPICAL SKULLS FROM THE BAYSHORE HOMES SITE
Skulls 33, 54, 39 and 13 are male; 42 and 53B female; 33 a seven-year-old child. Note thickness of parietal bones
of 42.


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00


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PLATE II. ADDITIONAL FEMALE SKULLS


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II

















39

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XX


PLATE III. FRONT VIEW OF A MALE AND A FEMALE SKULL


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J9

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r~.. s


vl~b*U~Y~Err*~ ''

r.


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~
*

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PLATE IV. SIDE VIEW OF A MALE AND FEMALE SKULL


K 4


~84


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:
I~, cI'C

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~
.







































PLATE V. SKULLS FROM PERICO ISLAND, FLORIDA, AND MOUNDVILLE, ALABAMA
Perico Island male (courtesy T. D. Stewart, Smithsonian Institution), female after Hrdlicka; male and
female Moundville skulls (courtesy D. L. DeJarnette, Mound State Monument) are of Koger Island type
with occipital deformation.

























































PLATE VI. VARIATIONS IN BAYSHORE HOMES SKULLS
Two male skulls with occipital deformation, male skull with continuous brow
ridges and deeply cut postorbital constriction, palate of female with diastema
between central incisor teeth.






















p'


PLATE VII. OTHER VARIATIONS IN BAYSHORE HOMES SKULLS
Skull base of female showing neck and cranial asymmetry as well as anomalous accessory articulation on left parietal base (arrow), jaws
of male showing extremely irregular tooth wear and evidence of abscesses on side of mandible, palate of female showing channeling of both
front and back surfaces of incisor teeth (double shovel) and pronounced tooth wear.


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63JB


PLATE VIII. DENTAL VARIATIONS
Palate of male showing extreme variation in tooth wear, lower jaw showing proto-
stylid cusps on both deciduous molars but none on first permanent molar, frag-
ment of lower jaw showing misplaced (?) canine tooth (lingual surface forward),
fragments of upper jaws of two children showing Carabelli's cusps on molar
teeth in upper view and double cingulum cusps on both canines (outlined in pencil),
six cusped lower molar teeth from the same children, two upper permanent molars
exhibiting caries.


II~


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PLATE IX. COMPARISONS OF VARIOUS LIMB BONES
Left, male right femur (for comparison), humerus, radius, ulna, midshaft of humerus, and humerus illustrating extreme muscularity of
some arm bones. Right, male femur, longer but more linear female femur, right humeri above, left femora below, male and female
humeri showing contrasting relative widths.










f


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PLATE X. ARTHRITIC LIMB BONES
Left, right elbow of male showing perforations and other rough tissue of the head of the radius, lipping of ulna,
and corresponding articular surface of the humerus; upper center, section of thoracic vertebra with an eburnated and
perforated inferior articulating facet; upper right, eburnated articular facet of a sacrum; lower center, left ulna with
extensive arthritic deposits; lower right, eburnated and perforated head of a right radius.


buP: ~
r '. q; *
"~'




























































PLATE XI. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE SKULL
Maxilla, mandible, and right parietal of infant exhibiting bone porosity from an
unknown disease; right parietal of adult female showing crater-like ravages of
an inflammatory disease. The hole is pathological.









7


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A. 1


PLATE XII. ADDITIONAL INFLAMMATORY EXAMPLES
Skull with diseased bone tissue to left of nose opening; section of rib with similar
condition; extremely bloated, diseased, right ulna (pyogenic osteomyelitis) with
normal ulna for comparison; left center, distal end of right radius with extensive
swelling and perforating craters caused by osteomyelitis; lower left, clavicle with
similar perforated condition.


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PLATE XIII. RADIOGRAPHS AND PHOTOGRAPHS OF PARTS OF BURIAL 14, PROBABLY SYPHILITIC

Left, left femur; top, left tibia; center, right tibia; left lower center, right radius; right lower center, right fibula with healed frac-
ture; bottom center, left ulna; bottom right, metacarpal.








CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FLORIDA STATE MUSEUM
SOCIAL SCIENCES


Number 1. Excavations on Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida, by Ripley P. and
Adelaide K. Bullen. Price $.75.

Number 2. Excavations on Lower St. Johns River, Florida, by William H.
Sears. Price $.75.

Number 3. Eight Tarsacan Legends by Maurice Boyd. Price $.75.

Number 4. The Bolen Bluff Site on Paynes Prairie, Florida, by Ripley P. Bullen.
Price $.75.

Number 5. Two Weeden Island Period Burial Mounds, Florida, by William
H. Sears. Price $.75.

Number 6. The Bayshore Homes Site, St. Petersburg, Florida, by William H.
Sears. Price $.75.

Number 7. The British Meet the Indians by James W. Covington. Price $1.00.

Number 8. Indian Burials from St. Petersburg, Florida, by Charles E. Snow.
Price $1.00.










\^-N





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