ESSAY ON MAN,
ALEXANDER POPE, ESQ.,
iO .'iS'm L .iD ErE
THE UNlV EI RSAL PR.\YER.
CIN C INNATI.
PUi L.ISjLfD HN .1 A & I. U J.1ML-4
1 5 1.
H.\L\ING pr,..pi..neJ i, w-..? i .,-. p....:- <.n
hunjan !.i.- and ir.annei-, ;u. i in.. a:, n.y L:.iJ
Bar.:.'.a F peT i .-i.ni e m.-? h...ir.- .. n-.-.' l.u-in'-
and b.:.s..mr I th.ouhr it ..r.r-e 'r -...'. !t.:. bc in
wiLh c... Ii( i.. ir .-in in tbh at L. Ui-t, hi- rj.tur.r,
anti r h.L- ,lre. ,nLie, to fp.,1v- iuy imT.Il -Jury. to
enfloi.a any n..l re pr -..ept, .r t.:. .'inir..? lth FEr-
I .oe'ion _.r impe,-l."-:,I.:..n *: 't.nv 12r.Or1r e *>vhit[o-
Ser,, it i i-ri---.- ry r-T F.:, kr,.:-. th r r ..:,ndri.:,n
ain ri-.-,it.n i i, plcr-ed in, otd n tr. i- th., proper
end and pp-ca. of it,, being.
The -cinte r-f. hA-, n nrfiL.' il, .e all iFther
Science, ie.I,,.:ced to ae ie> (I'- .r I...;rint Thi e
air ntiCi maniy c-itain truFih in ThI- .-.rl- It i,
their.l:.i ., in the aoatric.y .-I Hit.- uind, E, in t' t
of tie body ; more g.:.Jd trill j ... rue r.. mankind
by trendjing to 1te large, -.pen, .nd I-et-'reptible
p,.ri, thin t.y z rudVing t.)o i..Jt. .-b liri-r nrrve-
and e..-.-l, tnre c.nl-c.rnati.n aid usesi- r. wThih
will I-.r urever c-i.-r'ar'..a. Te dbi--
paic, ale .lI upo- tlire6 lait .,UJ I iil -'intuire to
say, they have les& sharpened the wits than the
hearts of men against each other, and have dimin-
ished the practice, more than advanced the theory.
of morality. If I could flatter myself that this
essay has any merit, it is in steering betwixt
doctrines seemingly opposite, in passing over
terms utterly unintelligible, and in forming a tem-
perate, yet not inconsistent, and a short, yet not
imperfect system of ethics.
This I might have done in prose; but I chose
verse, and even rhyme, for two reasons. The
one will appear obvious; that principles, maxims,
or precepts, so written, both strike the reader
more strongly at first, and are more easily retained
by him afterwards. The other may seem odd,
but it is true ; I found I could express them more
shortly this way than in prose itself; and nothing
is truer than that much of the force, as well as
grace, of arguments or instructions, depends on
their conciseness. I was unable to treat this part
of my subject more in detail, without becoming
dry and tedious: or more poetically, without
sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wan-
dering from the precision, or breaking the chain
of rer.rsnii n. If any man can unite all these
withi:iuL diminuti.,n of any of them. I fin-ely con-
fw. hle will co.mpd~a a thing at..rve tmy capacity.
What ij now pubtlihhed i6 only tu be considered
aa a sen-ral map of mn, marking our n-) more
than tho gTre er pFrtN, their emttew', thcir limits,
and their cr.mnnejon; but leaitrg the particular
part to be mr..re fully decline Ied in the charts
which are i,. follow. Connequen ly, ther-e epintles,
in their pir.gre's. (if I have ha-lth and leisure to
make any proctr,-) %till be 1-i,5 dry, and more
auseeptible cf p:,-ltical ornanment. I am here only
opening the iountqin., and cleatirig the pa-vagn.
-To dedu.ce the river., to I .llo' ihem in 'heni
oourae, an.] to observe their etTec u, may to a task
ESSAY ON MAN.
OF THE NATURE .AND SITAT OF MftN WITH
RE-TrCC- TO Til UtMr.SE.
Oi M n ir i- .airi.rjci -i-T aL a w c-in judge rrnly
Witii rp ird I* ., ur oJ .vl I-iti Lrf cI.' 'b- -& ir. [i- l L
W r t':Ii,'jl u ,I ; i -i..ml tid Itirfl ;, '- r. I "i:.
Tbl it iraU -j .." i, L. d i.:-i,:'.1 iJnpic- l bul a
L.,r 'i 'ut':.l I L'- L ,l .~ n-I Ji wk lie Cr -.aU il
rA --L. .lr,- l,; I _.Il l r dcr l, .ir -, gEd (CC'n-
l rffi' l.- r,3 -J fr. SLiOii,[ h0 rn ulikrll ri, 35,
&.C T ial *I i .*rj iH- up,.-i fL itriiu .-- 01 lulo re
evrilr, ad-.i i rr, .. rl 1 i h i 11f i 'a lur T EIMlIP,
It i 11 .i l'.i "l. 1-1 II,- pr ic1 l d -[,-, ,Is ;, &T Ce.
T t_.. pr.1.. ,1 !,,ir-nl gl i t nirc ki-. v|..J IlF .l pid f -
and min -.-. Tir.: *mrnp-cl) I pfl, j 1 iiii.-i iitstu
tile ilc .,i .A ...1, s .-7 ..-J, -.iO' it irl ,iL or uRilt-
n-i, p.:r : i .ii c i ..< ri..:.-; ,"ii jr ti-.-. Oi )J-J- bC
o0 f .Ji..c- i .ri, I l i .. s I bLt-urtd-lj t-r
COrs- I' i ..r? l 1 It .Ill: 112.1-11 *;au; "' I i e. : CiA n,
Oir ex l, i't. -i pti:r'Clt-on in It iJor-il world
TwVt't i, r.Oi L thCe li Latu.url, 131, ac. Ti, Iiilteanon-
8 rFTSTLE i.
I.. lr i ui. : r. ., j I .:. p. an, ol
1lC.! l.m i ..11r n *i i h I, ,i .. *J .i w, i'JI-J r. I r..itC
.L .l I i,... j ... ; c r i I i... I 'l '..J.I i ilh' oll
j v, I.]- it ll .,I n u" u tu:I r1 L''+I'.r '*',] i -rc'J iltJI In
C'iu ll" l a l fi.uli .r il iub i.-r l -ir.. [ eu Lrl ilu 1 hrl,
a.u .' ....]-r1Ji .im mr .r i r rtrn ur.i brid
or all ( -t'ur'. I- 3 [ri,? r h.. iTA."T l'ii.,1 ol .-jf ne,
in 1 .rLj r-l, Io iu T, ra l i.. rT .'.i ; 111111.. ra H on
| al.,i"1 ( ,:,r, ill .'rvi. ai I ilh r:,'l t h' 3,. ia.. ,2t'? H o w,1
l m u.:h f'li i l.. I r. l.. Id I. .. i..i.'in, l f IIILrg
Cr,'tuilr. rnu : x T.n ir. r..I I....v i; nere
ap-y pi'rl vI l i W t1 i.'..: i' l Ihi 1t pi l r-. i',,l l
11 u .l '..o 1 C..1 c t li, t-, i I I,.:. tI. .l y d,
| -* ] T"l'. C t a c'I e-' rT a,.- ini eJ,"f; '.II.. .: [I 4.jl ha
de ri It -'r: C....:'l.i : I ..' I e i i6 Ilute
!1jl. r r.!- l ,J1 .' Pf- r-ii l e,-, i lh 1; 10 OilU [Ira -
siV'll rjd lulurr j l.'. I.. ac
AWAKE. my St. Juhn! leave all mnaner things,
To low ambition, and tho pride of kings.
Let ua (Aince lifd can little more supply
Than jut.l to loork ab.ut us and In, die)
Expsltilte flee o'er all this b,:ene of man; 5
A mighty maze but nrlj witsh.it a plan;
A wild, whrre eede and flow-er promiscuous shoot
Or garden tempung with forbidden fruit.
Together let uns teat this ample tield,
Try what the ,peon, A hat the -cverts yield. 10
ESSAY ON MAN.
The blent tiacts, the ghi.l hnei'hr epkh.Te
Of1 all who blindly cr.'.?p. 'i I.htle.I i..ov r.
Eye Nature'a i i:ldI ,.... I'.%lly as it fli-..
And ca'th i rThrmanner It -lu i rhi- rioe,
Laugh where we munr, I_.,n' ,'ni;.1 nri..e we (an.
But vindicate the way t' G0....1 r,,'r. 16
I Say fira'. of Gf.d a.ibn, ,r irMn tlow,
What can we rearn. but ft',.r. while' r-e know !
Of man, what ,e wep l.ii hi- Lat.i,.n here.
From which .to rea.-.n. or in whi.-h rpfer I 20
Through worlds unnunmber'J though the God, be
'Tis ours to trace? him only in our o.n
He. twh th-.:.uch vat[ irrn-i..ilvy pr. pierce.
S-e worrli.m on w..rld. ccrmpomp c.ne aiitere :
Obertv h.w av't-t'ri inl'. *vylt.r rhltn, 56
Wh.t other piArn-ri ir.'le r,'thr SLin ;
What varied beina pe.T.ple e-'ry star.
May t.ll why hea-'n ha mr'id.? u4 we are
But of thiA frane, thn hearing, and- th-i.'d,
The satrng connPxio.n, nice dependenenies, 30
Gradations just, ha" thy pervading er.ul
Look'd through t or can a part contain the hole ?
Is the great chain that draws all tn agree.
And drawn, supports, upheld by God or thee'
I I. Presumptuous man the rei.orr wouldat thou
Why form'd so weak, so little, and so blind I
10 EPISTLE I.
First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess,
Why form'd no weaker, blinder, and no less I
Ask of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made
Taller and stronger than the weeds they shade 1 40
Or ask of yonder argent fields above,
Why Jove's satellites are less than Jove '
Of systems possible, if 't is contest,
That wisdom infinite must form the best,
Where all must fall or not coherent be, 45
And all that rises, rise in due degree:
Then in the scale of reas'ning life, 't is plain,
There must be somewhere, such a rank as man;
And all the question (wrangle e'er so long)
l, only vh;, if CG-Lo.dt pi.'d tim ,.-ng I 50
ReFpe-lmn m4rn, r'%hrit.rer %-rrog %ve call,
May, mui t., rihlt. a; rleirae t.- all.
In human v.:.kth, hou|. I...-.Ar'd ..n with pain,
A th,1'uand m,er'.rme rt earer- -e purpo,e gain;
In God., or,- siApl.? cn it, en.d produce; 55
Yet Eerrves o -.orjd Loo ;-.,me? .hoer 1ue.
S. rman. who hnr[e ,eeoms principal alone,
Perhap at.:. i,.:c.Jrd t', suo.e sphere unknown,
Touches _.:rne %he.l, .r vere.? to or.,rie goaJ ;
'T is but a pant mse s.ee, anrd njr a hole. 60
When the pr...u.i .Lterd thll k.c:.w why man sestrains
Eli tior ,cio r-e, r. Jrii ve him .:.',:r the plins ;
Whet Ihr dJ.!l ox'., %thv nr.i' hie broeake he clod,
Is now a na. nrr. arnd rn:. ryt'. Gd
Then shaU atcIn's pride .,nd dullness compmhend
E S A 0 N A.1 N. 11
Hi. a&ti',na'. p aori,', bv':in.', ,ie and end: 66_
W\hy doina, ,,jdfi"ring, ch-ck'd. in.p il'J and why
ThiW hour a -lax e, uie nret a deiry.
Then ;yo not min'g imperfect, heav'a in iu]lt;
Say r-Ihr, -r. i. n'n aq perl'e. a. he ..ught : 70
FHi6 knonS Il-dge ntaeLtr'd 1.) hlL 4t ie and. place;
His Lime 3 nir.-menr, and a point his ipaic'.
It to be p,.rfct an a certain mpher'e,
What rmater. uoin nr late, or here or there !
The t.l._t t.d-dhy i3 as comple.ely ,r., 75
As who Li-pan a Lhoruand yea azO.
I [. IH"-san from all r creItres t.ude the boi:.k
All but ll i.i.ge prercrib'd, Lhe? prea.ent al te
From brutt. whriat men, from menr what spirits know:
Or wTh.:. i.d ufl'-r being her.- L-l.:.w i 10
The lamb th ni..t d..'mv r,-, [.leed t.:-day,
Had he thy rea:rn. ,wuld he skip and play F
Pleas'.J t-' the lai r ? cr.:.p, the- l ..-'[y I.o.I,
And Itc k, it- h.and u.t tn'.l 1.) -hed his il.i..d.
Oh! blinrine; .:- t he future' kindly ghien, k)
Tint eath Waay .11i the h.cln narkl'.J y lu:s -en,
Who sees with uqiAl eye, a' G: iof all,
A hero peri-h, or % .parr..w 'all .
Atomsn or '' ,iam' trt, ruiin b-.ir'J,
And now a Lbubile b-trtt, n.1 ,ti.w. w r..rl] k. 901
Eope humbly thbtn with treniLlin4 puiiori asoar;
Wait the great teachers, D i.th, and G.d adloAe.
19 EPISTLE I.
What future bliss he gives not thee to know,
But gives that hope to be thy blessing now.
Hope springs eternal in the human breast; 95
Man never is, but always to be blest;
The soul uneasy, and confin'd from home,
Rests and expatiates in a life to come.
Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind,
Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; 100
His soul proud science never taught to stray
Far as the solar walk, or milky way;
Yet simple nature to his hope has given,
Behind the cloud topt hill, an humbler heaven:
Some safer world, in depth of woods embrac'd, 105
Some happier island in the watery waste,
Where slaves once more their native land behold,
No fiends torment, no christians thirst for gold.
To be, contents his natural desire,
He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire; 110
But thinks, admitted to that equal sky,
I-s faii,.ful d.:.g a8all bear him rompiany.
IV Go. wiser thou and in thy scale of ense,
,'eigh thy o(.pinion agAin-. Pro idence;
Call ur-.pe-rtfc YniD what tho.u (fan.-y'aL uch, 115
Say, here he give, too livde, there lto much;
Deoaroy sII crelure, flor thy sport or guit,
Yet cry. it man' unh ippy, God'a unjiut,
If man alnne enroi. n.-.t hesv'n'r high care,
Alone m-i.de pert-ect here, unmortal there. 120
TISAY ON hIAN. 13
Sneal., li .nQ s taid 1hr b.aion.- randi li, roi.
R-jiulde ni. -jut-i.-, be the I.;,.j of0 GUID.
l 'ii i-jr. Lu i -'i.raie, r' 'l:. r n.. li I; ,
Al! quat il-ir .ni.lh rL, aiLd rui-i II lha 1 iiit-a,.
Pride aij l I' l 1 aii t rr l i. 'J t .d,- 1-25
I-WnD ulM bu --li. I r, ag:il- i.uld b (jud'.
A -p rinj i ri t..: .- i ri, tr:ii,
Aspuirn 1)o I aniUe-!', Mlr, rt -I ,
And. 1 vl.. L. i L i, '; t I-". Li' l..1 th I.l '.,
Ul Unrder, i .u, .inr lib Erernal C-ue. 130
V. As', I.%i eli r I i, theJi. hi- t -nriy Li.,-d;. ile,
tidl. ui 'hust-u.-' ri id-clanis-5. 'il...Sr [iawe:
El I Iie I, ,i A b Tjh u r;r i t ut ii, 1 -1 r i i I "l Ir. ILdn0;
'fu. [ta e ki bd r rj l, % irc L41 er-.. i l t..iv eI,
?u, kl- ," h hi ] t., 1i1d plej, d- i:,uL P',-'V' O.jvpr ;
Anoitil Ir *I.j e, Ili- grpe. ITe i re- [ ii- 135
The ji...? ii., raric-..ui a i thr, L.al liii-
F Ir I..-, it,- rrib ea ta1.ui,,nd iirea3urEi LLririn
For srj-?, h-,lih -udle- t[>ii ihou.bffid a1ribgs,
-?&l i; ll ri. al l rn-. ',n T I) libr le rii, ;
My I...rri ...,I ec itth, rny xr-r..py t"e I SL i :.." J40
bi en ', r... I n.iaitu ei rT-.r ILj gru '. nd, iJ
Prom burini. -ni. Whei- n % ;id dliSh, Ji.-end.
t-n. eirLL]lqaises iaall.J.w, ur ir-n Seat'peSite
Tor nit.-i.,- ;-T)I-. abhi*e ilicr- i-', he dt-I:
" No 't L. r-pr- 'di ithe iIr Ali.iaehry C'aue 1.43
Acri nr :.( t. [-. ail but L.y u, r.i l JI.i ,
Th' Xc-p-Jcrii I'MS ; .uiu thing' aiDa.:- IJI began,
14 EPISTLE I.
And what created perfect?"-Why then man?)
If the great end be human happiness,
Then nature deviates-and can man do less 150
As much that end a constant course requires
Of show'rs and sunshine, as of man's desires:
As much eternal springs, and cloudless skies,
As men for ever temp'rate, calm, and wise.
/If plagues or earthquakes break not heaven's design,
Why then a Borgia, or a Cataline 1 156
Who kI.:. t.uIt H.? tih.., in.] ih-l. hlil-tning f.'rms,
Who Nh ic.'- .l, I Icn, anhd1 her. wigj the ar.rnMs;
Pours fierce ambition into Cwsar's mind, %
Or turns young Ammon loose to scourge mankind I
From pride, from .ri.. ou.r ..'ry, re3-'t;iia prin-s ;
Account for moral as for natural things:
Why cain ge e ie hLe&v, in those, in lhfri arlait I
In b.aith, i. r1a4'ti ht, is tI ;.,bi. t t. --
\iere: thterr l s ,rir.ny, ill vi it'e n.-re;
That nevrr-r i .r e..nn to ll hie wiend,
That nev-er [p.a i.:.n di..:.o., .I te [a,ind.
But all ut.iti by ,.-lerren.Ail ile;
And pasbsions ri e t,-n t- ,lenj- i Lide. 170
The gtertral order i;nce'tlbe orlJ d:.e.an,
ii' &pI Lt inaitAt. oljd is kept in man.
VI. W'h-at tuid thi_ man Now upward still
And little lIu. than ancsl, would be more;
ESSAY ON MAN. 15
Now looking do ward just as griev'd appears,
To want the Tn gth of bulls, the fur of bears. 16
Made for his use all creatures if he call,
Say what their use, had he the powers of all 1
/ Nature to these, without profusion kind,
The proper organs, proper powers a.ie u' ; 180
Eatbh eemi'.ng want ~'. ur'p, _r.=j of course,
Sre with degrees of swiftness, there of force;
Ain exact proportion to their state;
Nothing to add, and nothing to abate.
Each beast, each insect,'appy in its own: 185
Is heaven unkind to man, and man alone ?
Shall he alone, whom rational we call,
Be pleas'd with nothing, if not blest with all '
The bliss of man (could pride that ieo-ming find,)
Is not to act or think beyond mankind, 190
No-powers of body or of soul to share,
But what his nature and his state can bear.
Why has not man a microscopic eye ?
For this plain reason, man is not a fly.
Say for what use, were finer optics given, 195
T' inspect a mite, not comprehend the heav'n .
Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er,
To smart and agonize at every pore ?
Or quick effluvia darting through the brain,
Die of a rose, in aromatic pain ? 200
If nature thundered in his opening ears,
And stunn 'd him with the music of the spheres,
How would he wish that heaven had left him still
I O EPISTLE I.
The whispering zephyr and tne purling rill ?
Who finds not Providence all good and wise, 205
Alike in what it gives, and what denies ?
VI I. Far as creation's ample range extends, '
The scale of sensual, mental powers ascends;
Mark how it mounts to man's imperial race,
From the green myriads in the peopled grass: 210
What modes of sight, betwixt each wide extreme,
The mole's dim curtain, and the lynx's bea l ?
Of smell, the headlong lioness between,
And hound sagacious on the tainted green ?
Of hearing, from the life that fills the flood, 215
To that which warbles through the vernal wood ?
The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine ?
Feels at each thread, and lives along the line:
In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true,
From poisonous herbs extracts the healing dew?
How instinct varies in the groveling swine, 221
Compar'd, 1..f.i.-'.:.nin; elephant, with thine!
'Twixt that and reason, what a nice barrier!
For ever separi.:-, yf r:.i p.er near!
Remembrance -,i1d rE v.. ii, how ally'd! ?22
What thin partitions sense from thought divide !
And middle natures, how they long to join,
Yet never pass th' inseparable line!
Without this just gradation, could they be
Subjected, these to. th.,. r-r .llto thee i 230
Tntpower- cf I I .ub1lu'd t y thee alone,
ESSAY ON MAAN. 17
Is not thy reason all these powers in one ?
VIII. S (i-r.-uh ityij ah-, tlhi ocean, snd th-.
All matter cui. I ird burtn: nr.:. i..uth
Above, how b..h pr..tTi *v.-id lrr-ji I:.,-' '35
Around, ho- i.dl h-.. [ ?.Tp e,. n] i.Jel..-'
Vast chain o.f t-.. in whi.h fr..r.n G:.,1 Le.'A,d
Nature's eth-r.ul. h.imar,. sc-1l. nr.n,
Beast, bird, Ih. ne.p'r wh.r [..p e ran r ta ,
No glass can, r. 1 t,. ir.:.m inline r. iI. -r 240
From thee ii.Ithing -COn .*.i i.*'r p:.:-'r
W ere we to piir. i I i.,r r.; h' :. ...ur.11
Or in the full rei-"ri l.- aie vi'.,
Where, one :rep t.r:.len, The pii. abile'' d, t..y'd:
From nature' ,him, in hite-rtr lukl yoU Lriel., -I45
Tenth, or ten tLihou.andth. bhr-...i th-e chain auiet
And, if et. tb 'em i. gradual .ii r-il.
Alike essen'l I ,..I. t- anaziig wi.-.l.
The least eonuci,:.-r bui tu .:.r,=. no: all.
That system. lry, but ihe t h..!- r,,.i;l G.11 ,G
Let earth ur.al.nrcd frmrni her i,-lbt ly.
Planets and lir. ran la I... 'ta....,ih ithe 'y .
Let ruling ang.l., i.rom their ph-ere t-, hrl',.l,
Being on bei,. T rc i'.J. anl i'.. !, .:.n :. IJ,
Heaven's whol.? i:..,ndaI is' -'.:. t,er cri.tc: d. 55
And nature t'mbile tI th.. throne -:.1 Gid .
All this dred or..J.dr Lreak-.-.r rr..,m I fr.r thee ?
Vile worm! O(h madness' pilide' ini -lety!
0f EPISTLE I.
I X. What if the foot, ordained the dust to tread,
Or hand to toil, aspir'd to be the head ? 260
What if the head, the eye, or ear repin'd
To serve mere engines to the ruling mind ?
Just as absurd for any part to claim
To be another, in this general frame:
Just as absurd to mourn the tasks or pains 265
The great directing mind of All ordains,
All are but parts of one stupendous whole,
Whose body nature is, and God the soul;
That, changed through all, and yet in all the same;
Great in the earth, as in th' ethereal frame; 270
Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,
Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees;
Lives through all life, extends through all extent,
Spresd@ undivided, operates unspent:
Breathes in our soul. inl'r.rm6 our mnr.ial part, 275
As full. as p-rfect, in a hair as heart.
As full, as perfect. in vile man that mourn.
As the raft seraph that adores and burns
To him no high, no low, no great, no -mail *
He fill., he bounds, :onnects. and equal all. 2.80
X. Cease then, nor Order Imperfection name;
Our proper blisa depends on what we blame.
Know th- .:.n puori this kind, ih'i due degree
Of blinding. R, rwe.kness, heaven bettc. & on thee,
Submit-i, thi., or any other Ephe-ro,
Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear; M2s
ESSAY N1 MAN. 19
Safe is the hand of one disposing power,
Or in the natal, or the mortal hour.
All nature is but art, unknown to thee;
All chance, direction which thou canst not see;
All discord, harmony not understood; 291
All partial evil, universal good:
And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite,
One truth is clear, Whatever is, is right. 294
OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH
RESPECT TO HIMSELF AS AN INDIVIDUAL-
The business of man not to pry into God, but to study
himself. His middle nature; his powers and frail-
ties, ver. 1 to 19. The limits of his capacity, 19, &c.
The two principles of man, self-love and reason,
both necessary, 53, &c. Self-love the stronger, and
why, 67, &c. Their end the same, 81, &c. The
passions and their use, 93, to 130. The predom-
inant passion and its force, 132 to 160. Its neces-
sity in directing men to different purposes, 165, &c.
Its providential use, in fixing our principles and
ascertaining our virtue,177. ViT. ar,, e joined
in c-.tr mr; e.l r.ai r. th- limits near, yet the thug
sepri5te and.j r t..[., whatis the office of reason,
203 to 216. How odious vice in itself, ani. how we'
deceive ourselves into it, 217. That hI'. wsr th
cunl.s or" providence and general good are answered
in our passions and imperfections, 238, &e. How
usefully these are distributed to all orders of men,
241. How useful they are to society, 251. And
to the individuals, 263. In every state and every
ag- of life, 273, &c.
I KNOW then thyself, presume not God to scan,
The proper study of mankind is man.
Place 'd on this isthmus of a middle state,
EI[SAY CON MAN. 2U
Or nrar-r irJ-il :. rig-. or n-retr rrwn
What happi..r .iru hrmnk at n iti frighth,
The bard. intil.a.nr ...:.nrndi i. ri, ht. U IJ
l Vtuouia nd 5 ,.a-u.- eV'ry mtn ,rSt be,
Fe in tL ,' ',r,. 'r tu.t All in tie d.c:ire ;
The ro.pe a.id .:... by fit., is, l.i an.l 11 i ,
ArJi. n ti e t.' ? I.- 1 'i-r, 0w the\ t J .,.ie-
IT is but by palts wIu I -llow g.,..i or Irl. 0.35
For. 'ica, uS .iLLn [llI dilr t.o it ill ;
FEach rlinj idJuIl .-ik a .-ra-J ,ijgoal ;
But hPav'[,'s I..:lt sier: ia une, and that the
IN hilt: :
That a.:,l nr.i i..ri, eIrh lly andJ capr.:e,
That dIiapp'll i I' efl c'- ,' .. SV'iry 'i'. % 24i-
That happy Irailues to all ranks applied,
Shame to the virgin, to the matron pride,
Fear to the statesman, rashness to the chief,
To kings presumption, and to crowds belief:
That virtue's ends, from vanity can raise, 245
Which seeks no interest, no reward but praise:
And builds on wants, and on defects of mind,
The joy, the peace, the glory of mankind.
Heav'n forming each on other to depend,
A master, or a servant, or a friend: 25
Bida each on olher r alo siailnce c.11,
'TilU one mean' v'-ilne-,i owa the str-'ngth of all. *.
Wants, fiaaUties pas...:n.a, closer still y ly
The common Lur'sT.r, or endear the ti,.
To these we .ue nrue friendship, lose sincere,
30 EPISTLE II.
Each home-felt joy that life inherits here: 265
Yet from the same we learn, in its decline,
Those joys, those loves, those interests to resign:
Taught half by reason, half by mere decay,
To welcome death, and calmly pass away. 260
Whatever the passion, knowledge, fame, or pelf,
Not one will change his neighbor with himself.
The learned is happy, nature to explore,
The fool is happy that he knows no more;
The rich is happy in the plenty giv'n, 265
The poor contents him with the care of heav'n.
See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing,
The sot a hero, lunatic a king;
The starving chemist in his golden views
Supremely blest, the poet in his muse. 270
See some strange comfort ev'ry state attend,
And pride, bestow'd on all, a common friend;
See some fit passion ev'ry age supply,
Hope travels through, nor quits us when we die.
Behold the ,hild, by nature's kindly law, 275
Pleas'd with a rartln, tickled with a straw ;
Sonm livelier plaything gives his youth delight,
A little louder, but as empty quite;
Scarff, garterm. gold. smune his riper stage;
And beads and pray'r-bioks are the toys ol age:
Pleaas'd with this bauble vsill, as that before ; 281
'Till tir'd he .leepi. and late's poor play is o'er'
Meanwhile ? opinion gilds with varying rays
Thiase painted clouds that beautify our daya :
ESSAY ON MAN. 31
Each want of happiness by hope supplied, 285
And each vacuity of sense by pride:
These build as fast as knowledge can destroy
In folly's cup still laughs the bubble, joy;
One prospect lost, another still we gain ;
And not a vanity is giv'n in vain: 290
Ev'n mean self-love becomes, by force divine,
The scale to measure others' wants by thine.
See! and confess, one comfort still must rise;
'T is this, though man's a fool, yet God is wise
OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH
RESPECT TO SOCIETY.
1. The whole universe one system of society, v. 7, &c.
Nothing made wholly for itself, nor yet wholly for
another, v. 27. The happiness of animals mutual,
v. 49. II. Reason or instinct operate alike to the
good of each individual, v. 79. Reason or instinct
operate also to society in all animals, v. 99. III.
How far society is carried by instinct, v. 109 ; how
much farther by reason, v. 128. IV. Of that which
is called the State of Nature, v. 147. Reason in-
structed by instinct in the invention of arts, v. 166,
and in the forms of society, v. 176. V. Origin of
political societies, v. 199; origin of monarchy, v.
207; Patriarchal government, v. 212. VI. Origin
of true religion and government, from the same
pri;;ciple, 1" love, v. 215, &c. origin of superstition
and tyrsoiny, from the same principle, of fear, v.
237, &c. The influence of self-love operating to
the social and public good, v. 266. Restoration of
true religion and government on their first principle,
v. 285. Mixed government, v. 288. Various forms
of each, and the true end of all, v. 300, &c.
HERE then we rest: The Universal Cause
Acts to one end, but acts by various laws."
In all the madness of superfluous health,
The train of pride, the impudence of wealth,
ESSAY ON WAN. 83
Let this great truth be present night and day, 5
Bet must be preaerit, if we preach or pray.
1. Look round our world,behold the chain cf l.ve,
Combining all below and all above
See plastic nature working to this end,
The single atoms each to other tend ; 10
Attract, attracted to, the nevt in place
Form'd anld unpeiJ'd it= neight.ou to embrace ;
See master nex, w ith various life endu'J,
Press Tn one centre still, the general good.
See dying regrTables Ille auitain, 15
See life disnolvi g. v ege ate again;
All forms that perih, .:.thr t:.[rms supply,
(By turnq- ,we ath the vital breath, and di,)
Like tbubtle i on the mea of matter b.:.rner,
They risr-. they break, and tl tban sea return. 20
Nothing ii fureign-parts relate to whole,
One aU-extending, all-preserving soul
Connects each being, g eate-t wnih the least;
Made beat Ln aid oI mran, and man of beast;
All served, all srn ing: cutting stand- alone 25
The chain hrldi on, and, where it enda, unknown.
Has GOD, thou foni:, worl'd solely I.r thy gri.d,
Thy joy, thy pastime. thy attie,. thy lt.:.d
Who for thy table feeds the wanton lawn,
For him as kindly spreads the flowery lawn, 30
Is it for thee the larli acends and stogI
Joy tunas hie voice,joy elevates his winge.
34 EPISTLE III.
Is it for thee the linnet pours his throat 1
Loves of his own, and rapture swell the note.
The bounding steed you pompously bestride, 36
Shases with his lord the pleasure and the pride.
Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain!
The birds of heaven shall vindicate their grain.
Thine the full harvest of the golden year I
Part pays, and justly, the deserving steer: 40
The hog, that plows not, nor obeys thy call,
Lives on the labors of this lord of all!
Know, nature's children all divide her care;
The fur that warms a monarch, warm'd a bear.
While man exclaims, See all things for my use!"
"See man for mine! "replies a pamper'd goose: 46
And just as short of reason he must fall,
Who thinks all made for one, not one for all
Grant that the powerful still the weak control,
Be man the wit and tyrant of the whole: 50
Nature that tyrant checks-he only knows,
And helps another creature's wants and woes.
Say, will the falcon, stooping from above,
Smit with her varying plumage, spare the dove 7
Admires the jay the insect's gilded wings? 55
Or hears the hawk when Philomela sings ?
Man cares for all: to birds he gives his woods,
To beasts his pastures, and to fish his floods;-
For some his interest prompts him to provide,
For more his pleasure, yet for more his pride- 60
All feed on one vain patron, and enjoy
ESSAY ON MAN. 35
Th' extensive blessing of his luxury.
That very life his learned hunger craves,
He saves from famine, from the savage saves,
Nay, feasts the animal he dooms his feast, 65
And, till he ends the being, makes it blest;
Which sees no more the stroke, nor feels the pain,
Than favored man, by touch ethereal slain.
The creature had his feast of life before;
Thou too must perish, when thy feast is o'er. 70
To each unthinking being, heaven's a friend,
Gives not the useless knowledge of its end-
To man imparts it, but with such a view,
As, while he dreads it, makes him hope it too;
The hour concealed, and so remote the fear, 75
Death still draws nearer, never seeming near.
Great standing miracle, that heav'n assigned
Its only thinking thing this turn of mind.
II Whether with reason, or with instinct blest,
Know, all enjoy that power which suits them best;
To bliss alike by that direction tend, 81
And find the means proportion'd to their end.
Say, where full instinct is th' unerring guide,
What pope or council can they need beside ?
Reason, however able, cool at best, 85
Cares not for service, or but serves when prest;
Stays till we call, and then not often near;
But honest instinct comes a volunteer;
Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit;
36 EPISTLE III.
While still too wide or short is human wit; 90
Sure by quick nature happiness to gain,
Which heavier reason labors at in vain;
This too serves always, reason never long;
One must go right, the other may go wrong.
See then the acting and comparing powers, 95
One in their nature, which are two in ours;
And reason raise o'er instinct as you can,
In this, 't is God directs, in that, 'tis man.
Who taught the nations of the field and wood
To shun their poison, and to choose their food t
Prescient, the tides or tempests to withstand, 101
Build on the wave, or arch beneath the sand ?
Who made the spider parallels design,
Sure as D'Moivre, without rule or line ?
Who bid the stork, Columbus-like, explore 105
Heavens not his own, and worlds unknown before I
Who calls the council, states the certain day,
Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way?
III. God, in the nature of each being, founds
Its proper bliss, and sets its proper bounds: 110
But as he fram'd a whole, the whole to bless,
On mutual wants built mutual happiness;
So from the first eternal Order ran,
And creature link'd to creature, man to man.
Whate'er of life all-quick'ning ether keeps, 115
Or breathes through air, or shoots beneath the
ESSAY 7N MAN. 37
Or p,-ur l pr.:ijase on earth, *.-n nilr al'.,
Th.- rirl hmre. .a n. '] ell th' .,erdl e- .. s'
Not man alone, lit .11 Ih.3i rv.:m rth vt'.d.
Or wvirn.a ith sky. -,r rnii .1l.. i h,1.0. l I'Y
"acl. %..Pe; i-.h]l, but n.-. it l" al.:..n'.
Ealh .-' J .- irei .ilik.a, till rw.. are r.n'-
Nor voie 'Ihe plar i reA wiFr rh. fi'rc <-nFi 'rie.
The l.,'re tbprnrelvr a th;id lime in t.hir rICp.
Thri t.r.l.t iriJ tdir.] heir ,.r..:Cr, cmrire attend.
The m.:.th--r raro it, and thi,. iei defrrj : I 26
The yiuoua ji d'imil'.1 I.. vs stirJr earth rr sir,
There ..i..ps tn. iitinct. anien 1 herre rrA in. h ire
Th.e link diLe.Ire'. ,m. h 'r.- k, a riTeh *mir.Lra,'e,
An.:.th.r I..,i 1e ji.e.J another race. I .
A l.:.r'er i afrv nin'r he!plesi kind len'ic'd :
That lolr.,'?r car.? cntiracih more lasting hands:
Refliesi.,'. ro M.;.n, till the riet imnpr. P,
Ar ,nc.:- i-:-, thi Linterest and the Ilove
%\ ith ch'.i iwe fi. wtirth Ai.ry'.pahv wT-a tii : 135
E3.:h t-rtue in en'rh pa~i-i..n tike ita .irn .
And AriLl n'-w n-.ed), nm-w hi.lp. new habiq, riae,
That ci't 1 bnei-, lence Con charitj M.
StilU l. rl t.i.'nd, and a' aan'ler rose,
These natural lre maintain'.], habitual ihse: 140
The la,v. ucar.: ripren'd into perfeter mn.
Saw relplesi him from whc.rm 'heir life brgan :
Memo:.ry and forecast just tetirn, engg.?.
That p.:inted totk to Vy.,'h, thii on to a :
1%Ulepieavure, graLintude,and hope conmbin'd, 145
38 EPISTLE III.
Still spread the interest, and preserved the kind.
I V. Nor think, in nature's state they blindly
The state of nature was the reign of God:
Self-love and social at her birth began,
Union the bond of all things, and of man. 150
Pride then was not-nor arts, that pride to aid:
Man walk'd with beast, joint tenant of the shade;
The same his table, and the same his bed;
No murder cloth'd him, and no murder fed.
In the same temple, the resounding wood, 155
All vocal beings hymn'd their equal God:
The shrine with gore unstain'd, with gold undrest,
Unbrib'd, unbloody, stood the blameless priest.
Heaven's attribute was universal care,
And man's prerogative to rule, but spare. 160
Ah! how unlike the man of times to come!
Of half that live, the butcher, and the tomb;
Who, foe to nature, hears the general groan,
Murders their species, and betrays his own.
But just disease to luxury succeeds; 165
And every death its own avenger breeds;
The fury passions from that blood began,
And turn'd on man a fiercer savage, man.
See him from nature rising slow to art !
To copy instinct then was reason's part ; 170
Thus then to man the voice of nature spake,
" Go, from the creatures thy instructions take:
ESSAY ON MAN. 39
Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield;
Learn from the beasts the physic of the field;
Thy arts of building from the bee receive; 175
Learn of the mole to plow-the worm to weave;
Learn of the little nautilus to sail,
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.
Here too, all forms of social union find,
And hence let reason, late, instruct mankind. 180
Here subterranean works and cities see;
There, towns serial on the waving tree,
Learn each small people's genius, policies,
The ant's republic, and the realm of bees ;
How those in common all their wealth bestow,
And anarchy, without confusion, know; 186
And these for ever, though a monarch reign,
Their separate cells and properties maintain.
Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state,
Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. 190
In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw,
Entangle justice in her net of law,
And right, too rigid, harden into wrong;
Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong;
Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway, 195
Thus let the wiser make the rest obey:
And for those arts mere instinct could afford,
Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods ador'd."
V. Great Nature spoke-observant man obey'd;
Cities were built-societies were made: 20O
40 EPISTLE III.
Here rose one little state; another near
Grew by like means, and join'd, through love
Did here the trees with ruddier burdens bend,
And there the streams in purer rills descend ?
What war could ravish, commerce could bestow,
And he returned a friend, who came a foe. 206
Converse and love, mankind might strongly draw,
When love was liberty, and nature law.
Thus states were formed; the name of king un-
'Till common interest plac'd the sway in one. 210
'T was virtue only (or in arts or arms
Diffusing blessings, or averting harms)
The same which in a sire the sons obey'd,
A prince the father of a people made.
VI. Till then, by nature crown'd, each patriarch
King, priest, and parent, of his growing state;
On him their second providence they hung,,
Their law his eye, their oracle his tongue.
He from the wondering furrow called the food,
Taugt,l t) command the fire, r.-:ritrol tbe flood. 220
Dhaw f:rth the munmters ol the aby,- profound,
Or fetch th' Tial eagle to the ground.
'Till drooping, sick'ning, dying, they began,
Whom ihc-y r'ever'd se, God, t. irmurin ,? man-
Then, lolming up from ire to sire, e F:I'd 2-5
ESSAY ON MAN. 41
One great First Father, and that iirst ador'd.
Or plin tradition hata thie all begun,
Convey'd unbroken fatLh tron, sire to ;c.n:
The morlker Ir. i, the wcrk li-.inc a~ .n known,
And simple reason never sought but one: 230
E'er wit oblique had broke that steady light,
Man, like his Maker, saw that all was right;
To virtue, in the paths of pleasure trod,
And own'd a father when he own'd a God.
Love, all the faith, and all the allegiance, then:
For nature knew no right divine in men- 236
No ill could fear in God; and understood
A sovereign being, but a sov'reign good.
True faith, true policy, united ran;
That was but love of God. an.l tl; .'f ciran. '240
Who first taught souls end',la3, and realm
Th' enormous faith of miny ade fi :.r .:.ne
That proud exception to all nature' 6lw,.
T' invert the world, and co.)u ru-ns k it, cau-e 1
Force first made conquest, az.J dil iL:..que.'t,
'Till superstition taught the tyTanr aired,
Then shared the tyranny, then lent .t aid.
And gods of conquerors, slave of subj.ctu made
She, 'midst the lightoir.g'a blaze, and thunder's
When rock'd the mountains, and i hen groan'd the
42 EPISTLE III.
She taught the weak to bend, the proud to pray
To power unseen, and mightier far than they:
She, from the rending earth, and bursting skies,
Saw gods descend, and fiends infernal rise:
Here fix'd the dreadful, there the blest abodes: 265
Fear made her devils, and weak hope her gods;
Gods partial, changeful, passionate, unjust;
Whose attributes were rage, revenge, or lust;
Such as the souls of cowards might conceive,
And, form'd like tyrants; tyrants would believe.
Zeal then, not charity, became the guide; 261
And hell was built on spite, and heaven on pride.
Then sacred seem'd the ethereal vault no more;
Altars grew marble then, and reek'd with gore:
Then first the flamen tasted living food, 265
Next his grim idol smear'd with human blood:
With heaven's own thunder shook the world
And played the god an engine on his foe.
So drives self-love, through just and through
To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: 270
The same self-love, in all, becomes the cause
Of what restrains him, government and laws.
For, what one likes, if others like as well,
What serves one will, when may wills rebel
How shall he keep, what, sleeping or awake, 275
A weaker may surprise, a stronger take 1
His safety must his liberty restrain:
ESSAY ON MAN. 43
All join to guard what each desires to gain.
Fore'd into virtue thus by self-defence,
E'en kings learnt justice and benevolence: 280
Self-love forsook the path it first pursued,
And found the private in the public good.
'T was then the studious head or generous mind,
Follower of God, or friend of human kind,
Poet or patriot, rose but to restore 286
The faith and moral, nature gave before;
Relum'd her ancient light, not kindled new;
If not God's image, yet his shadow drew:
Taught power's due use to people and to kings;
Taught not to slack, nor strain its tender strings,
The less or greater set so justly true, 291
That touching one must strike the other too;
Till jarring interests of themselves create
Th' according music of a well mix'd state.
Such is the world's great harmony, that springs 295
From order, union, full consent of things:
Where small and great, where weak and mighty
To serve, not suffer-strengthen, not invade;
More powerful each, as needful t.: the rest,
And, in proportion as it blesses, blett 3itU
Draw to one point, and to one centre bring
Beast, man, or angel, servant, lor I or king.
For forms of government, let i.l-o comiet,
Whate'er is best administered, is be t
For modes of faith, let graceles;s eaki.tA eight 30B
44 EPISTLE III.
His can't be wrong, whose life is in the right.
In faith and hope the world will disagree,
But all mankind's concern is Charity.
All must be false that thwart this one great end;
And all of God, that bless mankind, or mend. 310
Man, like the generous vine, supported, lives:
The strength he gains, is from th' embrace he
On their own axis as the planets run,
Yet make at once their circle round the sun;
So two consistent motions act the soul; 315
And one regards itself, and one the whole.
Thus God and nature link'd the general frame,
And bade self-love and social be the same.
OF THE NATCUtE AND STrlTF OF MAN WITWI
RESPECT TO HAPPINESS.
L False nouit, in_- o, i ,a.p'nefl p tiil,. .trs'ail ,rI p..,pu-
lar, an.we.-.i. 'or 10 I. to '7 i 'i i' .@t1 end
of all l,[n-, ri aii.1 .,,ti.1,- i.v ill. v : ". -.i) in-
tends '. n -i I. -I jil ; r-i, ii a ,n so., t iusT
be so:l,, i ce. alrl parlucul'r hIapr-nri-6 Icpelds
on gerFr'i, a], i.'-- i- g-"-'m tr-i- c[.& Lr i, 116L
partic-li 1. -, % 5 AC ii -- --:-: rv i-f uiier
andtl., r-- iw s-l w.vcInrcr,:.- -I '-i iht l c it-rulI
goods il*11-i t-e jii-ii.i lipr-'iip-* r u 'i ma-i. 10
consi-i ,n ihi. ol : tiiji, niro -it.'6' riandJig Igthat
inequ ili, ithe' ilbncc ni liHppines. rnior-p TiO-
kind:' 6.-1 i..n by Pr V.-deiciC t- ini-e iLo plas-
sions -1i ii, ': ii" l 'a i r, '. 70 111 ufLis1 i i hEjp-
pines' *:i ii-.sI..J uil -1, 5; lir 5a is i.: t.si .ni vnit
the c;n- l'iijL-ii 01 LR> soild and ti0a he It e -
Man iras 1-.:re ii. w i 5 I&i-, v 77 Tt- -rrrorof
unput'Fr- I.:i ,rit, itiiii Sr. (-nl It Q iiir.Ii. L"-1
mature, or i1 ioi-iu,-. 94 IV Thi fI', y c-f Ex-
pecting tinr -I( > --iOudI '%ier liii g-ntriil Io ss in
favor ro p.artiJclIir, v. 1I! V Tt-rtwe iar n'-t
judge r w; 'l', r -:-* r L -u U.5i rioi vC'i il.-y
are,t.-iy nii. "e- Thappu.t, 1 31, &e VI. rTir
exter.t-ia -.c-i arc r n it h- [pt i-i.r r[ei Ver-Js i-UL
often i-ir.. i. -i -il h .or d.&Etr',ucuvr ." viri.-, a.
167. [t% .V-.n irr,Cie cun malc rio nan happy
46 EPISTLE IV.
without virtue, instanced in Riches, v. 185. Honors,
v. 193. Nobility, v. 205. Greatness, v. 217. Fame,
v. 237. Superior talents, v. 259, &c. with pictures
of human infelicity in Men possessed of them all,
v. 260, &e. VII. That virtue only constitutes a
happiness whose object is universal, and whose
prospect eternal, v. 309, &c. That the perfection
of virtue and happiness consists in a conformity to
the order of Providence here, and resignation to it
here and hereafter, v. 327, &c.
0 HAPPINESS! our being's end and aim!
Good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name;
That something still which prompts the eternal
For which we bear to live, or dare to die;
Which still so near us, yet beyond us lies, 5
O'erlook'd, seen double, by the fool, and wise.
Plant of celestial seed! if dropped below,
Say, in what mortal soil thou deign'st to grow .
Fair opening to some court's propitious shine,
Or deep with diamonds in the flaming mine 7 10
Twin'd with the wreaths Parnassian laurels yield,
Or reap'd in iron harvests of the field 7
Where grows ?-where grows it not L-if vain our
We ought to blame the culture, not the soil:
Fix'd to no spot is happiness sincere, 15
IT is no where to be found, or every where.
'T is never to be bought, but always free,
ESSAY ON MAN. 47
And, Iled from monarchs, St John, dwells with
Ask of the learn'd the way, the learned are blind.
This bids to -srve, and that to shun mankind. 2)J
Some place 'he bli 6 in action, -ome in ease:
Thi'e call it plea.sure, and conteniment thepe.
Some, surnk to beSasi, find pleasure end- in pain:
Some, ewell'd to gods. confess e'en virte vain :
Or indolent, to -each extreme they rall. 25
To trust in every thing, or doubt or all
WhIo thu- decline it, nly th"y m.iore or lerf-
Than this, that happiness is hppL.ine.. ?l
Take nature's path. and mid opinion, leave;
All elates tin re.:h it. and all hreads conceive. 30
Obvio.js her goods, in no extreme ihey dwell;
There needs but thinking right, and meaning wel ;
And mourn our variojs portion. as we please,
Fqual is common sense, and common ease.
Remember, man, the Universal Cause 35
Acts not by partial, but by general laws ;
And mikes %,hat happiness tWe juAtly call
Subalat, not in the good of one, but all.
There's not a blegsing individual find,
But some way leans and hearkens to ithe kind; 40
No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride,
No cavern'd hermit re-ts selr-sarislied
Who must to shun or hate mankind pretend,
Seek an admirer, cr would ti\ a friend
Abstract whit others feel, what uther. think, 45
48 EPISTLE IV.
All pleasures sicken, and all glories sink:
Each has his share, and who would more obtain,
Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain.
Order is heaven's first law; and this contest,
Some are, and must be, greater than the rest; W0
More rich, more wise-but who infers from hence
That such are happier, shocks all common oense.
Heaven to mankind impartial we confess,
If all are equal in their happiness:
But mutual wants this happiness increase; 65
All nature's difference keeps all nature's peace.
Condition, circumstance, is not the thing;
Bliss is the same in subject or in king ;
In who obtain defence or who defend;
In him who is, or him who finds a friend. 60
Heaven breathes through every member of the
One common blessing, as one common soul.
But fortune's gifts, if eaeb alike possest,
And each were equal, must not all contest '
If then to all men happiness was meant, 66
God in externals could not place content.
Fortune her gifts may variously dispose,
And these be happy cali'd, unhappy those;
But heaven's just balance equal will appear,
While those are plac'd in hope, and these in fear :
Not present good or ill, the joy or curse, 71
But ruturP vickw_ "f better, or of worse
(h .oaS ul eari-t! batlmpt ye tiU to r6e,
ESSAV ON MAN. 49
By mo-untains pil'd on rrmutini,,.I, to the kiest
Heaven Aill with laughter the vain tod .-irveys,
And lurica madmen in the heaps they raise. 76
Know, all the good that indtt iduala find.
Or God and nature mean to. mere mankind,
Reasan's wh-.le pleasure, all the joya o' boensP,
Lie in, three words, health, peere, and competence.
But health consiAsl with temperance ah.ne 81
And peace, 0 virtue! peace is all thy own.
The go.:.d or bad the gift of tmrtune gain ;
But tJ-ee lena late theiT, a- they worse cblain.
Say, in pursuit ol profit or delight, f'
Who riak the most, that take wrTng means or
Of vice or virtue, whether blest or curst,
ItVhih meets contempt, or which companion,
Count all th' advantage prosperous vice attains,
'Tin but what virtue Ilies from, and diadajmn : 90
And grant the Lad what haF.pineis they would,
And they must want, which ia, to pais for g..od.
Oh blind to nuth, and Gud't whole scheme below,
Who fancy blie to vice, to virtue woe' 94
Who sees and Iotlows that great scheme the best,
Best knowc the blessing, and will most be blet.
But I'ools, the good alone unhappy cal],
For ills or accidents that chance to all.
See FalkJand dies, the rirtuous and the jut '
See god-Ulke Tuienne prostrate on the dust! 100
60 EPISTLE IV.
See Sidney bleeds amid the martial strife!
Was this their virtue or contempt of life ?
Say, was it virtue, more though heaven ne'er
Lamented Digby! sunk thee to the grave 7
Tell me, if virtue made the son expire, 105
Why, full of days and honor, lives the sire ?
Why drew Marseilles' good bishop purer breath,
When nature sickened, and each gale was death ?
Or why so long (in life if long can be)
Lent heaven a parent to the poor and me ? 110
What makes all physical or moral ill?
There deviates nature, and here wanders will.
God sends not ill; if rightly understood,
Or partial ill is universal good,
Or change admits, or nature lets it fall; 115
Short, and but rare, 'til man improved it all.
We just as wisely might of heaven complain,
That rihhteeous Abel was destroy'd by Cain,
As that the virtuous son is ill at ease,
When tis lowd father gave the dire dieane U12
Think we. Like some weak ptilce, th' eternal cause
Prone for his fav'rites ton revere his lawi I
Shall burning iEtna, it a rage requirL,,
Forget to thunder, and real her Fires I
On air or sea, new motions be impress, 125
Oh blameleis Bethel' ro relieve thy breair
When the loose mountain trer-b.le ftom un high,
Shall gravitation cease, if you go by '
ESSAT ON MAN. 01
Or some old temple, nodding to its fall,
For Chartres' head reserve the hanging wall 130
But still this world, (so fitted for the knave)
Contents us not. A better shall we have .
A kingdom of the just then let it be:
But first consider how these just agree.
The good must merit God's peculiar care; 135
But who, but God, can tell us who they are ?
One thinks on Calvin heaven's own spirit fell;
Another deems him instrument of hell:
If Calvin feels heaven's blessing or its rod,
This cries there is, and that, there is no God. 140
What shocks one part will edify the rest,
Nor with one system can they all be blest;
The very best will variously incline,
And what r',-ard- your virtue, punish mine.
' Whatevf-r i~, is ri ht."-Thia world, "l La nrue,
W\aA made for Cresar-bur ior Titus too; 146
And vhicb morre blest.l who ebain'd hbl country.
Or he whore virtue sigh'd to lonea day ?
** But sometime virtue starred, tile vice is
What then 1 I the reward of virtue bread 1 160
Thai, vice may merit, 't is the pri.e of toil;
The knave deser pae it, when he tills the -oil,
The knare deserve it. when he tempts the main.
Where foUy fiAhtu for kings, or dives f.r gain
The good man may be weak, be indolent; 155
S2 EPISTLE IV.
Nor is his claim to plenty, but content.
But grant him riches, your demand is o'er ?
" No-shall the good want health, the good want
power ? "
Add health, and power, and every earthly thing,
"Why bounded pow'r ? why private 1 why no king ?
Nay, why external for internal given? 161
Why is not man a god, and earth a heaven "P
Who ask and reason thus will scarce conceive
God gives enough, while he has more to give:
Immense the power, immense were the demand;
Say, at what part of nature will they stand 7 166
What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy,
The soul's calm sun-shine, and the heart-felt joy,
Is virtue's prize: a better would you fix
Then give humility a coach and six, 170
Justice, a conqueror's sword-or truth, a gown-
Or public-spirit, its great cure, a crown.
Weak, foolish man! will heaven reward us there
With the same trash mad mortals wish for here 7
The boy and man an individual makes, 175
Yet sigh'st thou now for apples and for cakes!
Go, like the Indian, in another life
Expect thy dog, thy bottle, and thy wife,
As well as dream such trifles are assigned,
As toys and empires, for a god-like mind; 1IO
Rewards, that either would to virtue bring
No joy, or be destructive of the thing:
How oft by these, at sixty, are undone
C9$AV ON M AN, 63
The virtues of a saint at twenty-one!
To whom can riches give repute, or trust, 185
Content, or pleasure, but the good and just ?
Judges and senates have been bought for gold,
Esteem and love were never to be sold.
Oh fool! to think God hates the worthy mind,
The lover and the love of human kind, 190
Whose life is healthful, and whose conscience clear,
Because he wants a thousand pound a year.
Honor and shame from no condition rise;
Act well your part, there all the honor lies.
Fortune in men has some small difference made,
One flaunts in rags, one flutters in brocade ; 196
The cobbler apron'd, and the parson gown'd,
The friar hooded, and the monarch crown'd,
"What differ more (you cry) than crown and
I'll tell you, friend, a wise man and a fool. 200
You'll find, if once the monarch acts the monk,
Or, cobbler-like, the parson will be drunk,
Worth makes the man, and want of it, the fellow;
The rest is all but leather, or prunello.
Stuck o'er with titles, and hung round with
That thou may'st be by kings, or whores of kings;
Boast the pure blood of an illustrious race,
In quiet flow from Lucrece to Lucrece:
But by your father's worth, if your's you rate,
Count me those only who were good and great.
54 EPISTLE IV.
Go! if your ancient, but ignoble blood, 211
Has crept through scoundrels ever since the flood,
Go! and pretend your family is young,
Nor own your fathers have been fools so long.
What can ennoble sots, or slaves, or cowards! 215
Alas! not all the blood of all the Howards.
Look next on greatness! say where greatness
" Where, but among the heroes and the wise ?"
Heroes are much the same, the point's agreed,
From Macedonia's madman to the Swede; 220
The whole strange purpose of their lives, to find,
Or make an enemy of all mankind!
Not one looks backward, onward still he goes.
Yet n?'er l'..k fr.rrardi I'jfurth-r rhira 1.m nuse'
No l-.- silk. Thr, poiidc en.] -.'ie?, 0'-IM
All lyv, .1.w rhi...i., with r ii.. i ..T'.tve y e .
Nen in th.ii I. ...- un.uiri-.l h..uri tl y Lake,
Nol that L'thj-.'li %C-; aSi t- ie, bLut ,:l h l ;r %,eali .
B13t gr11it t th,.-,? t, n ..luguer. ltr O can ch-.at
'Tis phrase ..burd, to_ call a Iill.in arel: 230
iWho iclkdlv is wise, or ,madly br.ve,
]s but the m. re a i t;..ol, It.' aLmre a ktmo.
Who nobic- r.ri., r.y nob'l. main ... btai.II,
Or fallina. rnU;11 lan e' de, or in chi;B ;
Like g.'.] Aur1lNus let hiim rgilg. cr uleed 235
L ie, S,: .. r,.t.,-- hat men is p.rt inJdeJ.
What 's 'Farne -& ianci.d aLie in oihetr' breath,
A thing bey..u. u, e'enr bel oui d,;at-h.
ESSAY ON MAN. 66
Just what you hear, you have; and what's un-
The 'aEi (mry 1.r.l'J if Tully's, or our own W40
All th1 t ne W.-.Il c.l it. b.gin,. and end.
In th- 'imailrcle of uur feue ot friend,
T., ill beide, -%; much an e*rp'y shade,
An Euiepne livtin, cas a C."'-ar dead
Alike r.r hen, or where, they ,hone, or shine,
Or on the Hubicon. r.r .:,n the Rhine. 24.6
A whit' a l.3ther. and a .-Hf a rod.
An h..ne' t man' tihe n :,bletl work ol Gfod.
Fmpe Lit fiom dcirh a \ illain'a name c(bii ave.
A, j r .- tear hi t.b iv ti'- m (tie grave. ";oJ
Whr-n 'iat t" oli'. i.,n better -ere resigned,
Ie hungr .*n hih, it. p.:.i-..n half mankind.
All fait.e i I.rdeign, blit ,of true desert,
Plans rc.un. the head, t.ur rr..me not to the heart:
One .t'-!appru ,ogr h,-ur whole years ..uttietghs
Ot stupid s iare- -. asi. *." 1,ul huzzas: 256
And more tire i."' Mar..eljiu exil',l feels.
Than Ct- r i ibh a r,-nrare at his hehl.
In pit; i.up iior. what -,l vantage li.es
Tell It ..r :., can Ihat is It to be wi.e ? 2oM
'T il but r., knr. he.r Little cin be know ;
T., a- all &:rher'm faito1, a.id Ir.el our .,wn
Cn err.,i 'd it. tL.u in- ., or in irt. to drrdg .,
% itlnhoiri i s e.:n.3i] r.r ivh..uJt a jijde .
Truths tv-..i y.-n tirwh'.r vive a inl.rtnr lIan.d 1
AlUl .ar, rinne Aid you, and few underlrinJ 0266
56 EPISTLE IV.
Painful pre-eminence! yourself in view
Above life's weakness, and its comforts too.
Bring then these blessings to a strict account;
Make fair deductions; see to what they amount:
How much of other each is true to coat; 271
How each for other oft is wholly lost;
How inconsistent greater goods, with these;
How sometimes life is risk'd, and always ease:
Think, and if still the things thy envy call, 275
Say, wouldst thou be the man to whom they fall
To sigh for ribbons, if thou art so silly,
Mark how they grace Lord Umbra, or Sir Billy.
Is yellow dirt the passion of thy life ?
Look but on Gripus, or on Gripus' wife: 280
If parts allure thee, think how Bacon shin'd;
The wisest, brightest, meanest of mankind;
Or ravish'd with the whistling of a name,
See Cromwell, damn'd to everlasting fame:
If all, united, thy ambition call, 285
From ancient story learn to scorn them all.
There, in the rich, the honored, fam'd, and great,
See the false scale of happiness complete !
In hearts of kings, or arms of queens, who lay,
How hsppy th.:.-b (.:. ruil, l,.:-se b. i-ray 000
IMurk i.y vwht w.etht-i -r.rpi tlI..ir glory T-,
Frorn dirt aiud Rso- dW., J pr[oid Yruuia iJviv
in Pa h, hvw jui!t anEd eifath_ q.UJal ranl,
And all lha r Ji'd hI,(- hcIo, Li.k L t. man.
Now E.ur...-.' Iaurela ..n ti eu I .t..j bt...Id, 295
TSSAY ON MAN. 0I
But Iail',i iith blood. or ill exchang'd for gold.
Thin .-:o thim t.r.liek ,ih t ils. cr ii ank in vate.
Or il'rr.:..i. I..r plu lec-ed pruovinC-c.
0 health jliiate.I! ,rh ih in. act c.f fame
E'rr iaincht 1.:. ,hu.e, or EntiulJ-d hi.ri hanme. J.lJ
1\bJat .r.-h.r tblit aitehid- their l.:.e, nf lile .
.'.:,ie gpr-l.y iidaic.n, or izL..*riOnui ilde.
The t).phiei arh. .., sic.ri-d hails ink ide.
And ri-ult i h.- luriiher in the pomp.:.dA .hade.
Alii' rn.. ..iz,'l .1 "-ith th-ir n,.unr.tid ra, 305
CompFuIe tt-..:.rn and e%-rinig 1:. the dy ;
The wi.:.le an'..urn rt that Lenoutroui Iaame,
A tile, that l,.ins their g..ry with htiur haime'
Kr,.:,, ti-n Ith- uJlh, l'nino.eh hl'.r inran to know)
"\ .i ... ali..ie .. lappine-i t.-l.:.v 3*10
The ..nly poirint where human bl.,- stand c.ll,
And teI' the g.'..ed, wi.riut the 1'il i) ill ;
V"h'-re orjnv mrnr l it coltan pay receive..,
I. tIeIt[ in i, it ltake anid hiat it g Ve;
Thepjoy urfe-q.su.J, i" i- eand uo gain, 315
And it t I.:.t.', atir.ded u.h o rl pFi1n :
%ILLhuUt i.l.l-'t,-. tJRuh v'e i,. DI.b T.
And t.iu n..r.f r. lith'd a-, the nrc,.r dLIre-t ;
The bro.d.-s'r mirh unl-. Ic" i,.lly .ear-.
Le;n pl-eal-inP p I' an ,iitu. e' aery Ie-.': 3*20
G,.,J Ir-cr ei it object, r.'.m eCch pla'e: ac.uir'id,
For .v-r EaF-ri'.-dJ, yet revrer lu'd ;
Nveir e]..lte:d, while e.6 man-'i rippre t,
Newer dnled, while rnuih.,-r'B btLe. ;
58 EPISTLE IV.
And where no wants, no wishes can remain, 825
Since but to wish more virtue, is to gain.
See the sole bliss heaven could on all bestow!
Which who but feels can taste, but thinks can
Yet, poor with fortune, and with learning blind,
The bad must miss; the good, untaught, will find;
Slave to no sect, who takes no private road, 331
But looks through nature, up to nature's God:
Pursues that chain which links th' immense design,
Joins heaven and earth, and mortal and divine;
Sees, that no being any bliss can know, 335
But touches some above, and some below;
Learns, from the union of the rising whole,
The first, last purpose of the human soul:
And knows where faith, law, morals, all began,
All end, in love of God, and love of man. 340
For him alnu, hope leads from goal to goal,
And c..rn, .tijl. and opi-.[ .-,n ha. soul;
Till len5ih.,n'd on I, I1ifh. anJ unconfin'd,
It po:.ur. th-,e blis ihrt tli up all the mind.
lie Bees. -hy nature plu in m man alone 345
Hope of known bkll. and falth in bliss unknown :
(Nature hc's-e dictamis, to no oih-r kind,
Are given in rain, but wrAt they seek they find)
Wise is her present, he? connOenl in this
lm11 grat..-,t rirnue, witr. hi. gre.,test bliss; 350
At once hi- own bt.ight bpoap e:c to be blest,
And strrr,gest moth e to -,. t tUe rest.
ESAY ON MAN. 59
Sell-Icove thue push'd lt t.:, :i.l, to .,b ine,
Gires thee to rrajke thy neighbor'. bl:-'ing thLkie.
Is this too little for the bournile.-- heut 355
Extend it-let thy enet-mie hlve part.
Gra-p the wh-ole .I-I.rlib rFe-.-n, .lie, and enre,
In one :loge system -l ,-i.L-,iolPci-de
Happi*-r ae kinder. in wth.tr-.'r J'cT''r-e,
And height c.t' bli_, but height ..1" ,chliiy 36U
God love; ro-ni h r.:.-ie plrt but human oiul
MutL rie- fCitim ir.liv iJu., I 1t the whole
Self-lore but er-ve- the r rtu,.:,i mind lt. wake,
As the -mall pet-tLle srtir the. p.ia.r-ul la- .
The centre mo 'd, a circle straight u'. eds, 365
An:,tLer iill, ar, .t il ni.aoIter -fr.- .1, ,
]rie-nd, pirenrj. n-i;_hb.:.r, lii r it idl -mbrace,
Hi c.:.u-iiry rnesi-aud n,-,t illi human race:
Wide and more wide. th' o'-srtl.wn-iI of the mind
Tase every creitrueL in, of ever-y kin.] 370
Earth arfill arouhJ., L.iLh bouun'dltea Lunlty blet.
And heaven bFehIl.jI.I- in imne in ha, L-i-I-t
Come then, my Iietnd na'y g u,-s ..-.uwe uJl-ng .
0 mau.ter ot the poet, and th.: h-:. g '
And vhile the niu.e n- r'.w -.v :.p *-:.r rno %;ernda.
To man' louw pa.-a;,. or thiJtl 'a,.., i'"Ju end'. 376
Teach me, like thee, in vaii.uj- natuin wite.
Tn flll with dignity, with t.ri-mpr r3e.
Frud'J by ithy v:r.nere. hIapl-ily tlo .iteer
From gita'e t- gay, n ,:m iJ -lI 6 %.re, J30
Correct "wih qpiit, eloquent rir.h a-e,
60 EPISTLE IV.
Intent to reason, or polite to please.
Oh! while along the stream of time, thy name
Expanded flies, and gathers all its fame;
Say, shall my little bark attendant sail, 885
Pursue the triumph and partake the gale ?
When statesmen, heroes, kings, in dust repose,
Whose sons shall blush their fathers were thy
Shall then this verse to future age pretend 390
Thou wert my guide, philosopher, and friend ?
That urg'd by thee, I turn'd the tuneful art
From sounds to things, from fancy to the heart:
For wit's false mirror held up nature's light;
Show'd erring pride, whatever is, is right;
That reason, passion, answer one great aim; 395
That true self-love and social are the same :
That virtue only makes our bliss below,
And all our knowledge is, ourselves to know.
THE UNIVERSAL PRAYER.
LKAU -I'11MO MASIMO.
FATHER .:" all' in every age.
In :'ry ltme ad,.r'd,
By :aint, by savage, and by sage,
Jehovah, Jirve, or Lord!
Thou great Fir-t Cause, least understood;
WVho all my setne confin'd
To know but thia, that Thou art God,
And that myself am blind.
Yet gave mon. in this dark estate,
To &ee the good from ill ;
And- binding nature fa1t in fate,
Left free the human wi.
W1h~t conAcience dictates to be done
Or warns me not to do -
This, teach me mote than hell to ahun,
That, more than heaven pursue.
62 UNIVERSALL PRAYER.
%l.atm tbl.-aing. thy free bounty give,
Lt- mir nt ct .ianyv;
F.:.r G...] i- p-.id, when man rec:eivet--
T' enjy.i, 6i to ...eLy.
Yet not to earth'si contracted F5-an
Thy e......lr..-., I. t nie onuril
Or ihin: ti're L.:.r. alI.-re ol mati,
When th..urarnd .rldz are round .
Let i.lt rhi' weak, unknowing hand,
Pre-mre thy trolt I.:. throw.
Arnd deal damnaUon round the land
On ear ch I judge thy lfe.
If I am right, oh' t eah my hears
Still in the right to etay :
il I am trong, thy grace impart,
TL. lbut that btentr way.
Savri mr alie fIrotn foolish pride,
Or impiosim dtIsmnient,
A' aught thy wi :om ha dreny'd,
Or aught thy goOdneas lent.
Teach me to feel another'a woe,
To hJd, the fault I aee ;
That mercy I to others show,
That mercy abow to me
UNIVERSAL PLAYER. 63
M-an It.-.ujh I erm. rot wholly so,
Sin o ,.-,:keen'd by thy breahi,
Oh' li'a.i me her..:.e'er I gor.
Through Iti Jay'a lie or d3ath
Thi da.y, t t.r iJ .rndl prce my :,t.
All t.e1" Letrniih tihe sun.
Thou knuc.ii' .i If b betonw'd or nor ;
A1o.l Ilt thy will be dune.
T,, Lthee, ,h',e triple is all pace,
W1hnso all.r, earth, fea, skie.,'
Orne rhni.r Ir-t all -tine raise!
All nanir's. incense lise !