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ON THE QUARTER-DECK
THE HALF HOUR LIBRARY.
TRAVEL, NA TUIE, AND SCIENCE.
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Half Hours in the Far East.
Among the People and Wonders of India.
Half Hours with a Naturalist.
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By the Rev. J. G. WOOD.
Half Hours in the Deep.
The Nature and Wealth of the Sea.
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Wonders of Insect Life.
Half Hours in Woods and Wilds.
Adventures of Sport and Travel.
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Marvels of the Universe.
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Half Hours on the Quarter-Deck.
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IS PLENTY OF TIME TO DO SO, AND TO BEAT THE SPANIARDS TOO."
THE HALF HOUR LIBRARY
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21 BERNERS STREET
THIS is the second of a series of books on a
subject of the greatest interest to all young
Englishmen-the Naval History of England. To
the sea England owes its greatness, and the Anglo-
Saxon race its possession of such large portions of
the earth. Two-thirds of the surface of our globe
are covered with water, and the nations that have
the chief command of the seas must naturally have
immense power in the world. There is nothing
more marvellous in the last century, great as has
been the progress in all directions, than the birth
of new nations in distant parts of the earth,
sprung from our own people, and speaking our
own language. England and America bid fair
to encompass the world with their influence; be-
cause, centuries ago, England became, through
the bravery and endurance of her sailors, the
chief ocean power.
From the earliest times, the command of the
sea was eagerly sought after. The Phoenicians,
occupying a position of much importance as a
commercial centre between the great regions of
Asia on the east and the countries surrounding
the Mediterranean on the west, made rapid pro-
gress in navigation. The large ships they sent
to Tarshish were unequalled for size and speed.
Their vessels effected wonderful things in bringing
together the varied treasures of distant countries.
They used the sea rather for commerce, and the
sending forth of colonists through whom they
might extend their trade, than for purposes of
conquest. With the Romans, who succeeded
them in the command of the sea, especially after
the fall of Carthage, the sea was a war-path, and
the subjugation of the world was the paramount
idea, although the vessels brought treasures from
all parts to enrich the imperial city. The Anglo-
Saxons have used the seas, both east and west,
as he Phoenicians used the Mediterranean, for
the extension of commerce and the planting of
colonies, but also, as the Romans, for the sub-
jugation and civilisation of great empires.
There is a great interest in observing the
progress of events for a century after the opening
up of the great world by Columbus and others of
the same period. It seemed for a time as if Spain
and Portugal were to conquer and possess most
of the magnificent territories discovered; France
seemed also likely to have a fair portion; but
England, almost nowhere at first, gradually led
the way. This was due chiefly to the wonderful
feats and endurance and bravery of her sailors.
One country after another fell under our influence,
till the great continent of America in all its
northern parts became peopled by the Anglo-
Saxon race-which has, in later periods, similarly
spread over Australia and New Zealand.
With the growth of the maritime power of
England is associated a splendid array of heroic
names, and many of the humblest sailors were
equal in bravery to their renowned commanders.
No history is more intensely interesting than
that of the daring perils and triumphs of heroic
seamen. The heroes, who have distinguished
themselves in the history and growth of the British
Navy, furnish a gallery and galaxy, bewildering in
extent; the events of pith and moment, in which
they have been prominent actors, present fields
too vast to be fully traversed; they can only be
touched at salient points.
CHar. WILLIAM, JOHN, AND RICHARD HAWKINS. PAGE
I. THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS, .
CHARLES HOWARD, BARON OF EFFINGHAM,
AFTERWARDS EARL OF NOTTINGHAM.
II. "BORN TO SERVE AND SAVE HIS COUNTRY," 37
SIR MARTIN FROBISHER, NAVIGATOR,
DISCOVERER, AND COMBATANT.
III. THE FIRST ENGLISH DISCOVERER OF GREENLAND,. 47
THOMAS CAVENDISH, GENTLEMAN ADVENTURER.
IV. THE SECOND ENGLISHMAN WHO CIRCUMNAVIGATED THE
SIR WALTER RALEIGH, QUEEN ELIZABETH'S
V. AMERICAN COLONISATION SCHEMES,. ....83
SIR WALTER RALEIGH, SAILOR, SCHOLAR, POET.
VI. NAVAL EXPEDITIONS-TRIAL AND EXECUTION, 30
THE PLANTING OF THE GREAT AMERICAN
VII. TO FRAME SUCH JUST AND EQUAL LAWS AS SHALL BE
MOST CONVENIENT," 173
OLIVER CROMWELL AND THE SEA-POWER
VIII. A LONG INTERVAL IN NAVAL WARFARE ENDED, 181
ROBERT BLAKE, THE GREAT ADMIRAL OF
CHAP. THE COMMONWEALTH. PAGE
IX. HE ACHIEVED FOR ENGLAND THE TITLE, NEVER SINCE
DISPUTED, OF "MISTRESS OF THE SEA," 186
GEORGE MONK, K.G., DUKE OF ALBEMARLE.
X. THE FRIEND OF CROMWELL, AND THE RESTORER OF
CHARLES II.,. 230
EDWARD MONTAGU, EARL OF SANDWICH.
XI. NAVAL CONFLICT BETWEEN THE ENGLISH AND THE
PRINCE RUPERT, NAVAL AND MILITARY
XII. THE DUTCH DISCOVER ENGLISH COURAGE TO BE IN-
SIR EDWIN SPRAGGE, ONE BORN TO COMMAND.
XIII. THE DUTCH AVOW SUCH FIERCE FIGHTING NEVER TO
HAVE BEEN SEEN, 315
SIR THOMAS ALLEN.
XIV. THE PROMOTED PRIVATEER, . 334
SIR JOHN HARMAN.
XV. "BOLD AS A LION, BUT ALSO WISE AND WARY," 343
XVI. THE KING SAID, "WE MUST SPARE OUR BEAUX, AND
SEND HONEST BENBOW," 346
SIR CLOUDESLEY SHOVEL.
XVII. THE SHOEMAKER WHO ROSE TO BE REAR-ADMIRAL OF
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE CALLING ON HIS COMRADES TO PLAY OUT
THE MATCH, AND TO BEAT THE SPANIARDS TOO, Fronlistiece
SIR JOHN HAWKINS, 3
SIR JOHN HAWKINS PURSUING THE SHIPS OF THE ARMADA, 19
CHATHAM EARLY IN THE TlTH CENTURY, 25
MOUNTAINS AND GLACIERS IN THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN, 33
EARL OF EFFINGHAM, 38
LORD HOWARD DEFEATING A SPANISH FLEET, 43
SIR MARTIN FROBISHER, 49
SIR MARTIN FROBISHER PASSING GREENWICII, 53
THOMAS CAVENDISH, 59
PERILOUS POSITION IN THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN, 67
ROUNDING THE CAPE DE BUENA ESPERANCA, 75
SIR WALTER RALEIGH, 85
RALEIGH SPREADING OUT HIS CLOAK TO PROTECT THE
QUEEN'S FEET FROM THE MUD, 93
EDMUND SPENSER, AUTHOR OF THE "FAERIE QUEENE," 103
THE MADRE DE DIOS, IIII
RALEIGH ON THE ORINOCO RIVER, . 121
RALEIGH AS SAILOR, SCHOLAR, POI'T, 131
ENGLISH FLEET BEFORE CADIZ, 39
ST. HELIERS, JERSEY, 149
SIR WALTER RALEIGI CONFINED IN THE TOWER, 157
LORD FRANCIS BACON, 167
LIST OL' ILLUSTRATIONS,
THE MAYFLO\WER, ,
OLIVER CROMWEL.L,. ...
ADMIRAL BLAKE, .. .
BATTLE BETWEEN BLAKE AND VAN TROM1P,..
ADMIRAL VAN TROMP, .
THE DEATH OF ADMIRAL BLAKE, .
DEFEAT OF THE DUTCH FLEET BY MONK,....
SEA FIGHT WITH TIE DUTCI, . .
EARL OF SANDWICH, DUKE OF YORK-BATTLE OF SOUTIWOLD
OR SOLE BAY,. .
DUNKIRK, .. .
CASTLE OF TANGIERS, . .
ACTION BETWEEN THE EARL OF SANDWICH AND ADMIRAL
DE RUYTER, .
PRINCE RUPERT AT EDGEIIILL,
DEFEAT OF THE DUTCH OFF LOWESTOFT,....
ADRIAN DE RUYTER,. .
THE DUTCH FLEET CAPTURES SHEERNESS,....
ATTACKING A PIRATE OFF ALGIERS, .
AN ALGERINE CORSAIR, .
ADMIRAL BENBOW, .. .
SIR CLOUDESLEY SHOVEL,. .
CARRICKFERGUS CASTLE, .
WILLIAM, JOHN, AND RICHARD
HALF HOURS ON THE
WILLIAM, JOHN, AND RICHARD
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
THE proclivities of parents are not uniformly mani-
fested in their children, and the rule of "Like
father, like son has its exceptions. The three genera-
tions of the Hawkins' family, who distinguished them-
selves as maritime adventurers in the reign of Henry
VIII. and Queen Elizabeth, while differing in character,
disposition, and attainments at divers points, were in
common governed by a ruling passion-love of the
sea, and choice of it as a road to fame and for-
William Hawkins, Esq., of Tavistock, was a man of
2 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
much property, acquired by inheritance, but chiefly by
his good fortune as a successful naval adventurer. He
was regarded with great favour by King Henry VIII.
About the year 1530 he fitted up a ship of 250 tons
burthen, which he named the Paul of Plymouth, and in
which he made three voyages to Brazil, touching also at
the coast of Guinea to buy or capture human beings,-to
make merchandise of them. He was probably the first
English adventurer that engaged in this horrible traffic.
Old chroniclers coolly record the fact that he traded
successfully and most profitably in "slaves, gold, and
elephants' teeth." Brazil was in those days under a
quite different government to that of the enlightened ex-
Emperor Dom Pedro, or of the Republic that has recently
succeeded him. Its rulers were savage Indian chiefs,
with whom Hawkins was signally successful in ingratiat-
ing himself. On the occasion of his second visit to the
country, so complete was the confidence reposed in him
by these native princes, that one of them consented to
return with him to England, Hawkins leaving Martin
Cockram of Plymouth, one of his crew, as a hostage for
the safe return of the prince. The personal adornments
of this aboriginal grandee were of a remarkable character.
According to Hakluyt's account, "In his cheeks were
holes, made according to the savage manner, and therein
small bones were planted, standing an inch out from the
surface, which in his country was looked on as evidence
SIR JOHN IIAWKINS.
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
of great bravery. He had another hole in his lower lip,
wherein was set a precious stone about the bigness of a
pea. All his apparel, behaviour, and gestures were very
strange to the beholders," as may easily be believed.
After remaining in England for about a year, during which
time the distinguished foreigner was a repeated visitor
at the court of Henry VIII., who was a warm patron of
Hawkins, the adventurer embarked to return to Brazil.
Unhappily, the Indian prince died on the passage, which
naturally occasioned serious apprehensions in Hawkins'
mind. He was sorry for the death of his fellow-voyager,
but more concerned on account of poor Cockram, the
hostage, whose life, he feared, was imperilled by the
death of the savage, for whose safe return he had been
left as security. The confiding barbarians, however,
disappointed his fears; they accepted, without doubt or
hesitation, his account of the circumstances of the chiefs
death, and his assurance that all that was possible to skill
and care had been done to save his life. The friendly
intercourse between Hawkins and the natives continued;
they traded freely upon mutually satisfactory terms, and
Hawkins returned to England freighted with a valuable
cargo. He was greatly enriched by his successive
voyages to the West Indies and Brazil, and at a mature
age retired from active life, in the enjoyment of the for-
tune he had amassed by his skill and courage as a seaman,
his wisdom and astuteness as a merchant, his enterprise,
6 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
fortitude, perseverance, and other qualities and character-
istics that distinguish most men who get on in the world.
John Hawkins, the second son of William Hawkins of
Plymouth above referred to, was born at Plymouth about
the year 1520. His elementary education was followed
up in his early youth by assiduous study of mathematics
and navigation. Early in life he made voyages to Spain
and Portugal, and to the Canary Islands-the latter being
considered a rather formidable undertaking in those
days. In his early life he so diligently applied himself
to his duties, and acquitted himself so successfully in
their discharge, as to achieve a good reputation, and
soon after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, an appoint-
ment in her navy, as an officer of consideration. It is
stated concerning him, that as a young man he had
engaging manners, and that at the Canaries, to which he
had made several trips, "he had, by his tenderness and
humanity, made himself very much beloved," and had
acquired a knowledge of the slave trade, and of the
mighty profits which even in those days resulted from
the sale of negroes in the West Indies." These glowing
accounts of a quick road to riches fired the ambition of
the tender and humane adventurer.
In 1562, when he had acquired much experience as a
seaman, and was at the best of his inanhood's years, he
projected a great slave-trading expedition. His design
was to obtain subscriptions from the most eminent
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
London traders and other wealthy persons, to provide
and equip an adventure squadron. He proposed to
proceed first to Guinea for a cargo of slaves, to be
procured by barter, purchase, capture, or in any other
way,-and the cheaper the better. With his freight of
slaves, his design was to proceed to Hispaniola, Porto
Rico, and other Spanish islands, and there to sell the
slaves for money, or barter them in exchange for sugar,
hides, silver, and other produce. He readily obtained,
as his partners in this unscrupulous project, Sir William
Lodge, Sir William Winter, Mr. Bromson, and his
(Hawkins') father-in-law, Mr. Gunson. The squadron
consisted of the Solomon, of 120 tons, Hawkins, com-
mander; the Swallow, of Ioo tons, captain, Thomas
Hampton; and the Jonas, a bark of 40 tons. The
three vessels carried in all one hundred men. The
squadron sailed in October 1562, and touched first at
Teneriffe, from which they proceeded on to Guinea,
where landing, by money, and where that failed, by the
sword," Hawkins acquired three hundred negroes to be
sold as slaves. These he disposed of at enormous profits
at Hispaniola and others of the Spanish settlements, and
returned to England,-to the enrichment, as the result
of his famous voyage," of himself and his unscrupulous
"Nothing succeeds like success." There was now no
difficulty in obtaining abundant support, in money and
8 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
men, for further adventure, on the same lines. Slave-
trading was proved to be a paying pursuit, and then as
now, those who hasted to be rich were not fastidious,
as to the moral aspect and nature of the quickest
method. Another expedition was determined upon,
and on a larger scale. Hawkins, the successful con-
ductor of the expedition, was highly popular. As
eminent engineers have taken in gentlemen apprentices
in more modern times, Captain Hawkins was beset with
applications to take in gentlemen apprentices to the
art and mystery of slave-trade buccaneering. Among
the youngsters entrusted to his tutelage were several who
afterwards achieved distinction in the Royal Navy,
including Mr. John Chester, son of Sir Wm. Chester,
afterwards a captain in the navy; Anthony Parkhurst,
who became a leading man in Bristol, and turned out an
enterprising adventurer; John Sparkes, an able writer on
maritime enterprises, who gave a graphic account of
Hawkins' second expedition, which Sparkes had accom-
panied as an apprentice.
The squadron in the second expedition comprised
the Jesus of Lubeck, of 700 tons, a queen's ship,
Hawkins, commander; the Solomon; and two barques,
the Tiger and the Swallow. The expedition sailed from
Plymouth on the i8th October 1564. The first endeavour
of the adventurers was to reach the coast of Guinea, for
the nefarious purpose of man-stealing, as before. An
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
incident, that occurred on the day after the squadron left
Teneriffe, reflects credit on Hawkins in showing his
paternal care for the lives of his crew, although he held
the lives of Guinea negroes of little account, and in ex-
hibiting also his skill as a seaman. The pinnace of his
own ship, with two men in it, was capsized, and the up-
turned boat, with the two men struggling in the water,
was dropped out of sight, before sail could be taken in.
Hawkins ordered the jolly-boat to be let down and
manned by twenty-four able-bodied seamen, to whose
leading man he gave steering directions. After a long
and stiff pull, the pinnace, with the two men riding
astride on the keel, was sighted, and their rescue effected.
The poor hunted savages sometimes sold their lives
and liberties dearly to their Christian captors. In one of
his raids upon the coast of Africa in this expedition, the
taking of ten negroes cost Hawkins six of his best men
killed, and twenty-seven wounded. The Rev. Mr.
Hakluyt-affected with obliquity of moral vision it may
be-deliberately observes concerning Captain Hawkins
and this disaster, that "his countenance remained un-
clouded, and though he was naturally a man of compas-
sion, he made very light of his loss, that others might
not take it to heart." A very large profit was realized by
this expedition, "a full cargo of very rich commodities "
having been collected in the trading with Jamaica, Cuba,
and other West Indian islands. On the return voyage
10 IIALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
another incident occurred illustrative of Captain Hawkins'
punctilious regard to honesty in other directions than that
of negroes-having property rights in their own lives and
liberties. When off Newfoundland, which seemed to be
rather round circle sailing on their way home, the com-
mander fell in with two French fishing vessels. Hawkins'
squadron had run very short of provisions. They boarded
the Frenchmen, and, without leave asked or obtained,
helped themselves to as much of their stock of provisions,
as they thought would serve for the remainder of the
voyage home. To the amazement as much as the satis-
faction of the Frenchmen, Hawkins paid honourably for
the salt junk and biscuits thus appropriated.
The squadron arrived at Padstow, Cornwall, on the
2oth September 1565. The idea of the brotherhood of
man had not in that age been formulated, and Hawkins
was honoured for his achievements, in establishing a new
and lucrative branch of trade. Heraldic honours were
conferred upon him by Clarencieux, king at arms, who
granted him, as an appropriate crest, "a demi-moor bound
with a cord or chain."
In 1567 Hawkins sailed in charge of an expedition for
the relief of the French Protestants at Rochelle. This
object was satisfactorily effected, and he proceeded to
prepare for a third voyage to the West Indies. Before
this expedition sailed, Hawkins, while offCativater waiting
the queen's orders, had an opportunity, of which he made
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
prompt and spirited use, for vindicating the honours of
the queen's flag. A Spanish fleet of fifty sail, bound
for Flanders, passed comparatively near to the coast, and
in sight of Hawkins' squadron, without saluting by lower-
ing their top-sails, and taking in their flags. Hawkins
ordered a shot to be fired across the bows of the leading
ship. No notice was taken of this, whereupon he ordered
another to be fired, that would make its mark. The
second shot went through the hull of the admiral, where-
upon the Spaniards struck sail and came to an anchor.
The Spanish general sent a messenger to demand the
meaning of this hostile demonstration. Hawkins would
not accept the message, or even permit the messenger to
come on board. On the Spanish general sending again,
Hawkins sent him the explanation that he had not paid
the reverence due to the queen, that his coming in force
without doing so was suspicious; and he concluded his
reply by ordering the Spanish general to sheer off, or he
would be treated as an enemy. On coming together,
and further parley, Hawkins and the Spaniard arrived
at an amicable understanding, and concluded their con-
ferences in reconciliation feasts and convivialities, on
board and on shore.
The new expedition sailed on the 2nd October 1567.
The squadron consisted ofthe esus of Lubeck, the Minion,
and four other ships. As before, the adventurers made
first for Guinea, the favourite gathering-ground for the
14 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
inhuman traffic, and collected there a crowd of five
hundred negroes, the hapless victims of their cupidity.
The greater number of these they disposed of at splendid
prices, in money or produce, in Spanish America.
Touching at Rio Del Hacha, to Hawkins' indignant
surprise, the governor, believing it to be within his right,
refused to trade with him. Such arrogance was not to
be submitted to, and Hawkins landed a storming party,
who assaulted and took the town, which, if it did not
exactly make things pleasant, compelled submission,
and, for the invading adventurers, a profitable trade.
Having made the most he could of Hacha, Hawkins
next proceeded to Carthagena, where he disposed, at
good prices, of the remainder of the five hundred slaves.
The adventurers were now (September 1568) in good
condition for returning home with riches, leaving honours
out of consideration, but the time had passed for their
having their own will and way. Plain sailing in smooth
seas was over with them; storm and trouble, and struggle
for dear life, awaited them. Shortly after leaving Cartha-
gena the squadron was overtaken by violent storms,
and for refuge they made, as well as they could, for St.
John de Ulloa, in the Gulf of Mexico. While in the
harbour, the Spanish fleet came up in force, and was
about to enter. Hawkins was in an awkward position.
He liked not the Spaniards, and would fain have given
their vastly superior force a wide berth. He tried what
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
diplomacy would do. He sent a message to the viceroy
that the English were there only for provisions, for which
they would pay,and he asked the good offices oftheviceroy,
for the preservation of an honourable peace. The terms
proposed by Hawkins were assented to, and hostages for
the observance of the conditions were exchanged. But
he was dealing with deceivers. On Thursday, September
23rd, he noticed great activity in the carrying of ammuni-
tion to the Spanish ships, and that a great many men
were joining the ships from the shore. He sent to the
viceroy demanding the meaning of all this, and had fair
promises sent back in return. Again Hawkins sent
Robert Barret, master of the Jesus, who knew the Spanish
language, to demand whether it was not true that a large
number of men were concealed in a 900oo-ton ship
that lay next to the Minion, and why it was that the
guns of the Spanish fleet were all pointed at the English
ships. The viceroy answered this demand by ordering
Barret into irons, and directing the trumpet to sound
a charge. At this time Hawkins was at dinner in his
cabin with a treacherous guest, Don Augustine de Villa
Nueva, who had accepted the rdle of Hawkins' assassin.
John Chamberlain, of Hawkins' bodyguard, detected the
dagger up the traitor's sleeve, denounced him, and had
him cared for. Going on deck, Hawkins found the
English attacked on all sides; an overpowering crowd of
enemies from the great Spanish -ship alongside was
16 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
pouring into the Minion. With a loud voice he shouted,
"God and St. George! Fall upon those traitors, and rescue
the Minion /" His men eagerly answered the call, leaped
out of the Jesus into the Minion, and made short work
with the enemy, slaughtering them wholesale, and driving
out the remnant. Having cleared the Minion of the
enemy, they did equally effective service with the ship's
guns; they sent a shot into the Spanish vice-admiral's
ship that, probably from piercing the powder-room, blew
up the ship and three hundred men with it. On the
other hand, all the Englishmen who happened to be on
shore were cut off, except three who escaped by swimming
from shore to their ships. The English were over-
matched to an enormous extent, by the fleet and the
attack from the shore. The Spaniards took the Swallow,
and burnt the Angel. The Jesus had the fore-mast cut
down by a shot, and the main-mast shattered. The
Spaniards set fire to two of their own ships, with which
they bore down upon the esus, with the desire of setting
it on fire. In dire extremity, and to avert the calamity of
having their ship burnt, the crew, without orders, cut the
cables and put to sea; they returned, however, to take
Hawkins on board. The English ships suffered greatly
by the shots from the shore, as well as from the fleet,
but inflicted, considering the disparity in strength of the
combatants, much greater damage than they sustained.
The ships of the Spanish admiral and vice-admiral were
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
both disabled,-the latter destroyed; four other Spanish
ships were sunk or burnt. Of the Spanish fighting men,-
fifteen hundred in number at the commencement of the
battle,-five hundred and forty, or more than a third, were
killed or wounded. The Jesus and the Minion fought
themselves clear of the Spaniards, but the former was so
much damaged as to be unmanageable, and the Minion,
with Hawkins and most of his men on board, and the
Judith, of 50 tons, were the only ships that escaped.
The sanguinary action lasted from noon until evening.
The wreckage to such an extent of Hawkins' fleet
involved, of course,-a heavy deduction from his fortune.
After leaving St. John de Ulloa, the adventurers
suffered great privations. Their design to replenish their
failing stock of provisions had been frustrated, and
Hawkins was now threatened with mutiny among the
crew, because of the famine that seemed imminent, and
which he was powerless to avert. They entered a creek in
the Bay of Mexico, at the mouth of the river Tampico.
A number of the men demanded to be left on shore,
declaring that they would rather be on shore to eat dogs
and cats, parrots, rats, and monkeys, than remain on
board to starve to death. "Four score and sixteen"
men thus elected to be left on shore. Job Hortop, one
of the crew, who left a narrative of the voyage, states that
Hawkins counselled the men he was leaving to "serve
God and love one another, and courteously bade them a
18 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
sorrowful farewell." On the return voyage, Hawkins and
the remnant with him, sustained great hardships and
privations. At Vigo, where he touched, he met with
some English ships, from which he was able to obtain, by
arrangement, twelve stout seamen, to assist his reduced
and enfeebled crew, in the working of his ships for the
remainder of the homeward voyage. He sailed from
Vigo on the 2oth January 1569, and reached Mount's
Bay, Cornwall, on the 25th of the same month. Thus
ended his third eventful and disastrous expedition to
The poor fellows, left on shore in Mexico, entered
upon a terrible campaign of danger and suffering. The
first party of Indians that the castaways fell in with,
slaughtered a number of them, but on discovering that
they were not Spaniards, whom the Indians hated in-
veterately, spared the remainder, and directed them to
the port of Tampico. It is recorded of two of their
number, Richard Brown and Richard Twide, that they
performed the wonderful feat, under such cruel disad-
vantages and difficulties, of marching across the North
American continent from Mexico to Nova Scotia,-from
which they were brought home in a French ship. Others
of the wanderers fell into the hands of the Spaniards, who
sent some of them prisoners to Mexico, and others to
Spain, where, by sentence of the Holy Inquisition, some
were burnt to death, and others consigned for long terms
SIR JOHN HAWKINS PURSUING THE SHIPS OF THE ARMADA.
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
to imprisonment. Miles Philips, one of the crew, reached
England, after many perilous adventures and hair-breadth
'scapes, in 1582. Job Hortop and John Bone were
sentenced to imprisonment for ten years. Hortop, after
twenty-three years' absence from England, spent in
Hawkins' fleet, and in wanderings, imprisonment, and
divers perils, reached home in 1590, and wrote an
intereresting account of the voyage, and of his personal
In his last expedition Hawkins had returned with
impaired fortune, but without dishonour. He had,
indeed, added to the lustre of England, and to his
personal renown, by the skill and valour he had displayed
in the affair of St. John de Ulloa,-in which the glory
was his, and infamy attached to the treacherous Spaniards,
whose immense superiority in strength should have
enabled them to extinguish their enemy, instead of being
beaten by him. In recognition of his valour, Hawkins
was granted by Clarencieux, king at arms, further
heraldic honours, in an augmentation of his arms; he
was also appointed Treasurer to the Navy, an office of
great honour and profit.
Hawkins' next great public service was rendered, as
commander of Her Majesty's ship Victory, in the actions
against the Spanish Armada in 1588. The commanders
of the English squadrons in the Armada actions and pur-
suit were the Lord High Admiral, and Sir Francis Drake,
22 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
and Sir John Hawkins, rear-admiral. Sir John was knighted
by the Lord High Admiral for his distinguished services;
as was also Sir Martin Frobisher. Sir John tHawkins
shared largely in the dangers and honours of the actions,
and, in the pursuit of the Spaniards, he rendered extra-
ordinarily active and successful service, for which he
was particularly commended by Queen Elizabeth.
In 1590 Sir John Hawkins, in conjunction with Sir
Martin Frobisher,-each with a squadron of fifty ships,
-was sent to harass the Spanish coast, and to intercept
and capture, if possible, the Plate fleet. Suspecting this
intention, the Spanish king contrived to convey intelli-
gence to India, ordering the fleet to winter there, instead
of coming home. Hawkins and Frobisher cruised about
for six or seven months, with no more definite result
than humiliating Spain, and detracting from its dignity
and influence as a naval power.
Sir John Hawkins was next appointed in a joint
expedition against Spain with Sir Francis Drake. The
design of the expedition, which sailed from Plymouth on
the 28th August 1595, was to burn Nombre-de-Dios, and
to march thence overland to Panama, and appropriate
there the Spanish treasure from Peru. The design proved
abortive, partly from tempestuous weather, but partly-
also from disagreement between the commanders. On
the 3oth October, at a short distance from Dominica,
the Francis, a bark of 35 tons, the sternmost of Sir
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
John Hawkins' fleet,-and a long way in the rear of the
others,-was fallen in with by a squadron of five Spanish
frigates, and captured. This misfortune, in conjunction
with other depressing circumstances, and the hopelessness
of the enterprise, so much affected Sir John Hawkins as
to cause his death on the 21st November 1595--of a
broken heart, it was believed.
The expeditions of Sir John Hawkins to the West
Indies, his services in connection with the Spanish
Armada, his joint expeditions with Frobisher and Drake,
fall far short of filling up the story of his life, or the
measure of his usefulness as a public man. Of his home
life they tell nothing.
Sir John was twice married, and was three times
elected a member of Parliament, twice for Plymouth.
He was a wise, liberal, and powerful friend and supporter
of the British Navy. He munificently provided, at
Chatham, an hospital for poor and distressed sailors.
The "Chest" at Chatham was instituted by Sir John
Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake,-being a provident
fund, formed from voluntary deductions from sailors' pay,
applied to the relief of disabled and indigent comrades.
Sir John Hawkins was the author and promoter of many
beneficial rules and regulations for the government of the
navy. He was an accomplished mathematician, a skilful
navigator, a courageous combatant; as Treasurer of the
Navy he proved an able administrator; and to these
24 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
qualities he added the enterprising spirit of a merchant
prince,-he and his brother William being joint owners
at one time of a fleet of thirty good stout ships. It was
said of him by a contemporary that he had been graceful
in youth, and that he was grave and reverend in
advanced life. He was a man of great sagacity, un-
flinching courage, sound judgment, and cool presence
of mind, submissive to authority, courteous to his peers,
affable and amiable to his men, by whom he was much
beloved. His active life embraced a period of forty-eight
years, during which he, for longer or shorter periods,
acted as a commander at sea, including twenty-two years,
during which he held the office of Treasurer of the Navy.
Richard Hawkins, of the third generation of eminent
navigators, and son of Sir John Hawkins, was born at
Plymouth about the year 1570. He had a strong pre-
dilection for naval service, and when only a lad in his
teens had the command of a vessel, and was vice-
admiral of a small squadron commanded by his uncle,
William Hawkins, Esq., of Plymouth, that was employed
in a "private expedition" to the West Indies-really to
"pick and steal" what they could from the Spaniards.
He had an early opportunity of showing his courage and
confidence in his own powers. The captain of one of the
ships of the fleet, the Bonner, complained that his ship
was not seaworthy, and recommended that his crew and
himself should be shifted into a better ship, and that the
.. --~~-~---~~~---~ -i-_ ~ ;i~_~i -`--
I- ~---- --~
CHATHAM, 17TH CENTURY.
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
Banner should be sunk. Young Hawkins protested against
the sacrifice of the ship, and offered, if a good crew were
allowed him, to carry the Banner through the cruise, and
then home. His success would, of course, have disgraced
the captain, who withdrew his recommendation, and
remained in his ship,-which justified young Hawkins'
protest by continuing seaworthy for many years.
In 1588 young Hawkins was captain of the queen's
ship Swallow, which suffered most of any in the actions
with the Spanish Armada. A fire arrow that had been
hid in a sail, burnt a hole in the beak-head of the
Swallow. Richard afterwards wrote an able account of
the actions, with a judicious criticism and defence of the
strategy of the Earl of Nottingham, Lord High Admiral,-
in not laying the Spaniards aboard. This Hawkins held
would have been a dangerous course, from the greater
height of the Spanish ships, and from their having an
army on board. By keeping clear, the English ships could
also take advantage of wind and tide for manoeuvring
round the enemy. He held that, by lying alongside
of the Spaniards they would have risked defeat, and
that the free movement and fighting gave them a better
chance of humiliating the enemy.
In 1590 Richard Hawkins commanded the Crane,
of 200 tons, in the expedition of his father and Sir
Martin Frobisher against Spain. The commander of the
Crane did excellent service in the pursuit of the Spanish
28 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
squadron employed in carrying relief to the forces in
Brittany; and afterwards he so harassed the Spaniards
at the Azores, as to incite the merchants there to curse
the Spanish ministers who had brought about (or
permitted) a war with such a powerful enemy as England.
On returning from this expedition, Hawkins com-
menced preparations for a bold buccaneering project
against Spain. He built a ship of 350 tons, to which
his mother-in-law-who had assisted with funds-
obstinately persisted in giving the ominous name of the
Repentance. Richard Hawkins could not stand this
name, and sold the ship to his father. The Repentance,
in spite of the name, did excellent service, and had
very good fortune. On return from an expedition,
while lying at Deptford, the Repentance was surveyed by
the queen, who rowed round the ship in her barge, and
graciously-acting probably upon a hint from Sir John or
his son Richard--re-named it the Dainty, whereupon
Richard bought back the ship from his father for service
in his projected great expedition. His plan included, in
addition to plundering the Spaniards, visits to Japan, the
Moluccas, the Philippines, passage through the Straits of
Magellan, and return by the Cape of Good Hope. His
ambitious prospectus secured the admiration and approval
of the greatest men of the time, including the lord high
admiral, Sir R. Cecil, Sir Walter Raleigh, etc. On the
8th of April 1593, the Dainty dropped down the river to
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
Gravesend, and on the 26th arrived at Plymouth, where
severe misfortune overtook the little squadron, consisting
of the Dainty, the Hawk, and the Fancy,-all of them the
property of Richard Hawkins, or of the Hawkins family.
A tempest arose in which the Dainty sprang her main-
mast, and the Fancy was driven ashore and knocked to
pieces before the owner's eyes. This misfortune magni-
fied the fears, and intensified the tender entreaties, of his
young wife that he would abandon the perilous enter-
prise,-but he was not to be dissuaded. He said that
there were "so many eyes upon the ball, that he felt
bound to dance on, even though he might only be able
to hop at last."
On the i2th June 1593, Hawkins left Plymouth Sound,
with his tiny squadron of the Dainty and tender.
Before the end of the month he arrived at Madeira, and
on the 3rd July passed the Canaries, and shortly after
the Cape de Verd Islands, all well, and without any-
thing notable occurring to the squadron. Later, how-
ever, when nearing the coast of Brazil, scurvy of a
malignant type broke out among the crew. Hawkins
gave close attention to the men stricken, personally
superintended their treatment, and made notes,-from
which he afterwards wrote an elaborate paper on the
disease, its causes, nature, and cure. At a short distance
south of the Equator he put in to a Brazilian port for
provisions. He sent a courteous letter, written in Latin,
30 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
to the governor, stating that he was in command of
an English ship, that he had met with contrary winds,
and desired provisions, for which he would gladly pay.
The governor replied that their monarchs were at war,
and he could not supply his wants, but he politely gave
him three days to do his best and depart. The three
days' grace were promptly taken advantage of to lay in a
supply of oranges and other fruit, when he again sailed
southward. On the 2oth November he arrived at the
Island of St. Ann, 200 30' south latitude, where-the
provisions and stores having been taken out of the
Hawk-that vessel was burned. He touched at other
parts of the coast for provisions and water. Hawkins
had a difficult part to play in dealing with his crew,
who were impatient for plunder. Robert Tharlton, who
commanded the Fairy, and who had proved a traitor to
Captain Thomas Cavendish, in the La Plata, drew off a
number of the men, with whom he deserted before they
reached the Straits of Magellan. Notwithstanding the
discouragement of Tharlton's treachery and desertion,
Hawkins courageously proceeded with his hazardous
enterprise. Sailing along the coast of Patagonia, he
gave names to several places, amongst others to
Hawkins' Maiden Land,-because discovered by him-
self in the reign of a maiden queen.
In the course of his voyage southward, he made a
prize of a Portuguese ship. He found it to be the
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
property of an old knight who was on board, on his way
to Angola, as governor. The old gentleman made a
piteous appeal to Hawkins, pleading that he had invested
his all in the ship and its cargo, and that the loss of it
would be his utter ruin. His petition was successful,
and Hawkins let him go. On the ioth February he
reached the Straits of Magellan, and, passing through,
emerged into the South Pacific Ocean on the 29th
March 1594. This was the sixth passage of the straits
-the third by an Englishman. He wrote an excellent
account of the passage through the straits, which he pro-
nounced navigable during the whole year, but the most
favourable -or, it should rather perhaps be put, the
least unfavourable-seasons for the at best unpleasant
voyage were the months of November, December,
and January. On the 19th April he anchored for
a short time under the Isle of Mocha. Resuming his
voyage along the coast of Chili, he encountered, in the
so-called Pacific Ocean, a violent storm, that lasted
without intermission for ten days. His men were
becoming desperately impatient, and they insisted that
they should attempt to take everything floating that they
sighted. Every vessel in those waters, they believed,
had gold or silver in them. At Valparaiso they took
four ships, much against Hawkins' wish. He exercised
discrimination, and wished to reserve their strength, and
prevent alarm on shore, by waiting till a prize worth
32 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
taking came in their way. They got from the prizes
an abundant supply of provisions, but very little gold,
and only trifling ransoms for the prisoners. The small
amount taken added greatly to Hawkins' difficulties
and embarrassments. His bold buccaneers demanded
that the third part of the treasure should, according
to contract, be given up to them,-then and there. He
resisted the demand, urged that they could not expend
anything profitably here and now, and that they would
only gamble with their shares, which would probably lead
to quarrels and the ruin of the expedition. It was at
last agreed that the treasure should be placed in a chest
with three locks,-one key to be held by Hawkins,
one by the master, and the third by a representative
appointed by the men.
Arriving at Ariquipa, Hawkins ascertained by some
means that Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, Viceroy
of Peru, had received intelligence of his being off the
coast, and had sent out a squadron of six vessels to
capture him. Hawkins had in the Dainty, and in a
little Indian vessel he had taken, and which he had
fitted up as a pinnace, a combined crew of seventy-five
men and boys-a lamentably small force to resist a well-
manned squadron of six men-of-war ships. About the
middle of May the Spanish squadron was sighted near
Civite. Hawkins, who was to windward, stood out to
sea. The Spanish ships, under the command of Don
THREE GENERATIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
greatly ; the
Castro, followed. The wind freshened
Spanish admiral lost his main-mast, the
vice-admiral split his main-sail, and the rear-admiral's
main-yard tumbled down. The Spaniards were thrown
into utter confusion, and Hawkins escaped. On
34 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
returning to port with his damaged ships, and without
the diminutive enemy he had gone out to capture, De
Castro and the other commanders were received with
humiliating and exasperating derision. De Castro's
earnest petition to be allowed to go to sea again was
granted, and he sailed with two ships and a pinnace,-
all fully manned with picked men. On the 2oth June
the Spanish squadron came in sight. Hawkins' un-
governable crew would have him chase everything they
sighted; they would have it that the armed cruisers
were the Peruvian plate fleet, laden with the treasure for
which they had come, and for which they had so long
toiled and waited. They were soon undeceived by the
Spanish attack, which they met with dogged bravery.
The Spanish ships were manned by about thirteen
hundred of the best men in the service,-and it seems
marvellous that Hawkins and his bull-dogs could have
stood out so long. The fight lasted for two whole days
and part of a third. Hawkins had received six wounds,
two of them dangerous, and was at last completely dis-
abled. Besides the killed, there were forty of his men
wounded, and his ship was sinking. On the afternoon
of 22nd June, this was his deplorable plight:-the whole
of his sails were rent, the masts shattered, eight feet of
water in the hold, and the pumps rent and useless;
scarcely a single unwounded man was left in the ship,
and all were so fatigued that they could ndt stand.
ThREE GENERAMTIONS OF ADVENTURERS.
Helpless as was their plight, and desperate their condi-
tion, Hawkins was able to obtain honourable conditions
of surrender, namely, that himself and all on board
should have a free passage to England, as soon as pos-
sible. De Castro swore by his knighthood that the
conditions would be faithfully observed, in token of
which he sent his glove to Hawkins, and took possession
of the shattered Dainty, without inflicting the slightest
humiliation on his brave fallen enemy, or permitting his
crew to express triumph over them. On the 9th July,
the Spanish squadron, with Hawkins on board De Castro's
ship, arrived at Panama, which was brilliantly illuminated
in celebration of the famous victory." Despatches, to
allay apprehensions concerning the terrible enemy, were
sent off to the viceroys of New Spain and Peru.
Hawkins was allowed to send letters home to his father
and other friends, and to the queen. From Don Bertrand,
Hawkins learned that the King of Spain had received
from England full and minute particulars, concerning the
strength and equipment of Hawkins' little squadron
before it sailed, showing that the King of Spain had
spies in England. The Dainty prize was repaired and
re-named the Visitation, because surrendered on the day
of the feast of the blessed Virgin. Hawkins was long kept
in captivity. He was for two years in Peru and adjacent
provinces, and was then sent to Europe and kept a
prisoner at Seville and Madrid. His release was claimed
36 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
on the ground of Don Bertrand's knightly pledge, but
the reply was given that he had received his authority
from the Viceroy of Peru, not from the King of Spain,
upon whom his engagement was not binding. The
Count de Miranda, President of the Council, however,
at last gave judgment, that the promise of a Spanish
general in the king's name should be kept, and
Hawkins was set at liberty, and returned to England.
During his captivity he wrote a detailed account of his
voyage, entitled The Observations of Richard Hawkins,
Knight, in his Voyage into the South Sea, 1593. It was
published in London in 1622, the year in which Hawkins
died of apoplexy,-at somewhere near fifty years of age.
Sir Richard Hawkins possessed powers that fitted him
for great achievements. With resources at command,
and a fitting field for their use, corresponding with
his courage and ability, he would have distinguished
himself by mighty deeds. His ill-fated voyage to the
South Sea was like the light cavalry charge at Balaclava
-it was magnificent, but it was not war I
BARON OF EFFINGHAM, AFTERWARDS EARL OF
"BORN TO SERVE AND SAVE HIS COUNTRY."
QUEEN ELIZABETH has been magniloquently
designated the RESTORER OF ENGLAND'S NAVAL
POWER and SOVEREIGN OF THE NORTHERN SEAS.
Under her sovereignty Lord Charles Howard wielded
supreme authority worthily and well, on behalf of his
country, during that naval demonstration, which may be
regarded as the most important, in its design and results,
of any that the world has known. Lord Charles was
High Admiral of England during the period of the
inception, the proud departure, the baleful course, and
the doleful return to Spain, of the "most happy and
invincible Armada," or rather-what was left of it.
Charles Howard, elder son of the Earl of Effingham,
38 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
was born in the year 1536, in the reign of Henry VIII.
Charles served under his father, who was Lord Admiral
to Mary, in several expeditions. He did duty as an
envoy to Charles IX. of France on his accession. He
EARL OF EFFINGHAM.
served as a general of horse in the army headed by
Warwick, against the Earls of Northumberland and West-
moreland, and, as a courtier, he rendered various other
services, not calling for particular notice. In 1572 he
"BORN TO SERVE AND SAVE HIS COUNTRY." 39
succeeded his father, and in 1573 was made a Knight
of the Garter. On the death of the Earl of Lincoln, in
1585, the queen appointed Lord Charles, High Admiral.
This appointment gave great satisfaction to all ranks,
and was especially gratifying to seamen,-with whom
Lord Charles was highly popular.
Philip of Spain employed all the art he was possessed
of to obtain ascendency over Elizabeth, as he had done
over her infatuated sister Mary, and-irrespective of law,
if any existed to the contrary-was more than willing to
marry his "deceased wife's sister," but Elizabeth would
neither marry, nor take orders from him, which ex-
asperated Philip greatly. His religious fanaticism and
the influence of the Jesuits made him determined
to punish the queen and ruin her country. With this
amiable intention the great Armada was prepared. It
consisted of 130 ships, of an aggregate of about 60,000
tons. It was armed with 2630 pieces of cannon, and
carried 30,000 men, including 124 volunteers,-the
flower of the Spanish nobility and gentry,-and 180
monks. Twelve of the greatest ships were named after
the twelve apostles.
The English fleet was put under the command of
Lord Howard, with Sir Francis Drake for his vice-
admiral, and Sir John Hawkins for his rear-admiral.
Lord Henry Seymour, with Count Nassau, cruised on
the coast of Flanders, to watch the movements of the
40 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
Duke of Parma, who purposed, it was believed, to form
a junction with the Spanish Armada, or to aid it, by
making a separate descent upon England.
The threatened invasion stirred the kingdom to the
highest pitch of patriotic fervour. The city of London
advanced large sums of money for the national service.
Requisitioned to provide 15 ships and 5000 men, the
city fathers promptly provided 30 ships and ro,ooo
The Armada encountered a violent storm, at almost the
commencement of the voyage northwards, and had to
put back. The rumour was current in England that the
great expedition was hopelessly shattered. Lord Howard
consequently received, through Walsingham, Secretary of
State, instructions to send four of his largest ships into
port. The admiral doubted the safety of this course,
and willingly engaged to keep the ships out, at his own
charge. He bore away towards Spain, and soon obtained
such intelligence, as confirmed him in the opinion he
had formed, and fully justified the course he .had
On the 19th July, Fleming, a Scottish pirate, who
plied his vocation in the Channel and the approaches
thereto, sailed into Plymouth in hot haste, with the
intelligence that the Armada was at hand. This pirate
did, for once at least in his life, an honest and incal-
culably important day's work. An ancient historian
BORN TO SERVE AND SAVE IIIS COUNTRY." 41
estimates it so highly as to say that "this man was,
in reality, the cause of the absolute ruin of the Spaniards;
for the preservation of the English was undoubtedly
owing to his providential discovery of the enemy." At
the request of Lord Admiral Howard, the queen after-
wards granted a pardon to Fleming for his past offences,
and awarded him a pension for the timely service he had
rendered to the nation.
"And then," says Dr. Collier, "was played on the
Hoe at Plymouth that game of bowls, which fixes itself
like a picture on the memory,-the faint, hazy blue
of the July sky, arching over sun-baked land and glitter-
ing sea; the group of captains on the grass, peak-
bearded and befrilled, in the fashion of Elizabeth's day;
the gleaming wings of Fleming's little bark skimming
the green waters like a seagull, on her way to Plymouth
harbour with the weightiest news. She touches the
rude pier; the skipper makes hastily for the Hoe, and
tells how that morning he saw the giant hulls off the
Cornish coast, and how he has with difficulty escaped
by the fleetness of his ship. The breathless silence
changes to a storm of tongues ; but the resolute man who
loaded the Golden Hind with Spanish pesos, and ploughed
the waves of every ocean round the globe, calls on his
comrades to play out the match, for there is plenty of
time to do so, and to beat the Spaniards too.' It is
Drake who speaks. The game is resumed, and played
42 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
to the last shot. Then begin preparations for a mightier
game. The nation's life is at stake. Out of Plymouth,
along every road, men spur as for life, and every head-
land and mountain peak shoots up its red tongue of
The sorrows and sufferings of the crowd of Spaniaids
noble and ignoble, of the nine score holy fathers, and the
two thousand galley slaves, who left the Tagus in glee
and grandeur, in the "happy Armada," with a great
design,-but really to serve no higher purpose, as things
turned out, than to provide, in their doomed persons,
a series of banquets for the carnivorous fishes in
British waters,-need not be dwelt upon here, being
referred to elsewhere.
As commander-in-chief, it was universally felt and
admitted that Lord Charles Howard acquitted himself
with sound judgment, consummate skill, and unfalter-
ing courage. The queen acknowledged his merits, the
indebtedness of the nation to the lord high admiral,
and her sense of his magnanimity and prudence, in the
most expressive terms. In 1596 he was advanced to
the title and dignity of Earl of Nottingham, his patent
of nobility containing the declaration, that by the victory
obtained anno 1588, he did secure the kingdom of
England from the invasion of Spain, and other impend-
ing dangers; and did also, in conjunction with our
dear cousin, Robert, Earl of Essex, seize by force the
-- __- -_ _:---_- -- _- -- -__- --
LORD H D O P LI
LORD~~~aI HOAR' DEETO II] SAIHFEE ERCD
"BORN TO SERVE AND SAVE HIS COUNTRY." 45
Isle and the strongly fortified castle of Cadiz, in the
farthest part of Spain; and did likewise rout and
entirely defeat another fleet of the King of Spain, pre-
pared in that port against this kingdom." On entering
the House of Peers, the Earl of Nottingham was received
with extraordinary expressions and demonstrations of
In 1599, circumstances of delicacy and difficulty again
called for the services of the Earl of Nottingham. Spain
meditated another invasion. The Earl of Essex in
Ireland had entangled affairs, had left his post there, and
had rebelliously fortified himself in his house in London.
The Earl of Nottingham succeeded in bringing the
contumacious earl to a state of quietude, if not of reason,
and had the encomium pronounced upon him by the
queen, that he seemed to have been born "to serve and
to save his country." He was invested with the unusual
and almost unlimited authority of Lord Lieutenant
General of all England; he was also appointed one of the
commissioners for executing the office of Earl-Marshal.
On her death-bed the queen made known to the earl
her desire as to the succession,-an unequivocal proof of
her regard and confidence,-the disclosure having been
entreated in vain by her most favoured ministers.
The accession of James did not impede the fortunes
of the Earl of Nottingham; he was appointed Lord High
Steward, to assist at the coronation; and afterwards
46 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
commissioned to the most brilliant embassy-to the
court of Philip III. of Spain-that the country had ever
sent forth. During his stay at the Spanish court, the
dignified splendour that characterized the Embassy
commanded the admiration and respect of the court and
people; and at his departure, Philip made him presents
of the estimated value of about 20,000, -thereby
exciting the jealousy and displeasure of the far from mag-
nanimous James I. Popularity and influence, enjoyed
or exercised independently of himself, were distasteful
and offensive to his ungenerous nature. James fre-
quently reminded his nobles at court "that they were
there, as little vessels sailing round the master ship;
whereas they were in the country so many great ships
each riding majestically on its own stream."
The earl had his enemies, but he regained the con-
fidence of the king, and in 1613 assisted at the marriage
of the Princess Elizabeth with Frederick, the Elector
Palatine. His last naval service was to command the
squadron that escorted the princess to Flushing. The
infirmities of age having disqualified him for discharging
the onerous duties of the office, he resigned his post of
lord high admiral, after a lengthened term of honour-
able and effective service. The distinguished career of
this eminent public man came to a calm and honourable
close on the IIth December 1624-the earl having
reached the advanced age of eighty-eight years.
SIR MARTIN FROBISHER,
NAVIGATOR, DISCOVERER, AND COMBATANT.
THE FIRST ENGLISH DISCOVERER OF GREENLAND.
M ARTIN FROBISHER had no "lineage" to
boast of; he was of the people. His parents,
who had respectable connections, are supposed to have
come from North Wales to the neighbourhood of No4-
manton, Yorkshire, where he was born about the year
1535. Frobisher seems to have taken to the sea from
natural inclination. He is said to have been bred to the
sea, but had reached the prime of life-about forty years
of age-before he came into public notice as a mariner.
He must have been a man of mark, and possessed of
qualities that commanded confidence. His mother
had a brother in London, Sir John York, to whom
young Frobisher was sent, and by whom he was probably
48 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
In 1554 he sailed to Guinea in a small squadron of
merchant ships under the command of Captain John Lock,
and in 1561 had worked his way up to the command of
a ship. In 1571 he was employed in superintending
the building of a ship at Plymouth, that was intended
to be employed against Ireland. For years he had been
scheming, planning, and striving to obtain means for
an expedition in search of a North-West passage from
England to "far Cathay." He was at last so far
successful as to get together an amusingly small
squadron for such a daring project. He was placed in
command of the Gabriel and the Michael, two small
barques of 20 tons each, and a pinnace of o1 tons, with
crews of thirty-five men all told, wherewith to encounter
the unknown perils of the Arctic seas. Captain Matthew
Kindersley was associated with him in the adventure.
The expedition sailed from Gravesend on the 7th June
1576, and proceeded northwards by way of the Shetland
Islands. The pinnace was lost on the voyage, and the
other vessels narrowly escaped wreck in the violent
weather encountered off the coast of Greenland, of
which Frobisher was the first English discoverer. He
reached Labrador 28th July, and effected a landing on
Hall's Island, at the mouth of the bay that bears
Frobisher's name. At Butcher's Island, where he after-
wards landed, five of the crew were captured by the
natives, and were never again seen. The adventurers
SIR MARTIN FROBISHER.
THE FIRST ENGLISH DISCOVERER OF GREENLAND. 51
took on board samples of earth,-with bright specks
supposed to be gold. Compared with subsequent Arctic
expeditions, this was a small affair in length of voyage
and time occupied,-the mariners reaching home on the
Practical mineralogy was in its infancy in those days,
and the supposed auriferous earth excited great expect-
ations, but no attempt seems to have been made to
find out whether it was or was not what it seemed.
Pending analysis, the expedition was considered so far
satisfactory and successful, and a Cathay Company was
straightway formed under a charter from the Crown.
Another expedition was determined upon; the queen
lent a ship of 200 tons, and subscribed /i1ooo; Frobisher
was appointed High Admiral of all lands and seas he
might discover, and was empowered to sail in every direc-
tion except east. The squadron consisted of the queen's
ship, the Aid, the Gabriel, and the Michael of last year's
voyage, with pinnaces and boats, and a crew of one
hundred and twenty men. The squadron sailed 28th
May 1577, and arrived off Greenland in July. More of
the supposed precious earth was shipped, and certain
inhospitable shores were taken possession of in the
queen's name, but no very notable discoveries were
made. An unsuccessful search was made after the five
men lost in the previous expedition. The Aid arrived
home at Milford Haven on 22nd August, and the
52 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
others later,-one at Yarmouth, and others at Bristol.
Although no results had been obtained from the "ore,"
yet another and much larger expedition was planned.
Frobisher was honoured with the thanks of the queen,
who showed great interest in the expeditions. The
new fleet consisted of thirteen vessels of various
kinds, including two queen's ships of 400 and 200
tons, with one hundred and fifty men and one
hundred and twenty pioneers. For the other ships
there was an aggregate crew of two hundred and fifty
men. The squadron sailed from Harwich on the 3 st
May 1578, and reached Greenland 19th June, and
Frobisher Bay about a month later. A considerable
amount of hitherto unexplored area of land and water
was roughly surveyed in this voyage, including a sail
of sixty miles up Hudson's Strait, and more would
probably have been done, but for dissensions and dis-
content among the crews. A vast quantity of the
golden (?) earth was shipped, and the expedition
returned to England, which was reached in October.
Frobisher's next public employment was of a different
character. In command of the Primrose, he accom-
panied Drake's expedition to the West Indies in 1585,
and shared in the rich booty of which the Spaniards
were spoiled during that cruise. In 1588 Frobisher
held a high command, and with his ship, the Triumph,
rendered distinguished service in the actions with the
SIR MARTIN FROBISHER PASSING GREENWICH.
THE FIRST ENGLISH DISCOVERER OF GREENLAND. 55
Spanish Armada. The Triumph was the largest ship
in the English fleet, being of about iooo tons
burthen, or the same as the floating wonder of Henry
VIII., the Henry Grace d Dieu,-but not so heavily
armed. The Henry carried no fewer than one hundred
and forty-one guns, whereas the Triumph was armed
with only sixty-eight guns. Frobisher proved well
worthy of his important command. For his skilful and
courageous service, in the series of actions against the
Armada, he received the well-earned honour of knight-
hood, at the hands of the lord high admiral. In 1591
he commanded a small fleet that cruised on the coast of
Spain, with hostile and plundering designs. He burned
one rich galleon in the course of this cruise, and cap-
tured and brought home another. Having got the prize
safely disposed of, the gallant old hero answered a
summons from the court of Cupid, and, after a short
courtship, he led the fair daughter of Lord Wentworth
to the altar. The following year, however, he was again
afloat in command of a cruising fleet, as successor to Sir
Walter Raleigh, who had been recalled.
One of the most important and brilliant actions,
among the many in which Sir Martin had taken a
leading part, was his next, and, alas! his last,-the taking
of Brest from the Spaniards. The place was strong,
well armed, and stubbornly defended, with obstinate
valour. Sir Martin first attacked from the sea, but, im-
56 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
petuous and impatient, was dissatisfied with the result
of his cannonade, and, landing his blue-jackets, headed
them in a desperate storming assault, which compelled
the surrender of the garrison. The surrender cost the
assailants a heavy price in the lives of many brave
heroes, Sir Martin Frobisher himself, their gallant leader,
receiving a musket ball in his side. His wound was
unskilfully treated, and he died from its effects at
Plymouth two days after the action,-22nd November
1594. His body was conveyed to London, and interred
at St. Giles's, Cripplegate.
Sir Martin Frobisher was a man of great ana varied
capabilities as a navigator and commander; enthusiastic,
enterprising, skilful, manly, and of dauntless valour, but
rather rough and despotic, and not possessed of the
polished manners, airs, and graces that adorn carpet
knights and make men shine in courts.
THE SECOND ENGLISHMAN WHO CIRCUMNAVIGATED
N the time of Queen Elizabeth it was not unusual
for men of the highest rank to devote their private
fortunes and their personal services to the advancement
of what were considered national interests, with the tacit
understanding that the adventurers should consider
themselves at liberty to engage in operations fitted to
serve their own private interests, concurrently with those
of the State. The morals of the time were somewhat
lax, and "sea divinity," as Fuller terms it, was taken
to sanction extraordinary transactions in the appropria-
tion and treatment of property, especially such as was
owned by the State or the subjects of Spain. To spoil
the Spaniards by all and every possible means, seems to
58 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
have been esteemed an object of honourable and patriotic
enterprise, in which Sir Francis Drake distinguished
himself, as he did also by much nobler and more dis-
interested service. Thomas Cavendish was a contem-
porary of Drake, and in his wake plundered the
Spaniards, and he also followed him in circumnavigating
the globe,-the second Englishman who achieved that
Thomas was a descendant of Sir William Cavendish;
he was born at the family mansion, Trimley, Suffolk,
about the year 1560. His father died while he was
still a minor. Trimley, his birthplace, is situate on
the river Orwell, below Ipswich. The locality in which
he spent his early days probably induced a liking for
In April 1585, Cavendish accompanied Sir Richard
Grenville in an expedition to Virginia, its object being
the establishment of a colony as designed by Sir Walter
Raleigh. The colony was a failure, and Drake, as we
have related in another place, subsequently brought
home the emigrants sent out to form it. Cavendish
accompanied the expedition in a ship that had been
equipped at his own cost, and acquired considerable
nautical experience in the course of the voyage.
On his return to England, Cavendish applied such
means as he could command to the equipment of a
small squadron with which to commence business as a
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 61
buccaneer. He diligently got together all the existing
maps and charts accessible, and, through the influence
of Lord Hunsdon, he was so fortunate as to obtain a
queen's commission. The "flag-ship" of Cavendish,
admiral and commander, was the Desire, of only 120
tons burthen; the others were, the Content, of 60 tons,
and the Hugh Gallant, a barque of 40 tons. The crews
consisted of 123 officers, sailors, and soldiers, all told.
The expedition sailed from Plymouth on the 21st July
1586. The squadron first touched at Sierra Leone,
where they landed, and plundered and burned the town.
Having obtained supplies of water, fish, and lemons,
the squadron sailed for the coast of America, and reached
in 480 S. a harbour on the coast of Patagonia, in which
they anchored, and which, in honour of the admiral's
ship, they named Port Desire. Here the crews were
enabled to make an agreeable change in the ship's
dietary, by slaughtering the sea-lions and the penguins
that abounded on the coast; the flesh of the young
sea-lions, after a long course of salt junk, seemed to the
sailors equal to lamb or mutton. Towards the end of
December the squadron sailed southward for Magellan's
Straits, which were entered on the 6th January 1587.
At a short distance from the entrance, lights were seen
from the north shore that were supposed to be signals,
and on the morning following a boat was sent off for
information. Unmistakable signs were made, as the
62 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
shore was approached, by three men waving such substi-
tutes as they could find for flags. It was found that
they were the wretched survivors of one of the colonies
that the Spaniards had attempted to plant, in order to
intercept Drake on his expected return, and to prevent,
in the future, any buccaneer from ravaging the coast as
he had done. The crops of the perishing colonists had
all failed; they were constantly harassed by the natives,
subject to unspeakable hardships; out of four hundred
men and thirty women landed by Pedro Sarmiento, about
seven years before Cavendish's visit, only fifteen men and
three women survived. He offered the poor creatures a
passage to Peru. They at first hesitated to trust them-
selves with the English heretic, but, after brief reflection
on the misery and hopelessness of their situation, eagerly
accepted the offer,-but unhappily too late. A favour-
able wind sprang up, of which Cavendish took advantage,
and set sail. Concern for the safety of his crew, desire to
escape as speedily as possible from the perilous naviga-
tion of the Straits, and probably eagerness to make a
beginning with the real objects of the expedition-the
acquisition of plunder-overbore any pity he may have
felt for the wretched colonists, whose heartless abandon-
ment to hopeless misery attached shame and infamy to
the Spanish Government responsible for sending them
thither, rather than to the bold buccaneer, with no
humanitarian pretensions, who had come upon them
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 63
accidentally. He brought off one Spaniard, Tome
Hernandez, who wrote an account of the colony.
On the 24th of February the squadron emerged from
the Straits and sailed northwards, reaching the island of
Mocha about the middle of March, but not before the
little ships had been much knocked about, by weather of
extreme violence. The crews landed at several points,
and laid the natives under contribution for provisions.
They were mistaken for Spaniards, and were in some
cases received with undisguised hatred, in others with
servility. On the 3oth they anchored in the Bay of
Quintero, to the north of Valparaiso, which was passed
by mistake, without being "tapped." Notice of the
appearance of the suspicious squadron seems to have
reached some of the authorities. Hernandez, the
Spaniard, was sent ashore to confer with them. On
returning, he reported that the English might have what
provisions they required. Remaining for a time at their
anchorage here, parties were sent ashore for water and
such provisions as could be obtained. In one of these
visits, the men were suddenly attacked by a party of two
hundred horsemen, who cut off, and took prisoners,
twelve of the Englishmen. Six of the English prisoners
were executed at Santiago as pirates, although, as has
been said, with somewhat arrogant indignation, "they
sailed with the queen's commission, and the English
were not at open war with Spain."
64 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
Putting again to sea, the adventurers captured near
Arica a vessel laden with Spanish treasure. The cargo
was appropriated, and the ship-re-named the George-
attached to the squadron. Several other small vessels
were taken and burned. One of these from Santiago
had been despatched to the viceroy, with the intelligence
that an English squadron was upon the coast. Before
they were taken, they threw the despatches overboard,
and Cavendish resorted to the revolting expedient of
torture, to extort their contents from his captives. The
mode of torture employed was the "thumbikins," an
instrument in which the thumb, by screw or lever power,
could be crushed into shapeless pulp. Having got what
information he could wring out of his prisoners, Caven-
dish burned the vessel and took the crew with him.
One of them was a Greek pilot, who knew the coast of
Chili, and might be useful. After a visit to a small
town where supplies were obtained-not by purchase-
of bread, wine, poultry, fruit, etc., and some small prizes
taken, the adventurers proceeded to Paita, where they
landed on the o2th May. The town, consisting of about
two hundred houses, was regularly built and very clean.
The inhabitants were driven out, and the town burned
to the ground. Cavendish would not allow his men to
carry away as much as they could, as he expected they
would need a free hand to resist a probable attack.
After wrecking the town and burning a ship in the
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 65
harbour, the squadron again sailed northwards, and
anchored in the harbour of the island of Puna. The
Indian chief, who lived in a luxuriously furnished
palace, surrounded by beautiful gardens, and the other
inhabitants had fled, carrying as many of their valuables
with them as possible. The English visitors sank a
Spanish ship of 250 tons that was in the harbour,
burned down a fine large church, and brought away
On the 2nd June, before weighing anchor at Puna, a
party of Cavendish's men, strolling about and foraging,
was suddenly attacked by about one hundred armed
Spaniards. Seven of the Englishmen were killed, three
were made prisoners, two were drowned, and eight
escaped. To avenge this attack, Cavendish landed with
as powerful a force as he could muster, drove out the
Spaniards, burned the town and four ships that were
building; he also destroyed the gardens and orchards,
and committed as much havoc generally as was in his
power. Again proceeding northwards to Rio Dolce,
he sent some Indian captives ashore, and sank the
Hugh Gallant, the crew of which he needed for the
manning of the other two ships. On the 9th July a
new ship of 120 tons was taken; the sails and ropes
were appropriated, and the ship burned. A French-
man, taken in this vessel, gave valuable information
respecting a Manilla ship, then expected from the
66 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
Philippines. The record of the proceedings of the
squadron continues most inglorious, including the burn-
ing of the town, the church, and the custom-house of
Guatulco; the burning of two new ships at Puerto de
Navidad; capturing three Spanish families, a carpenter,
a Portuguese, and a few Indians,-the carpenter and the
Portuguese only being kept for present and future use.
On the 12th September the adventurers reached the
island of St. Andrew, where a store of wood and of dried
and salted wild-fowl was laid in, and the sailors, failing
other supply, had a fresh meat change in cooking the
iguanas, which were found more palatable, than inviting
in appearance. Towards the end of September the fleet
put into the Bay of Mazattan, where the ships were
careened, and water was taken in. During October the
fleet cruised, in wait for the expected prize, not far wide
of Cape St. Lucas. On the 4th November a sail was
sighted, which proved to be the Santa Anna, which was
overtaken after some hours' chase, and promptly
attacked. The Spaniards resisted with determination
and courage, although they had no more effective means
of defence than stones, which they hurled at the boarders,
from behind such defective shelters as they could im-
provise. Two separate accounts of the action have been
preserved, both written by adventurers who were present.
After receiving a volley of stones from the defenders, one
narrator proceeds: "We new-trimmed our sails and
--:; -P i
-' L ;I : -r''~''~~
_~__.__ --._; -I-;-' --
PERILOUS POSITION IN THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN.
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 69
fitted every man his furniture, and gave them a fresh
encounter with our great ordnance, and also with our
small-shot, raking them through and through, to the
killing and wounding of many of their men. Their
captain, still like a valiant man with his company, stood
very stoutly in close fights, not yielding as yet. Our
general, encouraging his men afresh, with the whole
voice of trumpets, gave them the other encounter with
our great ordnance and all our small-shot, to the great
discouragement of our enemies,-raking them through in
divers places, killing and wounding many of their men.
They being thus discouraged and spoiled, and their ship
being in hazard of sinking by reason of the great shot
which were made, whereof some were made under water,
within five or six hours' fight, sent out a flag of truce, and
parleyed for mercy, desiring our general to save their
lives and take their goods, and that they would presently
yield. Our general, of his goodness, promised them
mercy, and called to them to strike their sails, and to
hoist out their boat and come on board; which news
they were full glad to hear of, and presently struck their
sails and hoisted out their boat, and one of their chief
merchants came on board unto our general, and, falling
down upon his knees, offered to have kissed our general's
feet, and craved mercy." It is satisfactory that this
craven submission was not made by the commander of
the San/a Anna, who must have been a noble hero to
70 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
stand out, almost without arms of any kind, against the
"great ordnance and small-shot" of his enemy for five
or six hours. The narrator proceeds: "Our general
graciously pardoned both him and the rest, upon promise
of their true-dealing (!) with him and his company con-
cerning such riches as were in the ship, and sent for
their captain and pilot, who, at their coming, used the
like duty and reverence as the former did. The general,
out of his great mercy and humanity, promised their
lives and good usage."
Cavendish and his crews must have been getting
rather disgusted with their hard and bitter experiences
up to the time they fell in with the Santa Anna. They
were about sixteen months out from Plymouth; had
been much knocked about; had destroyed a great deal
of property, but had acquired very little. The Santa
Anna compensated for all their hardships and disap-
pointments. It was a ship of 700 tons burthen, the
property of the King of Spain, and carried one of the
richest cargoes that had ever floated up to that time.
It had on board 122,000 pesos of gold, i.e. as many
ounces of the precious metal, with a cargo of the finest
silks, satins, damasks, wine, preserved fruits, musk,
spices, etc. The ship carried a large number of
passengers, with the most luxurious provision for their
accommodation and comfort. The captors entered with
alacrity upon the unrestrained enjoyment of luxuries such
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 71
as many of them had never known before. Cavendish
carried his prize into a bay within Cape St. Lucas, where
he landed the crew and passengers,-about one hundred
and ninety in all. He allowed them a supply of water, a
part of the ship's stores, some wine, and the sails of the
dismantled prize to construct tents for shelter. He gave
arms to the men to enable them to defend their com-
pany against the natives. He also allowed them some
planks wherewith to build a raft, or such craft as they
might be able to construct for their conveyance to the
mainland. Among the passengers were two Japanese
youths, both of whom could read and write their own
language. There were also three boys from Manilla,
one of whom, on the return of the expedition to England,
was presented to the Countess of Essex,-such an
attendant being at that time considered evidence of
almost regal life and splendour. These youths, with a
Portuguese who had been in Canton, the Philippines,
and Japan, with a Spanish pilot, Cavendish took with
Much anger and discontent were excited in connection
with the division of the spoils, especially among the
crew of the Content, who thought Cavendish took more
than a fair share for himself and the company of the
Desire-his own ship. The threatened mutiny was,
however, suppressed, and a grand gala was held on the
queen's day-I7th November, with eating and drink-
72 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
ing, firing of guns, and a display of fireworks, with as
a grand set-piece the blazing Santa Anna, with all of
her precious cargo on board that the captors could not
carry away with them.- They left the ship burned down
to the water's edge. After they left the burning ship,
the fire providentially freed the wreck from the anchors,
and the flood-tide carried her still burning into the
bay. The abandoned company were happily enabled
to extinguish the flames, and to save so much of the
hull as with some fitting furnished them with a means
of escape from the inhospitable shore upon which they
had been cast.
After leaving Cape St. Lucas, the Content fell behind,
and was never again seen by Cavendish, who set sail
to cross the Pacific by a course not very widely different
from that taken by Drake.
In January 1588, Cavendish reached the Ladrone
Islands, a few miles from which an incident occurred
that does not redound to his credit. A fleet of fifty or
more canoes surrounded the Desire with cargoes of fish,
potatoes, plantains, etc., to exchange them, as they had
been accustomed to do with the Spaniards, for pieces
of iron. The islanders were importunate and rather
troublesome, and, to get rid of them, "our general"
and five of his men fired a volley into them. The
savages were so expert as divers and swimmers that the
sportsmen could not tell how many they killed. These
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 73
natives were of tawny colour, tall, stout, and naked.
Their canoes, six or seven yards in length, but very
narrow, were admirably made, and had carved figure-
heads. They had square and triangular sails of a cloth
made from rushes.
On the voyage, while in the vicinity of the Philippines,
an important secret oozed out. The Portuguese taken
from the Santa Anna let it be known that the Spanish
pilot had prepared a letter to be secretly conveyed to the
governor at Manilla, explaining how the Desire might
be surprised and overpowered. The Spaniard was
summarily hanged for his patriotism. The further
course of the homeward voyage was from Manilla to
the Moluccas, passed about the middle of February;
Java; the Cape of Good Hope; St. Helena, in June; to
Plymouth, which was reached on the 9th September
1588; Cavendish's circumnavigation of the globe-the
third that had been accomplished-having been made
in two years and fifty days, a considerably shorter time
than had been occupied by either Magellan and his
successors or Sir Francis Drake,-but mere speed in
getting back to a home port had not been an object
with either of the three distinguished navigators.
Accounts differ as to the style in which Cavendish
made his return entry into Plymouth. According to
one account, he encountered, for four days, a violent
storm in the Channel, from which the tempest-tossed
74 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
adventurers happily escaped, and, says N. H., "on ioth
September 1588, like wearied men, through the favour
of the Almighty, we got into Plymouth, where the
townsmen received us with all humanity." Anyway,
his arrival, like that of Drake before him, caused a great
sensation at Plymouth.
Cavendish was received as a hero, and appeared to
consider himself worthy of his fame and the honours
conferred upon him. He had acquired great wealth,
albeit dishonestly, and his exploits had been dis-
tinguished in many instances by wanton outrage and
gratuitous destruction of life and property. He, how-
ever, appeared to be unconscious of having done
anything to be ashamed of, and probably held in
accord with those avowed by the Rev. Dr. Thos.
Fuller, prebendary of Sarum, who, as apologist for
Sir Francis Drake's piratical performances, considered
that "his case was clear in sea divinity; and few are
such infidels as not to believe doctrines which make
for their own profit." In a letter to his patron, Lord
Hunsdon, he writes: "It hath pleased Almighty God
to suffer me to circumpass the whole globe of the
world, entering in at the Strait of Magellan, and return-
ing by the Cape de Buena Esperanga; in which voyage
I have either discovered or brought certain intelligence
of all the rich places in the world, which were ever
discovered by any Christian. I navigated along the
ROUNDING THE CAPE DE BUENA ESPERANqA.
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 77
coast of Chili, Peru, and New Spain, where I made
great spoils. I burned and sank nineteen ships, small
and great. All the villages and towns that ever I landed
at I burned and spoiled; and had I not been discovered
upon the coast, I had taken great quantity of treasure.
The matter of most profit unto me was a great ship of
the king's which I took at California, which ship came
from the Philippines, being one of the richest of
merchandise that ever passed those seas. From the
Cape of California, being the uttermost part of all New
Spain, I navigated to the islands of the Philippines,
hard upon the coast of China, of which country I have
brought such intelligence as hath not been heard of in
these parts; the stateliness and riches of which country
[China] I fear to make report of, lest I should not be
credited. I found out by the way homeward the island
of Santa Helena; and from that island God hath suffered
me to return unto England. All which services, with
myself, I humbly prostrate at Her Majesty's feet,
desiring the Almighty long to continue her reign
amongst us; for at this day she is the most famous and
victorious princess that liveth in the world." Although
Cavendish contributed comparatively little to the sum
of geographical knowledge by accurate reports of any
original discoveries he had made, apart from the moral
aspect of the principal incidents in his career, he was
indisputably a remarkable man, and rarely since the
78 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
world began has a young man of only twenty-eight
years achieved such a record as he had done, at the
end of his circumnavigation, illustrative of daring
bravery, indomitable perseverance, and manly endurance.
The wealth with which Cavendish returned was con-
sidered sufficient to have bought "a fair earldom";
but it was not to his taste to settle, or found a family.
His expedition had been undertaken to repair his
shattered fortunes, and had done so satisfactorily, but
it was probably "light come, light go" with him.
The treasure of the Santa Anna had been put into
"a bag with holes," and what did not run through
was providently applied by Cavendish to fitting out
another expedition on an extended scale, which it was
expected would do a much larger business, and prove
even a more pronounced success than the last. The
new squadron consisted of "three tall ships" and two
pinnaces,-the galleon Leicester, in which Cavendish
sailed; the Desire, his old ship, commanded by Captain
John Davis; the Roebucke, the Black Pinnace, and the
Daintie. The expedition sailed from Plymouth on 26th
August 1591, which was from the beginning a series of
dreary, unrelieved misery and disaster. The Straits of
Magellan were reached in April 1592, and passed through
about half-way. Disagreements arose among the crews,
and Cavendish seemed to have lost his power of com-
mand. He determined to return to Santos. The ships
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 79
parted company, and the last notice of Cavendish in
the homeward voyage of the Leicester is his own notice
of the death of his cousin John Locke in 80 N. latitude.
Cavendish is supposed to have died on board a few
days later, the victim of grief and disappointment.
While tossed about in the Desire after the ships had
parted company, Captain Davis was, on the r4th August
1592, "driven in among certain islands never before
discovered by any known relation, lying fifty leagues or
better off the shore, east and northerly from the Straits."
These were the Falkland Islands, of which Captain
Davis has certainly the honour of being the original
discoverer, although the discovery has been claimed by
Sir Richard Hawkins, and certain foreign navigators.1
Several more or less complete accounts of this last
a Captain John Davis achieved in this early age deserved cele-
brity as a navigator and discoverer. He made three voyages,
under the sanction and authority of the English Government, in
search of a North-West passage to the Pacific. In the first, in 1585,
he pushed his way round the southern end of Greenland, across
the strait that from then until now has borne his name-Davis
Strait-and along the coast of what is now known as Baffin's Land,
to the Cape of God's Mercy, which he thus named in the belief
that his task was virtually accomplished. In the second voyage,
1586, he made little further progress; in the third, 1587, he
reached the entrance to the strait afterwards explored by, and
named after, Hudson. Davis, after other important nautical
services, was, when' on his return from the East Indies, killed by
pirates off the coast of Malacca. Davis was an author as well as a
80 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
disastrous voyage of Cavendish have been preserved;
one of them, drawn up at sea by himself, is a most
affecting and depressing narrative. In this account he
writes: "We had been almost four months between
the coast of Brazil and the Straits, being in distance not
above six hundred leagues, which is commonly run in
twenty or thirty days; but such was the adverseness of
our fortune, that in coming thither we spent the summer,
and found the Straits in the beginning of a most extreme
winter, not endurable for Christians. After the month
of May was come in, nothing but such flights of snow,
and extremity of frosts, as in all my life I never saw any
to be compared with them. This extremity caused the
weak men to decay; for, in seven or eight days in this
extremity, there died forty men and sickened seventy,
so that there were not fifteen men able to stand upon
the hatches." Mr. John Lane, a friend of Captain Davis,
writing of their experiences in the middle of charming
May," says: "In this time we endured extreme storms,
with perpetual snow, where many of our men died of
cursed famine and miserable cold, not having wherewith
to cover their bodies nor to fill their stomachs, but living
by mussels, water, and weeds of the sea, with a small
relief from the ship's stores of meal sometimes." He
makes the shocking disclosure that "all the sick men in
the galleon" (Cavendish's ship) "were most uncharitably
put on shore into the woods, in the snow, wind, and
SECOND ENGLISH CIRCUMNAVIGATOR OF THE GLOBE. 81
cold, when men of good health could scarcely endure it,
where they ended their lives in the highest degree of
Anthropology, natural history, or other scientific sub-
jects, had no attractions* for the adventurers, whose
attention, and such powers as were left with them, were
absorbed in their conflicts with storm and tempest, cold,
hunger, and nakedness. After parting company they
never again reunited, or in any of the separated ships
made any attempt to carry out the objects of the expedi-
tion. Almost all perished miserably. It is stated that
Davis, whom Cavendish charged with treachery and
desertion, did all that was possible to find and rejoin his
leader, but without success. Long after the separation
of the fleet, Davis returned to Port Desire, and three
times attempted unsuccessfully to pass through the
Straits in search for Cavendish. Davis and a few more
survived their terrible hardships. Out of a crew of
seventy-six men who sailed from England, only a rem-
nant of fifteen lived to return with Davis, in misery and
weakness so great that they could neither "take in or
heave out a saile." Davis, with the distressed survivors,
arrived off Beaihaven, Ireland, on Iith June 1593,
fully a year after the death and burial of Cavendish
Cavendish was far from faultless. He was passionate
and impetuous, and was still young at the end of his
82 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
adventurous life. He was a University man, a bred
aristocrat, a courtier, with a contempt for humanitarian
doctrines and practices. Society, as it was constituted
then, has to share the blame of his excesses, and
especially his recklessness of human life. It was a com-
paratively venial offence in those days to fire into a
crowd of South Sea Islanders with as little hesitation as
if they had been a flock of wild ducks. His high spirit,
courage, and intrepidity are, however, indisputable.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH,
QUEEN ELIZABETH'S FAVOURITE MINISTER.
AMERICAN COLONISATION SCHEMES.
E NDOWED with a rare combination of high quali-
ties and capability, Sir Walter Raleigh may be
pronounced one of the most distinguished men of the
Elizabethan era. He approved himself a brave soldier.
an intrepid sailor, and a thorough disciplinarian; in
other directions he was a learned scholar, a profound
philosopher, an eloquent orator, and an elegant courtier.
Raleigh's family traced its lineage from before the
Conquest, and Walter could claim descent from, and
connection with, three of the best Devonshire houses-
the Gilberts, the Carews, and the Champernouns. His
father, Walter Raleigh the elder, was the second husband
of Catherine, daughter of Sir Philip Champernoun of
Modbury. By a former husband, Otto Gilbert, this
84 HALF HOURS ON THE QUARTER-DECK.
lady had two sons, Humphrey and Adrian, destined to
distinguish themselves as navigators and colonists, with
whom Walter Raleigh was intimately associated in their
Walter Raleigh was born, according to Camden, in
1552, at Hayes Barton, East Budleigh, a farmstead in
Devonshire, pleasantly situated near the coast.
Information touching Raleigh's education and the
early part of his life is vague and meagre, few facts
being on record concerning him prior to 1569, when, it
is stated, he left Oxford, where he was first a resident at
Christ Church, from which he removed to Oriel. It is
supposed that he commenced at Oxford his acquaintance
with Sir Philip Sydney, Hakluyt, and Camden.
Camden states, in his Annales, that Raleigh was one
of a hundred gentlemen volunteers who proceeded to
France with Henry Champernoun, Raleigh's cousin, to
the assistance of the Huguenots. The service of the
English contingent appears to have commenced about
the end of the year 1569. References are made by
Raleigh in his History of the World to the Huguenot
troubles, and his own connection with them; amongst
others, to the conduct of the Protestants at the battle of
Jarnac, after the death of the Prince of Cond6; and to
the retreat at Moncontour, of which he was an eye-
witness. It is conjectured that Raleigh spent about six
years in France in active service.