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Title: Women's non-familial roles and population policy
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Title: Women's non-familial roles and population policy
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Language: English
Creator: Chaney, Elsa
Chaney, Elsa M.
Publisher: Elsa Chaney
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Table of Contents
    Grant application
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Proposal
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Biographical sketches
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text
SETONIBdgtBueuNo 8-04


7------

(r


DEPARTMENT OF
HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE


GRANT APPLICATION


COUNCIL (Month, Year)


DATE RECEIVED


TO BE COMPLETED BY PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (Items 1 through 7and 15A)
1. TITLE OF PROPOSAL (Do not exceed 53 typewriter spaces)
WOMEN'S NON-FAMILIAL ROLES AND POPULATION POLICY
2. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR 33.DATES OF ENTIRE PROPOSED PROJECT PERIOD (This application)
2A. NAME (Last, First, Initial) FROM THROUGH
Chaney, Elsa M. January 1, 1974 December 31, 1974
28. TITLE OF POSITION 4. TOTAL DIRECT COSTS RE- 5. DIRECT COSTS REQUESTED
QUESTED FOR PERIOD IN FOR FIRST 12-MONTH PERIOD
Assistant Professor, Political ITEM3 37 707.00 37,707.00
Science


L2C. WMI LIJLNG ADDRESS latreet, uity, octate, 4iLp Lote
Department of Political Science
Fordham University
Bronx, New York 10458

2D. DEGREE 2E. SOCIALSECURITY NO.
Ph.D. Personal Information Blurrec
2F.TELE- Area Code TELEPHONE NUMBER AND EXTENSION
PHONE 212 865-6740
DATA
2G. DEPARTMENT, SERVICE, LABORATORY OR EQUIVALENT
(See Instructions)
Department of Political Science
2H. MAJOR SUBDIVISION (See Instructions)
N/A


6. r Onn-/nIvIY-Mv(fc eJi i e r u IItons

Department of Political
Fordham University
Bronx, New York 10458
and
Four sites in Peru (see


Science




application)


7. Research Involving Human Subjects (See Instructions) 8. InIentlons (Renewal Applicants Only See Instructions)
A.- NO B.0 YES Approved: A.I] NO B.L[ YES Not previously reported
C. [f YES Pending Review Date C. _YES Previously reported
TO BE COMPLETED BY RESPONSIBLE ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY (lte ns 8 through 13 and 158)
~- --- r nIl -r rlr l ~ ~r ~_l~L 1 -I._-


9. APPLICANT ORGANIZATIONS) (See Instructions)
Fordham University
Bronx, New York 10458


10. NAME, TITLE, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER OF OFFICIALS)
SIGNING FOR APPLICANT ORGANIZATIONS)


Philip H. DesMarais
Director, Office of Research Servic
Fordham University
Bronx, New York 10458
TelephoneNumber Is) (212) 933-2233, X572


1 1, TYPE OF ORGANIZATION (Check applicable item)
[] FEDERAL [1 STATE [ ] LOCAL El OTHER (Specify)
educational (private)


12. NAME, TITLE, ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER OF
OFFICIAL IN BUSINESS OFFICE WHO SHOULD ALSO BE
NOTIFIED IF AN AWARD IS MADE
Francis X. Murphy
Controller
Fordham University
Bronx, New York 10458 X


291


Telephone Numbe4212) 933-2233,


13. IDENTIFY ORGANIZATIONAL COMPONENT TO RECEIVE CREDIT
FOR INSTITUTIONAL GRANT PURPOSES (See Instructions)

S Dept. of Political Science


14. PHS ACCOUNT NUMBER (Enter if known)
.
733370


15. CERTIFICATION AND ACCEPTANCE. We, the undersigned, certify that the statements herein are true and complete to the best of our
knowledge and accept, as to any grant awarded, the obligation to comply with Publ' alth Service terms and conditions in effect at the time of the
award.
SIGNATURES A. SI L E OF PE SO NAMED T M A DATE
(Signatures required on
original copy only. B. 'SNATURE(S) OF PE SN(S) NA.T. DATE
Use ink, "Per" signatures I / "2 / // / ,
not acceptable) I z LY t / f, I /.- L {c-.<- ..//7
PHS-398 &A, &<
Rev. 3-70 / .. / [- *. / .. /


-


Budget Bureau No. 6&R0249


SECTION I


LEAVE BLANK
TYPE PROGRAM NUMBER

REVIEW GROUP FORMERLY





SECTION 1
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE -
PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE PROJECT NUMBER
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
NAME AND ADDRESS OF APPLICANT ORGANIZATION
Fordham University, Bronx, New York 10458

NAME. SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER, OFFICIAL TITLE, AND DEPARTMENT OF ALL PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL ENGAGED ON
PROJECT. BEGINNING WITH PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

Chaney, Elsa RersonaHWformetiomBlurred Assistant Professor of political Science

Bunster B., Ximena -- atedratica (full professor) of socio-
logy of education, University of Chile,
Santiago

*Chilean national


TITLE OF PROJECT

USE THIS SPACE TO ABSTRACT YOUR PROPOSED RESEARCH. OUTLINE OBJECTIVES AND METHODS. UNDERSCORE THE KEY WORDS
(NOT TO EXCEED 10) IN YOUR ABSTRACT.

We propose to study in four communities of Peru the factors affecting
lower fertility in women, particularly women's roles outside the family.
We believe that knowledge about what makes smaller families salient to
women has important implications for policy -- if we are ever to go
"beyond family planning" in population programs.

Across cultures, evidence strongly suggests that lower fertility is
correlated with higher rates of female participation in education and
the workforce. But we know little of what lies behind the aggregate
data. Small, pointed studies concentrated at the individual level may
reveal more exactly the conditions which motivate women to have smaller
families. Such information would be valuable to policymakers in the
public health and in other fields in deciding where to concentrate
efforts and funding in population programs.

The study also will attempt to pioneer new methods for interviewing
Indian, peasant and lower-class women, combining techniques of survey
research with projective and photographic methods used by anthropolo-
gists.



LEAVE BLANK











PHS-398 PAGE 2
Rev. 3-70


451-736 0 71 2




SECTION II PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION
FROM THROUGH
DETAILED BUDGET FOR FIRST 12-MONTH PERIOD 1/1/74 12/31/74

DESCRIPTION (Itemize) AMOUNT REQUESTED (Omit cents)
TIME OR
PERSONNEL EFFORT FRINGE
%/HRS. SALARY TOTAL
NAME TITLE OF POSITION BENEFITS TO
Elsa M. Chaney PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR 75, ) 13.800* 13.800

Ximena Bunster B. Co-investiqator 100. 15.000 15.000

Tntprviewers (3) 25 A 1 ,8001 .R0
sierra__________--- --

Tnt-erviewre (2) Lima 16. 5 1,200 1,200

* fulltime, 8 mos.
one/third time, 4 mos.





CONSULTANTCOSTS Peruvian collaborator (psychologist) 700



EQUIPMENT camera. few items of portable darkrnnm Pquipmont (Rnnt i-
already has some equipment, hene small budget item) 700






SUPPLIES film, stationery, mimeographing of intprviPW scht-ijl c-3





A1 foreign: Within Peru -- to sierra and various
TRAVEL intrV1W SitR -- PAtimatp50
FOREIGN Bunster: 2 round trip econ. class Stgo.-Lima-Stgo.

write up data, $619; Chaney: 1 round trip N.Y.-Lima-
Stgo.-N.Y. $692.
ALTERATIONS AND RENOVATIONS

OTHER EXPENSES(Itemize $300 photographer at $30 per diem (est. 10 days) 1,700
$700 professional photographic costs for sets
of phbt- -to he 13=ed in interviewing
$700 contingency fund (i e. we may need to
rent landrover or burros for -rip to remote
village and the like)
TOTAL DIRECT COST (Enter on Page 1, Item 5) 37,707
DATE OF DHEW AGREEMENT: WA
] WAIVED
COST [24]% I 0 UNDER NEGOTIATION WITH:
(Seensucons % TDC* Off-campus 8/31/71
(See Instructions)
*IF THIS IS A SPECIAL RATE (e.g off-site), SO INDICATE.
PHS 398
Rev. 3-70




BUDGET ESTIMATES FOR ALL YEARS OF SUPPORT REQUESTED FROM PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
DIRECT COSTS ONLY (Omit Cents)
1ST PERIOD ADDITIONAL YEARS SUPPORT REQUESTED (This application only)
DESCRIPTION SAME AS DE-
TAILED BUDGET) 2ND YEAR 3RD YEAR 4TH YEAR 5TH YEAR 6TH YEAR 7TH YEAR

PERSONNEL
COSTS 31,800


CONSULTANT COSTS 700
(Include fees, travel, etc.)


EQUIPMENT 700


SUPPLIES 350

DOMESTIC
TRAVEL
FOREIGN 2,457

PATIENT COSTS ---


ALTERATIONS AND ___
RENOVATIONS


OTHER EXPENSES 1, 700


TOTAL DIRECT COSTS 37, 707


TOTAL FOR ENTIRE PROPOSED PROJECT PERIOD (Enter on Page 1, Item 4) ----- 37, 707.00

REMARKS: Justify all costs for the first year for which the need may not be obvious. For future years, justify equipment costs, as well as any
significant increases in any other category. If a recurring annual increase in personnel costs is requested, give percentage. (Use continuation
page if needed.)

"Other expenses" include:
$300 photographer at $30 per diem (est. 10 days).
700 professional photographic costs for sets of photos
to be used in interviewing
700 contingency fund (i.e., we may need to rent landrover
or burros for trip to remote village, and the like)


PHS-398
Rev. 3-70




SUBSTITUTE PERIOD COVERED GRANT NUMBER
DETAILED BUDGET FOR FIRST 12-MONTH PERIOD FROM THROUGH

1. PERSONNEL (List all personnel engaged on project) TIME OR AMOUNT REQUESTED (Omit cents)
EFFORT
NAME(Lest, lirst. Initial) TITLE O F POSITION PF TOT AL

Chaney, Elsa M. Principal Investigator or 75.
Program Director
Bunster B., Ximena Co-investigator 100.0


Interviewers (3) 25.0
sierra


Interviewers (2) 16.6
Lima








TOTAL -- $31,800.00

2. CONSULTANT COSTS (Include Fees ant( Travel)
Peruvian collaborator, psychologist s 700.00
3. EQUIPMENT (Itemize)
Camera, few items of portable darkroom equipment (Bunster 700.00
has some equipment, hence small budget item).
S
4. SUPPLIES
Film, stationery, mimeographing of interview schedules 350.00

$
5. TAF A freirn within. eru to. si rra and various
STAFF nervlew sales estimate S 750.00
TRAVEL
(seenstrunons)E Bunster: 2 round trip econ. class Stgo.-Lima-Stgo. s
(e o)b. FOPREIGN $396. 1 rnrnl rip T.,ima-.N V.-.q-n for last 4 1707 00
x6.~aexs ax X X xK axi Cmonths to write up aata, $619;
Chaney. 1 round trip N.Y.-Lima-Stgo.-N.Y. $692. s
7. ALTERATIONS AND RENOVATIONS

. OTHER EXPENSES(Itemizeperinstructions)$300 photographer at $30 per diem
(est. 10 days); $700 professional photographic costs for sets
of photos to be used in interviewing; $700 contingency fund
(i.e., we may need to rent landrover or burros for trip to
remote village and the like). s 1,700.00

9. Subtotal Items 1 thru 8 ---- $S
10. TRAINEE EXPENSES (See Instructions)
PREDOCTORAL No. Proposed 5
FOR a. STIPENDS POSTDOCTORAL No. Proposed S
OTHER (Specify) No. Proposed $
TRAINING
TRAINING DEPENDENCY ALLOWANCE S

GRANTS TOTAL STIPEND EXPENSES -- $
b. TUITION AND FEES S
ONLY
c. TRAINEE TRAVEL (Describe) $
11. Subtotal Trainee Expenses $

12. TOTAL DIRECT COST (Add Subtotals. Items 9 and 11, and enter on Page 1) $
37,707.00


Substitute Budget Page 5.72
For Forms PHS 398 and PHS 2499-1


GPO 930.791




Continuation page
Bunster/Chaney
WOMEN'S NON-FAMILIAL ROLES AND POPULATION POLICY

A. INTRODUCTION

1. Objective: What factors -- or combination of factors -- in-
duce women to lower their fertility? This question is a crucial one
for policy planners, particularly in the Third World where rapid
population increase often "cancels out" the most impressive rates of
economic growth and creates high dependency ratios which put a terri-
ble strain on health care and educational systems. While the influ-
ence of population growth on economic development (and vice versa) is
not entirely clear, many analysts believe that even if developing
Z nations strive as hard as they can to develop economically, they may
0 (unlike Alice) not succeed even in remaining in the same place because
of continued high fertility.

o Most often fertility has been studied in relation to women's
Z educational level, social class (and/or income level), urban or rural
5 residence, labor force participation, religious affiliation and de-
Z gree of communication with the male partner. None of the results has
r been conclusive, partly because much of the analysis (outside the now
u increasingly questioned KAP studies) has been based upon aggregate
U data and thus cannot discriminate which factors -- and in what degree-
Q-
.C play the greatest role in influencing women to desire and achieve
smaller families.

- The purpose of our study is to acquire more exact knowledge
Z of the variables which are most influential for women in reducing thei]
S family size. We want to concentrate particularly on women's non-
C. familial activity, not depending upon gross correlations between, for
example, overall labor force participation of women and the general
fertility rate, but getting at what kinds of work and professional in-
O centives and community activities make smaller families salient.
Z
O To carry out our investigation, we want to study four groups
of Peruvian women who are at different stages of integration into the
modern sector: women in a remote sierra village, market women of the
central sierra, barriada women in Lima, women in a lower-class dis-
trict in Lima (see Section C for more details on the interview groups),
At the same time, since we believe that the questionnaire survey is
ill-adapted to eliciting accurate information from Indian, peasant and
lower-class women, we wish to attempt to develop a methodology in
which survey sampling techniques will be combined with interviewing
by trained women closely related culturally to the subjects (probably

1For recent discussions on the limitations of the so-called
Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies, see Sills, 1964; Hauser, 1967;
Marino, 1971 and Godwin, 1973.

PHS-398 Page
Rev. 2-69 GPO : 1969 O 350-36,




Continuation page
Bunster/Chaney

primary or secondary schoolteachers). The interviewers will work with
us also on developing new projective and photographic interviewing
devices (see Section C).

We believe that Bunster's ten years' work among the Mapuche
(Araucanian) Indians of Chile and her familiarity with peasant cultures
combined with Chaney's extensive work in Peru and Chile on women's
professional, work and political activities, together with her back-
ground in demography, offer the basis for a fruitful and felicitous
collaboration. The principal investigators intend to devote full-
time to the project: Bunster for twelve months and Chaney for eight
Z (with extensive collaboration during the writing phase, the last four
0 months in New York). Discussions and correspondence on the project
over the past six months both in Santiago and New York have convinced
4-
them that they can work together not only in uncovering needed informa-
tion on women's motivations in relation to fertility, but also in
Z developing new interviewing methods which later can be adapted for use
S in other Latin American countries, and perhaps in other region as well
Z The principals themselves have in mind a Chilean replication of the
aD project at a later date.
UJ
u 2. Background: In a longer article, Chaney (1973) has explored
the literature on the relation of women's fertility to their aspira-
Stions for and/or engagement in roles outside the home. To sum up our
current knowledge, there is impressive evidence across cultures of a
negative a sociation between women's non-familial activity and their
Z fertility. The association between women's educational level and
UJ
S2Data for the 1930's and 1940's on negative association be-
tween workforce participation by married women and their fertility is
S reported in United Nations, Department of Social Affairs, Population
Z Division (1953). Collver and Langlois (1962) report on 20 countries
O circa 1950, and most recently, Keele (1970), using data available for
O the years closest to 1965, has shown the same trends for 32 countries.
Other studies and discussions showing a negative relationship between
education and/or workforce participation of married women and natality
include Berent (1970), Blake (1965 and 1969), Caldwell (1968), Chen
(1973), Collver (1968), Davis (1967), Day and Day (1969), Farley (1970)
Federici (1968), Freedman (1961-62: 59-61, and 1962), Gendell (1967),
Gendell, et al. (1970), Jaffe (1959), Jaffe and Azumi (1960), Kupinsky
(1971), Mazur (1968), Namboodiri (1964), Pratt and Whelpton (1958),
Ridley (1959), Safilios-Rothschild (1970), Tabah and Samuel (1962),
Tien (1967), United Nations (1953: 79-80 and 88), and Weller (1968a
and 1968b. For some disagreement on the meaning of negative associa-
tion between wives' employment and lowered fertility, see Westoff, et
al., (1961:301-04), Westoff, et al. (1963: 187-90), Stycos (1965), and
Stycos and Weller (1968b: 518-20).
PHS-398 Page 2
Rev. 2-69 GPO : L969 0 350-360




Continuation page
Buns ter/Chaney

family size appears to be the most firmly established.3 We also know
that in most countries studied, women who work not only have fewer
children than those who stay at home, but that the longer the duration
of her working life in relation to her married years, the more likely
a woman is to have a smaller completed family.4

For ten years, Ximena Bunster has worked among the Mapuche
Indians of Southern Chile. During this time, she has had a particular
interest in women, and has just completed (in collaboration with one
of the three identifiable women leaders the Mapuche has produced) the
"autobiography" of a Mapuche woman who became a "spontaneous leader"
S of her people. Now at a period in her professional career when she
0 feels the need to widen her research interests to other indigenous
C groups in Latin America, Bunster brings to the project her long experi-
S ence among peasant peoples combined with a knowledge of the kinds of
0 approaches and techniques (she already has experimented with some of
Z them) that need to be developed to reach them. At Oxford University
a where she was invited to lecture during January-June, 1973, she has
Z been familiarizing herself with the literature and approaches to the
5 new field of political anthropology, as well as acquainting herself
u with the perspectives of political science and the relevant population
U literature.
Q-
t Elsa Chaney became interested in the population question dur-
Sing fourteen months' field research in Peru and Chile in 1966-67
S(see Chaney, 1971), when she interviewed 167 women of all social
Z classes active in politics at the local and national level. She
spent the summer of 1971 taking part in the Summer Institute of Demo-
n graphy sponsored by Cornell University's International Population
Program; she also took part in May, 1972, in a workshop on popula-
Stion policy at the Carolina Population Center, University of North
0 Carolina, Chapel Hill (see Chaney, 1973). Chaney plans to spend time
Z during the coming year studying anthropology under Ximena Bunster's
O direction and also in a fall, 1973 course taught at the City College,
Q CUNY, by June C. Nash. Conrad M. Arensberg, Margaret Mead and
Anthony Leeds also have promised their counsel and assistance for the
project; additions and modifications of our original ideas also have
grown out of conversations with David Chaplin, Western Michigan Uni-
versity; John Macisco of Fordham University; June C. Nash, the City
College, CUNY, and J. Mayone Stycos of Cornell University. We also

3See United Nations (1953: 89, and 1971: 57) for some refer-
ences; also Freedman (1961-62: 96-100); Ridley (1968:16), and
Weller (1968b: 597-08).

4See Blake (1965: 1196-97), Freedman (1962: 223), Freedman,
et al. (1963a: 376-77), Kupinsky (1971: 358), Pratt and Whelpton
(1958: 1254), and Ridley (1959: 277).
PHS-398 Page 3
Rev. 2-69 GPO : 1969 350-360




Continuation page
Bunster/Chaney

plan to seek the help of others who know the situation in Peru at
firsthand, as indicated in Footnote7 Page 5.

3. Rationale: If we are interested in expanding population
policy "beyond family planning,"5 small, pointed studies concentrating
on the individual rather than the aggregate data level would appear
to be appropriate and timely. Gross correlations between education
and/or labor force statistics and national fertility rates do not tell
us, for example, whether opportunity to work actually influences women
to have fewer children, or whether women who have fewer children from
other complex motives take outside employment because they are freer
Z to do so. Nor do gross correlations and statistics reveal whether
0 most women who work at low level, repetitive jobs and in discontinuous
fashion have higher fertility than those whom Tien (1967: 226-27) has
characterized as "working wives." Do women who are committed to a
S profession and who take time off to bear children have fewer children
Z than "working mothers" who take time off from raising their children
F to work -- often because of dire economic need?6
Z
r For a long time, Bunster has been concerned about the reasons
uL for the Indian woman's lack of participation both in community Indian
U affairs and in the total society through education, work and profes-
L sional structures. Not only might such participation be an incentive
to smaller families, but the infra-human conditions in which the In-
dian peasants, particularly the women, live demand greater knowledge
of the obstacles holding women back even in cases where their parti-
Z cipation has been facilitated and encouraged. Chaney,. too, has been
intrigued by the fact that in many world areas increasing availability
CL of birth control technology does not automatically reduce population
growth rates to more manageable levels. From what we know of the
I- apparently limited results of government programs (particularly of
0 legal measures such as raising the age of marriage in India EUnited
Z Nations, 1972: 49-507 or unveiling women and sending them out to work,
0 the device used by the Communist Party in its attempt to break up the
in traditional Muslim societies in Soviet Central Asia [Massell, 19683 ,
it would seem unlikely that in either the developed or developing
world will women increase or reduce their fertility on demand in
response to overall government plans for socio-economic development.


Berelson (1969) deals with the need for cross-disciplinary
discourse and research on other means of limiting family size that
go beyond the current, almost exclusive concern with family planning.

6Motives of women for taking jobs and the discontinuous nature
of their work and career patterns are discussed in Baker (1964: Ch. 22)
Ginzberg (1966: 5-14), Myrdal and Klein (1956), and Rostow (1964:
211-35).
PHS-398 Page 4
Rev. 2-69 GPO : 1969 0 350-360




Continuation page
Bunster/Chaney

It would seem that the polity must somehow translate its general econo-
mic and social programs into terms of the family's, and particularly
the woman's, personal aspirations and goals. To do so, policy planners
need to know much more exactly what women's aspirations are, especially
in relation to activity outside the family. (We do not deal here with
the fact that many developing economies are unable to offer educational
opportunities or provide steady employment even to one breadwinner
per family unit. Still, we may at least be clearer on the nature of
the tasks before us if we can discover what does motivate women to
want smaller families, rather than to imagine -- as is the tendency
now -- that the problem will be solved once we discover the "perfect
Z contraceptive.")

B. SPECIFIC AIMS

0 The study proposes to measure the impact of women's non-
Z familial roles on their fertility. More specifically, exactly how
a does the degree of integration into the modern sector affect family
Z size? An attempt to answer this question will be made in the follow-
5 ing manner:

V 1. Continued updating of the literature review and familiari-
.. zation of the two investigators with each others' disciplines;

4A 2. Fieldwork generating data on working and non-working married
-. women in each of the four groups we select;
z
3. Developing of new interviewing techniques and materials;
Lu
4. Analysis of data and suggestions for the replication of the
S. study in other countries.
0
Z C. SCHEDULE AND METHODS OF PROCEDURE
0
o The investigators plan to divide their year roughly as
follows:
January-March General familiarization with the situation
and selection of project sites;7 protesting
of research instruments.


7Sites will be chosen in consultation with members of the
Cornell-Peru: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos "Proyecto de Estudio
de Cambios en Pueblos Peruanos" (directed by Jose Matos Mar and
William F. Whyte); with members of the social science faculty at the
Universidad Catolica, Fundo Pando campus; the equipo at the Servicio
de Empleo y Recursos Humanos, Ministerio del Trabajo y Asuntos Indi-
genos, Lima, and the staff of the Centro de Estudios de Poblaci&n y
Desarrollo, Lima.
PHS-398 Page 5
Rev. 2-69 PO : 1969 o 350-360




Continuation page
Bunster/Chaney

April-June Research in sierra; interviewing

July-August Research in Lima; interviewing

September-Decem- Coding of data; writing up of project report
ber and book in New York

As we see the project now, our four groups of interviewees
will probably be chosen as follows: A) Women of a remote sierra
pueblo (where there is, however, steady migration to Lima); B) Huan-
cayo: the market women as an example of an evolving group; C) barriada
Z women in Lima, recent migrants from the same general area as Group A,
0 and D) women from lower-class district in Lima.8

SLet us say a little more about our decision to study four
S groups of women in Peru, rather than women in four different countries
Z with widely different national fertility levels. We took our cues
a from Chaplin (1971: Ch. 11) and from Keele (1970: 12) who suggest
Z that cross-national comparisons of fertility/female incorporation into
C the workforce are difficult to interpret because so many other factors
Lu outside employment may affect fertility. Keele thinks that Federici
U (1968) in Italy, Mazur (1968) in urban areas of the Soviet Union and
a. Collver (1968) in the United States have avoided this problem to some
degree by comparing different regions within a single country; thus,
in a rough way at least, they control for socio-cultural factors and
(again, in very rough fashion) for an important element which might
Z be called the "climate of public opinion," i.e., national norms, if
such exist, on family size as reflected in women's own perceptions of
CL what is good and proper in relation to the number of children they
ought to procreate. Are there generalized attitudes on family size
Sin the society? If so, who generates these attitudes? What are the
O role models for women in relation to family size, and how are these
Z norms diffused (the telenovela, the fotonovela, speeches of the Presi-
O dent's wife, mother-of-the-year observances, national heroines, ser-
0 mons from the pulpit, and the like)? We believe it is extremely
important to make refined studies of small units located in the same
country or even in the same city, since great differences in fertility
may simply be blurred out in aggregate data at the national level.

In addition, we intend to further refine our control of social
and cultural variables by studying differences in fertility as well as
the motivations of working and non-working married women in each of
the four groups we select.

8We do not intend to include domesticas in the present study
since a major investigation of this group has just been completed.
See Smith, 1972.

PHS-398 Page 6
Rev. 2-69 ro : 1969 0 350-360




Continue tion paIgo
Bunster/Chaney

It appears now that we will carry out our study in three
stages: A) a preliminary anthropological investigation which will con-
sist in description of community and social processes related to the
family and explication of the demographic findings, especially those
linked to intercourse variables; an "extensive," or social systems
level study which will uncover, through a small purposive sample in
each group (probably fifty interviewees in each group), information
on such specifics as age at marriage, marriage patterns, type of work
in which the women engage, number of children of working and non- I
working women, child-care provisions of those who work, and finally,
C) an "intensive" or psychological level approach through which (using
Z the techniques of depth interviewing) we will attempt to uncover
motivations not only of the women but of the family towards smaller
or larger families. The anthropological phase, together with the
< general literature review, will give us general cues on how to struc-
ture the survey; the survey will give us broad coverage of the four
groups; the in-depth interviewing confined to 24 families chosen from
Z the survey groups (12 rural, 12 urban) will get at attitudes and
S further refine the survey information. The respondents will be chosen
in such a way that certain variables will be held constant:
CO
I
U High Fertility Families Low Fertility Families

U n 3 working mothers 3 working mothers
5) Urban
E
S3 non-working mothers 3 non-working mothers
-Z
UJ
3 working mothers 3 working mothers
I-
-. Rural
.0 3 non-working mothers 3 non-working mothers
z

0 Note: This breakdown suggested by a similar technique
employed in J. Mayone Stycos and Robert H. Weller,
"Female Working Roles and Fertility," Demography 4, No.
1 (1967), p. 216.

To elaborate a little more on the methodology of the proposed
study, since we intend to experiment with some new approaches, we
suggest the following methodological stages:

1. Examination of the organization of domestic groups among the
women chosen for the study; participant observation and inter-
viewing techniques will focus on the role of women with the
family network of relationships and outside it. This method
has a two-fold aim:

PHS-398 Poge 7


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Contin option pnue
Bunster/Chaney

A) Isolation of culture patterns and traits conducive to
the formation of attitudes affecting fertility, and

B) Isolation of the elements and components of the specific
social systems (communities) to which the women of the
study belong and which are responsible for the extension
and transmission of highly-patterened styles of social
learning which impinge on the decision related to the
determination of-family size.

2. Event analysis: major political and economic issues impinging
upon women's individual lives according to the generation to
which they belong. Macrocosmic and interrelated microcosmic
analysis.

3. Detection of standard expected life-crises and culturally-
patterned solutions. Utilization of the life history on a
highly selected sample of women cross-generationally and
"cross-regionally" compared, with a strong emphasis on open-
ended interviewing and the use of projective photographic
material.

4. Construction of highly reliable open-ended interview sets
which can be used transculturally:

A) These will be built on preliminary socio-cultural
information obtained from group discussion of the women
involved in the study.

B) In this way, we intend them to really participate in the
first stages of research in the sense that their
reactions will guide the researchers into the problem
areas or conflict situations stemming from their lack
of participation in the determination .of their "style
of life-cycle."

5. Construction of sets of photographic sequences which will
serve the purpose of pinpointing sensitive areas in the life-
cycle of those women selected as informants,.with a strong
emphasis on values attached to fertility, sexual intercourse,
childbearing, etc. These sets of photographs could easily
be adapted or standardized to fit the needs of other Indian
and lower-class groups.

What we will be attempting to determine at all these levels
will be whether or not there is a definite point at which smaller
families become salient to women, i.e., the point where non-familial
roles pose.a role conflict in such a way that the woman (and/or the

HS-398 Poag 8


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Bunster/Chaney

family) must make a conscious choice to limit the number of children
in order to continue her activities outside the home. The conflict
may be determined by the nature of the work itself and its incompati-
bility with a large family (our investigation will include observa-
tion of the "culture of-the job," especially its relation to exposure
variables, i.e., we will observe women who work in agriculture, the
market, the factory, both on and off the job.9)

The conflict also may be related to familial pressures such
as the non-availability of mother surrogates to care for the children,
and may even be linked to such factors as the expectations of the
extended family, particularly the woman's mother and mother-in-law,
on the number of children appropriate for the daughter and daughter-
in-law. Or, at a higher level of analysis, we may find the influence
of events at the community level or the national level affect the
domestic scene. For example, did the earthquakes .threaten the sense
of life and continuity sufficiently to encourage births?

D. SIGNIFICANCE

Across cultures, evidence strongly suggests that lower
fertility is correlated with higher rates of female participation
in education and the workforce. But we know little of what lies
behind the aggregate data. Small, pointed studies concentrated at
the individual level may reveal more exactly the conditions which
motivate women to have smaller families. Such information would be
valuable to policymakers in the public health and in other fields
in deciding where to concentrate efforts and funding in population
programs.

The study will also attempt to pioneer new methods for
interviewing Indian, peasant and lower-class women, combining tech-
niques of survey research with projective and photographic methods
used by anthropologists.













9There-already is evidence that women who do demanding pro-
fessional work have smaller families, as do live-in domestic servants.


PHS-398 Poge 9
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Continuation page


Bunster B., Ximena





Place of birth
Santiago de Chile


\ BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Bunster/1
Catedratica (full professor) of socio-
logy of education and professor of
anthropology, department of anthropo-
logy and archeology, University of
Chile, Santiago.


Nationality
Chilean


Sex
Female


Education
University of Chile,


Santiago


University of Chile, Santiago


Columbia University,
Columbia University,


New York City
New York City


Licenciada 1949 Philosophy &
letters


Profesora
de Estado
M.A.
Ph.D.


1954

1957 Anthropology
1968


Honors
Fulbright award, Columbia University, 1956-57 (for completion of M.A.)
Foreign Scholar grant, Columbia University, 1958-59 (for beginning Ph.D
UNESCO grant, Columbia University, 1958-59
Alumni Fellow grant, Columbia University, 1959-60
Rockefeller Foundation grant, 1965-67 (for elaboration of field data
and completion of Ph.D. at Columbia University


Major Research Interest
Indigenous and peasant peoples
(applied cultural anthropology);
role of peasant and Indian women


Role in Proposed Project
Co-investigator


Research Support
University of Chile, field research 1961-63 in reduccion-community
of Plom Maquehue, Chile (amount N/A)
National Health Service and Office of Indian Affairs, Consultant
(1961-63) (amount N/A)

Research and Professional Experience
Catedra'tica (full professor) of sociology of education, University of
Chile, Santiago, 1963-present
Professor of anthropology, department of anthropology and archeology,
University of Chile, Santiago, 1972-present
Visiting lecturer, anthropology, St. Antony's College, Oxford, England,
January-June 1973
Professor of anthropology and education, department of education,
University of Chile, Santiago, 1971.
Professor of social anthropology, Catholic University of Chile,
Santiago, 1968-70
Lecturer, Peace Corps Training Program for Peru and Chile, Columbia
University Teachers College, 1966


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Continuation page
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Bunster/2

Research and Professional Experience (con't)
Lecturer in cultural anthropology, seminar on continuing education
for UNICEF, OMS and Chilean government, Santiago, 1964
Lecturer, intensive course in applied anthropology for head nurses
from all over Chile, Santiago, 1964
Professor of cultural'anthropology, school of psychology, University
of Chile, Santiago, 1961-65
Head, center for anthropological studies, department of social sciences
University of Chile, Santiago, 1961-62
Lecturer in cultural anthropology, inservice postgraduate seminar for
social workers, National Health Service, 1960-61. Introduced teach-
Z ing of anthropology in curriculum of Schools of Social Work.
0 Lecturer, anthropology, University of Chile, Arica, 1960.
Assistant, department of philosophy and the social sciences, Teachers'
College, Columbia University, New York City, 1958-59.
Major assistant to the Catedra of sociology of education, University
0 of Chile, Santiago, 1954-56
Research
a Research professor, University of Chile and Catholic University of
Chile, Santiago, in connection with the Mapuche Indian problem.
Travels currently twice a month to province of Cautin where research
V in social anthropology is being done.
< Consultant in anthropology, mental health service, research unit,
4A Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Lincoln Hospital, New York
V) City, 1968
I Research assistant in urban anthropology, research institute for the
study of man, New York (worked with Oscar Lewis), 1967
Z Director, research team of secondary school teachers and graduate stu-
u" dents of psychology in an anthropological study of a segment of
>- the urban poor of Santiago, Chile, "Life in the City of the Dead"
S(deals with semiskilled workers in cemetery in Santiago).
O Field work in province of Cautin, 1961-63:
Z set up living quarters at Plom Maquehue; field research spon-
O scored by University of Chile yielded data for doctoral disser-
o station, "Adaptation in Mapuche Life: Natural and Directed."
Initiated pioneer work in applied cultural anthropology in
an effort to demonstrate to Chilean professions dealing with
the Mapuche how social science knowledge is a necessity for
the solution of vital human problems.
Consultant for National Health Service, Temuco, Chile, and
Office of Indian Affairs in bringing about a sequence of
planned changes among the Mapuche.
Publications
Death in the Street: An Anthropological Interpretation of the Animitas
in Chile, in collaboration with Jane Meleney. To be published in
1973.
Autobiography of a Mapuche Woman, The Life-Cycle of a Mapuche Woman
Guerrilla Leader. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria,
forthcoming
PHS-398 Page
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Continuation page

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Bunster /3
Publications (con't)
"Adding to the Traditional Female Role: The Case of the Chilean Pro-
fessional Woman," in an anthology edited by women anthropologists
of the Museum of Natural History of New York, 1972.
"Algunas consideraciones en torno a la dependencia cultural y al cam-
bio entire los mapuches," in Segunda Semana Indigenista. Temuco:
Edidones Universitarias de la Frontera, 1970.
Adaptation in Mapuche Life: Natural and Directed. Ph.D. thesis,
Columbia University, New York City, 1968.
"La vivienda araucana de hoy," paper delivered at the Sociedad Chilena
de Antropologia, Santiago de Chile, 1965.
"Una experiencia de antropologia aplicada entire los araucanos."
Z Santiago de Chile, Anales de la Universidad de Chile, No. 130, 1964.
0 "La familiar como una entidad cultural," Santiago de Chile: Documento
4 No. 5, FAO/UNICEF Seminario sobre Educaci n para el Hogar, 1964.

0
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a.
>-
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Rev. 2-69 UPO: 1969 0 350-360




~RTIAM l -I 00 PII Cf~Et nALAIrLA INIIPATlfhd


,j/K'


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH -
(Give the following information for all professional personnel listed on page 3, beginning with the Principal Investigator.
Use continuation pages and follow the same general format for each person.)
NAME TITLE BIRTHDATE (Mo., Day, Yr.)
Chaney, Elsa M. Assistant Professor of 4.lillq
Political Science
PLACE OF BIRTH (City, State, Country) PRESENT NATIONALITY (If non-U.S citizen, SEX
indicate kind of visa and expiration date)
Los Angeles, California, USA U.S. citizen
O _Male ] Female
EDUCATION (Begin with baccalaureate training and include postdoctoral)
YEAR SCIENTIFIC
INSTITUTION AND LOCATION DEGREE CONFERED FIELD
CONFERRED FIELD

Fordham College, New York City B.S. 1960 Mass communications
University of Wisconsin, Madison M.S. 1965 Political Science
University of Wisconsin, Madison Ph.D. 1971 Political Science
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. -- 1971 Demography
Srr1964 Ib


HONORS Land TIenure Center fellow, Universit~y of wisconisin,, L~-3
NDFL Title-VI grant, University of Wisconsin, 1965-66 in Peru & Chil
OAS fellowship, 1966-67, declined to accept NDFL-Fulbright for 14 mos reseafte
llmm. TrcCC-rr hiF A~mrr~ T~ tt t~ f n 27


I"s"Ltnc Lndral e nL[wslp- 1UmmlLU-r n-- ' -s...i.* -L m_ !.. & Y
MAJOR RESEARCH INTEREST ROLE IN PROPOSED PROJECT
Public policy issues; demography; Principal investigator
role and status of women
RESEARCH SUPPORT (See instructions)


Wisconsin Area Ford Fellowship, Summer, 1965, research on women in
politics, Lima, Peru
NDFL-Title VI grant as noted above under "honors"; research for
Ph.D. dissertation on women in political leadership, Peru and Chile





RESEARCH AND/OR PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE (Starting with present position, list training and experience relevant to area of project Listall
or most representative publications Do not exceed 3 pages for each individual.)

Assistant Professor, department of political science, Fordham University,
Bronx, New York, 1970-present
Research Associate, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison,
1969-70
Participant, Summer Institute of Demography, Cornell University, Summer
1972.

Publications and Papers
1---n
"'Agrarian Reform: Illusion or Reality?" Review of four books on agrarian \
-4[ reform, commissioned by Problemas Internacionales, Spanish edition of
SProblems of Communism, U.S. Information Agency. .....
"Women in Allende's Chile," in Jane Jaquette, ed., Women and Politics,
a collection of original articles accepted by Wiley-Interscience for
publication in late 1973
"Women and Population: Some Key Policy, Research and Action Issues," in
Richard L. Clinton, ed., Population and Politics: New Directions in
Political Science Research. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, forthcoming.
"Old and New Feminists in Latin America'," Journal of Marriage and the
Family, 35, May, 1973.


SHS-398
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Continuation page
\. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Chaney/2
Publications (con't)
"Women in Polticis in Latin America: the Case of Peru and Chile," in
Ann Pescatello, ed., Female and Male in Latin America. Pittsburgh:
University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973.
The Politics of Agrarian Reform: Land Tenure Research Paper. Madison:
University of Wisconsin Land Tenure Center, 1971.
The Political Participation of Women in Lima, Peru. Madison: Ibero-
American Studies Program, University of Wisconsin, 1965.



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PHS-398 Page
Rev. 2-69 (PO: 169 0 350o-60




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