• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Advertising
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Homer: Tales and romances
 About crystals
 The bringing up of puppies
 The Hindoos
 The beginnings of Rome
 Who fills the stockings?
 The Arabian nights
 More about crystals
 Cocked-hats - A home-made...
 More about the Hindoos
 High-caste sweetmeats
 Patrician and plebeian
 Aesop
 With a diamond collector
 Snow houses and forts
 The Parsees, or fire-worshippe...
 The Samnite and Punic wars
 Mother Goose
 A family of precious stones
 Literary albums
 The Egyptians
 From fall of the Gracchi to Pompey's...
 Charles Perrault
 Two nymphs
 The Phoenicians, the ruddy-skinned...
 How to write rapidly
 A ball of twine
 The mixed stones
 Kitty in the rain
 The last days of the Republic
 The brothers Grimm
 The pleasures of a young numis...
 How to make a paper boat
 The Ibrhi: Men beyond the...
 Roman literature to death...
 Advertising
 Back Cover






Title: Story-world
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085434/00001
 Material Information
Title: Story-world
Alternate Title: Story world
Physical Description: 1, 9-104 p., 6 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.), port. ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Adams, Oscar Fay, 1855-1919 ( Author )
Guiney, Louise Imogen, 1861-1920
D. Lothrop Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: D. Lothrop Company
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1888?
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Physical sciences -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Paper work -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Children's stories   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry   ( lcsh )
Children's stories -- 1888   ( lcsh )
Children's poetry -- 1888   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1888   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1888
Genre: Children's stories
Children's poetry
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
 Notes
General Note: Includes excerpts from Dear old story-tellers, and Search questions in Roman history, by O.F. Adams; and The bringing up of puppies, by L.I. Guiney.
General Note: Contains fiction, non-fiction and verse.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on endpapers.
Statement of Responsibility: illustrated.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00085434
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224941
notis - ALG5213
oclc - 54203015

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Advertising
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Front Matter
        Page 5
    Frontispiece
        Page 6
    Title Page
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Homer: Tales and romances
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    About crystals
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The bringing up of puppies
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The Hindoos
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    The beginnings of Rome
        Page 23
    Who fills the stockings?
        Page 24
        Page 24a
    The Arabian nights
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    More about crystals
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Cocked-hats - A home-made jigsaw
        Page 33
        Page 34
    More about the Hindoos
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    High-caste sweetmeats
        Page 39
    Patrician and plebeian
        Page 40
        Page 40a
    Aesop
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    With a diamond collector
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Snow houses and forts
        Page 48
        Page 49
    The Parsees, or fire-worshippers
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    The Samnite and Punic wars
        Page 56
        Page 56a
    Mother Goose
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    A family of precious stones
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Literary albums
        Page 65
        Page 66
    The Egyptians
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    From fall of the Gracchi to Pompey's death
        Page 72
    Charles Perrault
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Two nymphs
        Page 76
    The Phoenicians, the ruddy-skinned men
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    How to write rapidly
        Page 82
    A ball of twine
        Page 83
    The mixed stones
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Kitty in the rain
        Page 87
    The last days of the Republic
        Page 88
        Page 88a
    The brothers Grimm
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    The pleasures of a young numismatist
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    How to make a paper boat
        Page 98
        Page 99
    The Ibrhi: Men beyond the Euphrates
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Roman literature to death of Augustus
        Page 104
    Advertising
        Page 105
    Back Cover
        Page 106
        Page 107
Full Text



























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IV







A Word to the Young Folks.


You look to books for a part of your entertainment and education; and we
make a business of making just such books as you want to know about.
That is why we propose to become acquainted. You want our books;
and we want you to have them.
We publish two-thousand different books. Of course no bookseller keeps
them all. The question is How are you to find out the ones you want?
Drop books a minute. We publish four magazines. There is scarcely a
family anywhere that would not be the better and happier, richer even, for hav-
ing one or more of them.
They are made for children beginning with baby a year-old baby is not
too young for Babyland which, by the way is a monthly picture and jingle
story-primer for 50 cents a year. Send 5 cents for a copy of it. That is as
good a way as there is to respond to our wish for acquaintance.
Then for children beginning to read we have Our Little Men and Women,
$1 a year. A copy sent for 5 cents. We should like to send a copy to every
child beginning to read on either side of the British American line.
The Pansy, a little older, religious, larger, more of it, the most successful
religious young folks' tale magazine in the English language there must be
a reason for it $i a year. A copy sent for 5 cents you are welcome.
Wide Awake we are proud of our Wide Awake. Eighty pages a month
of the most engaging, entertaining, instructive and practical literature Pict-
ures abound in it also. A thousand large pages a year; three pages a day;
and no time wasted, no opportunity lost for improvement as well as diversion.
Such is Wide Awake This we also send a copy of for 5 cents, because we
want you to know it. $2.40 a year.
You shall have your choice of these and of all our books for getting sub-
scribers among your friends and neighbors.
Now we are back to books again. You can find out what books we are
making by asking the que-4on. We publish catalogues now and then; and
are always glad to send then .'o those who are interested.
D. LOTHROP COMPANY.
Frjant In and Hawley Llreet.,

The Baldwin Lbrary
Rm'BFIoda







FOR CHILDREN.


St. George and the Dragon also Ken-
sington Junior.
y MARGARET SIDNEY. Illustrated, i2mo,
Loo.
The first story portrays a very manly American
boy, called St. George by his companions on account
of his chivalric disposition. In Kensington Junior a
young man is detected in a burglary to which he has
beer driven by want., He is kindly treated by those
whom he has attempted to rob, and makes a brave
and successful struggle to atone for his misconduct.

Bobby'?qWolf and Other Stories.
From The Pansy. Fully illustrated. i2mo,
.-I.oo. -
Hefe.4'ia collection of bright stories such as boys
and girls enjoy. Stories culled with loving judgment
from pagess of that model magazine for young folks,
Pansy, which will prove a mine of enjoyment to the
boy or.girl into whose hands they may fall. They are
not one whit less entertaining from the earnest thought
that runs through them all.

At Home and Abroad.
From ThePansy. Fully illustrated. i2mo,
1.00.
Short stories of life, in this and other countries.
Just the book for spare minutes, when there is not time
for a long story. The dainty cover, with its purple
pansies and golden ferns, is a-delight in itself.

Abc ut Giants.
By ISABEL SMITHSON and GEORGE FOSTER
BARNES. Fully illustrated. 2mo, .6o.
A reliable little volume concerning various strange
sorts of people that always have filled the minds of
other people with wonder and curiosity. All the
world over folks have flocked to see a dwarf, a giant,
or a band of gypsies, and the description and stories
in this volume are all authenticated, many of them
fronr personal knowledge.

World of Little People (A),
By RAYMOND M. ALDEN. Illustrated.
i2mo, .60.
In. this little volume the author gives an exhaustive
description of ant life, making the ants themselves the
characters of the story, and the ant-hills of the various
tribes the scenes of the incidents described, Inciden-
tally there is a good deal of interesting information
given about other insects and their various curious
habits and customs.

Dozen of Them (A).
By.PANSY. i2mo, .60.
The hero is little boy without home o0 parents,
who is separated from his only sister, Jean, who has
induced him to promise to learn at least one verse
from the Bible each month. The story is the influ-
ence of these verses on the boy's life.


FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.
Herbert Gardenell's Children.
By MRS. S. R. GRAHAM CLARK, author of
The Yensie Walton Books. 12mo, 1.50.
Minister's children are proverbially mischievous,
and these, though they call Yensie Walton mother,
are no exception. Yet a beautiful household it is,
where the young people, loving to obey, lead merry,
happy lives.
Strange Company (A).
By C. F. HOLDER. Illustrations by Beard.
12mo, 1.25.
C. F. Holder takes the lead as a popular writer of
Natural History. The strange company is made up
of wonderful animals: fliers, swimmers, stickers and
builders, burrowers, fighters, look-outs, friends, care-
takers, talkers, frolickers, giants. All animals are
wonderful when they are understood.
In War-Times at La Rose Blanche.
By M. E. M. DAVIS. Illustrations by
Kemble. 12mo, 1.25.
The wife of a Southern officer and her young
children and the slaves of a great sugar plantation,
with soldiers of both armies coming and going, are
the characters of the book-they are drawn from life.
La Rose Blanche is a real plantation, the story with
all its incidents is true.
Kelp: A Story of the Isle of Shoals.
By WILLIS BOYD ALLEN. Illustrated.
12mo, Ioo.0
This is the latest of Pine Cone Series, and intro-
duces the same characters. Their adventures are
now on a lonely little island, one of the Shoals, where
they camp out and have a glorious time not unmarked
by certain perilous episodes which heighten the inter-
est of the story. It is really the best of a series of
which all are delightful reading for young people.
Romulus and Remus: A Dog Story.
By CHARLES R. TALBOT. Illustrations by
Merrill. 12mo, 1oo.
The story consists of how two young people con-
tended, compelled and out-generalled one another
over those innocent dogs. A delightful story it is, as
rich in human nature as it is, in incident. One of
Talbot's lightest and best, and if there is a more satis-
fying story-teller, we do not know his name.
Secrets at Roseladies (The).
By MARY HARTWELL CATHERWOOD. Il-
lustrations by Rogers. x2mo, 1oo.0
A story of the Lower Wabash and the Indian
Mounds, with the adventures of the boys that explored
them, and the trials of their sisters, aunts and grand-
fathers. Some of the young heroes arid heroines live
in the Great House at Roseladies, and some live in a
stationary canal-boat.
Brownies and Bogles.
By LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY. Fifty illus-
trations bi E. H. Garrett. 12mo, 1.oo.
A "Natural y" of Fairies; describing the
various tribes:o6 d tll people, their native haunts,
their appearance, their manners and customs" their
habits and their tricks. Full of anecdotes.


For sale by all Booksellers, or sent postage paid on receipt of price, by
D. LOTHROP COMPANY, Boston.


















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A LASS OF '76.


ART TILE FROM J. G. & J. F. A)W.


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STORY-WORLD


ILL USTRA TED






BOSTON
D LOTHROP COMPANY
FRANKLIN AND HAWLEY STREETS



















HOMER: TALES AND ROMANCES.
(Dear Old Story-Tellers.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


HISTORY
and fiction
have always been
unequal rivals for
favor, and where
ten men will read
history with sin-
cere interest a
hundred will turn
from history to fic-
hl u tion with relief.
-.- The more close-
ly history adheres
-- ia. to facts, the less
HOMER. the general reader
(Bast in Brit s lrsern, London ) cares for it. The
historical narra-
tives that have been most widely popular have
been those of a legendary character. The more
unreal, the more romantic the history, the greater
its hold upon the average reader.
An inability to separate the false from the true,
the romance from the fact, is characteristic of
the early chronicles of all nations. The lively
imagination of ruder peoples in early times has
always invested nearly everything with which
they had to do, with a veil of romance. Their
religious rites, their daily tasks, their pleasures
and their pains became mixed with this element
of the unreal. Beside the gods and goddesses
in whom they believed and whose bodily appear-
ance on earth might be expected at any moment,
all nature was by their imagination peopled with
myriad forms, more or less human in their attri-
butes, and more or less -but usually less -
kindly disposed towards mankind. A firm belief


in these existences made a love for the mar-
vellous an universal thing. No hero arose but
that half-miraculous powers were ascribed to him.
It was not enough that he must be victorious
over his fellowmen, he must have slain giants,
have vanquished dragons or conquered his ene-
mies by summoning to his aid the mysterious
powers of earth and air. Homer, the greatest of
the ancient story-tellers, when relating the his-
tory of the siege of Troy or recounting the
wanderings of Ulysses heightened the interest
of his narrations by interweaving into his ac-
counts of the prowess of his heroes tales of the
interposition of the gods in their behalf and of
their continual and intimate relations with su-
pernal powers. And all the romancers from
Homer down have
depended more
or less upon the
supernatural or
unreal to deepen
the fascination of
their tales. In
such ways the ac-
count of the life
of any early hero ,
has become so
mixed with the
marvelous and
the impossible
that the very fact
of his existence is
often rendered a (B,,st in National jlnseurn, Nn61es.)
matter of doubt.
With the coming of Christianity many pagan
myths became merged with half-comprehended







HOMER: TALES AND ROMANCES.


Christian ceremonies and beliefs, and pagan
tales and legends of the saints were sometimes
strangely blended. In all, however, the element
of romance, of the fantastic, of the unreal, is
stronger than anything else; because the liking
for the romantic is one of the strongest of human
emotions. The highest civilization refines this
liking, it reduces its power somewhat, but it does
not extinguish it.
The Norseman delighted in stories of Thor
and Odin and their exploits in the days of his
paganism; and when a dim and doubtful Chris-
tianity came with Olaf, he transferred to Christian
heroes many of the attributes of his pagan gods.
The history of the Norsemen is a confused jum-
ble of Thor and Odin, the marvelous deeds of
yellow-haired sea-kings and their stormy loves
and hates, and while the land grew quieter in
the lapse of centuries the tales of these rest-
less days, so full of the romantic and marvelous,
never lost, nor have they yet, their power to
charm. Mr. William Morris writes in our day
such poems of Norse loves and hatreds as The
Lovers of Gudrun and Sigurd, the Volsung,"
and the world reads them with delight.
The Welshman was as romantic as his Norse
kinsman; and in the Mabinogion and other col-
lections of tales he has left us a fantastic mixture
of Pagan and Christian romance. Of some of
these Welsh heroes we read in Tennyson's Idyls
of the King.
Many of the Irish and Highland legends have
a common source and are quite as wildly romantic
as the Norse or Welsh stories. One of the most
be.au,:ul of the Irish legends is told in verse in
Dr. Joyce's Deirdr ; and in Miss Katharine Ty-
nan's Shamrocks the story of Diarmuid is finely
told. Diarmuid, whose story is related by both
Irish and Highland bards, seems to have been
a sort of Adonis and Paris combined, and like
Adonis he was killed by a boar. This legend,
common to both nations, could no doubt be
traced to the same source as the classical story
of Adonis.
A general likeness exists between the roman-
ces of European nations, and archeologists have
traced a great number of them back to Asiatic
or Egyptian sources. Some of our most familiar
nu sery tales appear in various forms in the ro-
mantic literature of many nations, varied in each


case to accord with national peculiarities. The
story of Cinderella, for example, is given in
French, Italian, Arabian and Egyptian versions
and is known even among some tribes of North
American Indians. The Egyptian as being the
earliest, may probably claim to be the original.
It is as follows: In the year 670 B. c. the beauti-
ful Princess Rhodope was bathing in the river
and had left her garments on the river's brink.
The glitter of her jeweled shoes attracted an
eagle hovering in the air above her who, swoop-
ing down, caught up one of the shoes in his beak
and bore it away. Passing over Memphis in his
flight the shoe dropped from his beak into the
lap of King Psammetichus who was then hold-
ing a court of justice. The king, much at-
tracted by the dainty beauty of the shoe sent
forth a royal edict requesting the owner to apply
for it in person. As days went by and no appli-
cant appeared messengers were at length sent
out who in process of time found the Princess
Rhodope still mourning for her lost shoe. She
was soon after brought before the king who
married her. In the Italian version, still occa-
sionally acted at carnivals, the outline of the story
as just narrated is presented, Italian personages
being substituted for Egyptian. The French
version places the scene in quite humble life,
as we shall notice when we come to speak of
Charles Perrault and his fairy tales in the course
of these papers. In "The Story of Rhodope,"
one of the tales in Mr. William Morris's Earthly
Paradise, the adventure is again told, though one
not familiar with the Egyptian version might not
perhaps recognize the well-known tale of Cin-
derella. The theft of the shoe is thus related
by Mr. Morris:

"There, as she played, she heard a bird's harsh cry,
And looking to the steep hillside could see
A broad-winged eagle hovering anigh,
And stood to watch his sweeping flight and free,
Dark againstt the sky, then turned round leisurely
Unto the bank, and saw a bright red ray
Shoot from a great gem on the sea-thieves' prey.

"Then slowly through the water did she move,
Down on the changing ripple gazing still,
As loath to leave it, and once more above
Her golden head rang out the erne's note shrill,
Grown nigher now; she turned unto the hill,
And saw him not, and once again her eyes
Fell on the strange shoes' jeweled 'broideries.






j1-i y1T Ra -PA T 17V 4 A'T) p /)i rf V


" And even therewithal a noise of wings
Flapping, and close at hand again the cry,
And then the glitter of those dainty things
Was gone, as a great mass fell suddenly,
And rose again, ere Rhodope could try
To raise her voice, for now she might behold
Within his claws the gleam of gems and gold.
Awhile she gazed at him as, circling wide,
He soared aloft, and for a space could see
The gold shoe glitter, till the rock-crowned side
Of the great mountain hid him presently,
And she 'gan laugh that such a thing should be
So wrought of fate, for little did she fear
The lack of their poor wealth, or pinching cheer."

If we look at the stories of later date than
these which had their origin in the remoter past
we shall find the more unreal the story is, the
more romantic, as we say, the greater number
of people it interests and the stronger its hold
upon popular favor. People like to get away
for a time from the every-day atmosphere that
surrounds their lives. The easiest way to do
this is by reading or listening to some romance
which is not closely hemmed in by the facts of
familiar existence. As for children the fairy
tale or book of adventure is the passport to
happiness, so for their elders the romance serves
more or less effectually the same purpose.
When we read Burns's Tam O'Shancer we have
left the land of the actual for that of the ideal;
a rather grim ideal to be sure, but still an ideal.
Rip Van WVinkle takes us to the same ideal
country, so does Hiawatha, so do The Idyls of
the King.
At the close of the last century when the ro-
mantic novel had become so absurdly romantic
as to create a sort of rebound from its influence
in the public taste, well-meaning writers like
Miss Edgeworth and Thomas Day, undertook
to provide a literature for young people which
should deal with facts and have nothing to do
with romance. So Mr. Day wrote Sandford and
Aferton, a book which no healthy child ever reads
without yawning over it, and Miss Edgeworth
and others wrote stories which showed quite as
little recognition of the craving for romance so
strong in childish hearts. Certain American
authors have made the same mistake and have
produced books which have ignored this, within
certain limits, healthy craving in young minds.
It is guidance, not repression, that the romantic


u 1~ 1 rl rJ Lj U ~


(A e I en.


Reynard tlhic Ix was more popular in Europe
than that of Kingil Arthur and the Round Table.
The origin of the tale seems to have been Flem-
ish and the date about 1150. It soon became
the common property of the Teutonic nations,
and an English version of it was printed by Cax-
ton in 1491.
The stories of the Arabian Nights' Entertain-
ments, as we shall have occasion to notice later,
did not long remain the property of one people,
and the Fables of AEsop, which are romances
in condensed form, have been the heritage of
many centuries and of almost all nations.


instinct needs. Sometimes the ideal assumes
the guise of the practical, as in Robinson Crusoe
and Swiss Frmilv Robinson, but in spite of the
matter-of-fact style of these tales they are in
conception essentially romantic, and it is this
that has given them their world-wide fame.
Every age and every nation has its favorite
romances, some of which retain their hold on
readers but a little while, comparatively speak-
ing, while others are enjoyed by generation after
generation. In the Middle Ages the story of







ABOUT CRYSTALS.


Within the present century the greater facili-
ties for travel and for the distribution of litera-
ture have made what was once the operation of
centuries an affair of but a few months or years
-the world-wide dissemination of a popular
romance. It has brought to Western readers
some of the numberless romances of India, of
China, and of Japan, and has carried to Oriental
nations a few of the modern tales that Western
romancers have told. Now that the romances
of all nations stand on the same shelf as those of
our own English tongue it is not such a simple
thing to be familiar with them all, nor need we
attempt it. Those we like we shall read and
re-read and merely glance at the others. How
long the popular romances of our time will con-
tinue to give pleasure no one can tell.
For over a hundred and fifty years Robinson
Crusoe has never lacked an army of young readers
and that army is ever increasing in numbers.
The stories told by the Brothers Grimm, and the
Hans Andersen tales, are read by a greater num-
ber every year.
Will it be thus with Kingsley's Water Babies?
with Hawthorne's Wonder Book? with Lewis
Carroll's Alice in Wvonderland? with George
MacDonald's At the Back of the North Wind?


Time only can decide.
Judging by the steadily growing popularity
of such books as these it would seem as if they
might remain enduring favorites, yet the taste
of one generation not unfrequently rejects what
its predecessor pronounced good. What books
will be forgotten in a few decades and what
books will remain perennially fresh for centuries
is beyond the power of the keenest critic to
foresee.
This much, however, can be safely said: Until
human nature becomes a widely different thing
from what it now is romances will be written and
will be read. The heroes and heroines of the
stories which are dear to us may pass utterly
from men's memories, the tales which many
readers have agreed to consider deathless may
be forgotten; but there will then arise new
heroes and heroines of romance who will wield
as potent a sway over the imaginations of people
in future ages as do these of our day. Gener-
ations may vanish like shadows in a glass but
the love for romance will endure.

Last night a mighty poet passed away:
Who now will sing our songs ?' men cried at morn.
Faint hearts, fear not! Somewhere, though far away,
At that same hour another bard was born."


ABOUT CRYSTALS.
(" Diamond Dust." )

By E. D. WALKER.


C RYSTALS are sometimes called "the flow-
ers of the mineral world." They are cer-
tainly as beautiful and as marvelous as any other
growing things (for they do grow), and the study
of them is fully as interesting as botany.
If one would know all he can of crystals, he
must understand the secrets of all the rocks,
with their myriad combinations. He would have
to penetrate every mine that has been dug, and
sink many shafts of his own into the hidden
vaults where Mother Earth stows her treasures.
Especially it would be necessary for him to trace
the deep tides that feed the crystal-cavities, and


to catch at work the unseen powers that shape
the cube, the prism, or the octahedron. For,
though the study of stones is one of the oldest
sciences, there are still many perplexing riddles
to solve, and in a lifetime one could hardly
master the subject.
The choicest crystals come from quarries,
caverns, tunnels and shafts. Most of the splen-
did specimens in the museums were accidentally
discovered in railroad blastings or in ore mines.
Rarely are they obtained by searching specially
for them.
As one admires the richness and delicacy of






ABOUT CRYSTALS.


crystals it is easy to consider them the gorgeous
decorations of the wonderland below our feet.
But they are of more importance and signifi-
cance. They belong in Nature's laboratory,
they exhibit her
S magnificent sur-
gery. From her
creation till this
present dayearth
has been racked
-'' --- in spasms. The
early convul-
ASBESTOS. sions were ter-
rific beyond im-
agination, causing awful volcanic eruptions,
earthquakes, floods and tornadoes. Modern
outbursts of lava, quiverings of the ground, and
cyclones are mild in comparison with those an-
cient strains. These long disturbances opened
up countless cracks, veins and hollows which
must be mended and filled or the earth's crust
would become a heap of wrecks.
This work was done by the underground cur-
rents of mineral solutions which ebb and flow
everywhere, occasionally showing themselves to
us in wells and springs. Wherever they found
a fracture or cavity they lined it with rocky sub-
stances until the space was filled; and this
cement, fastening the broken edges in to a strong
whole, hardened into the elegant crystals that
are brought up from the dark interiors of the
rocks. Here is a vein in green rock (called ser-
pentine) that has been tied together with asbes-
tos or "mineral wool." The crystals of this
substance are delicate threads massed together
most compactly. Being incombustible, the fibres
are sometimes woven into cloth for firemen, or
pressed into felt-like sheets to make safes fire-
proof, or ground into roof paints. The Romans
used to make napkins of it which were washed
by being thrown into a furnace. The soiling
matter was consumed and the cloth taken out
cleansed perfectly.
Yet it is not needful to probe strange places
for crystals. The world is fully charged with
the forces which create and form them. The
mountains are built of them. Almost every
hill is but an accretion of their regular shapes
massively and mightily interlocked. There is
hardly a stone but is a thick pile of them.


The loose soil, if closely examined, is seen to
be composed of broken and worn prisms. The
very dust floating in the air, when magnified,
reveals itself a collection of crystalline shapes.
Every meteoric stone that comes to our planet
asserts that in the far corner of the universe
from which it has travelled, matter is crystallized.
Even the invisible atoms of which matter is
made group and behave after the manner of
crystals. This reign of crystal-forces gverns
not alone in the mineral world. Sugar is a
mass of minute crystals. Microscopists distin-
guish butter from oleomargarine by the differ-
ence in their tiny star-like crystals.
We generally think of minerals as dead
lumps of inactive matter. But they may be
said to be alive, creatures of vital pulsations,
and separated into individuals as distinct as
the pines in a forest or the tigers in a jungle.
The disposition of crystals are as diverse as
those of animals. They throb with unseen cur-
rents of energy. They grow in size as long as
they have opportunity. They can be killed, too,
though not as easily as an oak or a dog. A
strong electric shock discharged through a crys-
tal will decompose it, very rapidly if it is of soft
structure, causing the particles to gradually dis-
integrate in the reverse order from its growth,
until the poor thing lies a dead shapeless ruin.
It is true the crystal's life is unlike that of
higher creatures. But the difference between
vegetable and animal life is no greater than
that between mineral and vegetable life. Lin-
neus, the great Swedish naturalist, defined the
three kingdoms by saying, Stones grow; plants
grow and feel ; animals grow and feel and move."
Crystal-life may be
regarded as the idea
of the vast rocky :.
realm which forms ;
the broad foundation -..- '
of visible things, up- '-
holding, feeding and B,*
supporting the plant AN IRON METEORITr.
creation above it,
just as that, in turn, sustains the animal world.
These three dominions, like three tiers in a
pyramid, rise one over another in the world's
order, tapering upward. The lowest is the lar-
gest, the highest is the noblest, and at the sum-






ABOUT CRYSTALS.


mit, crowning all, stands man. The whole is
full of activity. Each plane has a life and work
of its own; and the periods of their lifetimes
correspond to their position in the pyramid scale.
Crystals continue their service as much longer







CLAY STONES.

than the plants above them as the mammoth pine
of twenty centuries outlives the insect which
dies of old age after a few days of buzzing.
The period of crystal existence is unlimited.
Some crystals, as those in certain granites, have
undoubtedly been flourishing since the earth
first hardened into a solid crust, millions of years
ago. But many of them have lived several life-
times in that period, having been dissolved from
their early shapes to take new forms.
"What is a crystal?" do you ask. It is a
regularly-shaped cluster of one kind of particles ;
or, if you prefer large words, it is an aggregation
of homogeneous molecules polarized into a geo-
metric structure.
Whenever the atoms of a mineral substance
can move, they do their best to take an angu-
lar form. The invisible forces of nature are
constantly spurring everything to become its
best self to separate from tangling mixtures
and be a perfect individual in the true image
that was designed for it. To do this readily, the
material must be first dissolved in fluid or gas;
but so anxious are all particles to take on their
ideal shape that even solids gradually crystal-
lize in spite of their immense obstacles. The
"clay-stones" or "earth-dogs" so commonly




ANDALUSITE.

found in clay banks are a form of crystal grown
under great difficulty.
Scattered through the deep bank of clay are
small molecules of lime. Now lime is always
exceedingly desirous of making crystals, while


clay cares little about form. The lime atoms
therefore seize hold of any stick or pebble that
will serve for a grasp-point and gather about
this from quite a distance. All the while the
clay is dragging the forming cluster back and
pressing its tons of weight upon it so that the
unfortunate lime can do no better than make a
symmetrical rounded shape, like the Iceland spar,
instead of the clear rhomb-crystal that it tried to
be. Sometimes these clay-stones are very pretty,
sometimes grotesquely funny. Crack them open
and you find in the centre the nucleus (a leaf, or
sand grain, or stick) around which the lime-dots
rallied. The broken one in the illustration is a
natural rattle-box. The inner part formed first,
and was then enveloped by a different quality of
stone-atoms which made use of the older forma-
tion as a centre of gravity. Shrinking away, as
if uncongenial, it left an open space for the en-
trapped "crystal to rattle about in.
But even the clay itself, after a long time, crys-
tallizes up and down as well as horizontally into
parallel layers which enable the slate-diggers
to quarry it in blocks. It is well known that
wrought iron (containing no crystals) by repeated
jarring, as in wheels or hammers, crystallizes
sufficiently to snap.
An odd result of crystallizing under disadvan-


tages is shown in this
andalusite (so named be-
cause first found in Anda-
lusia, Spain).
In this, the impurities
persisted in staying with
the crystallizing mineral.
Accordingly they were


'


A NATURAL "SPIRIT
LEVEL."


placed in four orderly planes starting as a cross
at one extremity, and ending in a square; each
plane having its edges gradually squeezed to-
gether into a position at right angles to its first
direction.
Always, a crystal is a miracle of skillful pack-
ing. It would be easier to put a chicken back
into its egg, than to artificially crowd all the ma-
terial of a crystal into its natural dimensions.
When it forms, the central lines which govern
the whole are stretched out, and under the direc-
tion of their magnetic influences, all the particles
move up with the precision of a drilling army,
each taking its proper place and so as to occupy






ABOUT CRYSTALS.


the least possible room. First the corners and
edges are laid by the purest of the particles.
For this reason the angles of a crystal are
always the clearest and hardest parts of it.
Then the main body is filled in. If the solution
furnishing the material still continues the crystal
grows, adding a new layer all around, but on
the original plan, until the supply is exhausted.
Sometimes, after the crystal has laid its main


PERFECT QUARTZ CRYSTALS AS THEY ARE FOUND.

beams and begun building, the supply on which
it depended is drawn away; it then has to fill in
the remainder of the plan with the nearest sub-
stitute. Perhaps too some interfering substance
may come in the way and be inclosed. In either
case the result is imperfect. Here is a crystal
in which some water has been imprisoned, and
part of it has evaporated through the quartz
pores leaving a vacuum bubble which moves
like a spirit-level. I have one of these inclos-
ing not only a bubble, but also a small black
lump, both moving loosely in the pigmy lake of
clear water that is locked within this purest of
crystals. As the specimen is turned around the
bubble jumps up to the topmost corner of its
chamber like a caged sprite and the black speck
falls to the bottom like a wicked imp. If such
a crystal is left in freezing temperature it will
burst like a bombshell, from the expanding ice
within.
These quartz crystals, or rock crystals," as
some call them, are the most interesting of min-
erals to me, though so common that the very
word "crystal" is derived from them. The an-
cients believed that their clear glassy prisms
were water transformed by Nature's magic into
unmeltable ice, and therefore named them
"Krustalles," or "fixed ice." They always
have six sides. When the ends are complete


each has six triangles connecting the sides with
the point. Occasionally one side or angle gets
crowded out, but the crystal always shows that
it tried its hardest to make a hexagon, with a
hexagonal pyramid on each end. Whenever one
side or corner is compelled to change from its
type the opposite part alters in sympathy with
it; and however great the deformity it will he
found that the opposite sides are ever parallel.
These "diamonds," as some speak of them
(they are California diamonds," and "Georgia
diamonds," as well as the material for Brazil-
ian pebble" glasses, and "crystal balls"), are
found nearly everywhere over the world. Their
favorite haunts are in cavities of hard limestone.
The clearest crystals in the world are found in
Herkimer County, New York State. When cer-
tain layers of the rock are blasted numbers of
pockets are opened in which are found these
perfect crystals grouped like eggs in a nest.
Generally they are covered with clay and must
be washed to show their lustrous beauty. But
frequently as the limestone is broken they gleam
like a jeweller's case. The clay shows what was
mixed with the quartz in the solution which
made the crystals. Held fast in that little dun-
geon the flinty atoms obeyed the law which,
since the dawn of creation, has instructed them
to separate from other elements and form them-
selves into pointed hexagons.
During the babyhood of a crystal it is always
perfect; but as it
grows older and lar-
ger, various hind-
rances often modify
its ideal shape into
a distortion. Single
quartz crystals have
been found weighing
hundreds of pounds, /
but always they are .n.,
more or less impure IMPERFECT QUARTZ CRYSTALS.
and misshapen.
The more prevalent form of quartz crystals
is attached to the rock at one extremity, only
one end being terminated. In another variety
the pyramid seems to be whittled off on one
side. But all three hold true to the invariable
rule of six sides and slanting ends.
All crystals have their own ideal, and are






ABOUT CRYSTALS.


always faithful to it, though the detail differs
with circumstances. Snow, for instance, has
dozens of crystal shapes, but they all are six-
cornered. In one storm all the spangles may
be regular stars.
In another they
will resemble a
fantastic wheel.
The next cloud
-- .may come from
Sa peculiar elec-
tric region that
CUBICAL PYRITES CRYSTALS. moulds all its
snow-crystals in-
to elaborate discs. But in each snow-fall all the
crystals are exactly alike ; and all the variations
of snow-crystals are played upon the one tune of
sixes.
A more interesting example occurs in iron
pyrites, the glistening yellow metal so often
mistaken for prec-
ious ore that it has
been nicknamed
'Fool's Gold.' No
one who has stud-
ied minerals ever
commits the blun-
der, for three rea-
sons: VARIETIES OF IROT
First; it is very
hard, while gold is soft. It strikes fire against
iron and was named pyritess" by the Greeks
(from a word meaning fire, which is used again
in "funeral pyre and in "pyrotechnics ") be-
cause they thought it stored full of sparks. Gold
can be chipped with a knife.
Second; it shines brilliantly. Gold ore has a
dull color.
Thhi-d, it is yellowed by its sulphur mixture.
If you do not think so, heat a piece in the fire
and then take a strong smell of it. After you
have stopped coughing you will not dispute that
the mineral contains brimstone. Yellow gold
ore never emits sulphuric fumes because it is


already pure. Many boys and girls have pieces
of shiny yellow metal in their collections labelled
"Gold Ore," which are only this iron sulphide
-one of the most common and least valuable
of minerals.
Iron pyrites is under orders to be cubical and
usually is. But it assumes a dozen of other
forms, the most common of which are here pict-
ured. Nine of these pyrites crystals look like
departures from their instruction ; but view them
more closely and you will see that they are not
glaringly disobedient. The cube is clustered
about three lines (or axes) connecting the centres
of the opposite sides. Now the double pyramid
is built upon the same three axes, all of equal
length and at right angles to each other. If you
could slice off the upper and lower edges of the
cube, cutting smooth surfaces to connect the
tips of the axes the cube would be changed to
the square octahedron, leaving the central lines
of its structure un-
disturbed. This
is what Nature
does. In reality it
is possible to split
S, all the other forms
into cubes which
shows that they
are bound togeth-
PYRITES CRYSTALS. are bound
er by the same
three axes. The shapes are therefore all derived
from the cube in the same way, excepting only
the ball, which is a bunch of radiating fibres; as
if each one insisted upon being the central shaft
and, none yielding the honor, the fibres all run
through the centre from opposite
sides and make a round solid in-
stead of a square one. These
ten varieties of iron pyrites are
all brothers of the same family PLAN OF A
and the sphere is the rebellious CUBE CRYSTAL.
prodigal. Each kind is found uniformly in the
same place, where the shaping influence treats
all alike.


N





THE BRINGING UP OF PUPPIES.


THE BRINGING UP OF PUPPIES.

(WY 's To Do /ings.)

By LOUISE IMOGEN GUINEY.


O NE of our dogs, a splendid, serviceable St.
Bernard, is a real gentleman, somewhat
stately and soldierly, who befriends little chil-
dren, small curs, cats, and hens; remembers old
favors, howsoever slight; and is never guilty of
anything cruel, or mean, or underhanded.
He has just come of age, so to speak. Two
years ago, when he found his way to us, a gift,
and a big blundering baby, he fell heir to a
fine name, once borne by a man of superb heart
and brain, of whom Boston, and all the world,
know; and we took the risk of his growing up to
deserve it. And, at last, he has done so, and by
sheer happiness of nature, despite some grave
difficulties, has turned out a very prince of dog-
dom. And because, as a puppy, Phillips was
simply a terror, I take him as my 9xt.
He was a noted curiosity-box; hi banged
his white tail into everything, from the .ewing-
basket to the bird-cage ; he roared serenades all
night, if he heard the slightest noise outside;
he battered the doors, chewed up the stairs, car-
pets and all; he overturned people (especially,
alas ragged people,) on the street; he was con-
tinually, being a delicate and high-bred creature,
getting sick of this and that; he scared horses,
and went for poultry-yards and sheep-pens like a
charging army, his great heels plunging in the
air; he lost himself in the city, and was brought
home ignominiously by genial policemen; and
he showed so cordially his dislike of visits made
or received, that he whimpered in a disgraceful
manner until he, or the obnoxious stranger, was
well out of the house. He was a prig, a snob,
a tyrant, a fussygig, an impostor, a Nihilist, and
a public nuisance.
About equal to him, as he was, is his favorite,
naughty young "Raleigh," whose pretty mother is
as virtuous an Irish setter as needs be, and who,
wearing the life out of his afflicted owners, is so
provokingly winning and handsome, that there is
no appeal against him.


Bringing up a pup successfully, is a piece of
statesmanship ; an ordeal worse than any of our
friend Hercules, and enough to perplex the Seven
Wise Men put together. And a pup worth bring-
ing up is just such a rogue as Phil or Roll,"
brimming with vitality, eager, adventurous, hot-
headed, and full of heart-rending mischief. If
any of you, dear boys and girls have such a pet,
take these few hints, in his name, from one who
has travelled the thorny way before you.
The very least and lowest of the duties you
owe him, is to feed him well, from the begin-
ning. Until he is a year old he should have
four meals or three, at least, a day ; with plenty
of milk, cornmeal, cracker, and such wholesome
things, and no meat of any kind. Even when he
is grown up, he should never be allowed to have
his meat raw, or fat ; or to have it in summer-
time save in small quantities. Dog-biscuit is the
best thing for him ; and a pail or dish of fresh
water should be always ready and convenient.
Hammond, a great authority on dog-training,
says that a puppy can, and should be trained
to anything whatsoever without punishment or
threat. But it needs endless kindness and for-
bearance. Puppy's attention is hard to get, and
still harder to keep; he is like a naughty school-
boy at lessons, whose thoughts are in the black-
berry pasture; he has not a grain of sense or
dignity and he is forever winking, and saying :
"Ah, come now! let's leave off! with his ab-
surd, frisking tail.
For a long time, no matter what you may do
for him, Pup will prefer his own pleasure, a frolic
or a run, to all your attentions. He loves you
just for what he can get out of you. So you
must humor him, and win him over by feeding
him with your own hands, keeping him sleek
and healthy, and allowing him near you wherever
you go. Teach him to stay in special places
until you are ready to move, yourself. Coax
him into a corner, and reward him with a bit of






THE BRINGING UP OF PUPPIES.


bread when he reaches it; by and by you need
only speak once, or point to the corner; and,
at the end, Pup will go there of his own accord,
and remain quiet, waiting your will.
When you wish him to obey, speak decidedly,
but in a low voice. Put the falling inflection on
your closing word. For Pup, young as he is, is
a sharp fellow, and very sensitive to sounds, and
Lie down? seems to him to mean: Might
your lordship choose to lie down ?" which, per-
haps, his lordship doesn't; but Lie down is
a very different thing, and he takes it as: "You
must lie down this instant, and there's no get-
ting out of it! so down he goes. Never let
yourself get angry with Puppy, nor shout at him
for once he is excited by a boisterous tone,
he will never again mind without it nor treat
him otherwise than gallantly, if you hope to
make a fine gentleman of him. When he does
obey, you must praise him extravagantly, and
make a great ado, as if there never had been
such a heroic act done before in the annals of the
dog-world. Give him a bit of something he likes,
and make him proud of having been good. And,
of course, if you mean to respect him, and let
him stand well in his own opinion, never pamper
him, nor permit him to dawdle in-doors, nor
wrap him up, nor feed him on sweets. But take
him for a brisk run, every day, storm and shine;
and stroke his head when you pass him by; that
is a noble caress, and he will remember it a long
time.
While he is little, and his teeth bother him,
give him large, clean bones, boiled, to gnaw at;
but reprove him if you catch him gnawing any-
thing else, and clip his nose with your thumb and
forefinger, if he offers, as he will, in his jolly
innocence, to nip at you.
If Pup is a spaniel, or a skye, or a pug, you
ought to wash him often in warm weather, with
the proper sort of carbolic soap, and brush him
down after he has dried in the sun. If he is of
a bigger breed, he should be taken to a pond
or river, and taught to go in bravely; but the
swimming he will teach himself.
A pup of good family, whose parents were
chosen for their fine qualities, will seldom turn
out mean or cowardly. And he will scorn to
steal anything, be it ever so tempting. When-
ever Pup shows real courage, reward him; but do


not spoil his temper by setting him on to a fight,
or encouraging him to be a bully. For do not
forget that he must be a fellow of true spirit, and
never come to blows save when it is the only
honorable thing left to do. Above all, do not
think Pup afraid, because he drops his tail, and
runs away at every turn ; that is his babyishness,
and his ignorance of social customs; and when
he is six months older, he may turn out the bold-
est blade in the neighborhood.
Grant him as much liberty as you can safely
do. Do not require him to sneak along at your
heels, or to bear the disgrace of a chain, when
you take him walking. Beyond hand-shaking,
teach him few tricks; for though they may be
amusing to spectators, they make a clown of poor
Pup, and remind him of the painful hours spent
in acquiring them. His own bright, affectionate,
natural ways will be prettier to you, in the end,
and far more characteristic, than all the begging,
and jumping, and penny-catching.
Rules for Pup are like rules for a child; no two
pets are quite alike, and there are points of vari-
ance, where you must "let your own discretion be
your tutor." But one great rule holds, which is:
you must, seriously, have a certain deference for
your dog, who is stronger, and swifter, and quicker
of sense than you, and has a more wonderful
power of endurance, and passionate faithfulness.
And you must help him to respect you, and trust
you utterly, so that he will never cringe, nor
snarl, nor show a nervous uncertainty, when you
approach him, or be anything but frank, and
confident and full of spirit, while you are by.
Let him see, too, that you can be masterful and
stern; and that, for that very reason, you have
chosen to be always gentle.
You can change Pup, one of these days, into a
precious comrade and friend, and, in return, his.
year or two years of patient education will have
aided his little master or mistress, more than
either will guess, toward chivalry of feeling,
and firmness, and self-control. You know a
thoughtful writer once said that to domestic
animals, we stand in the place of Providence it-
self. It may well make us reverence our own
position, and be unfailingly watchful and tender
of the little loving life which looks up to us, and
which will serve us loyally just so long as its.
poor fond heart shall beat.






THE HIND OO S.



THE HINDOOS.
SOur Asiatic Cousins.)

By MRs. A. H. LEONOWENS.


T HE Hindoos are our nearest of kin. De-
scended from a common parent stock,
divided into petty clans, under chiefs rather
than kings, they dwelt in the high lands of
Bactria, and spoke a number of cognate dia-
lects, derived from some more ancient tongue
which was even at that remote period quite
extinct. They called themselves Aryans, or
Nobles, their country Aryanem Vaejo, Excellent
Land, and their mountains Aryaratha, Excel-
lent Gifts.
In their Sacred Books some of their native
mountains are mentioned; and the Arminians,
whose local traditions are curiously interwoven
with Scripture history, and who trace their de-
scent back to Japhet, took with them, on their
earliest emigration from the cradle of their
race, that name of Aryaratha and bestowed
it afresh on the country where they settled;
whence the name Ararat.--now Mt. Masius
- and here, curiously enough, we find that the
Scripture statement of an Ararat east of the
land of Shinar coincides exactly with the oldest
traditions of the Aryan peoples.
The mountain-regions of Little Bokhara and
Western Thibet seem to have been the spot
whence came out our primitive ancestors. The
largest rivers of Asia, the Indus, the Oxus, and
the Jaxartes, take their rise in this region, and
-what is more-all the ancient nations pre-
served the remembrance of this region as a gar-
den. Now we know that the Gihon, of the
Bible, still called Djihon, is the ancient Oxus;
that the Scripture Pison is the Upper Indus,
and that the land of Havilla, rich in gold and
precious stones, is the country of Darada near
Cashmere so celebrated for its riches and
beauty.
In the Bible narrative, Eden had a far wider
extent than has been assigned to it by mod-
ern interpreters of sacred record. The four
great rivers that watered Eden, undoubtedly are
the Oxus and Indus on the east, and the Tigris


and Euphrates on the west; within that area
are included temperate climates, fertile lands,
and fine fruit-bearing trees-a garden region
eminently fitted for the preservation and per-
fection of the human race.
If we turn from the identification of place to
that of language we find that many of our own
household words are closely connected in sound
and in structure with the Persian and Hindoo-
stanee tongues. The words for the Deity, the
sun, moon, and star, father mother, brother, sis-
ter, the names of many of our domestic animals,
are almost identical in sound and meaning. For
example, the words daughter and spinster, come
from two Sanskrit words, duhiter, to draw milk,
and spanthri, to spin, and they preserve the
memory of a time when the daughters of the
Aryan family employed themselves as milk-
maids, and in spinning and weaving garments
for the household.

It is impossible to discover, with certainty,
when the first great separation in the Aryan
family took place. All we know is, that the
sacred books of both the Hindoos and Persians
mention a great religious war, in which the wor-
shipers of Fire as the highest symbol of the
Deity were victorious, and the worshipers of
Stone Images were overthrown. This religious
war seems to have broken up the harmony in
which the Aryans must have lived for centuries.
Emigration from their native mountains flowed
in all directions. Colonies moved East, West,
and Northwest, settled the different parts of
Europe, founded states and empires, and de-
veloped nations now known as Greeks, Itali-
ans, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Germans,
Russians, Circassians, Armenians, English, and
Americans.
The victorious Fire-worshippers took posses-
sion of all the land called Aryanem Vaejo,
easily corrupted into Iran. They elaborated
the worship of Fire, and developed the Persian






THE HIND OOS.


language, which, owing to the fact that the
kings of Iran held their court in the province
of Parsistan came to be called the Farsic or
Persic language, and the nation was known as
the Persians.
The defeated idol-adoring Aryans, on the
other hand, moved southward, settled all along
the Indus and the Ganges, partly drove out and
partly subdued the aboriginal tribes of Hindo-
stan, founded cities, and also castes, established
the Brahmanic religion, and perfected the San-
skrit language, calling it Sanskritia-Ukta, the


and blue or grayish blue eyes; lofty in stature,
and dignified and hospitable in manners. The
women are remarkably good-looking; and they
wear the same dress as the Persian and Circas-
sian women. They seem to have enjoyed the
same freedom as the men up to the time of
the Arabian conquest of India, when they were
forced at the point of the sword to adopt the
religion, as well as many of the customs of their
Mohammedan conquerors. The Afghan women
now conceal their persons under veils, and se-
clude themselves from the society of men. It is


RAJPOOTS OF THE WARRIOR CASTE.


Polished Speech, in order to distinguish it
from the barbarous dialects spoken by the rude
peoples among whom they had settled.
And now, although thousands of years have in-
tervened-since the first great separation, although
each of the great nations before mentioned have
developed peculiar customs, manners, religions,
languages, and literatures, still the traveller in
the North of India is again and again taken by
surprise at finding so many characteristics com-
mon alike to the Asiatic and himself.
The Afghans, for instance, often have com-
plexions of Saxon fairness with rich brown hair


a curious fact that the Arabian word haram,
a place for the seclusion of women, was then
first introduced into Hindoostanee language--
and that the condition it represented had had
before no place among the Hindoos.
The Afghans dress with much grace -a long
cashmere coat bound at the waist with a fine
camel's hair scarf, in which are thrust powder-
horns, pouches, pistols, and daggers; the turban
is a handsome shawl bound artistically round the
head and adorned with jewels, while the better
classes wear colored woollen socks and high
pointed shoes. Their arms consist of match-






S T f rT AT n / /


locks, sword, lance, spears, daggers, and round
bossed shields magnificently embellished.
They are the most independent and warlike of
our Asiatic Cousins. Afghan boys are trained
to war at an early age. In the English and
Afghan war in 1842, Colin Mackenzie related
that he saw Afghan boys of ten and twelve
years of age taking an active part in the mas-
sacre of the little children of the British troops.
They have sporting instincts quite in common
with their English Cousins. They delight in
fighting, boxing, horse-racing, and gambling. The
nobles all keep hunting horses and hounds; hunt-
ing, hawking, deer-stalking, and unerring marks-
manship are their aristocratic sports. Hospi-
tality is one of their most sacred of duties. An
Afghan is bound by custom to grant to a stranger
who crosses his threshold, and claims his pro-
tection, any favor he may ask, even at the risk
of his own life. But, unlike the English, they
are fierce, cruel, revengeful, and extremely super-
stitious. They never forgive. An insult is treas-
ured up and retaliated on the offender years
after. Their blood-feuds are handed down from
father to son. Duels are daily fought on the
slightest provocation. The Mosaic law, eye
for eye and tooth for tooth," is rigidly exacted.
In their superstitious dread of "the evil eye,"
they cover themselves, their children, cattle, and
even their garden-trees with charms and talis-
mans; and, though nominally Mohammedans
and worshipers of one God, they have no end
of miracle-working shrines of the pious dead, to
which offerings and pilgrimages are unceasingly
made.
The winters in Kabul, the capital of Afghan-
istan, are extremely cold; snow lies on the
ground for months, and the pastimes of the
people during the long winter evenings around
their hearth-fires, as well as out of doors, are
not unlike those of Northern Europe and Can-
ada. They are very fond of dancing. Their
national dance is called alton, and is very grace-
ful at first. Four dancers move slowly round
to a measured and melancholy air; as the
music quickens they begin to keep time spring-
ing, leaping, and throwing their arms about un-
til at length the music and the dance become
so rapid in movement that the performers re-
semble a set of maniacs. The most daring of


~111LI 111


v / L .). 2

the Afghan sports, however, is that of hunting
wild beasts. An Afghan youth will enter the
den of a wild beast, single-handed, muzzle and
drag it forth, at the peril of his life, for a few
hours' sport before dispatching it.
Next in interest to the Afghans are the Raj-
poots,or King's Sons. They are of the Khsahtrya
or warrior caste of the Hindoos; generally of
great stature, regular features, light brown com-
plexion, and sometimes gray, or even blue eyes.
The sun is their chief deity, and its symbol -
a youth of ideal beauty, with a halo round its
head is drawn on all their state papers with
the words Sri-Suriani Shakh, witnessed by the
holy sun.
The Rajpoot nobles call themselves Tha-
koors or freebooters. Until recently they were
the scourge of the country, living by plunder
and murder. Thev will have no intercourse with
the Vaisyas, or agricultural, or with the Sud-
ras, or laboring castes of the Hindoos. They
support with free grants of land several clans
of Hindoos, called Rajgurces, or kings' in-
structors, Chareps, or genealogists, and the
Bhalts or bards, the one to chronicle their
births, deaths, and marriages, and the other to
celebrate in verse their exploits in love and war,
customs certainly European in their affinities.
The Rajguree practices the arts of medicine,
and necromancy. The credulous people regard
him as priest, physician, and miracle-worker all
in one. If a woman wishes to charm her hus-
band to be good to her, if a man desires to
avenge a wrong, or to fathom the secrets of the
future, the Rajguree is consulted. He is sup-
posed to be able to cure diseases, to protect
from the consequences of crime, and even to

reanimate the dead. His knowledge of drugs
and poisons is really great. Every bush and
tree furnish means by which he works his charms
and potents.
There is something indescribably sinister in
the appearance of the Rajguree as after he has
smeared his face with various red and yellow
marks, he issues forth from the temple ; carries
a staff, or wand, painted red with serpent forms
wreathed round it, and the rude likeness of a
human face delineated on the handle; lizards'
bones, tigers' teeth, serpents' fangs, ashes of the
dead, and other strange objects hang in a bag







THE HIND OOS.


at his side; he has also his cabalistic manu-
scripts full of queer characters, crude figures,
and roughly traced diagrams, which he consults
in the exercise of his magic art.
Jeypur, the capital of Rajpootana, is never-
theless one of the finest cities in Hindostan.
It stands on a high plain surrounded by pict-
uresque hills crowned by many a fortress; the
one called Nahargarh, or Tiger's den, is almost
inaccessible on the southern side of the city.


A"pM A
A RAJPOOT MAHIARAJAH.


The streets of Jeypur are spacious, many of
them well-paved, and lighted and adorned with
mosques, almshouses, Sanskrit colleges, palaces,
temples, and hospitals, all remarkable for archi-
tectural beauty. One of its most interesting an-
tiquities is an observatory founded by Jay Singh,
a Rajpoot King and famous astronomer.
The Rajpoot temple to the sun-god, stands on
the top of a hill near Jeypur; a spring of pure
water issues from beneath its western portico


and dashes over a rock into the valley some
ninety feet below. This fountain of the sun-
god is consecrated to the baptismal, funeral,
and marriage services of the Rajpoots.
The most fearful practice of the Rajpoots,
however, is their systematic murder of their fe-
male children. If the newborn child is a daugh-
ter, the nurse places opium on the mother's breast
and the babe is put to sleep forever.
This fearful custom was first resorted to by
the Rajpoots upon the Mohammedan conquest
of India. Deprived of their vast possessions,
the Rajpoot chiefs agreed to put their female
children to death, rather than give them in mar-
riage to their hateful Moslem conquerors; or to
bestow them dowerless on one of their caste.
Hundreds of thousands of Rajpoot baby daugh-
ters were sacrificed in this manner, and for cen-
turies the practice was universal among them;
and as no females were reared among them, the
Rajpoots generally sought and obtained in mar-
riage the most beautiful women of Hindostan.
It is one of the glorious trophies of British rule
in India that this practice has been checked in
some parts, and abolished in others. The grand
reform is due to the courage and efforts of two
Englishmen, Mr. Willoughby, and Col. Alexander
Walker. And when Colonel Walker was about
to leave Baroda, the chief city of the Rajpoots
in Guzerat, he received one of the most affecting
tributes of gratitude possible to be conceived.
The Maharajah had invited him to a farewell
banquet. On his way to the place, he was met
by a procession of young girls princesses,
daughters of nobles, and all classes of Rajpoots
dressed in brilliant garments adorned with
flowers, and headed by the seven daughters of
the Maharajah himself, all of whom owed him
their lives. A shout of joy hailed the approach
of Colonel Walker their friend and saviour;
the girls then folded their hands, bowed their
heads, and did reverence to the good man:
while the princesses with tears streaming down
their cheeks came and kissed the hem of his
coat. The procession then moved slowly for-
ward, the girls scattering, as they went, flowers
along his path. Once more they paused at the
palace door, and with upturned faces sang an
exquisite hymn in which they invoked blessings
on their real father's head.







THE BEGINNINGS OF ROME.


THE BEGINNINGS OF ROME.

(Search-Questions in Roman History.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


1. Name the three principal classes or peo-
ples into which the primitive inhabitants of Italy
may be divided.
2. About how much of the early history of
Rome must be regarded as mainly legendary?
3. When, and by whom, is the city of Rome
said to have been founded ?
4. Who was Tarpeia, and for what is she re-
membered ?
5. Name the three kings who are said to have
succeeded the founder of Rome, and state in
which reign the kingdom was the most peaceful ?
6. What Etruscan noble, while journeying to
Rome, is said to have had his cap removed from
his head by an eagle, and then replaced by the
same means?
7. By what other name was the Council of
Elders called?
8. Of how many members did the Council of
Elders consist when the Sabines were joined to
Rome ?
9. To what king is ascribed the authorship
of the religious rites and customs of Rome ?
io. What king built a stone wall about the
city ?
11. Mention two other important events of
his reign.
12. Into how many classes were the Roman
people divided by the census of this reign ?
13. To what king did the Cummean Sibyl
appear?
14. What event ended the first Roman mon-
archy ?
15. Who were the first consuls ?
16. What three great dangers menaced the
safety of the Republic in the first few years of
its existence ?
17. For what was Horatius Codes famous ?
18. What noted battle was said to have been
gained by the assistance of Castor and Pollux ?
19. What nation was the most powerful enemy
of Rome at this period ?


20. What magistrate having absolute power
was sometimes appointed by the consuls in times
of great peril ?

ANSWERS TO OCTOBER SEARCH-QUESTIONS.
201. It is extremely improbable that any
written versions of them existed till a long time
after the death of Homer. The poems were
first publicly recited by the Rhapsodists, but
about 530 1. c. a standard written text is sup-
posed to have existed.
202. Homeric verse comprised epic poetry
relating to the events of the heroic period, while
Hesiodic verse included epic poetry of a more
desultory character.
203. The Trojan War and the Adventures of
Ulysses.
204. Works and Days, Theogony and the Shield
of Hercules.
205. About the middle of the seventh cen-
tury B. C.
206. Archilochus. He first composed Iambic
verse according to fixed rules, and his satires are
in this metre.
207. No important event in Greek life was
considered complete without the accompaniment
of song.
208. Alcaus and Sappho, the inventors of
Alcaic and Sapphic verse.


209.
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.
Ajax ;
215.
216.
217.
218.
219.
220.


Anacreon.
Simonides.
Pindar.
Eschylus.
As the founder of Greek tragedy.
Electra; Trachinie; (Edplus Tyrannus;
(Edipus at Colonus; Philocetes; Antigone.
Euripides.
Aristophanes.
Philemon and Menander.
Theocritus.
Bion and Moschus.
At Alexandria.













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THE ARABIAN NIGHTS.

(Dear Old Story-Tellcrs.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


When the breeze of a joyful dawn blew free
In the silken sail of infancy,
The tide of time flow'd back with me,
The forward-flowing tide of time;
And many a sheeny summer morn,
Adown the Tigris I was borne,
By Bagdat's shrines of fretted gold,
High-walled gardens green and old.
True Mussulman was I and sworn,
For it was in the golden prime
Of good Haroun Alraschid."

A CHILDHOOD that had never known the
Arabian Az/ighs, that had heard not of
"good Haroun Alraschid," which was never
lighted by the rays from the wonderful lamp of
Aladdin, and to which the adventures of Sind-
bad were unfamiliar, would be a strangely in-
complete one, or so, at least, it would seem to
us now.
Yet to the English-speaking world these de-
lightful Arabic tales have not been generally
known till within the last hundred years. Car-
maralzaman and Badoura, Zobeide and the three
calenders, Noureddin Ali and Bedreddin Has-
san are as familiar names to us as those of
Crusoe and Friday; but while our great great-
grandparents in their childhood knew, and proba-
bly heartily detested, Sandford and Merton, of
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves they never so
much as dreamed.
The passionate love of marvelous stories so
strongly characteristic of Oriental peoples is not
wholly easy for us to fully appreciate, fond as
we Western folk are of fiction. To the Oriental
the story-teller is journalist, novelist, dramatist
and teacher in one. In the coffee-houses of
Cairo, the tent of the Bedouin, or in the palaces


of Bagdad, the professional story-teller is always
welcomed.

In mosque and square and gay bazaar "

the teller of stories can always find eager and
attentive listeners. The love for wonderful
tales is common to all ranks and it is in perfect
keeping with Eastern nature that Shahriyar the
king of Samarcand should be as well entertained
by the marvelous stories narrated by Schehera-
zide as any slave in his palace would have been.
To the few students of Oriental languages
two centuries ago many of the tales now in-
cluded in what we usually call The Arabian
iArhs were more or less familiar; but a trans-
lation of a number of them into French by M.
Galland, in 1704, first brought them to the gen-
eral notice of Western readers. A translation
of M. Galland's collection into English was
afterwards made, and, although it was felt by
scholars to be imperfect as well as inaccurate,
it became extremely popular. English transla-
tions from the Arabic were made from time to
time,* the best of which was that by Edward
William Lane in I839. In this work the trans-
lator has aimed to represent the original as
faithfully as possible and to give a truthful
and entertaining picture of Arabic customs and
manners.
M. Galland's version is never dull, but it con-
tains almost as much of the translator as of its
Arabic original, while Mr. Lane's translation in
addition to being entertaining has the merit of
being much nearer to the original.
About the origin of the Arabian Nights' En-
Foster, 1802; Beaumont, 18io; Scott, tS1 ; Lambe, 1826.





THE ARABIAN NIGHTS.


tertainments a great deal of controversy has been
raised; but with this we need not concern our-
selves. That they are of comparatively modern
date may, however, be looked upon as settled,
as well as the fact of their Arabic authorship.
Coffee, tobacco and fire-arms not being men-
tioned in the Tales, it has been argued that they
were written before these came into general use,
and Mr. Lane places the year 1530 as an ap-










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l--l ;.%Y = L; J 14r' j4!







A PAGE OF ARABIC.
(Fac-simile of tle opening of the story of Evis El-Djelis, The His-
tory of the Beautifid Persian," from Tie Arabian Nights.")

proximate date: Haroun Alraschid, the centre
of so many of the Tales, was contemporary with
Charlemagne, and with him Arabic magnificence
seems to have reached its highest point. But
the best authorities consider the stories to have
been written at a considerably later period than
the time of Haroun.
About the year 1300 a Sultan of Egypt issued
an order compelling all Christians to wear blue


turbans, and all the Jews yellow turbans, instead
of white which the Moslems wore. In the tale
called The History of the Young King of the
Black Isles" his people are transformed into
fishes, yellow, red, white and blue. The red
were the fire-worshipers, the white, Moslems,
the blue, Christians, and the yellow, Jews ; and
from this it has been argued that the date of
this tale at least must be subsequent to the be-
ginning of the fourteenth century.
The interest of the tales themselves is very
little affected by the question when they were
written; but as pictures of Eastern life their
historical value is of course largely dependent
upon the date of their composition. Judging
from many of the details in the stories they
seem to have been written in Cairo, and doubt-
less a large number of them had been related
by Eastern story-tellers to eager listeners in
palace-court and street-bazaar long before they
were put into writing. Some of them show a
Hindoo origin, and others are distinctively Per-
sian; but all seem to have been remodeled to
suit the tastes and customs of the Arabs who
lived in cities.
Whether one or more persons were concerned
in their composition and remodeling is some-
thing that cannot be accurately known, but quite
probably they are the work of one person, as
some excellent critics have supposed. With
one exception no similar collection of Arabic
tales is known to exist, but in Europe during
the Middle Ages, collections of stories by one
author were very common. Chaucer's Canter-
bury Tales is one of the most noted of these, and
Boccaccio's Decameron another.
As a picture of the times in which they were
written they are, of course, historically valuable,
but they form no part of serious Arabic litera-
ture. They correspond in some measure to the
lighter novels of our day; not the novels which
stir our deepest feelings, but those which aim
simply to amuse. That is all the Arabian
Nights' Entertainments aim to do. They are
animated, ingenious and amusing, but they are
nothing more.
Compare Homer with these Arabic tales. In
Homer our imagination is kindled by the ac-
counts of the heroes of whom he sings; in the
Arabian Nig*ts our interest is excited by the ad-






THE ARABIAN NIGHTS.


ventures that happened to certain people about
whom personally we care very little. In Homer
it is what Achilles, Hector, Paris and the others
really were in themselves that we care for. Char-
acter moves us in the Grecian narrative, advent-
ure in the Arabic. Popular as these tales have
been among the Arabic peoples they have never
occupied a high position in Arabic literature
both by reason of their literary style, which is
far from being the best, and because of their
general frivolousness. The scholarly Arab
would probably think it a sinful waste of time
to read them through and would resent having
Arabic literature judged by such specimens of
it as these.
I have not carelessly called the tales frivo-
lous. They are so because they have little or
nothing to say concerning the realities of life.
They are sparkling, but they touch the surface
of things only. The fancy is aroused, but the
feelings are seldom touched. The mind of the
Oriental is not a sympathetic mind. To accounts
of the most cruel tortures the Arab listens with
indifference, and he can inflict suffering without
a moment's hesitation. The greatest misfortune
he can conceive of is the loss of money or ma-
terial comforts, and the interest of the greater
number of Arabic stories turns upon the lack or
the possession of riches and what they can bring.
No moral lesson is drawn from events as they
occur, either directly or indirectly, simply be-
cause the author does not dream of such things
as moral consequences. Vice never seems very
black to him, nor goodness especially com-
mendable in itself; and of the development and
upward growth of human character he has no
conception.
To the English-speaking world life means
much more than the pursuit of our own individ-
ual happiness; it implies a deep sense of our
personal accountability for its proper use. Pleas-
ure is the chief object of living to the Oriental,


and he is indifferent as to whether his end is
attained worthily or otherwise.
We are not to look therefore to the Arabian
Nights for any direct moral teaching. But there
is in these tales an indirect moral, unguessed at
by the author, which is there nevertheless. And
it is this: The pursuit of happiness for purely
selfish motives fails in reality to bring it to us.
The heroes and heroines of these sparkling sto-
ries are never secure in their happiness for any
long time. Any sudden turn of adventure may
wrest it from them; and they have no strength
of character to console them for its loss, or to
show them how to rebuild it upon its true basis
-a love for others equal at least to their love for
themselves: It is only a poor kind of happi-
ness that can come from thinking very much
about ourselves," says George Eliot in Romo/a,
but these people of whom the unknown author
tells us know no other kind. If Western nations
are superior to Oriental peoples it is because
their ideals are higher, because their aims are
less self-centered. It is indeed true that some
noble examples of self-sacrifice and loftiness
of motive are chronicled in the Arabian annals;
they are however not the rule, but only excep-
tions.
If we read the Arabian Nights for amusement
simply we shall find it delightful. There are no
tales in the world quite like these in their bril-
liancy of invention, gorgeousness of description
or ingenuity of adventure. They can never
grow stale to young people ; for the love of the
marvelous is a natural and healthy love in child-
hood and youth, and these stories meet that
natural desire and in a way that no others can
do. Later, when a taste for the adventures of
genii and magic-workers fades away, the unde-
signed moral of it all will grow clear to us and
we shall see that character is more than mate-
rial delights, and that no happiness worthy of
the name can be hoped for without it.






MORE ABOUT CRYSTALS.


MORE ABOUT CRYSTALS.
("Diamond Dust." )

BY E. D. WALKER.


THE many-shapedness of crystals is due to
the extreme sensitiveness of the dumb
things that we like to call dead.
In lime (or calcium), the most active and del-
icate of all minerals, each difference of mixture


GEODE CONTAINING THREE VARIETIES OF CRYSTALS.

and surroundings tends to shape a special crystal.
Consequently, the calcium forms number several
hundreds, each distinctly indicating its texture
and circumstances. The geode represented con-
tains four shapes of calcium in limestone rock.
The cavity is lined with scores of pink calcium
crystals (dolomite); the large cube is a yellow
specimen of calcium (fluorite); and the largest
crystal is a transparent variety of the same (cal-
cite). But the dainty differences in their com-
position explain the strong contrast in shapes.
The opening was filled ages ago with a solution
of lime, magnesia, fluorine and nickel. Mag-
nesia was in the greatest hurry to crystallize; so
it seized part of the lime and studded the entire
surface with its rhombs. Then the fluorine fol-
lowed with its cube. Nickel's turn came next
and it made the exquisite hairlike crystals. The
remaining lime built its column last inclosing
some of the nickel fibres.
Garnets ordinarily take twelve-sided figures.
But occasionally they have twice that number
of faces, though it is easily seen that the axes
are identical in both cases, and the one can be
cleaved into the other. The illustration of a
twenty-four sided garnet is an exact copy of one
six inches in diameter, and weighing nearly ten


pounds. It was obtained in blasting rock for a
sewer in one of the streets of New York City.
The gneiss, or granite, on which New York is
built abounds in garnets, though they are rarely
large, and are coarse in structure, with small
value.
So the rule giving a special crystal shape
to every mineral is not invariable, though one
would think the thousands of geometrical figures
might provide a form for each. Frequently dif-
ferent substances follow the same style. The
cube is a favorite type, being seen in iron pyrites,
salt, alum, fluorite and galena (lead). But each
of these minerals has its own way of piling its
particles together and of finishing off its shape.
The hexagon is found not only in quartz, but in
beryl and mica. Yet a peculiar style of struct-
ure is noticeable in each. The round shape
occurs not only in pyrites balls, but in a softer
clayey mineral named from its discoverer (Dr.
Wavel) wavellite. This however forms only
hemispheres.
After some studious observation therefore, it
is not difficult to distinguish the countless shapes
of crystals into their hidden types. The min-
eralogist finds this a delightful field of work.
He learns that'the wonderful laws which affect
the crystal shapes penetrate into the minutest
atom. The smallest particle of matter is found
by the microscope to be as orderly and obedi-
ent as the most gigantic
masses.
There are many se-
crets wrapped within a
crystal. It is a tiny world.
The mighty forces of at-
traction and repulsion, TWLV-SIDED GARNES.
which keep the universe
in perfect order, operate here in delicate equi-
poise: a slight turn of the balance would
shiver the crystal to pieces. The molecules
rest together in repose so peaceful that the







MORE ABOUT CRYSTALS.


crystal is cooler to the touch than any artifi-
cial stone can be made. This furnishes the
favorite test with jewellers for distinguishing
true from false gems. Like the great world,
too, the crystal is a magnet. The opposite
poles, at the extremities, are always shooting
out streams of electricity. Sometimes its light
may be seen in the dark, radiating from the tips
like the points of lightning rods in a thunder
storm. It glows with phosphorescence when
ground or otherwise warmed. Then too, crystals
perform some strange antics with light. They
not only strain the sun's rays in order to produce


TWENTY-FOUR-SIDED GARNET CRYSTAL, FOUND UNDER
NEW YORK CITY.

their own peculiar colors, but many of them
have a mysterious habit of splitting the light-ray
in two. The transparent fibres of the Iceland
spar are piled together after a magical method
which allows part of the light to go straight
through them, but steers off the rest in a slant-
ing direction, making a double picture of what-
ever is laid under the mineral. Iceland spar is
the most striking example of this class and is
much used in scientific instruments to dissect
light. This double refraction as it is termed,
is seen only in irregular crystals -that is those
whose axes are unequal.
A still more curious behavior is exhibited by
tourmaline, the long triangular crystal which is
found so abundantly in granite. It is generally
black, but sometimes it is green, or pink, or


even red. The periods in its growth may be
seen now and then in the light-tinted core and
the dark enveloping portion, as
in the section of the lower large
crystal in the illustration. It
is the famous talisman stone of i
the Orient, and is said to pro-
tect the wearer against conjury
or witchcraft. But tourmaline :RYL CVRS-
TALS.
interests scientists for far other
reasons. If two thin transparent slices of it are
held in the course of a ray of light as shown in
the illustration, the first sifts out the upright
waves of light, while the second checks these.
Both if crossed together, are opaque. Each
alone is transparent. The tourmaline is built
like a fence of round parallel rails with open
slits between. The light acts like a handful of
shingles thrown against the fence. Only those
pass through which strike parallel with the rails.
Those whose edges are directed across the
rails are stopped. This queer action is called
"polarization" as the crystal poles are the cause
of it. Tourmaline slides are of great value in
determining some delicate scientific questions.
But in the crystal world, as elsewhere, there are
cheats. Some perfect crystal-shapes are found
which are not crystals at all. Their crystal
appearance is fraudulent; they are therefore
called pseudomorphs (false forms). How-
ever, it is not difficult to tell the genuine from
the sham, on account of the dull lack-lustre sur-
face of the latter.
These pseudomorphs make in two ways. Some-
times a true crystal imbedded in the rock is dis-
solved out, leaving a hollow mould exactly of its
own pattern. Then another substance gradually
fills that opening, and is cast in the angles of
the original crystal. Garnets are often copied
thus by a greenish min-
eral (chlorite). Then again,
a crystal composed of two
or three elements is chemi-
cally transformed into .
another substance, while the -
inclosing rock prevents it
from changing to its proper
SZ, A MICA CRYSTAL.
new form. Thus a cubical
crystal of pyrites (sulphur and iron) may be
soaked in water until the sulphur is chased away






MORE ABOUT CRYSTALS.


by oxygen, and a brown rusty iron (Simonite)
is produced, still retaining the cubical shape.


WAVELLITE.


The tendency of
every mineral to
crystallize, pro-
vides many means
of making beauti-
ful crystals artifi-
cially.
Alum and salt
are often used to


decorate ornaments with their brilliant cubes.
It is only necessary to boil either mineral in
water and the cooling and evaporation at once
start thousands of crystals into activity. You
can see them spring out of the solution, as if
by the urging of some unseen fairy, and their
growth continues as long as there is water.
Any object put into the solution will be covered
with them. After a time the whole surface of
the vessel is coated with them. If strings are
hung across the top, drooping into the water,
they become long clusters of white cubes. The
basins of rock candy
seen in the confection-
ers' windows are made
in the same way from
thick solutions of
sugar slowly cooled.
If a small quantity
of acetate of lead is -
dissolved in water and ICELAND SPAR.
a piece of zinc is hung
in it, a surprising growth of thin lead sheets at-
taches to the zinc, by chemical action, closely
imitating an inverted tree. This was a familiar
experiment with the old alchemists who styled
it "Arbor Saturni" or Saturn's tree. A silver
tree is similarly produced by mixing nitrate of
silver in water and dropping a piece of zinc
to the bottom. In a few days long slender
needles of pure glistening silver will be seen
branching up from the zinc. This, too, the
alchemists did, calling it "Arbor Diance" or
Diana's tree.
A showier experiment can be worked with
silicate of soda. Buy a small amount of it at
the druggist's. It is a thick starchy fluid (by
the way, good for mending china). Carefully
dilute it with water in a large bottle. It must


be thoroughly shaken and stirred or the result
will not be satisfactory. Then drop into it a
few small clear crystals of copperas, blue vitriol
and alum. Put the bottle aside where it will be
undisturbed, and in a few hours the crystals will
begin to sprout. From the copperas crystals
you will notice the finest green threads shoot-
ing upright, looking like sea-weed. After them,
blue fibres start up from the vitriol lumps, while
the alum erects a thick growth of pure white
spires like a miniature cathedral. Presently the
bottle will be filled with a beautiful variety of
bright green, blue and white growths, delicately
interlaced. A still larger display of colors can
be obtained by using sulphates of chroinum
(yellow), nickel (brown), cobalt (dark blue), and
fluorite (purple). When you wish to arrest the
growth at any stage, pour water in very gently
through a tube reaching to the bottom. As the
solution overflows the water takes its place and
you have your magic many-colored forest remain-
ing permanent. If the bottle must be moved it
is well to commence the preparations by putting
clean sand in the bottle thus partly rooting the
crystals in it. This forms a firm basis for the
chemical vegetation.
A simpler method of getting pretty crystals is
to use sulphur. Heat it carefully in a tin dish
on the stove. It melts as easily as wax. But
do not let the fire touch it or it will burn with a
blue suffocating flame which must be blown out.
When it is entirely melted, thin like coffee, pour
it into any convenient mould. A strong paper
box will do. At once it begins to crystallize,
darting out sharp narrow prongs each at right
angles to its base. As soon as a thin crust has
hardened on the top, punch two holes in it, and
through one pour out the
remaining fluid. The
second hole lets the air
enter as the melted sul-
phur leaves. When it
has stood for a few hours,
cut off the top crust, or
cautiously pick it away,
and you will discover TOURMALINE CRYSTALS,
within a charming grotto SHOWING SECTION OF
ONE.
of yellow spikes some- ONE.
what like the illustration of an experiment made
in a small flower pot. The sulphur crystals







IN FROSTY WEATHER.


found in the earth are very unlike these artificial
ones. Nature takes time and pains in her per-
formances; and this natural crystal was cooled
for many years instead of a few minutes. One
result, unattainable by experiment, is an amber-
like transparency.
All of the artificial crystals are much inferior
to their originals. Even diamonds can be man-
ufactured, but only
,,,, with tremendous ef-
orts that cost far more
', '-TI than the tiny proceeds
lal are worth. It has
taken the mysterious
A RAY OF LIGHT AS AF- forces in God's labo-
FECTED BY TOURMALINE
PLATES. ratory during ages to
produce the resplen-
dent gems that are dug from the earth.
All the beauties and wonders of crystals,
therefore, are the result of the substances fol-
lowing their impulses and separating from what
is to them unclean.
Let Mr. Ruskin show you an example in this
description from his Ethics of the Dust.

"A pure or holy state of anything is that in which all
its parts are helpful or consistent. The highest and first
law of the universe, and the other name of life, is therefore,
help.'
"Perhaps the best, though the most familiar, example
we could take-of the nature and power of consistence,
will be that of the possible changes in the dust we tread
on.
Take merely an ounce or two of the blackest slime of
a beaten footpath, on a rainy day, near a manufacturing
town. That slime we shall find in most cases composed
of clay, mixed with soot, a little sand and water. All
these elements are at helpless war with each other, and
destroy each other's nature and power: competing and


fighting for place at every tread of your foot. Let us
suppose that this ounce of mud is left in perfect rest, and
that its elements gather together, like to like, so that
their atoms may get into the closest relations possible.
Let the clay begin. Rid-
ding itself of all foreign sub-
stance, it gradually becomes a .
white earth, already very beau- :
tiful, and fit, with help of con- I. t
dealing fire, to be made into ,.;lI
finest porcelain, and painted on,
and be kept in kings' palaces. I
But such artificial consistence
is not its best. Leave it still _
quiet, to follow its own instinct ARTIFICIAL SUILP'UR
of unity, and it becomes, not CRYSTALS.
only white but clear; not only
clear, but hard; nor only clear and hard, but so set that
it can deal with light in a wonderful way, and gather out
of it the loveliest blue rays only. refusing the rest. We
call it then a sapphire.
The sand also becomes, first, a white earth ; then pro-
ceeds to grow clear and hard. and at last arranges itself
in mysterious, infinitely fine parallel lines, which have the
power of reflecting, not merely the blue rays, but the blue,
green, purple, and ied rays, in the greatest beauty in
which they can be seen through any hard material what-
soever. We call it then an opal.
In next order the soot sets to work. It cannot make
itself white at first; but, instead of being discouraged,
tries harder and harder ; and comes out clear
at last; and the hardest thing in the world :
and for the blackness that it had, obtains
in exchange the power of reflecting all the
rays of the sun at once, in the vividest blaze
that any solid thing can shoot. We call
it then a diamond.
NATURAL "Last of all, the water purifies, or unites
SULPHUR itself; contented enough if it only reach
CRYSTAL. the form of a dewdrop; but, if we insist
on its proceeding to a more perfect con-
sistence, it crystallizes into the shape of a star. And, for
the ounce of slime, we have, a sapphire, an opal, and a
diamond, set in the midst of a star of snow."


NOW Jack Frost rides, and his icicle locks
Tinkle and ring in the wind as he goes,
And he bends from his saddle, and kisses so hard
A dear little lad, on his cheek like a rose,

That he cries and flies home to his mamma; and Jack
Stops out by the frame where the roses have been,
And paints some white flowers on the cold window-pane,
But never he ventures to follow him in.






































RL9. I.











a,





Fig.3.



m 0








P -- -- -


HOW TO FOLD A COCKED-HAT NOTE.






COCKED-HATS.-A HOME-MADE JIG-SAWV.


COCKED-HATS.
(Ways To Do Things.)

By W. T. OWEN.


HERE are many
ways of folding a
note of invitation,
so that it may be
sent without an
envelope, and yet
be as secure. Of
these, the pretti-
est and simplest
is that known as
the "Cocked-hat,"
which is often
mentioned in the older English novels.
To fold a Cocked-hat, take a piece of paper


the size of common note, or about five by eight
inches, as shown by fig. i. Fold it on line a-b,
then on line c-d, fg. 2, and then on line e-f,fg. 3,
when your piece of paper becomes as shown in
fig 4.
Now crease forward on lines g-h and i-j and
backward on line k-l. Turn the three-cornered
part down again, as in Jg. 5, and fold forward
on lines m-n and o-f, turning the flaps back and
making the little triangular pocket as shown in
fig. 6.
By folding the lower half up and tucking the
point into this pocket you have the Cocked-hat
completed as shown infig. 7.


A HOME-MADE JIG-SAW.
(Ways To Do Th/igs.)

BY CHARLES W. MILLER.


ANY handy boy can make a jig-saw that will
do fine work, and be much easier to man-
age than the expensive ones sold in the stores.
A cheap treadle-machine frequently breaks the
article, because the saw is thrown forward at
every stroke. The one that I am going to show
you how to make, runs perfectly vertical, and
so does not strain delicate parts. Besides you
can stop this at any stroke, while the treadle-
machines keep on running until the momentum
of the heavy balance-wheel is used up.
This is an important advantage to the begin-
ner, for you may run it slightly out of line, in
which case you only need to stop the foot, and
the saw does not. make another stroke, when the
work may be properly adjusted and the cutting
resumed. If you have a treadle-machine and
run slightly out of line, it is very difficult, as I


have said, to stop the saw before it has made an
unsightly blemish.
The result of all this is, that an amateur can
do much finer work at first, with a hand jig-saw,
or with a simple machine like this which I will
now describe. The table of the contrivance may
be tilted so that all the branches of Sorrento
work may be done.
To make the machine, buy a good hand-saw
frame. The best are those made of spring steel,
and cost about seventy-five cents. Besides the
saw-frame, you will need a piece of one-inch pine
board, three inches wide and three feet long; a
piece of hard-wood, one inch square and twelve
inches long; a half-inch board, eight inches
square; also a dozen screws.
First plane the hard-wood stick round and
smooth. Then cut a hole through it near the







A HOMAE-MADE JIG-SAW.


top, the exact size of the lower arm of the saw-
frame. With a hand-saw, slit the upper end of
the stick, down through this hole, as shown in
ig. i in the diagram of parts.

I/,


FIG. 1.
Now bore two screw-holes, one above and one
below the place for the saw arm. These holes
should be bored at right angles to the slit, so
that when the frame is in place screws may be
driven in them, to draw the two halves together,
and clasp the frame firmly. Bore a small hole
near the bottom of the stick for the stirrup.
Mark a circle,
eight inches in di-
Sameter on the piece
of thin board, and
whittle out the saw-
table, shown here as
FIG. 2.
..fig. 2.
From the inch-board, cut the piece fig. 3,
and two of fig. 4. All these should be three
inches wide. The first is fifteen inches long,
and has a slit cut in the top, which should be




FIG. 3.

wide enough to let the arm of the saw-frame pass
easily. Each of the fig. 4 pieces have a hole
which fits the round stick, allowing it to slide up
and down freely. You must be careful in boring
the holes, to get them in the same position-that
is an equal distance from the
ends and sides, so that when
the pieces are fastened to the
back, they will be exactly over FIG. 4.
each other, and the shaft will run easily without
binding on the sides.
Fasten the short pieces fig. 4 to the long
piece fi. 3, at the places indicated by the
dotted lines. The best way
is to screw them, using two
long screws which are driven
FIG. 5. in from the back. Cut out
two pieces fig. 5 and fasten them as shown in
the picture, so as to support the circular table.


The table is kept in place by driving two screws
down into the back one in each arm, and two
into the braces.
Take the handle off the saw-frame, and fasten
the latter in the hole in the top of the shaft, after
putting the shaft up through the holes in the
guides. Bore a small hole through the table
exactly where the saw-blade will come.
Push the shaft up to the highest point of the
stroke that is as far as there are teeth on the







i !il ,









saw-blade, make
a brad-awl hole
in the shaft, just
under the upper
guide, and drive
in a small screw,
allowing about a quarter-inch
to project. Slide down the
saw to the lowest point of the
stroke, and put in a screw as
before, above the lower guide.
The machine must now be
mounted on some sort of a
stand. The most convenient THE JIG-SAW
COMPLETE.
way is to screw it to one end
of a work-bench; or, if more convenient, you may
fasten it to the side of a packing-case of the
proper size and weight.
The saw may be used as it is. The right
hand holds the shaft between the screws, and
works it up and down, while the left hand holds
the work and guides it to the saw. It is prefer-
able however to run the machine by foot-power,
so that you can have both hands to steady the
work.
The foot-power may be very simply arranged,






MORE ABOUT THE HINDOOS.


all that is required being a stirrup for the toe of
the shoe, and a rubber band fastened so as to
draw the saw up, after it has been drawn down
by the foot. To make the stirrup, whittle out a
stick four inches long, making a notch at each
end; obtain some stout cord, double it, pass the
doubled end through the small hole at the bot-
tom of the shaft, and tie the four thicknesses
together just below it. Tie the cords together
again about a foot from the floor, and knot the
ends to the notches in the stirrup, as shown in
the picture. Take a stout picture-ring, and drive
it into the upper guide near the back. Pass one
end of a thick rubber band through the ring, and
draw the other end up through the loop thus
formed. Pull the rubber band down, until it is
moderately taut, push the saw up to the top of


the stroke, screw a small hook into the shaft at
the point reached by the end of the band, and
hook the latter over the former.
You will see at once, that if the toe is placed
in the stirrup, and pressed down, the saw will
make a stroke, which will be the cutting stroke,
because the teeth all point downward. When
the saw has been drawn down until the lower
stop strikes the guide, the foot is raised, and
the rubber band, which has been stretched by
the movement, draws the saw back to its first
position.
To tilt the table, whittle out a long thin wedge,
loosen the screws in the table, and push the
wedge under it, tighten the screws and test it, to
see if it is properly inclined: if not adjust the
wedge until satisfactory.


MORE ABOUT THE HINDOOS.
( Our Asiatic Cousins.)

BY MRs. A. H. LEONOWENS.


LET us glance at our Asiatic Cousins on the
banks of the Ganges. Here the Hindoo
village is generally stockaded as protection from
the wild beasts that infest the adjacent jungles,
for huge reptiles, such as the boa-constrictor, and
cobra di capello, glide in and out of the jungle,
none daring to kill them, as the Brahmans hold
them sacred, and even provide them food as a
meritorious act. Within the stockade troops of
half-nude dusky children play about on the
sward, and share with the crows, pigeons, and
other animals, their bit of wheaten cake. Be-
yond, within the grove of a banyan-tree, nestles
a little Hindoo temple, and a group of Brahman
priests are always seen seated around, while the
village school is not far off.
In the temple are enshrined the chief gods of
the Hindoo pantheon, Brahm, Vishnu, and Siva,
with Indra the Lord of the Sky, and Gunga the
Goddess of the Ganges, holding water lilies in her
hand. The priests spend their time in praying,
meditating, and anointing the idols, and pre-
senting to them the offerings of the village.


The schoolhouse is a bare room, with an open
veranda round it. Here the boys of the village
assemble daily to learn to read, write, and cipher
in the Hindoostanee and Sanskrit languages.
The teacher is a Brahman, a walking encyclopoe-
dia of Oriental learning; hence no books are
used, or needed. He writes the lesson for the
day on the blackboard, the boys copy it, and
commit it to memory. Their lessons in arith-
metic are given orally; written down with the
forefinger on a board on which fine white sand
has been scattered. When the pupil has written
it he calls out the result; if correct he blows on
the sand to erase it and continues to work out
other examples. The Hindoos are remarkably
good mathematicians and nearly all the banking
business in India is in their hands. The writing-
lesson is also copied ; the pens are made of reeds,
the paper of palm leaves.
The custom of carrying fruit and flowers to
the teacher is a religious duty among the Hin-
doos. In addition to this an annual sum of
money is voted by the village, each paying ac-






MORE ABOUT THE HINDOOS.


cording to his means for the support of the
schoolmaster.

The Hindoo women on the Ganges, although
very dark complexioned, are noted for their
elegant forms, regular features, long, soft, shin-
ing hair, fine teeth, and large, soft, dreamy eyes.
Their dress is very graceful, but they load their


The men wear long white coats, fastened on
one side with strings, and a huge white or crim-
son turban. You can tell a man's caste and
even religion by the fastenings on his coat. If
on the right, he is a Hindoo of high caste; if in
the middle, he is a Brahman; if on the left, he
is a Mohammedan, and a crimson sash round
the waist denotes a high-caste Hindoo. A


A HINDOO TEMPLE.


ears, fingers, toes and even noses with orna-
ments. They are naturally gentle and docile,
and though married at a very early age they
make devoted wives and mothers; formerly a
young Hindoo widow was forced, in obedience
to the teachings of the Vedas--their sacred
books--to burn herself alive on the funeral
pyre of her dead husband, but now this barbar-
ous practice has been stopped by the strong
arm of the British government.


Brahman is distinguished moreover by a sacred
cord round his neck, a pure white turban and
coat, a circular mark on his forehead which
symbolizes the most sacred of the names of his
deity, "Acem," which he often utters with
folded hands, bowed head, and with the deepest
reverence.
The Hindoo village juggler, who has from
father to son practised the art of jugglery, per-
forms some truly wonderful tricks, such as






MORE ABOUT THE HINDOOS.


charming serpents, causing plants to grow from
seed, bear flowers, and fruit in your presence,
swallowing swords, eating fire without apparent
danger; and even killing and making alive
again. This last is called "the basket trick,"
and it is one of the most perfect feats of the
Hindoo juggler. A little boy is made to step
into a large round basket with a cover to it; the
jugglers then take, one a knife, and the other a
musical instrument very like the Scotch bagpipe,
and begin to dance and play, every now and
then giving deadly stabs at the child in the bas-
ket. It is heartrending to witness the seeming
agony of the poor little fellow, who becomes
convulsed with pain, and finally disappears from
sight; the lid drops back on the basket, and
blood streams from it on every side. Suddenly
all is still. The juggler drops his fatal knife,
and the bagpipe is hushed. They then look
around and call the boy again and again by
name. At length there comes a faint response,
which grows each time clearer, louder and
sweeter, when lo the lid of the basket is once
more thrown back, and there sits the boy in it
serene and smiling.
Benares is not only the oldest but the most
sacred city of the East. It attracts streams of
pilgrims from all parts of Hindostan. Never-
theless the railway is not permitted to penetrate
beyond the outskirts of its sacred precincts. Its
streets are full of strange sights, for animal, bird,
insect, and reptile life flourish here as in no other
city in the world. In the very heart of the city
is a temple whose domes are covered with pure
gold, the interior of which is rendered foul and
noisome by the presence of strange birds and
beasts. The Manikarnika, or sacred well of
Benares, said to have been excavated for the
purification of the Hindoos by their god Vishnu,
draws to it thousands of credulous Hindoos who
may be seen at all hours descending its time-
worn steps to wash and be cleansed in its fetid
waters. At the monkey-temple which literally
swarms with monkeys, the Brahman priests are
incessantly at prayer, offering fruit and flowers
and sweetmeats to the grinning, chattering
monkeys as propitiatory offerings for sin.
On a steep bank of the Ganges are the funeral
pyres on which are. cremated the bodies of thou-
sands of pious Hindoos, and their ashes are


flung into the sacred Ganges, in order to insure
the soul a rapid transit to the Hindoos' paradise.
A magnificent temple-observatory, built two
hundred years ago by Jay Singh, the Rajpoot
King already mentioned, rises on the opposite
bank. It contains some of the most extraordi-
nary pillars for astronomical observations ever
invented by the mind of man. Here is held the
Hindoo New Year's celebration at the new
moon in the month of March. The young peo-
ple, oddly enough, spend the morning in fHying
astronomical kites of great size, made in the
shape of the twelve signs of the zodiac, to rep-


SIVA, nuRAHMA, VISHNU.
(Co ied from sculplure in the Cavern-Pagoda of E le/Kan/t.)

resent the revolution of the months of the year.
At sunset all repair to the temple-observatory,
not to worship their deities, but the new alma-
nacs! while the priests chant a hymn addressed
to the days on which the new and full moon will
fall, predicting at the close either sad or joyous
events for the New Year. The rest of the even-
ing is spent in giving and receiving gifts and
alms.
Now does it not seem incredible that these
Hindoos with their strange customs, and strange
religious rites, should be one and the same race
with us?
The secret of the deep differences which now
divide nations once so closely related is to be






MORE ABOUT THE HI ND OOS.


found in the influence of Christianity, which
transformed European nations centuries ago;
whereas our poor Hindoo cousin has been
bound for hundreds of years under the iron rule
of caste, and the powerful tyranny of the Brah-
man priesthood, and has been turned aside from


KALI, THE BLACK GODDESS OF HUMAN SACRIFICES.

the nobler instincts of his race, and has con-
tinued a worshiper of idols made of wood and
stone.
The first attempt at reformation in India was
due to the noble efforts of a singularly gifted
Hindoo prince, named Sakyo Suddharth the
Buddha; he lived in the sixth century before
Christ, and by his teaching and example did
much to weaken the system of caste, and the
influence of the Brahman priesthood.


The second enlightenment came from the
Greek invasion under Alexander the Great,
beginning in the fourth century B. c.
The third change for the better was the
Arabian invasion begun about A. D. 1ooo, and
continued to the seventeenth century, and the
introduction of the Mohammedan religion,
which with all its blemishes is superior to Hin-
doo idolatry.
The fourth was the formation of an English
association especially for the purposes of trade,
called the East India Company, in A. D. 16oo,
which led to the supremacy of the English in
India.
The fifth and last was the Indian Mutiny in
1857, that most terrible episode in the history
of British India, which led to the transfer of
the government of India from the directors
of the East India Company to the Crown of
England.
India is now governed not as a conquered
country, but as an English Colony, in the name
of the Queen of England and Empress of India
by an English governor-general under the title
of Viceroy; he is assisted by a council of fif-
teen members, while the civil service offices
are thrown open to all alike, Hindoo or English-
man, who pass the required examinations. Ever
since then rapid and wonderful change has
taken place in the great centres of British India.
Education is eagerly sought after by the rich
natives for their children. New industries have
been introduced. Indigo factories, cotton and
tea plantations, irrigation works, jute and cotton
mills, beside the native industries, give employ-
ment to vast numbers of intelligent Hindoos;
and there is not a doubt that all classes of peo-
ple begin to regard the connection of India with
England as beneficial to their country. So there
is reason to hope that the present generation of
Hindoo boys and girls shall be educated in the
truths of Christianity, that they will meet their
European cousins half-way, and turn the gentle-
ness, depth, and earnestness of their natural
character upon shaping for their country a high
and noble national life.






HIGH-CASTE SWEETMEATS.


HIGH-CASTE SWEETMEATS.
(A Late Experience in India.)

By REV. EDWARD A. LAWRENCE.


TRAVELLING in India, I had heard at
Delhi, certain sweetmeats described as
very toothsome; and on my way to Jeypoor, at a
station where we were delayed for some time, I
thought I would buy some of these famous sweets.
So I went up to a vender who had a fair variety
and proposed taking one or two of different
kinds.
No sooner had I touched one of them than the
man, a sour-looking Hindoo, became angry. I
took out some money to show I intended to buy
them. That had no influence, and he began
talking in a very excited manner. I could not,
of course, understand him, but concluding he
was a surly fellow, I put back what I had in my
hand and left him, taking my place in the cars.
I soon noticed a buzz of talk on the platform,
and a crowd gathering. Then this vender, ac-
companied by the English guard, came up to the
car, pointing me out as if I were a criminal.
The guard surveyed me, but seeming to discover
nothing atrocious, walked away.
I began to feel, however, as if I were an es-
caped lunatic or a runaway thief. Determined
to know of what I was accused, I sprang from
the car, pushed through the crowd and demanded
of the guard the occasion for all this disturbance.
"The man charges you with having spoiled all
his high-caste sweetmeats which he was selling
to high-caste Hindoos."
"I touched only one of them. Tell him this
and that I had no thought of harm."
With that, I went back to my seat to await
what came next. Soon a police sergeant ap-
peared on the scene, the crowd following him.
He did not seem angry, pnly anxious, and after
looking me over, retired like his predecessor.
Then I called him, and he came back, repeat-
ing the same statement, and asking my name
and destination. I told him I was simply pass-
ing through the country, and could not be ex-
pected to understand these absurdities. I also


claimed that if the vender exposed his goods for
public sale, without any notice that they were
reserved for a special class of customers, he must
take the consequences. But as he might have
suffered in the loss of sales at this train, I would
give him a rupee as compensation.
The sergeant repeated this to the man, who
rejected the offer: He claims that his stuff is
worth seven rupees, though I don't suppose the
whole thing cost him half of that."
I then told the sergeant that I wished neither
to commit nor to suffer injustice, and would do
in the matter whatever he thought right. As he
had no suggestion to make, I offered to give the
man two rupees.
"Don't you give him a pice," interposed a
military officer who had just appeared on the
scene. "He will take your money and then go
round selling his candies the same as ever."
"Any way, offer him two rupees," I rejoined.
He will not take them," replied the sergeant,
"so you may as well keep your money."
Just as the train was moving off, the sergeant
re-appeared, with the announcement :
"The man says he will take the two rupees,
and if you choose to give them, I will see that
the goods are destroyed."
I thought the experience well worth the money,
and handed out the rupees, although I have
not the least idea that the sweetmeats were de-
stroyed, except by the consumption of the mouth,
in which probably the sergeant took his full
share.
But this incident shows how, in spite of all
changes, they cling to their old customs. I was
to them a Mleccha or barbarian, and my hand
contaminated not only what I touched, but the
whole basket. The railroad, however, is doing
much towards breaking down caste. The Brah-
min and the sweeper must sit on the same seat,
and the Hindoo cannot avoid the shadow of the
European.






PATRICIAN AND PLEBEIAN.


"And what kind of sweetmeats were they ? "
All kinds of India sweetmeats are made of
brown sugar, many of them moulded into va-
rious shapes of birds and beasts. Tubes also
are made, filled with honey, and twisted into


various forms. Then there are balls of sugar
and clarified butter. These confectioneries are
soft and melt in the mouth. Those made by
the higher castes differ from those made by the
lower, so absolute are the laws of caste.


PATRICIAN AND PLEBEIAN.

(Search-Questions in Roman History.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


21. What was the Comita Centuriata ?
22. How did the State regard marriages be-
tween Patricians and Plebeians ?
23. What event is called the Secession to
the Sacred Mount ?
24. Name a famous deputy sent by Rome to
the Sacred Mount.
25. Who was the author of the first Agrarian
Law in Roman History, and what did it provide ?
26. What famous general was put to death
by the Volscians, and why?
27. What Roman citizen passed from the
plow to the Dictatorship ?
28. What army did he force to pass under
the yoke ?
29. How long did the Decemvirate last ?
30. Name the most important result of the
second Secession to the Sacred Mount.
31. What office was regarded as next in dig-
nity to the Dictatorship ? Name some of its
obligations.
32. What city sustained a Roman siege for
ten years, and how was it captured ?
33. What exiled Roman general as he left
the city wished his countrymen might soon re-
gret his absence ?
34. When Rome was captured by the Gauls
how is the Capitol said to have been saved ?
35. What noted Roman became prominent
as a leader of the Plebeians, and what was his
fate ?
36. State the difference between a Lex and
a Rogation ?


37. What was the purpose of the Licinio-
Sextian laws ?
38. What famous laws were enacted nearly
thirty years later ?
39. What did the Lex Hortensia practically
terminate ?
40. Name the most important results of the
conflict between the social orders of Rome.

ANSWERS TO NOVEMBER SEARCH-QUESTIONS.

221. Anaximander. j. c. 610-547.
222. Herodotus.
223. Thucydides.
224. Xenophon. The Hellenica continues
the history by Thucydides from the time the
latter leaves off to the battle of Mantinea.


225.
226.
227.
228.
229.
230.
231.
232.
233.
234.
235-
236.
237.
238.


Anabasis, Cyropeidia and Memorabilia.
Plato.
The Republic and the Laws.
Socrates.
The immortality of the soul.
Aristotle.
The Peripatetic.
Epicurus.
Isocrates.
/Eschines B. c. 389-314.
Sixty-one.
Euclid. B. c. .323-283.
Plutarch.
Pausanias who lived in the second cen-


tury, .A. D.
239. Diodorus.
240. Strabo.































































i

*J. a .J.I


SPOT, BLACKIE AND JUDGE JOCKO.


"W3
II,
"U S.M


~~''""~~


r:
rl. 1~,111 i !L,.sB(


















E SOP.
(Dear Old Story-Tellers.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


T EACHING by fable is the most ancient
method of moral instruction; and allu-
sions to it abound in the early history of all na-
tions. The dullest minds could be reached by
an apologue or a parable, and the brightest ones
were not offended by this indirect mode of giving
advice. Indeed, the fable seems to have been at
one period the universal method of appeal to the
reason or the conscience. Kings on their thrones
were addressed in fables by their courtiers, and
subjects were admonished by monarchs by means
of skillfully-told apologues. Eastern peoples in
particular have delighted in them, both because
of their natural love for story-telling and be-
cause of the opportunity the fable affords for
pithy condensations of wisdom. Unwritten lit-
erature is rich with brief, sententious and easily
remembered sayings, and the fable offers the best
method of preserving them. The early fables
of a race were never long, and thus were readily
transmitted by word of mouth from one gener-
ation to another.
India was the birthplace of the fable in its
importance and the greater part of all Oriental
apologues can be traced to Indian origin. In
fact, with one notable exception probably no col-
lection of fables has been so widely circulated
as the one known throughout India as the Am-
wdri-Salalt, or The Lights of Canopus. Bidpaf
or Pilpaf, the reputed author, was a Brahmin
revered throughout India for his wisdom, who
became the adviser of the Indian prince Dabs-
chelim, a contemporary of Alexander the Great.
Eastern story-tellers give a very circumstan-
tial account of the manner in which Pflpaf's fa-
bles came to be written. Dabschelim, we are


told, greatly desiring to leave behind him some
literary monument of his reign which should be
more enduring than marble or brass, induced
Pilpaf to prepare a work for the instruction of
kings which should illustrate the soundest prin-
ciples of wisdom and morality by amusing tales
and anecdotes.
The Brahmin accordingly shut himself up in
his study, with one of his disciples for his aman-
uensis, and remained there composing and dic-
tating for an entire year. At the end of that
time the two issued from their retreat and pre-
sented the completed volume to Dabschelim who
is said to have been quite overwhelmed with
joy upon receiving it.
About the middle of the sixth century the
manuscripts were translated into Persian, two
centuries later into Arabic, and again into Per-
sian in the twelfth century. From this last
translation was produced in the fifteenth cen-
tury the standard Persian version from which
our English translations have been made. All
Oriental scholars have united in praising these
apologues which, as Sir William Jones asserts,
"comprise all the wisdom of the Eastern na-
tions." The book has appeared in twenty differ-
ent languages and it is one of the great classics
of Eastern nations.
In the Lights of Canopus as in the still more
famous collection to which we shall come pres-
ently, animals are introduced as the medium of
conversation; the Indian fables however are
connected by a slender thread of narrative.
One of the shortest fables, "The Monkey and
the Carpenter," will serve as an illustration of
their style :






A S OP.


It has been related that a Monkey saw a Carpenter
sitting on a plank and cutting it, and he had two wedges,
one of which he drove down into the crevice of the board
so that it might be more easy to cut it and the slip for
the stroke of the saw might be opened. When the crevice
widened beyond a certain extent, he hammered in another
wedge and drew out the former one and in this manner
carried on his work. The Monkey was delighted. Sud-
denly the Carpenter in the midst of labor on an emergency


A'SOP.
(After the Pahbtiig- by Il7easquez )

rose up. The Monkey, when he saw the place vacant, at
once sat down on the wood and his tail slipped down into
the crevice of the wood in that part which had been cut.
The Monkey drew out from the cleft in the wood the
foremost wedge before he hammered in the other one.
When the wedge was drawn out both sides of the board
sprang together and the Monkey's tail remained firmly
fixed therein. The poor Monkey, being ill with pain,
groaned, saying:


It is best that every one in the world should mind his
own business.
'Whoever does not keep to his own affairs acts very
wrongly.
'My business is to gather fruit, not to drive a saw;
and my occupation is to disport myself in the woods, not
to strike the hatchet or axe.
Whoever acts thus, such will befall him.'
The Monkey was talking thus to himself when the Car-
penter returned and beat him as he deserved, and the
affairs of the Monkey through his meddlesomeness ended
in his ruin. Hence it has been said:
Carpelneringo is not the business ofan ape.' "


But far the most noted collection of fables,
and the one that has exercised the widest influ-
ence, is of Greek origin, and generally attributed
to Esop. Their purpose apparently was to trav-
esty or parody human affairs, and under the dis-
guise of animals gifted with speech and reason
every phase of human weakness or virtue was
briefly but effectually caricatured.
Several eminent scholars have denied the
authorship of AEsop to these fables and have
claimed Babrius, who is supposed to have flour-
ished between the times of Augustus and Alex-
ander Severus, as the author. Others have as-
serted them to be the work of Maximus Planudes,
a Byzantine monk of the fourteenth century. The
famous Dr. Bentley two hundred years ago wrote
much upon this topic, denying -Esop's author-
ship; and from that time to this the question
has been a disputed one. Still the weight of
authority inclines in favor of AEsop, and we may
without much hesitation consider Asop as their
author.
That they are mainly the work of one person
is evident from their similarity of form. Each
relates but a single incident and enforces but a
single truth. The lesson to be learned is clear
and unmistakable. It is certain that if not all
by one writer they show in their construction the
influence of a single mind whether that mind was
.Esop's or not; and simple, short, direct fables
are usually spoken of as zsopian to distinguish
them from the long-drawn-out and often mystical
apologues of Oriental origin.
The date and place of birth of Asop are alike
uncertain. Cotyaon, a city of Phrygia, is said
by Bachet de Mezeriac, a French author of the
seventeenth century who wrote a life of 'Esop,
to have been his birthplace, while a writer of our






A SOP


own day makes him a native of Mesembria in
Thrace, and he is supposed to have lived in the
sixth century before-Christ.
About the personal appearance of _Esop a
similar uncertainty exists. The popular con-
ception of him is that of a much deformed and
even repulsive-appearing man; an idea derived
from a life of him attributed to the same Byzan-
tine monk, Planudes, who was said by some to
have been the author of the fables. Other
writers, however, have described him differently;
and apparently the only point of agreement in
the controversy is that he possessed a dark com-
plexion.
It is also as uncertain as the date and place of
his birth and his personal appearance, whether
iEsop committed his fables to manuscript, or
whether they were transmitted through folk-talk,
through story-tellers, and through their illustra-
tive use by public speakers--the collection we
possess being gathered into form some centuries
later. There are allusions to several of the
fables in the Greek literature before the Chris-
tian era, but the earliest collection now known
bears the date of the thirteenth century after
Christ. Their brevity, as we have said, the
simple, definite action of their drama, the witty
conversation of the few actors, the pointedness
of the lessons taught, all would tend to render
easy their preservation in -Esop's own words,
even through many generations. The remark-
able ease with which the fables are committed
to memory by any one, and the tenacity with
which they are remembered, certainly come from
a quality and an art inherent in their concep-
tion and construction. The universal fitting-
the "patness" so to speak of the "moral" is
another inherent characteristic of the AEsopian
fables, so distinguishing and discriminating them
from the common stock of fable that the number-
less allusions to them and their frequent use as
illustrations and enforcement of ethical truth
have incorporated them permanently into the
great body of general literature.
All writers about Esop however agree that he
was born a slave. We first hear of him as an
inhabitant of the island of Samos where his mas-
ters were Xanthus and Jadmon. How great their
rank we have no means of knowing. All that is
now remembered of them is that they were suc-


cessively the masters of a slave named 2Esop.
Jaclmon recognizing, doubtless, the brilliant qual-
ities of his bondsman, made him a freeman and
ere long the slave by birth became the confidant
of kings and the equal of philosophers and sages.
In the reputed lifetime of _Esop the court of
Croesus King of Lydia was the most learned
then existing. To the capital city of Sardis were
attracted many of the wisest men of the time and
among these rEsop might have been found, hav-
ing made his home there from about 570 B. c.
by the express invitation of Croesus.
In conversation with the philosophers whom
he met at the Lydian court WEsop seems to have
been quite able to hold his own, and Croesus
appears to have esteemed his shrewd and often
humorous advice more highly than the elaborate
and lengthy counsels of the philosophers.
More than once he was sent by the Lydian
king on diplomatic missions to the various Gre-
cian states. On one of these occasions he was
at Athens during a period of disaffection on the
part of the citizens towards Pisistratus, their
ruler, and by his clever invention of the fable of
"The Frogs Desiring a King," now one of the
best known of the fables, he restored harmony
between Pisistratus and his subjects. At an-
other time he showed the Corinthians the folly
of being led by impulse in a fable narrating the
danger of mob-law.
It was while absent from Sardis on an impor-
tant political mission that his death is said to
have occurred. A solemn embassy had been
sent by Cresus to Delphi, and ZEsop was in-
structed to offer valuable gifts at the shrine of
Apollo and to distribute to each citizen four sil-
ver mince. During the negotiations in regard to
the distribution differences of opinion arose be-
tween A/Esop and the Delphians resulting in his
refusal to proceed further with the presentation
of the gifts in his charge, which he therefore sent
back to Croesus, The Delphians, enraged be-
yond measure at thus losing a treasure which had
been almost in their hands, at once determined
upon revenge. In pursuance of this design a
gold cup belonging to the temple was hidden
by them in the baggage of iEsop's attendants,
and after he had gone a short distance from the
city he was followed and brought back on a
charge of sacrilege.






44 WITH A DIAMC

To allay the fierceness of his enemies, ,Esop
related a number of his fables, among them that
of "The Beetle and the Eagle;" but the Del-
phians were too wrathfully disposed to be open
to reason, however convincingly urged, and the
embassador was condemned to death. This
cruel sentence was at once carried into execu-
tion and _Esop was thrown from a rocky preci-
pice near Delphi.
Many times in after years must the Delphians
have repented of their impolitic haste, for a long
series of calamities overtook them soon after
which did not end till a fine had been paid
to the grandson of Jadmon, the former owner
of iEsop. This fine the Delphians voluntarily
imposed upon themselves in acknowledgment
of their crime, and from this circumstance arose
the phrase or proverb _Esop's blood," used to
indicate the certainty of the punishment follow-
ing a murder.
What action was taken by Croesus in the mat-
ter has not come down to us, but his own misfor-
tunes followed not long after, and history, which
is silent as to the avenging of iEsop's wrongs, is
voluble as to the sorrows of Croesus.
Two hundred years after the embassy to Del-
phi had ended so tragically the Athenians erected
a statue to iEsop carved by the skill of Lysippus,
one of the greatest sculptors of the time. The
statue has long since disappeared and the skill
of Lysippus is only a tradition in our day, but


)ND COLLECTOR.


the name and work of _Esop are household
words; the brief tales of the Samian Slave have
not lost their power to chardi and instruct in the
lapse of more than twenty centuries.
With some few noted exceptions the Romans
produced no fables and their literature boasts
no such collections of tales as India and Greece.
The most noted medieval fable or apologue
is the well-known History of Reynard the Fox.
To this work may be traced the origin of many
of the fables of the Middle Ages.
Although in modern times the fable has formed
part of the literature of all Western nations, it
has never assumed the importance it possessed
in ancient times, or which it still holds in the
estimation of Oriental peoples. The fables of
later authors are with one noted exception read
only by scholars. In 1668 the first six books of
the fables of the great French author, La Fon-
taine, were published, and three years later a
second collection. These fables have been the
delight of successive generations for two hun-
dred years, and their popularity remains as great
as ever. The student reads them for the charm
of their style, the philosopher for their keen an-
alyses of life and character, and the schoolboy for
the simple delight which the story affords. Edi-
tions of La Fontaine's fables are almost innu-
merable, and they will probably ever remain as
they are now, the most popular fables of the
Western world.


WITH A DIAMOND COLLECTOR.
(" Diamond Dust." )

By SUSAN POWER.


WHEN a child, in the deep quiet of a
home on the great brilliant green prai-
rie, I used to go out summer mornings when the
sun first shot over the eastern rim, to watch the
marvel of the dew.
The orb of the grassy world sown with pearls
that subdued its gorgeous color to cool and per-
fect emerald, lay, against a sky of rose and
ivory, a bloom of heavenly tinting changed at


the first direct ray of the sun. All too soon the
blaze of gold was over the slopes, the soft color
glowed, and the fields were twinkling as with
seed of stars. What were fairy tales, or Ara-
bian Nights what was the Valley of Diamonds
with its heaps of glassy treasure to this sight
where myriad brilliant were sown with match-
less art on the deep green which best displayed
them! The secret of those mornings alone in






WITH A DIAAMO


the Field of Jewels is no more to be told than
the splendors of Elfland by the mortal who has
been spirited thither. The clear dew, clearest
thing in nature, trembled alternately silver and
crystal on the clover, but as one looked, vivid
flames of blue fire, red and gold, shot out of its
depths, here burned a spark of ruby, there one
of emerald, the golden glow of a tiny sun that
changed as it hung to a piercing dart of blue
like electric fire, and where the pure drop caught
the full rays of the sun, it flashed them back in a
blaze of white light- the gleam of the sovereign
diamond, all colors in one.
I could spend hours now, watching the won-
derful play of light on the limpid, matchless
jewels of the dew just as I used when a child of
twelve or girl in her teens. The pure color, the
fire, the evanescence create one of the most
exquisite spectacles in nature. It is a delight
of one of our keenest instincts-the love of light
which we share with plants and animals. The
love of color and light hereditary in primitive
nations leads to the love of jewels which are
imprisoned light. Watching the fields strewn
with vanishing diamonds, sapphires and stars, I
used to long to gather and possess them. When
I have seen the light fall in a broad beam on a
fine solitaire diamond, I have said to myself
" Here is the embodied dew." If I love superb
stones, it is for their likeness to the heaven-
lighted drops of the morning, and I own to a
deep admiration for jewels of all kinds-- to look
at, not to wear. The dew saved me from any
perilous liking for diamonds, for dazzle as they
would, they were neither so clear nor so full of
fire as the drops I had seen strewing the acres
of the morn.
Yet I will go far out of my way any time to
see a fine stone, which holds such secrets of fire
and flood and world-designing under its seal of
silence; and so it was one afternoon when the
light was best, the owner of one of the finest
collections in the United States at least, opened
the doors of a curious Japan cabinet and showed
in their velvet trays, ruby, spinel, hyacinth, al-
mandine, yellow garnet, iris, aquamarine and
sunstone with their kindred.
Some of the gems were too fine to be trusted
behind bevelled glass and triple, inlaid locks,
and were taken out of a fire-proof safe built


VD COLLECTOR. 45

into the wall. The keeping of such costly toys
involves no little care and risk. For one thing,
the windows of the rooms where the collection
is kept are of that polished plate glass which
you cannot look through from the outside, a
precaution so that no prying eye across the street
can overlook the scene when the owner is show-
ing the jewels to his friends.
I can only tell you at this time some of the
things learned about diamonds, told with sparkle
and spirit while the keen-eyed collector sifted
the smooth gems through his fingers as if their
touch was a pleasure. The colored stones lay
in heaps over the white velvet mat on which he
showed them, for few of them are mounted save
a Greek engraved gem or two, some quaint heavy
old stone rings and Indian ornaments whose
fancy added richness to the jewels. The stones
have been gathered in strange quarters of the
world, from negro huts in Guiana, from Panama
venders, the little shops of Mexican gold workers,
from by-streets in Rome and Rio Janeiro, from
Javanese merchants, from sailors and Australian
gold diggers. As the owner said, the passion for
such things is nothing to the fascination of col-
lecting them. He began with a few inexpensive
specimens when a young man, and the collection
has grown for nearly forty years, and is proof
of what can be accomplished in gathering the
choicest things even without a large fortune.
"Let me show you the diamond with its rel-
ative, which is often set with it and taken for it,
in showy ornaments. You will not know one
from the other," as the glittering stones lay
flashing back the sunshine in white insufferable
light. "These are diamonds and white topaz-
tell them apart if you can. If you wish to test
them, topaz will scratch glass, and other stones
except diamond, it has the same weight in many
instances, shows a lustre like diamond; in short
they differ only in one point-the topaz is not
phosphorescent. Leave a diamond two or three
hours in the sunlight, then place it in a dark
room, and it will give light for half an hour or
so. This property of diamonds is very well
known. The topaz has no such property. If I
had known when you were coming, I would have
exposed a diamond for you in the forenoon.
Often you might find one roasting here on the
window sash where nobody would notice it. The






WITH A DIAMOND COLLECTORS.


servants have taken my crystals so often for dia-
monds and I have offered all they wanted so
freely that if they found the Kohinoor under
foot they would only take it for 'one of the would
gentleman's pebble stones' as the parlor girl
called a specimen worth her year's wages. Look
here one moment."
A handful of colorless brilliant stones, look-
ing alike, were laid before me. I could not say
they were not all diamonds.
"These are five different stones which might
any of them be taken,for diamonds even by per-
sons used to handling them. One is a white to-
paz, one a fine quartz crystal, and there are white
sapphire, white spinel, and white chrysolite--
very rare-and five true diamonds with them.
Pick them out if you can."
One diamond of the finest water shone con-
spicuous in its keen light. Of none of the rest
could I feel certain, though I have been credited
with "the sense for diamonds."
"Very well, now see if you can tell what these
are," producing a white velvet tray which held
red, blue, yellow and brown transparent stones.
"Rubies, I suppose, and pale emerald, aqua-
marine or smoked topaz."
"I must tax your faith in me to believe that
they are all diamonds. Colored diamonds are
among the rarest stones, and though they are
not the most beautiful they cost plenty of money.
One came from Java, one from the Pinel mine
in the African diamond fields, one from Brazil,
in the province of Minas Geraes, one from
Georgia in this country. They are diamonds;
not rubies or sapphires or topaz any more than
crown glass is rock crystal. Diamonds you
know are crystallized carbon; the other stones
I named are crystallized alumina, the principal
element of clay. When perfectly pure, these
crystals are colorless, and you find no less than
eight different stones as white as the diamond,
but a trace of iron oxide in the crystal, whether
diamond or alumina, gives a pink or red tinge,
and you have a red diamond or a ruby as the
case may be. A trace of borax gives red or
blue sapphire. Carburet of hydrogen gives the
emerald of deeper or lighter green according to
its amount. Lime chrome gives the green gar-
net of Siberia.
"Diamond crystals are not by any means pure,


as they are found; they have black specks of
carbonate in them, often they are milky, and one
kind is like the opal. These cloudy stones are
of small value except as curiosities. There you
see twenty of them, looking like quartz crystals
bedded in lime. Only one diamond out of a
thousand is a clear brilliant of any value what-
ever: one out of ten thousand is fine enough to
rank as a sovereign stone, and one out of twenty
thousand is colored, but it is worth five times as
much as a clear one because so much rarer.
Governments value fine colored diamonds among
their chief treasures. The Russian treasury
prides itself on the famous red diamond bought
by the Emperor Paul I. for one hundred thousand
roubles. The Green Vaults at Dresden, full of
magnificence, show the green diamond as the
greatest curiosity of all. The Grand Duke of
Tuscany has a blue diamond, with facets all
over; the Sultan owns two, one of them very
large. The crown of Portugal bears in its cen-
tre a green diamond of 138Y carats, found in
Brazil. A superb blue diamond belonging to the
throne of France, and handed clown from one
prince to another was lost in the Revolution and
has never been recovered. Jewellers say that a
diamond never can be wholly lost unless some
philosopher burns it for an experiment--that
is, it is so indestructible and so remarkable that
it is sure finally of coming to light.
"The finest diamonds in America belong in
the Astor collection, selected abroad among the
Amsterdam diamond merchants. They are ex-
ceptionally fine and of the highest lustre. You
can tell when diamonds are worn by a lady, for
she chooses them by their brilliance and purity,
not by their size alone. The finest diamond in
the light is invisible, nothing being seen but a
glow of white light in its place. No other stone
has such power of throwing back the light it re-
ceives, intense and white -that is, when itself of
the first quality. Some large diamonds of a low
order are less brilliant than good imitations
made from French paste.
"I know Mr. Ruskin has derided the love of
jewels and especially of diamonds as unworthy
and lowering to the human heart. The passion
for display, for eclipsing others in any shape is
a debasing and hardening one. I have seen a
woman as covetous and selfish over her house-






WITH A DIAMOND COLLECTOR.


plants as she could be over a set of diamonds.
But there are reasons for valuing diamonds
apart from pride in their ownership. They are
the work of great crises of nature, fused by intol-
erable heat and pressure, crystallized by electric
currents of force sufficient to rend the crust of
the globe itself. The great mysterious, subtle
changes which transform the black carbon into
this most brilliant shape of nature are made by
processes before which the imagination of master-
chemists, used to agents of Affreet power, stands
awestruck. 'There are precious stones,' says a
French savant, 'whose existence was before the
first rudimentary formations; they had their
place in the world long before plants and an-
imals began; and they are an inheritance to
man from the age when no foreshadowing of his
existence had fallen upon the globe.'
"We find them in old river beds filled with
the sand of igneous rocks which melted and took
shape in the fires of creation, and have since
been ground down by the furrows of mighty
floods, the crushing of mountains of ice. In
the ravines of the Ural Mountains and the Him-
alayas, in Borneo, Java, Africa, Australia, and
in the highest peaks of the Itambe mountain of
the Brazil district, diamonds are found, embed-
ded in conglomerate and granite sand. Where
diamonds and sapphires are found, gold appears
also, and I doubt not, where gold is mined, gems
may be found if sought for. The gold beds of
Arizona and the high mining regions of the Rio
Grande among the mountain tops will yet prove
seeded with precious stones. It is not singular
that few diamonds have been discovered in this
country, for in the rough they are no more than
lime-covered pebbles, and only one in ten thou-
sand of true diamonds is as much as five eiglhhs
of an inch across. It is only the patient native
tribes of the tropics who can live on a farthing
a day and spend their lives sorting heaps of
gravel who find the diamonds for the rest of the
world. If you could bring yourself to pick over


all the dust in the road, or the sands on the
beach by handfuls, and keep at it month after
month and year after year, you might go into
one of the deserted California mining gulches
and undertake to find diamonds in its sands.
It is reasonable to believe there are diamond
beds in this country. They are always found in
the debris of the most ancient rocks, and where
do you think the oldest part of the globe is?
Not in Hindostan, or in China, or the Mountains
of the Moon, but, geologists tell us, in the high
table-lands of the Rocky Mountains through
which the deep canons of the Rio Grande and
the Colorado Rivers are cut. It is believed by
many that these slopes were the first to lift their
heads above the original ocean; they have grown
hoary with waiting centuries of centuries, and
the riches of the hemisphere are locked within
their stern walls. Turquoise and topaz are
found in Arizona with beryls, garnets and opals,
and it will not be a dozen years before somebody
strikes upon a bed of diamonds where that rush-
ing Colorado has ground away the granite cement
which holds them.
Old frontiersmen who have wandered among
the mountains prospecting for gold have strange
stories of the lonesome canons, among them a
fabulous one of a wall of conglomerate studded
with diamonds that sparkle under sun and stars.
I knew a plainsman who had met a prospector
who said he had seen this wonder, and the story
was told with such seriousness it was evident
that both believed it. The survey of the Colo-
rado towards its head waters found a carbon wall
studded with rosettes and stars of quartz crys-
tals which probably gave rise to this legend, but
I believe that there is fabulous wealth of pre-
cious stones locked in the rocky fastnesses of
this Great Red River. Fifty varieties of precious
and semi-precious stones are numbered in the
geologist's report of the Pacific Railway Surveys,
and, as the miners say, all the indications of
diamonds are there."







SNOW HOUSES AND FORTS.


SNOW HOUSES AND FORTS.

(Ways To Do Things.)

By L. C. A. DE TRACY.


FIG. 1.
(Fence or mould "for snow-block; the dotted line shows
rounded top of snow.)

IF you want a house built entirely of snow, in-
stead of excavating a heap of snow or a
drift, probably to have it all fall about your ears
just as you have finished working, you should
get a number of fence boards five or six feet
long, stand them up on end in the snoNw close
together, thus inclosing with a sort of fence a
rectangular space as large as you wish your
house to be. Prop or brace these boards on
the outside. Then fill the inclosed space with
fine dry snow as in fig. i. Leave the snow to
harden; this will take from a few hours if the
weather is cold and your house is small to two or
three days if the weather is mild and the house


FIG. 2.
(Section oj snow-bloct after removal of boards and exca-
vation of interior and door.)

is large. This accomplished, remove the boards
and you have a rectangular hard block of snow.


Now with a sharp iron spade cut an opening
for the door; and allowing two feet or more,
according to the size of your house, for the thick-
ness of the walls, excavate the inside of the snow
block, making the walls and roof as smooth as
you can. The roof should be arched inside, as
it will thus better resist the tendency to sink in
the centre. Should it sag, however, you can
pile snow on the outside and when that is hard
cut away the inside to bring it to its proper
shape. Fig. 2 shows you the block of snow after
the boards have been removed and the door-
way and chamber excavated.
My companions and I had also another way
of building. This required us to quarry regular
blocks out from a snowdrift, or from an artificial
quarry made by piling up snow and beating it


-- -- -



FIG. 3.
(Section of side wall inclosed by boards; the dotted lines show
position of next section.)

down with a snow-shovel and then leaving it to
freeze hard. We built these blocks up into reg-
ular walls as a mason builds up blocks of stone
and "pointed the joints with dry snow as he
points with mortar. Unless one constructs the
house as the Esquimaux do, which requires
skill and practice, I think the best way to roof
this kind of house is the following method:
Nail some boards together into a sort of plat-
form, the shape of the house and large enough
to rest on the middle of the walls on all sides;
then wet it and shovel upon it about six inches
of snow. When this has frozen, carefully raise
this platform, or roof as it really is, and place it
on the top of the walls snowy side downwards;
and after piling about a foot of snow on top
your house will be finished. I sometimes used







SNOW HOUSES AND FORTS.


to build posts into the walls; these posts were
three or four inches square and as long as the
house was high. I placed cross-pieces from post


FIG. 4.
(Section showing construction of snow castle.)


to post, and then rested the roof on these. The
advantage of this arrangement is, that in case
of the walls settling from any cause the roof
remains at the same height and the space left
between the top of the sunken walls and the
roof can easily be filled up with snow. This
whole method is, however, somewhat trouble-
some, and as it takes a long time it is not a good
one unless the weather is likely to remain stead-
ily cold for a week or so.
On the whole I advise a third method which,
I fancy, is an original idea of mine and which I
came to use in preference to all others. Build
two fences (as described in first plan) parallel
to each other and about two feet apart and close
the space between them at both ends as infig. 3.
Fill up with dry snow and leave to freeze. This
will not take so much time-as in the first plan,
for there will be less thickness of snow to freeze
through.
This done, move the boards along to the posi-
tion shown by the dotted lines in fig. 3, and
again fill with snow. Continue thus building in
sections until the four walls are finished and
then roof your house as above described and it
is complete.
In both of the methods with wooden roofs you
can enter your house either by a regular door-
way or by a trap-door in the roof; in the latter
case you will require a short ladder to reach the
roof and to get down inside.
Of course you can build a fort in any of these


ways, omitting the roof ; or, better still, you can
do as we did, build a high parapet around the
roof and thus combine fort and house into a
castle.
I will describe two snow-buildings that I made.
The first was a sort of castle as infig. 4. It was
about six feet and a half high measuring to the top
of the roof ; with a parapet two feet in height run-
ning around the roof. The chamber inside was
about six feet long, five feet wide and between
five and six feet high. The walls were about
two feet thick with an extra thickness of about
a foot on the sunny side. At one corner was a
turret containing a ladder by which the interior
was reached from the roof and as this was the
only entrance, we could stand a siege in safety
when the ladder outside was drawn up and the
door in the parapet was closed.
The other building was a house entered
through an ordinary doorway which was closed
by a curtain. This building was somewhat larger


FIG. 5.
(Section ofsnow house with alcove ; also ground plan of same.)

than the one just described, and as it was not
then supposed to be war time it had no defences.
fig. 5 will give an idea of it. When it was com-
pleted I asked a few friends, including several






T'HE PARSEES, OR FIRE-WORSHIPERS.


girls, to afternoon-tea. The interior, notably
the roof, was decorated with flags. Christmas-
tree tapers were placed on supports stuck into
the walls, and the floor was carpeted. Seats
were made by covering boxes or benches with
rugs and the refreshments were placed in an
alcove at one end, dug out of snow heaped
against the outside of the house; this alcove
was brightly lighted with tapers. I can assure


you the whole effect was very strange and charm-
ing, and I have reason to believe the guests en-
joyed themselves. The tea and cocoa were kept
hot by spirit lamps, and these with the tapers
caused the snow to melt a little; but that did
not matter as the walls were about three feet
thick and seven feet high. Next day when I
went in I found everything covered with lovely
frost crystals that sparkled like diamonds.


THE PARSEES, OR FIRE-WORSHIPERS.

( Oiu Asiatic Cousins.)

BY MRS. A. H. LEONOWENS.


A FTER the Hindoos, our next of kin are the
Parsees; a people even more interesting.
They now number scarcely a hundred thousand
souls. We meet them mostly in British India,
for Bombay during the last two hundred years
has been the home of their choice.
In the midst of the races of Asia they appear
but a drop in the ocean, nevertheless in point of
national character, morality, industry, wealth,
and enterprise they are foremost among our
Asiatic Cousins.
Their national costume, which consists of a
long flowing white robe and a peculiar head-
dress of a rich brown color in the form of a
small tapering round tower, not only distin-
guishes them from other races in India, but
strikes the stranger with astonishment, prompt-
ing the inquiry, Who are these strange-looking
people called the Parsees? "
The reply would be, "Descendants of the an-
cient Aryan race, and with a history the most
romantic in the annals of the Past."
The first great colony founded by the victo-
rious idol-hating Fire-worshipers was that of the
Medes, who settled themselves on the Maidan
or plateau whence their name Maidyeh cor-
rupted into Medes bordering on the river
Tigris. Ecbatana, from the old Persian word
Slaigbatana or Place of Assembly, was their
capital city, surrounded with concentric walls of
different colors rising one behind the other.


No people in ancient history were more dis-
tinguished for the simplicity and austerity of
their lives. But gradually they fell into luxu-
rious habits, built beautiful gardens, palaces and
temples, clothed themselves in garments of flow-
ing silk stitched with threads of gold and pre-
cious stones. Their priests were called Mahclhi,
corrupted later into Magi, and formed a separate
class, clothed in pure white as are the Parsee
priests to this day. These priests dwelt in the
forest, ate only vegetable food, slept on beds of
pine and spruce boughs. They practiced astrol-
ogy and prognostication ; taught the worship of
the Sun in the heavens and of Fire as its purest
symbol on earth; and followed the teachings of
their great Fire-priest Zarathustra, called by the
Greeks Zoroaster.
Another great Aryan colony, who called them-
selves Lydians after their first leader Lydus,
were the inventors of various means of luxury;
of coined money, dice, of the arts of carving in
wood and stone. They were the first retailers of
goods in markets and shops. They colonized
the famous Etruscan states, and under their
celebrated King Croesus they conquered the pros-
perous cities of Asiatic Greece, whose people
also had sprung from the same grand old Aryan
stock.
It was a memorable time in ancient story.
Peace after long and devastating wars was estab-
lished between the luxurious empires of Babylon,







THE PARSEES, OR FIRE-lVORSHIPERS.


Lydia, and Media. By their alliances offensive
and defensive, Egypt was arrested in her for-
eign wars of conquest. The calm of the Asiatic
world was unbroken save by the plaintive voices
of the Jewish captives, as they sat by the dark
waters of Babylon, and wept over the fate of
their holy city.
But, suddenly, a vast army led by Cyrus the
Great poured down from the mountain fastnesses
of Aryanen Vaejo and carried every thing before
it.
These soldiers were highland Persians, with
flowing hair and fiery eyes, dressed from head
to foot in skins. They had never tasted wine,
never slept on any bed softer than pine and
spruce boughs, knew nothing of the luxurious
lives of their cousins the Medes in towns, nor
of the riches of their kinsmen the Lydians, nor of
the voluptuous pleasures of the Asiatic Greeks.
They knew not how to buy and sell, or even how
to plough, sow or reap. They were skilled only
in the arts of war and hunting. They knew how
to ride on horseback, to hurl the spear and jave-
lin, to speak the truth, to worship the Sun in the
heavens and their sacred Fire in their temples
and on their hearths.
In the twinkling of an eye luxurious Asia
awoke from her dream of peace. The hardy
new-comers under the great Cyrus overthrew all,
possessed themselves of the vast treasures of
Nineveh and Babylon, of Lydia and Ionia, even
attacked and subdued the Sacae, wild tribes
then occupying the countries now called Kash-
gar and Yarkand ; made themselves masters of
Palestine, freed the captive Jews, dried their
tears, sent them home rejoicing to rebuild their
temple and holy city; destroyed the groves, tem-
ples and idols of Egypt, and stabbed, in the
sight of the great Persian army, their living idol
the bull Apis; and ended by extending the
Persian dominion beyond the Hindoo Cush into
the countries now called Cibul, Jellalabad, and
Peshawar.
A great and glorious epoch now dawned upon
these ancient puritans of Aryinem Vaejo. The
Persian government was perfected by satraps or
viceroys; each received with his office a map en-
graved on brass of the province he was to govern.
Soldiers clad'in steel garrisoned all great cities;
others lived perpetually in camp ready for active


service; and yet others accompanied the king
who wintered at Babylon, and to avoid the sum-
mer heats of Assyria retired to Susa on the hills,
to Ecbatana on the plateau, or to Persepolis the
hearth and home of the Persian race.
Never before in the history of the world was
such a procession seen as that which followed in
time of war the great Persian kings First went
the ivory chariot bearing an altar on which burned
the ever-burning Sacred Fire, above which blazed
the image of the Sun in burnished gold encased
in a setting of purest crystal; this chariot was
drawn by eight milk-white horses led by a hun-


AN ANCIENT SACRIFICE TO THE SUN.
(Sculptured in a cavern near Batain in Uf ier Egypt. The rock has
been excavated by the chisel to the height of fifty feet, is fifty feet
wide, six decp. The female statues on the right have been mutilated
by barbarian A robs.)

dred Fire-priests clothed in white, holding in
their hands the silver wands of office. Then
came a magnificent white horse of extraordinary
size and strength called Ayelam Tayeeb the
Charger of the Sun. (The Sun was regarded by
the Persians as a living being of wondrously
bright and seraphic form.) The king, gorgeously
attired, followed the sacred chariot surrounded
by his life-guards the ten thousand immortals
-with their arms of silver and gold, their breast-
plates of polished steel, and their standard of






THE PARSEES, OR FIRE-WORSHIPERS.


the Rising Sun behind a lion couchant, gleaming
in the sunshine. Next came the heavy-armed
Egyptian troops with their long wooden shields
reaching almost to the ground, followed by a
long procession; Greek soldiers from Ionia with
their crested helmets and breastplates of bronze ;
long-haired fur-clad Tartars of the steppes; stal-
wart dusky Ethiopians with their wiry locks,
wearing lion and tiger skins and armed with
strange barbaric weapons; jet-black Berbers
riding in four-horsed chariots; light and heavy
Arabian cavalries, the former on Arabian steeds,
and the latter on Arabian camels, the archers
seated back to back, two on each animal, pre-
pared to attack the enemy on either side. Then
came on horseback the Kurds and the Circas-
sians, those wild mountain Aryans who rode
furiously at the enemy, caught them with their
lassos and dashed them to the ground; the
straight-haired aborigines of Hindostan with
their bamboo bows and arrows and their curious
shields of the skins of cranes; and last the
Aryan Hindoos, who had parted from their
puritan cousins in the dim dawn of history, with
their contingent of white-robed warriors seated
in howdahs on the backs of steel-clad war-ele-
phants which, while their riders shot down the
foe, seized them with their pliant trunks and
dashed them to the ground or trampled them
under foot. A vast multitude of camp followers
brought up the rear, with wagons of arms and
provisions, packs of blood-hounds and trained
falcons to hunt and baffle the enemy at the
moment of victory.
Such was the splendor of the ancient Persian
kings, who looked upon themselves as divinely
appointed to sweep the earth clean of falsehood,
impurity and idolatry.
But in spite of her early love of Truth, her
hatred of idolatry and lies, Persia ran the same
course as did the other nations of Asia. Her
austerity and simplicity of life yielded to her
desire for dominion. She too became possessed
with a greed for riches, gradually acquired love
of ease and pleasure; and the hardy mountaineer
who had never tasted wine, never broken his
faith with God or man by uttering a lie, having
at last himself tasted of the pomps and pleas-
ures of oriental power degenerated into an indo-
lent and pleasure-loving Asiatic.


In an evil hour Persia undertook the con-
quest of Southern Russia and European Greece.
Every schoolboy knows how complete was the
failure in both these attempts. The Tartars de-
coyed her enormous army into unknown regions,
and almost annihilated it. The Greeks defeated
her in the great battles of Platee, Salamis, and
Thermopylae. From this time forward the Per-
sian empire declined. Gradually the sacred fires
of Truth and Purity faded out of the national
heart, though their symbol-fires still burned on
her altars.
The only Fire-worshipers who lived as their
ancestors had lived were confined within the
limits of Iran and Northern Hindostan. Proud
of the customs, habits and traditions of their
race they followed the same religious rites with-
out aspiring to the primitive purity of life.
A crisis came at length. In the seventh cent-
ury A. D. there came down upon Iran a count-
less host of Bedouins from Arabia and Northern
Africa. All Persia became a moving camp.
The Fire-worshipers were in their turn de-
nounced as traitors to the living God, idolators
of the Fire, and worshipers of the sun, moon,
and stars- the works of the Great God but not
the God Himself. Nothing could stem the fury
of the Moslem hordes; thousands upon thou-
sands of Fire-worshipers, men, women and chil-
dren, were put to the sword, burned alive, hacked
to pieces. Mohammedan soldiers went from
house to house and tortured the people to make
them abjure their faith in Zarathustra and give
up the worship of the sacred Fire. But in vain;
even young Persian boys and girls suffered the
most cruel tortures, followed by a lingering death,
rather than forswear the religion of their fore-
fathers; mutilated forms lay scattered over the
length and breadth of the land and there were
none to bury the dead. Months passed away,
famine and pestilence set in, and the Fire-wor-
shipers perished out of their beloved Aryinem
Vaejo.
A small insignificant number only managed
to escape the fury of their Moslem conquerors.
These fled to the mountains of Khorrasan, taking
with them in their passionate desire to preserve
their religion, a lamp lighted from the sacred
Fire which burned on the altar bf their most
ancient temple.






THE PARSEES, OR FIRE-WORSHIPERS.


But from these new mountain abodes they
were presently driven out by the sword of the
avenging Moslems. Once more they escaped,
and took refuge on the beautiful island of Ormuzd
in the Persian Gulf.
Here, after a few years of peace and prosper-
ity, their ruthless persecutors tracked them.
Again they began the work of torture and death
to make the exiles abjure their religion.
On a still dark night, when the Mohammedans
had given themselves to feasting and merriment,
the small band of the surviving Fire-worshipers
stole out of their dens and hiding places, and
by secret paths through woods, and streams as-
sembled one by one on a lonely shore of the
island. The Fire-priests carrying horn lanterns
containing the Sacred Fire were already at the
place of secret meeting. Here in the darkness
they took to their ships and put out to sea.
No sooner had they lost sight of land than a
terrific storm arose. In their bitter anguish they
recalled to one another how the mountains re-
fused to hide them, the land to shelter them, and
now even the sea had risen up against them.
But still they lifted up their voices in prayer to
the most High God, then hoisting their horn lan-
terns to the mast heads of their vessels and by
means of ropes thrown from one ship to another,
they kept together until morning when, as if by
a miracle, the storm suddenly abated, the sun
rose bright and clear, and after a few days sail
they reached the coast of Western Hindostan.
Here they found protection among the Hin-
doos, the kinsmen whom their ancestors had so
long ago driven out of the beloved Ary.nem
Vaejo.
They then and there in A. D. 721 erected their
first Fire-temple at Sayan; and the Sacred Fire
so carefully preserved through all those troublous
years was kindled on its altars.
When the island of Bombay in 1668 became
the dower of the Infanta Catherina of Portugal
on her marriage with King Charles In. of England,
a large number of Parsees, as they now called
themselves, made haste to place themselves
under British protection. They bought a part
of Malabar-hill in Bombay and built thereon a
Fire-temple and a Dohkma or mysterious Tower
of Silence for the reception of their dead. Here
was lighted on the new altar the Sacred Fire,


which they maintain was kindled by their great
Fire-priest Zarathustra himself, from a burning
house struck by lightning over three thousand
years ago.

The strange manners and customs of the Par-
sees of to-day prove beyond all doubt that they
still believe in Magic, Witchcraft and Astrology.
On rising in the morning an orthodox Parsee
turns his face to the Sun and says his prayers.
He then rubs mirang, cow urine, upon his face,
hands and feet, chanting an incantation against
evil spirits for which this liquid is considered a
specific. He then bathes in pure water, prays
before the household Fire ; takes his breakfast,
and repairs to his business.
On the birth of a Parsee child a Magian and
a Fire-priest who is always an astrologer, are

-- .-- --r---* -7


AN ANCIENT PI ISIAN FIR -TFMPLI;.
(In which the Sacred Flame kindled by the rays of the sun was pre-
served incessantly burning, and attended night and day by the offi-
ciating Magi.)

called in to predict the future life of the babe.
The Magian, dressed in a strange robe of many
colors, a pointed cap with jingling bells, and
armed with a long broom made of beresma twigs







THE PARSEES, OR FIRE-WORSHIPERS.


(which is thought to have the power of putting
evil spirits to flight) enters the chamber of the
Parsee mother and babe and setting the end
of his broom on fire dances around, exorcising
the evil spirits; finally he flourishes his fire-
brand over the mother and child and in all the
corners of the room. This done, the Fire-priest


ANCIENT ROCK-SCULPTURE.
(ReIfresenlti:g TririAsios MAilhras, the deity of the ancient Persians.)

draws a number of squares on a blackboard; in
one corner of each square he draws a curious
figure of bird, beast, fish or insect each of which
stands for some mental, physical, or spiritual
characteristic, together with its appropriate star
or planet. The Magian then proceeds by
means of spells and incantations to exorcise
any evil spirit that may be lurking unseen in
the blackboard. Next the Fire-priest begins to
count and recount the stars under whose influ-
ence the child is supposed to be born, and then
with closed eyes and solemn voice he predicts
the future life of the babe. Next he prepares
a horoscope or birth-paper and hands it to the
father. Then placing the babe on his knees
he waves over it the sacred Flame, sprinkles it
with holy water, fills its ears and nostrils with
sea-salt to keep out the evil spirits, and finally
returns the screaming infant to its mother's
arms.
When a Parsee boy reaches his fourteenth
year he undergoes the last and peculiar rite
which makes him a Fire-worshiper.
First of all he is exorcised of any evil spirits
that may be lurking in his body. This is ac-
complished by the Magian, who beats and


thumps him, then covers him over with a long
veil and brushes him with his magical broom.
He is then blindfolded and escorted by all his
male relatives to a cell adjoining the Fire-tem-
ple; here the bandage is removed and he is left
alone for a time in utter darkness, doubt, fear,
and uncertainty. After a while he hears foot-
steps approaching, a hand is laid on his arm,
and a stern voice warns him of the temptations
to wrong-doing which may beset his youth and
manhood, and the shame and suffering which
will follow if he yields. Then suddenly the
inner door of the temple is thrown open, and
the lad is welcomed with open arms and smiling
faces by the Fire-priests and relatives, and placed
face to face with the sacred Fire. A new sacred
thread is now cast about his neck, a robe of fine
linen is put on his person, and a new girdle
is bound round his waist. After which he re-
peats his vows and partakes of the soma juice,
or wine, which admits him as a member of the
Parsee religion.
When a Parsee is about to die he is taken to
the ground floor of the house, washed in conse-
crated water, anointed with holy oil, and placed
on an oblong stone. Small earthen lamps lighted
from the sacred Fire are placed around his stony
bed, and the Fire-priests stand near and chant
a doleful dirge. The most extraordinary part
of it all is, that the moment life becomes extinct,
the house-dog is brought in and taken up to him.
If the dog lick his master's face and hands, it
is considered a most fortunate omen of the de-
parted spirit's ready admittance into Paradise.
The uneducated and ignorant Parsees believe
that every dog has an angel-spirit residing in
some star whence it issues to conduct the souls
of the righteous dead into heaven.
Next morning a number of priests robed in
pure white carry the body on an open bier to the
Dohkma or Tower of silence. This curious na-
tional tomb is a huge round tower situated in
some remote or lonely spot and surrounded by
great branching trees; it is open to the sky and
reaches far down into the depths of the earth;
and is furnished with a number of iron-grated
floors. When they reach the Tower of Silence,
the relatives and friends stand praying while the
Fire-priests place the body on a long slide or
a kind of see-saw plank held down by ropes.






THE PARSEES, OR FIRE-WORSHIIPERS.


This done, the ropes are loosened, the plank
rebounds and the lifeless form slips on to one of
the iron-grated floors of this strange tomb, and
is left for the birds of the air. For their offices
toward the dead the Parsees look upon all birds
as peculiarly sacred.
But this strange mode of sepulture exposes
the Parsee to no end of insults from both the
Hindoos and Mohammedans who take every
opportunity to jeer at them, calling out: Kaw
Kaw Kakhana! dinner for crows! "
I was so fortunate as to have an opportunity
while residing in Bombay of visiting a Fire-tem-
ple. The edifice was a small circular building,
its very small iron-barred windows placed up
almost under the octagonal roof, its arched iron
door always locked and guarded the moment the
service was over. The interior was beautiful; the
floor of white marble, the ceiling deep blue on
which were painted the sun, moon, and stars in
burnished gold. In the centre of the temple
stood a stone altar on which burned a clear
bright fire. A number of priests clad in pure
white surrounded this altar, some chanting and
passing their sacred threads through their fin-
gers, while others fed the flame with all kinds
of fragrant woods, precious gums, oil and wax.
The congregation of men, women and children
stood in a circle, and with hands folded and
eyes closed murmured responses to the chants.
The Parsees hold Light and Fire so sacred that
they will never blow out or extinguish the one or
the other, but let a lamp die out by removing the
oil. The more devout will not even put out a
fire.
I was once present at the house of a Parsee
merchant when their evening service took place,
and to my great surprise it was the simple act
of lighting their evening lamp. Just at sunset
the doors and windows are closed and the family
assemble around the large hearth lamp. The
mother repairs to an inner chamber, lights her
taper at a sacred light kept ever burning in
most Parsee houses, mingles her breath with it
by lightly blowing on it, then returns to the


family room and lights each one of the seven
wicks of the hearth lamp, while the family stand
around and with hands crossed on their breasts
murmur their evening prayer.
Not the education but the marriage of their
children is the first consideration of Parsee pa-
rents; and the majority of their marriages are
celebrated when the children are very young.
An astrologer consults the positions of the stars
and decides accordingly on the most auspicious
day. On the day appointed, the bridegroom, es-
corted by all his relatives, magnificently dressed,
proceeds to the bride's house. At the thresh-
old the mother of the bride meets him and scat-
ters, as emblems of plenty, rice, fruits and Ilowers
at his feet.
When all are assembled in the hall of the
house, the young couple appear and seat them-
selves on chairs facing each other, the bride
being veiled from head to feet. The Fire-priests
stand on either side. The moment they begin the
chant they tie the right hands of the pair together
with a silken cord and, waving the sacred Fire
around them, pronounce them man and wife.
The bride is then unveiled, and the ceremony is
concluded by the husband and wife trying to
throw each upon the other a few grains of rice;
the one who gets the start is looked upon as
having secured the right to rule the household.
Within the last thirty years the Parsees as a
people have made wonderful progress in build-
ing schools and in securing all the advantages
of a liberal European education for their sons
and daughters. Colleges for the study of the
ancient sacred books of the Persians have been
very recently established for the Fire-priests,
and some of the present priesthood are intelli-
gent and well-informed men. There is a pros-
pect that in course of time this small remnant of
a great people will recover their old national
love of purity and truth, forsake the idolatrous
and superstitious conceptions of their religion,
and strive like their great Fire-priest Zarathus-
tra to worship the true God "in spirit and
truth."






T'HE SAMANITE AND PUNIC WARS.


THE SAMNITE AND PUNIC WARS.
(Search-Questions in Roman History.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


41. What legend is related of Marcus Cur-
tius ?
42. In the three Samnite wars what was the
real point at issue between the Romans and
their opponents ?
43. In what war was a decisive battle fought
at the foot of Mount Vesuvius ?
44. In what battle was the Roman army
made to pass under the yoke ?
45. What Samnite leader was put to death
at the triumph of his Roman victor ?
46. What Hellenic king attempted to subdue
the Romans?
47. What Censor constructed a military road
one hundred and twenty miles in length, and
what was it called ?
48. In what important respect was Carthage
superior to Rome at the beginning of the Punic
Wars ?
49. What was the primary object of the first
Punic War?
50. What king, fearing that the Romans
would overcome the Carthaginians, made an
alliance with the former which lasted fifty years ?
51. What noted Roman leader is said to
have been barbarously put to death by the Car-
thaginians ?
52. What Carthaginian general held the Ro-
mans at bay in Sicily for five years ?
53. When was the Temple of Janus closed
for the second time, and why?
54. What noted general crossed the Alps
and wintered in Capua ?
55. What Roman leader wrested Spain from
the Carthaginians ?
56. What was the important result of the
second Macedonian War?
57. What Censor is said to have declared
that kings are naturally carnivorous animals ?
58. In what Roman town did the son of a
famous Macedonian king earn a living as a clerk ?


59. What was the cause of the third Punic
War ?
60. From what battle does the historian
Polybius date the complete establishment of the
universal supremacy of Rome ?

ANSWERS: THE BEGINNINGS OF ROME.

i. The Italians, the lapygians and the Etrus-
cans.
2. That of the first four centuries.
3. In 753 B. c. by Romulus.
4. Tarpeia was the daughter of Tarpeius to
whom Romulus intrusted the defence of the
Capitoline Hill in the Sabine war. She treach-
erously betrayed the hill to the Sabines.
5. Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius and
Ancus Martius. Numa is said to have reigned
forty-three years during which no war or dis-
turbance occurred.
6. He who afterwards became the fifth king
of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.
7. The Senate.
8. 200.
9. To Numa Pompilius.
10. Servius Tullius.
ii. The reform of the constitution and the
alliance with the Latins.
12. Five.
13. To Tarquinius Superbus.
14. The expulsion of Tarquin.
15. Lucius Brutus and Tarquinius Collatinus.
The latter soon resigned and was succeeded by
Publius Valerius.
16. The three wars for the restoration of
Tarquin.
17. For his defence of the Sublician bridge
during the second Tarquinian war.
18. The battle of Lake Regillus.
19. The Etruscan.
20. A Dictator.

































Ca2' r~'~A~i


-mw-



A DANl~CING LE.SSON.


ljii.


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:ov`13


















MOTHER GOOSE.
(Dear Old Story-Tell/rs.)

By OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


N OT the French Mother Goose, of whom we
shall speak in a succeeding chapter, but
our own American Mother Goose.
By rights she should be called Grandmother
Goose, but "of that," as the crab in the fairy
tale said after shaking off one of his legs and
while he was waiting for another to grow, of
that, more anon." It is difficult to imagine a
nursery without a Mother Goose inhabiting it,
but English nurseries know her not, or at best
as a visitor from America, not as one who be-
longs there. Yet the children in the English
nursery know as much about the well-merited
punishment administered to the piper's son, the
astounding egotism of Jack Horner, the sad end
of the Gotham sages, the perfectly managed
domestic economy of the Spratt household, the
unpleasant companion of Miss Muffet, the sin-
gular adventures of Dr. Foster of Gloucester
and the extraordinary elopement of the dish and
spoon as do their American cousins. But it is
one thing to learn these delightful histories from
books called Nursery Rhi/ymes, and quite another
to have them directly from the lips of Mother
Goose herself, as one may say; and here is where
American children have the advantage of Eng-
lish children.
Mother Goose was not only an American
woman, but a Bostonian into the bargain. At
what time the Goose family came to America is
unknown. The name was originally Vertigoose,
afterwards changed to Vergoose, and finally
shortened to Goose. But the first change was
long before the Goose family came to Boston.
Boston was a little village but thirty years old
when we first hear of them as landholders within


its borders. Nearly half the land on Washing-
ton street between West and Winter streets be-
longed to them, and so did a large piece of land
on Essex, Rowe and Bedford streets. At that
time all that part of Boston was open field or
pasture-land, and the Vergoose family before
that date probably lived in the vicinity of Han-
over street or Copp's Hill. Isaac Vergoose him-
self, the husband of Mother Goose, owned a
house and lot on the land which is now the cor-
ner of Washington street and Temple Place.
That the family were wealthy, for that period,
we are assured; but only one of them achieved
anything like fame, and that was Mother Goose
herself. But for her the Vergoose family might





AUTOGRAPH OF MOTHER GOOSE'S HUSBAND.

have lived and died and been gathered to their
fathers in the Old Granary Burying Ground
without leaving anything but their tombstones
to posterity. The cackling of a sacred goose in
the temple of Juno is said to have once saved
the Capitol of Rome from the Gauls, and so it
is that the cackling of this venerated Boston
Goose has preserved the memory of this worthy
family to this day.
It would be pleasant to know something about
the childhood of Mother Goose, but of that we
are not told in any chronicle. We do not even
know where Elizabeth Foster was born, in what
part of Boston she dwelt, or when she married
Mr. Vergoose and thus unwittingly conferred







MOTHER GOOSE.


everlasting lustre upon his hitherto respectable
but not famous name. Very probably he thought
he was bestowing a great favor upon the young
Boston girl when he asked her to be his wife
and bear his name ; he the scion of a wealthy
Colonial family still in friendly relations with its
somewhat aristocratic kin in Bristol, England,
and she, we are quite sure, descended from no
such grand ancestry. But we can only imagine
his state of mind, for history is as silent on this
point as it is on every other connected with
Mother Goose till 1715.
Of one thing however we are sure; that she
outlived him although the date of his death is
nowhere found in any register. So we grope
our way in the dark as regards the maiden and
married life of Mother Goose till the year 1715
is reached. Then we read in the record of mar-
riages in the City Registrar's office that in
" 1715, June 8, was married by Rev. Cottmo
Mather, Thomas Fleet to Elizabeth Goose."
Of Elizabeth we hear little except that she
was the eldest daughter of Mother Goose. Of
Thomas Fleet, her husband, we hear much more.
He was born in England and was a journeyman
printer in Bristol. It was there that he first knew
of the American Vergoose family through its Bris-
tol relations. During the reign of Queen Anne
a certain clergyman of the English Church, Dr.
Sacheverell, having incurred the displeasure of
the dominant political party was tried for trea-
son before the House of Lords. The affair
created great excitement throughout England,
even leading to riotous proceedings in some
cases. In some of these young Fleet mingled
so conspicuously that he afterwards thought it
prudent to forsake England for America. Ac-
cordingly he packed up his belongings and
reached Boston in 1712. Whether he brought
with him letters of introduction from the Bristol
Vergooses to their American cousins is uncer-
tain; he may very likely have done so, for we
know that he very soon became acquainted with
the honorable Colonial family of Vergoose with
such pleasant results that the dignified Cotton
Mather was called upon to unite him in mar-
riage to one of its daughters.
His first child was a son whose advent was no
doubt a delight to its parents, while to his
Grandmother Goose it was a joy unspeakable.


But not unsingable, fortunately for posterity.
Mrs. Fleet's own presence in the nursery was
barely tolerated by the enthusiastic grandmother
who spent her whole time there or in wandering
about the house with her grandchild in her arms.
It is not improbable that it was when thus em-
ployed she first sung that now deathless ditty:

Goosey, goosey, gander,
Where shall I wander!
Up stairs,
Down stairs,
And in my lady's chamber."

Doubtless all this Thomas Fleet would not
have objected to; but this was not all fortu-
nately for us, and for him, as it eventually turned
out. Partly to amuse the infant, and more to
express her unbounded joy over the fact of its
existence, she was continually singing nonsen-
sical songs and rhymes which she had learned
in the days of her own youth. Probably this
could have been borne had she been a fine
singer. But this was exactly what she was not,
and she was therefore a thorn in the side of her
son-in-law Thomas. What Elizabeth thought we
are not told, but quite possibly her feelings were
tempered with filial affection and gratitude.
Such was not the case with her husband, how-
ever, who exhausted every means known to him
to induce Mother Goose to stop singing. He
ridiculed her in public and in'private and with
very little effect in either case. He told her
that she destroyed the comfort of the whole
neighborhood, which was true enough, for the
grandmother's voice was heard for a long dis-
tance and Fleet was not the only person who
wished she might become suddenly dumb. To
his expostulations and to those of the neigh-
bors, she only laughed and sang the louder.
At last it occurred to Thomas one day when
the sound of his mother-in-law's voice followed
him all the way down to his printing house in
Pudding Lane, that he might collect these songs
and quaint rhymes which Grandmother Goose
was so persistently singing, print them and per-
haps turn a few nimble sixpences in that way.
With this thought in mind, he listened afterwards
with more patience to the not very melodious
strains that continually sounded in his ears and
wrote them down from day to day till he had







M OTHER GOOSE.


exhausted the list of the ditties which his mother-
in-law knew. To these he added such as he
could collect from other sources and soon after
published them in book-form with the title:
Songs for the VNursery ; or, Mother Goose's Mel/o-
dies for Children. On the title page was a rude
drawing of a goose with a very long neck and
wide open mouth and at the bottom of the page
the words: "Printed by T. Fleet, at his print-
ing-house, Pudding Lane, 1719. Price two
coppers."
In all probability Mother Goose had no sus-
picion of her son-in-law's intention until the
book appeared with its derisive title. What she
thought when she saw herself thus publicly made
sport of we can only guess.*
John Fleet Eliot, the great-great grandson of
Elizabeth (Foster) Goose, writes in 1873 to the
NVE. Historic and Genealogical Register : Mother
Goose was aplain, honest andindustrious woman,
of no literary culture, but who devoted herself
wholly to her household duties and could never
have dreamed of the world-wide renown she was
destined to attain."
But at last Thomas Fleet had had his revenge;
a profitable revenge since it brought him coppers
in plenty, but I fancy it was not so sweet a re-
venge as he had hoped it would be. After the
first few moments of angry surprise Mother
Goose resumed her wonted good nature, took
the heir of the Pudding Lane Printing-House
once more in her arms and sang on as calmly
as if nothing had happened. But for all that
something had happened. Thomas Fleet, with
the double purpose of ridiculing his mother-in-
law and at the same time making a profitable
matter of it, had immortalized her. What other
books he may have published few persons care

*This point has been much disputed. According to an ancient ac-
count-book preserved among the Hancock Papers in the library of the
N. E. Historic and Genealogical Society Daniel Henchman, a colonial
bookseller, published in 1719 a volume of Verses for Children which by
some has been supposed to be identical with Fleet's book. Also, al-
though it is certain that Fleet in 1712 had a printing-house on Pudding
Lane, we find a statement in Windsor's Memaorial History of Boston
which tends to discredit the title-page of the traditionary "first edition '
of Songsfor the Nursry :
In 1713, he [Fleet] moved his business to a spacious and handsome
house in Cornhill where he erected the sign of the Heart and Crown.
The house served as a home for'his family, offices for his book and
newspaper printing and for an auction room where, when the labors of
his busy day were ended he sold books, household goods, wearing ap-
parel and whatever else was looked for at a country auction. He died
in July, 1758, aged 73 years."


to know; but this one has gone wherever the
English language is spoken. We can forgive
him his half-malicious joke at the expense of his
worthy mother-in-law, who took such excellent
care of his boy quite as easily as she did.
From that day to this the nonsense-jingles
between the covers of Thomas Fleet's publica-
tion have formed the stock of nursery song and
recital. Each ditty is a story complete in itself,
and children remember it, as they do not the
more abstract and beautiful lullaby. Generally
the child is as profound an adept in Mother
Goose's works as the nurse or the mother, and


SIGN OF FLEET THE PRINTER, PUBLISHER OF FIRST
EDITION OF MOTHER GOOSE.

sings Hey diddle diddle to itself with com-
plete satisfaction, and entertains itself at sol-
itary play by shouting forth

"Peter, Peter,
Pumpkin-eater, -
Had a wife and couldn't keep her I
He shut her in a pumpkin-shell
And there he kept her very well I"

Very few of the Mother Goose ditties can be
called lullabies; there are Rock-a-by-baby, on
the tree-top" and "Bye O Baby Bunting." Gen-
erally our lullaby consists of variations upon the
one stanza, Bye-O-baby-bye ;" and old hymns
and common melodies are sung instead of the
true sleep-songs. Other nations than the Eng-
lish-speaking races more frequently sing genuine
cradle-songs to their nurslings.
As to the babies themselves, however much
those of various nationalities may differ in certain
respects, in one important matter they are all
alike -they all appreciate a noise that has some
approach to measure.







0 OTHE R GOOSE:.


The small Laplander nestled among his furs
falls asleep to the monotonous drone of a lullaby
as quickly as an American baby would do. The
dusky little South Sea Islander is soothed by
the jingling of pieces of metal as readily as his
whiter-skinned cousin by similar nursery music.
When great Caesar was not great Caesar at all,
but only a very small and discontented Cesar
in the nurse's lap it is more than likely that he
gave a willing ear to the nurse's song:

La/ia, /alla, lalla,
AIt aiit'rmi, aut lacla."

It does not sound like much of a lullaby.to us,
but the small Roman was not critical. Twelve
centuries later the infant Italian was often sung
to sleep with a cradle-song representing the
Virgin Mary hushing the child Jesus. Here is
one stanza of the nine which compose it:

"Dormni, fli, dormi / mater
Cantat utigenito :
Dormi puer, dormi! pater
Arato clanmat parvlo :
Millies tibi laudes caninus
Mi/lie, mille, millies."

George Wither, the friend of Milton, wrote
a beautiful Rocking Hymn the first stanza of
which is as follows :

Sweet baby, sleep : what ails my dear;
What ails my darling thus to cry ?
He still, my child, and lend thine ear,
To hear me sing thy lullaby.
My pretty lamb forbear to weep;
Be still,, my dear; sweet baby, sleep."

An exceedingly popular Spanish lullaby is the
following :

"The Baby Child of Mary,
Now cradle he has none;
His father is a carpenter,
And he shall make him one.

The lady good St. Anna,
The lord St. Joachim,
They rock the baby's cradle,
That sleep may come to Him.

Then sleep thou too, my baby,
My little heart so dear;
The Virgin is beside thee,
The Son of God so near."


Of the many German lullabies none is more
popular than the famous one beginning:

Sleep, baby, sleep;
Your father tends the sheep;
Your mother shakes the branches small,
Whence happy dreams in showers fall:
Sleep, baby, sleep."

Here is the opening stanza of a very ancient
Danish cradle hymn : Sleep sweetly, little child;
lie quiet and still; as sweetly as the bird in the
wood, as the flowers in the meadow. God the
Father hath said, 'Angels stand on watch where
mine, the little ones, are in bed.' "
A French lullaby sung by the mothers of La
Bresse, not far from Lyons, to their babies,
begins:

Lepounpon vondrait bien dortmir;
Le sonin-souin ne vent pas vi'nlr.
Souin-soain, veni, veine, vene,
Souin-soniin, venet, vene done "

The Finland peasants sing thus to theirs:
"Sleep, little field-bird; sleep sweetly, pretty
redbreast. God will wake thee when it is time.
Sleep is at the door, and says to me, 'Is not
there a sweet child here who fain would sleep ?
a young child wrapped in swaddling clothes, a
fair child resting beneath his woollen coverlet ?'"
The Italians call lullabies ninna-nanna. Here
is one which is sung in Logudoro, the middle
province of the island of Sardinia:

"Oh ninna and anninia !
Sleep, baby boy;
Oh ninna and anninia!
God give thee joy.
Oh ninna and anninia!
Sweet joy be thine;
Oh ninna and anninia l
Sleep, brother mine.

Sleep, and do not cry,
Pretty, pretty one,
Apple of mine eye,
Danger there is none;
Sleep, for I am by,
Mother's darling son.

Oh ninna and anninia !
Sleep, baby boy;
Oh! ninna and anninia I
God give thee joy.







A FAMILY OF PRECIOUS STONES.


Oh ninna and anninia !
Sweet joy be thine;
On nina and anninia!
Sleep, brother mine."

A very beautiful lullaby is one which the
Roumanian mothers sing:

Sleep, my daughter, sleep ah hour;
Mother's darling gilliflower.
Mother rocks thee, standing near,
She will wash thee in the clear
Waters that from fountains run,
To protect thee from the sun.

Sleep, my darling, sleep an hour;
Grow thou as the gilliflower.
As a teardrop* be thou white,
As a willow tall and slight;
Gentle as the ringdoves are,
And be lovely as a star! "

The history of lullabies and cradle songs is a
long one and every nation has numberless ninna-
nanna. Those I have selected are perhaps as
characteristic as any and will serve to give some
idea of their general character. The greater
number of lullabies are the invention of the com-
mon people like the rhymes in Mother Goose,
but now and then a cradle song written by some
The Roumanian name for the lily of the valley.


true poet has become popularized among these
folk songs of the nursery. Not long ago a young
poet* died in New York City poor and alone,
who never had babies of his own to climb about
him or to watch while their mother lulled them
to rest, but he loved to look at children and one
day he wrote one of the most beautiful of modern
cradle songs:

Sleep, baby, sleep.
God gave thee smiles to keep,
And merry eyes will wait
Thy coming to the gate
When thou shalt be a man
With all the world to scan.

Sleep, baby, sleep.
God gave thee fields to reap
When harvest time is here,
With sunshine and good cheer.
But first, as thou shalt know,
le gave thee much to sow.
Sleep, baby, sleep.

Sleep, baby, sleep.
God gave thee tears to weep,
But not for now, not now;
Thy sorrow will not bow
In days to come, and flee;
It will abide with thee,
Sleep, baby, sleep."
James Berry Bensel.


A FAMILY OF PRECIOUS STONES.
(" DiamoZnd Dust." )

By SUSAN POWER.


O N one of those beautiful San Francisco
days that are the bloom of the season,
with a warmth of June and October blended in
the air, and a wind snow-cool and with crape
acacias, heliotrope and English violets blossom-
ing their hearts away, two friends and I went,
as one of them said, to kill time with stones.
But the stones were sapphires, topaz, garnet,
cat's-eye and peridot, with other names with
which only experts are familiar. They were the
collection of a dealer who makes a specialty of
unset gems. Two of the party had seen many
of the famous jewels of the continent, had priced


rose-coral and pearls at Naples, seen the exqui-
site Etruscan ornaments embossed with feather-
ing of hoar frost in yellow Roman gold, which
the famous Catellanis, the artist-jewellers of
Rome, despaired of imitating till they found old
goldsmiths among the Abruzzi who knew the
art as handed down from the times before Her-
culaneum. They had seen the princess Lize
Troubetskoi wearing her wonderful turquoises
and Hungarian opals at an embassy ball, and
the Queen Margherita with her collar of daisies
all in pearls, and in her cars two of the great
pearls which Cortez sent to Europe and which






A FAMILY OF PRECIOUS STONES.


have never been out of kings' treasuries since -
pearls notable not so much for their size, though
nearly an inch long, as for their soft moony
light. They had seen the Baroness or Miss
Burdett-Coutts as she was then, wearing her
great sapphires at a London party by way of
special compliment to the friend who gave it;
and one of the Hope ladies in rose-white Vene-
tian velvet with lace of price and very few jewels
beside the celebrated blue diamond which is one
of the rarest gems in the world ; and the Prin-
cess Alexandra with her Indian sapphires and
brilliant, when her white satin dress bodice
and skirt in shirrings and little puffs seemed to
have every puff caught with a spark of light and
she literally sowed light at each motion as she
walked. They had visited the plain large shops
in Amsterdam where the finest South American
gold work is sold along with the largest and
most superb diamonds unset. They had bought
in Brittany antique ornaments of doves and
eagles with wings outspread, crosses and orbs
and holy hearts all set with small stones in sub-
dued harmonious colors in the choicest taste -
such ornaments as came from the oratories of
noble ladies pillaged in the revolution; and they
had gone with the crowd to see the Indian jew-
els the Prince of Wales brought home.
But I had infected these friends with my own
interest in American precious stones early in our
journey, and we had seen all that was curious
and attainable on our way. At Manitou, while
the rest went cafion-hunting, breaking their backs
climbing up to the rocks Gog and Magog, or
down to Colorado Springs to see the town, as
if towns were a rarity, we spent hours in the
cabin where the young Philadelphia student
keeps his specimens, where by dint of handling
and gazing we came to be rather indifferent to
agates as large as one's fist, and amethyst quartz
the size of half a cauliflower, jasper, serpentine,
onyx, chalcedony, aventurine and azurine. Cer-
tain it is there are beautiful stones to be found
among the mountains, and we were told myste-
riously of a spot on the flanks of Pike's Peak
where onyx and garnets lay like pebbles on the
beach. But then we were also told no one could
possibly find the way there without a guide, and
the hardships of the way were such that one
must long for specimens very much to venture


there at all. At Santa Fe we had seen the
beautiful barbarous workmanship of native Mex-
ican goldsmiths, and the two-thousand-dollar
bracelet of gold filigree, with the national Mex-
ican emblems, the eagle and cactus, delicately
and richly carved on the filigree ground, liz-
ards and lilies and quaint symbols appearing
among the scrolls, as masks, flowers and fauns
peer out of old arabesques, the whole studded
with native rubies, emeralds, pearls, opals and
turquoises, till it was a toy for a princess to
covet.
Of course at Fort Wallace we had bought the
native turquoise of the Indians, which is not true
turquoise but a pretty blue-green stone whose
real name is the chalchuitl, of which much use
was made in the time of the Montezumas who I
believe held it a sacred stone. In Arizona, the
jewellers have small faceted globes of the finest
crystal, so soft and pleasant to the eye with their
cool lustre that one can fancy them becoming
very popular for low-priced ornaments when
known, together with smoky topaz, white cor-
nelian, and tolerable amethysts from the Colo-
rado River Country. These stones will be used
in time for those artistic ornaments in which
the value depends not so much on the cost of the
gems as in the taste of the design, like those ear-
rings and necklaces of the Hill-tribes of India
which the wealthy English buy for the excel-
lence of their pattern, the stones of which might
be picked from the bed of almost any brook.
The Utah mines yield plenty of cornelians, agates
and garnets, topaz, hyacinth and carbuncle-
that is, all these stones are found by miners
while prospecting. I do not mean that there is
any mining for gems in the country.
And now I will not try to tell you whatwe saw
that afternoon, so much as what we learned. It
is hard and tantalizing to see with the eyes of
another, but you can learn some curious things
about these most precious wonders of the earth
against the time you see them yourselves. I
would advise you to see every rare and pleasant
thing you can, to know all you can about them,
and delight in them as much as if you could pay
two thousand dollars for a dozen pebbles any
time you chose. You will not covet rare things
any more for knowing them well. Rather, the
knowledge will give you many of the pleasures






A FAMILY OF PRECIOUS STONES.


of possession, and quiet the craving for every-
thing out of reach common in rude natures.
You know that diamonds are pure carbon,
fused by intense heat and pressure, and probably
crystalized by electric force. The diamond be-
longs to the imperial order and has no relatives.
But the family of precious stones next it in
value, the sapphire, the ruby, the emerald and
the true topaz, are similar in shape, having a
six-sided crystal, and are much alike in compo-
sition, being nearly pure alumina, with just
enough metallic rust in them to give their beau-
tiful color. The pure crystals, whether of alu-
mina, quartz or what not, are always clear like
glass, and it is the trace of some other substance
which gives their lovely tint. Alumina is white
velvety powder that is the principal substance
in clay of the fields, in the china clay of which
Sevres and Dresden wares are made, in the soil
that makes your pot plants grow, and is ninety-
eight parts out of a hundred in the red ruby of
Ceylon.
As to how the gems were made, we only know
that the alumina was melted by the fires which
formed the world and shot into crystals as you
may see an alum or salt solution by watching
long enough; and that these pure crystals were
bedded in the volcanic rocks, which in turn were
crumbled by air, ground by glaciers and washed
by torrents into the sand and boulders of river-
beds ; and that the rubies and sapphires being
too hard to wear out, have survived the cliffs in
which they lay. The finest of all the stones
named come from Borneo, and the coasts neigh-
boring it, which Sir John Herschel calls a per-
fect rookery of volcanoes." I don't doubt the
volcanoes are making rubies in their depths now.
These stones as I said are one and the same,
having the like shape, substance and brilliance,
so that the sapphire is a blue ruby, or the ruby
a red sapphire, and the topaz a yellow ruby, as
you please. There is no more difference between
them than there is in bits of red, green or blue
glass. But there is wonderful difference in the
shades of color in the same stone as we found,
for there were rubies, pale pink, violet-rose,
blackish and vivid blood red; and I do not
know anything in more excellent art than the
large Indian clasp for which these varied rubies
had been gathered to suit the whim of a rich


California woman who had taste as well as
money. You have read of sapphire skies which
I never could reconcile with the sapphires
usually worn which are very deep blue, a most
dismal hue for any sky, but sapphires differ,
from milky blue and lively tints shading to azure,
to the indigo variety ; and the sapphires found
among the volcanic districts of Central France
have a greenish turquoise tint extremely bril-
liant. I have heard of a Hungarian countess
who has a jeweled bodice set with sapphires in
every shade, with pink Bohemian garnets, in
effect like the richest dead embroidery.
But among the rare stones of the world per-
haps none are finer than the star-sapphires or
asterias, dim blue stones into which you look
and see a six-pointed star playing in light like
a reflection imprisoned there. In crystallizing,
the atoms arranged themselves thinly along
these lines and the light strikes them with a
difference. So in the Ceylon gem, the cat's-eye,
the light reflects from fibres of asbestos within
the stone that seem floating in a long streak
like the lustre of the feline eye. These stones
are supposed by ignorant nations to have mag-
ical powers, and a French traveller in Africa
often commanded the deepest reverence from
the natives by showing them the star-sapphire
of his ring. The great magician who had a star
imprisoned and floating in his ring was not a
personage to be lightly interfered with. The
wife of a New York merchant has a very fine
stone of this kind which is classed with the gems
of princes. A high-class ruby or sapphire like
this is valued at three times the price a diamond
of the same size would command. A perfect
ruby is the finest of gems. A perfect emerald,
free from flaws, is literally the rarest. A Lon-
don dealer who handled precious stones all his
life said that he had never seen but one perfect
emerald.
Both sapphires and ruby crystals are found in
the mica limestones of New York and New Jer-
sey, but they are not transparent and cannot be
used for jewelry, though they are of fine color
and would make beautiful necklaces like the
Swiss beryls. The blue sapphire and the red
ruby are found in the same beds, and where you
find them gold is not far distant.
The traditions of these stones are curious and






A FAMILY OF PRECIOUS STONES.


beautiful, befitting the gems. The Oriental or
true ruby is the carbuncle of the Bible and of
the ancients, who fabled that it served to give
light to certain great serpents or dragons who
when their eyes were feeble with age carried
these magical rubies in their teeth, only drop-
ping them when it was necessary to eat or drink.
The carbuncle was believed to shine brilliantly
in darkness and to shine through vestments
with undiminished fire. The Brahmin traditions
speak of the abode of the gods lighted by enor-
mous emeralds and rubies and one of the titles
of the king of Burmah is Lord of Rubies."
Pliny relates that a tomb at Cyprus bore a lion
carved with eyes of emeralds so bright they
frightened away the fish in the sea. Nero wore
an eyeglass of emerald which was supposed good
for the sight, and it is said that lapidaries who
cut emeralds have good eyesight because the
hue of the stone refreshes the eye. The Orien-
tals believe that wearing an emerald imparts
courage and averts disaster. It was ground
down and taken as a medicine in doses of six
grains as a cure for various disorders. At the
conquest of Peru the Spaniards captured hun-
dred-weights of emeralds, and one dedicated to
the goddess Esmeralda was the size of an ostrich
egg. Cortez gave his bride a large emerald
carved like a rose, which roused the queen's
envy and lost him the court favor.
The beryl and aqua marine, that stone green
as the sea," are paler emeralds, varying in tint
like the olive tinges of a wave, from the presence
of oxide of iron instead of the oxide of chro-
mium which colors the emerald. They are of
soothing colors, and the aqua marine is much
prized because it does not lose brilliancy by gas-
light, when sapphires sometimes look dark and
rubies black as jet. These stones are found in
parts of New England, near Holvoke and Wil-
liamstown, and Haddam, Conn., as well as in
Vermont and Maine. Beryl is found in such
masses that it can be wrought into large pieces
- cups, vases and columns. The Duke of Dev-
onshire thinks highly of his emerald which weighs
nine ounces, but a beryl found in this country


in 1851 weighed seventy-eight pounds. The
Roman emperors and Venetian princes had gob-
lets and flagons carved out of precious crystals,
and how they would have valued such material
as this !
The ancients believed that wine drank from
an amethyst cup lost the power to intoxicate.
Perhaps that is the significance of the beautiful
antique Venice flagon of amethyst with jewelled
handle and foot, set with rubies and pearls,
which is in the collection of Mrs. Auguste Bel-
mont of New York. It stands, I should think,
ten inches high, with sharply-curved lip and set-
ting of old filigree silver, which with the wicked
rubies flashing like serpent's eyes on the beaded
brim, looks decidedly magical and savors of
unholy art. But this substance is the amethyst
quartz, or occidental amethyst, found in Ceylon,
Arabia, and in Carthagena, Spain, which proba-
bly furnished the block from which this vase
was cut, as we are told its amethyst was most
beautiful, its purple reflections vying with the
Oriental amethyst. The latter or true amethyst
is a rare gem of superb lustre and warm violet
color, the sacred stone worn in the signet ring
of bishops and archbishops. Next to the emer-
ald the hue of this jewel is most refreshing to
the eye, but the color in gems of value is quite
different from the common amethyst rings as
you may imagine. A single Oriental amethyst
in the crown jewels of France was valued at fif-
teen hundred dollars in our money; and as the
finest diamond in America was lately offered
for sale by a private owner at five thousand dol-
lars you may judge of the comparative worth
of the two stones. The finest amethysts to-day
are engraved or carved, and worn as flat square
rings, without diamonds.
The true topaz is another stone almost as rare
as the perfect emerald, for the smoky topaz and
the Montan' topaz often seen are gems of the
quartz family, not the alumina, or corundum, to
which all the true stones of which I have spoken
belong. Jewellers speak of the sapphire, ruby,
emerald, amethyst and topaz as princely stones,
ranking next the sovereign diamond.






11fARARYI1' AL-BUJIS.


LITERARY ALBUMS.
(I T'as Tb Do )

BY JEAN S. EMMIONS.


MY children are having a happy time over
their Literary Album," and perhaps
others may like to be told about making one.
It was first thought of in our family last winter
by reading a letter from a lady who wrote:

"I want you to realize what came to me to-day-rue
planted in Anne Hathaway's garden, ivy from Kenilworth
and Leicester's Tower, a spray from \Warwick Castle, a
sprig fomin Rugby schoolgrounds! What good times are
in store for us making our Literary Albums! "

She is a literary woman, with foreign corre-
spondents, and therefore is fortunate in oppor-
tunities for making a collection of such treasures.
But, now that so many people travel in our own
country, or go abroad, it is a very common thing
to pluck a sprig or blossom when visiting the
home or burial-place of some distinguished per-
son, whether author or not. And any friend
thus travelling would readily secure and press
some little thing for a token, if asked. We had
been favored in this way, as we took an inter-
est in such things and were fond of such keep-
sakes; therefore, on reading the letter, my
young people thought they would take the same
method to put their souvenirs into a pretty shape
for preservation.
Some friends in Europe had sent pressed
flowers and leaves from several places, and the
journeys of others about home had taken them
to some noted spots, so that the small hoard
now to be made use of had a few choice and
highly-valued things.
The album was to be a partnership affair,
and it was hoped that its contents would be in-
creasing, so a good-sized book was bought, a
scrap-book about ten by twelve, as being more
useful in the long run, though a small one where
there could be a whole page for a single speci-
men might look prettier. We had a good one
in plain but handsome binding with white leaves,
and its cost was one dollar. Mucilage was used


to secure the leaves or flowers, by just touching
a little here and there, being careful that it
should not show; and where there was a hard
stem a tiny strip of paper was gummed across
it. It was very dainty work to arrange them so
as to have an artistic look.
One page was devoted to several ivy leaves
a small cluster from Abbotsford occupied the
most conspicuous place; then came one leaf
from Heidelberg Castle; and then one from
the grave of Agassiz, and then one from Sunny-
side; arranged so that each showed to advan-
tage and the difference between the kinds could
easily be noted. The German one was beauti-
fully veined with white and had dark green and
light green shadings ; the Agassiz was our com-
mon English ivy, and that from Sir Walter
Scott's home and that from Irving's (which
came from an Abbotsford slip) were very dif-
ferent, small, and quite unlike in shape.
There were two generous and nicely-pressed
sprigs of arbor vil-e which took one page ; both
from graves, that of Washington Irving and that
of Dr. Channing. There were so many oak
leaves that two or three pages were given to
them; one handsome cluster was from Oak
Knoll, another from the grave of Emerson, and
a solitary one from that of Frances Sargent
Osgood. There was also a laurel leaf from
the wreath on the casket of Emerson's funeral,
and there was a jonquil from the lyre of jon-
quils used at the same time ; these, sent by an
acquaintance who was one of the great philoso-
pher's neighbors, are highly prized.
The Longfellow memorials are many, because
every visitor had brought away something, like
a blood-red woodbine leaf that had fallen at his
gate when he used to pass in and out so often,
and a spray of the lilac blossoms he was so
fond of.
There was a pimpernel from Celia Thaxter's
cliff-bound island home; a walnut leaf from






LITERARY ALBUMS.


Emerson's, a twig ofJlarch from Miss Alcott's, a
fall aster from Thoreau's, and sweet clover from
Hawthorne's birthplace. On one place was
arranged some wormwood from the Pilgrims'
burial-place at Plymouth, and another piece of
the same bitter herb or weed from beside old
Cotton Mather's tomb.
On another were several treasures, such as
could not be replaced; a scalloped leaf from
Stratford-on-Avon, a willow leaf from the grave
of Bonaparte at St. Helena, a leaf from the
Alhambra, and a fern that had been kept in
Charles Sumner's Bible, doubtless placed there
by his own hand, but given away after the book
had passed into other ownership.
There was box from Mount Vernon, and there
was a tiny bouquet arranged by Mrs. Fremont,
and there were many mementos from many
places; all pretty in themselves, and having
value to the lover of such things from their
associations.
It was a work of time to deftly place these,
with an eye to showing them off well, and giving
an artistic effect. But this was not all. My
children made a study of every subject, place
and person with whom the souvenir was asso-
ciated. I had them gain all the information
they could before going on to the next page, so
that they could connect an author with the
locality, and also they read any description of
the place, or any poem or piece of prose writing
that had anything to do with it. That could be
done easily with some; Longfellow's sonnet
" Good-Night," though it does not mention part-
ing at the gate, does in truth refer to the mid-
nights when he would follow Sumner out and go
with him as far as that very gate where the
woodbine leaf had fluttered down on an autumn
afternoon ; and Irving wrote two volumes about
the Alhambra, one sketch being about the same
garden where this leaf was plucked.
So that much literature was read and con-
versed about while the book was being made up.
This was the way to fix things -in the young
memory ; and then after all the search for facts
these learners would not find themselves in
positions where they would have to be ashamed
of their ignorance of what intelligent persons
ought to know as I have seen older ones, so
that one was ashamed of and for them


The souvenirs were placed on the right-hand
pages only; and near each, just below, were
written the few particulars necessary, with the
date when known. In some cases also a few
lines, or a verse, or passage, relating to it. This
had to be done in nice penmanship, with great
care against mistakes, as erasures would be a
blemish; one of the girls wrote a beautiful and
legible hand and to her lot fell this part.
It was proposed that selections in prose or
verse having to do with the home or burial-place
of the author be neatly pasted on the left-hand
page, as appropriate reading matter to go with
the little tokens, but as there was some doubt
about the wisdom of this, seeing it would rather
injure the appearance, it has not yet been done.
And the present suggestion under consideration
is that those pages be reserved for future use in
this way : that all new incidents and reminis-
cences which come to our knowledge, or very
interesting matter not new, be carefully written
there in the young penwoman's very best script,
so that while one page shows the leaves and
flowers the other will furnish pleasant reading
of value.
A schoolmate of one of my young people
intends to make such an album, and to double,
yes, treble, its value by a picture arrangement
which she is fortunate enough to be able to carry
out. She has a friend who is a photographer,
generous with his wares, and her purpose is to
paste unmounted photographs of the places on
the left-hand pages. In most instances these
can be obtained ; Sunnyside, Abbotsford, Emer-
son's house, Longfellow's, Whittier's at Oak
Knoll, and the majority named herein.
Where this cannot be done, one could have
photographs of the men and women themselves;
or, better yet, as so many pupils of our public
schools are taught drawing, it would be highly
satisfactory to be able to make a pencil sketch
of Abbotsford and other places.
And in default of doing any one of the above,
there remains another very useful method of
utilizing that page. Make out an accurate
account of the author, the place and time of
birth, name in full, important dates and events,
and copy it there, so that it will be of service
like a hand-book for reference, a dictionary or
biography on a limited scale.






TH1E E YG]PTIANS.


THE EGYPTIANS.
( Our Asiatic Cousins.)

BY MRS. A. H. LEONOWENS.


THERE is no bit of water in the world
comparable in interest to the great river
of Egypt; nor is there any nation, save the Jews,
who have had so great an influence on the hu-
man race as our second cousins the Egyptians.
The Nile, one of the longest and oldest rivers
in the world, teems with historic and sacred tra-
dition as full of instruction to the mind as is the
rich and oily clay, which the waters annually
bring down with them, of fertilizing power to
the soil. It flows for thousands of miles with
many a deep curve through that narrow strip of
land called Chemi, the Black Land, by the ear-
liest settlers, El Kcebit, the Inundated Land,
by the ancient Egyptians, Mizraim, the Border
Land, by the Hebrews, Missr by the Arabs, and
AEguptus or Egypt by the ancient Greeks.
The Nile has been baptized anew by every
nation that has dwelt on its banks. The ancient
Persian invaders called it Neela TopAla, or the
Blue Lotus River, from the myriad of blue lotus-
flowers which once covered its surface. The
Egyptians called it Hapiellau, Infinite Abyss.
The Israelites, during those weary years of bond-
age, gave it the name Karab Wahayadi, Waters
of Bitterness. The Nubians called it Bhar el
Ahbiad, the White Waters. The Abyssinians
named it Neel Abanchi, Father of Waters; and
the Arabs in a still more poetical mood called it
Neela-Shem, the Blue Mother; and in very truth
this river with its annual rise and overflow is
indeed the father and mother of old Egypt.
The mystery of the Nile's source has been a
subject of endless inquiry; even the emperor
Nero sent an expedition to explore its hidden
springs. But Roman energy which conquered
the known world failed to penetrate the Nile's
secret fountains. Mohammed, the Moslem
prophet, declared that the angel Gabriel nightly
filled the Nile and so increased the number of
buckets in the month of May as to flood the val-
ley of Egypt; and this is still believed by many


devout Mohammedans. IVf know that the Nile
flows from the great lakes Albert and Victoria
Nyanza, and that its inundation in Egypt is due
to the ten-months rain poured down from the
clouds on the African equator, whence the true
Nile forces its way through swamp and marsh-
land, stealing amid a wild tangle of jungle grass.
and tall papyri, now emerging into open glades
covered with the red, white, and blue lotus, and
anon confined between mountain cliffs, whence
at length it comes leaping and thundering down
the cataracts, racing like a giant, until it reaches
the valley of Egypt to flood it with verdure, fer-
tility and perennial beauty.
Old as the river of Egypt and of great fame
as were the ancient Egyptians in their day, we
know little as to who they were, whence they
came, and how they are related to the peoples
of Europe, Asia and America.
It is true that no history reaches so far back
and is so trustworthy as that of ancient Egypt.
It is found written in hieroglyphics on the sar-
cophagii and the winding-sheets of mummies
over five thousand years old. Embalmed bulls,
cats, hawks, beetles and crocodiles bear the
same scroll and repeat the same story. On the
stone monuments of Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia,
Soudan, Syria; Sinai may yet be seen, rudely
scrawled on the everlasting rocks, mysterious
records of the victories of the Pharaohs over the
savage tribes of Africa. The great Rameseses,
the Pharaoh of the Bible, the oppressor of the
Jews in Moses' time, is found and brought forth
after a thousand years of oblivion in a secret
pit at Thebes, and photographed, and we see
him face to face, with his Bourbon nose, cruel
eyes and massive jaws. The great Exploration
Societies will leave little unfound that exists.
Nevertheless scholars are still undecided as
to which branch of the human family the Egyp-
tians belong.
All that can be affirmed is that a number of






THE E G YP TIANAS.


the households which quitted the highlands of
Central Asia-the cradle of the human race -
must have crossed the deserts of Persia and
Syria and settled in the beautiful valley of the
Nile.
When this emigration took place it is impos-
sible now to tell. But so far back as the time


ON tE NtILE: THftE PtRAMIDS OF GtIZEH.


of Menes, the founder of the Egyptian Empire,
the valley of the Nile was occupied by a great
number of tribes, quite distinct from the sur-
rounding populations, which spoke more or less
the same language and conformed to the same
customs, laws, religious rites and ceremonies
doubtless brought with them from the Asiatic
fatherland.
The name Africa, from the words Afer and
Afrit, the black or evil genii of Semitic mythol-
ogy. was applied by the ancients only to the coun-
try south of Cape Bon. The rest of the Dark
Continent was called Lybia from certain Aryan
tribes which emigrated thither at'a very remote
period.
The other settlers of Africa are the descend-
ants of Phut, the grandson of Ham, and are
purely Turanian --that is to say non-Aryan;
such as the Amalzigh of Morocco, the Kabyles
of Algeria, Tunis and Tripoli, the Tiboos--
those strange peoples found in the district be-
tween Fezzan and Egypt the jet black Tuariks
in the Sahara, the Berbers, the Ethiopians, Nu-
bians, Samaulees, with all the still more savage
Troglodytes, or the Root-eaters, Twig, Seed,
Locust, Elephant and Fish Eaters, as they are
still called.
Until lately all these tribes were supposed to


be closely related to the highly-civilized, polished
and learned Egyptian of classic history. But
scientific research in the language and physiog-
nomies of the ancient Egyptians (and compari-
son of these with the modern Copts who still
preserve many of the characteristics of their
ancestors) finds that the Egyptians closely re-
semble the Semitic and Aryan,* rather than the
Negro type of the human family; while their
language show unmistakable evidence of Semitic
influence.
Menes, the Egyptian Charlemagne, seems to
have been the first to inspire the peoples dwell-
ing in the valley of the Nile with a sentiment of
nationality. He founded Memphis or rather
Manofre, the Abode of the Good, that wonder-
fui city of the Pharaohs, now lying prostrate
in the dust. It was well known to the Greeks
of the Homeric age, as also was Thebes or Tapai,
the Head, the No Ammon of Bible history with
its gorgeous palaces, temples, tombs, and long
avenues of symbolic sphinxes-" the hundred-
gated city."
The ancient Egyptian empire consisted of
three fixed departments: the King, the Army,
and the Priesthood.
The moment king and queen were crowned
they were enshrined in the minds of their sub-
jects as deities; the state umbrellas typical of
their divine offices were borne over their heads
by princes of the highest rank; the ostrich
feather fans, symbolic of Truth and Justice, were
carried on the right and left of the royal couple
by high priests. Their daily life was a routine
of religious and civil duties, often full of loveli-
ness, devotion and self-sacrifice. Their own
strict observance of the customs and obligations
of the royal race was enforced by the high priests;
hence the awe and reverence they inspired in
their subjects, who adored them as perfect and
just beings when living, and feared them as
avenging spirits when dead.
No army in the ancient world was more se-
verelydisciplined than that of Egypt. The Egyp-
tian soldier was at once a warrior and a farmer.
After his morning drill in boxing, wrestling,

Scholars are by no means agreed on this point. The learned
Doctor Brugsch in his great work on the Egyptians affirms that in
language as well as in race the ancient Egyptians are related partly to
the Aryan, and partly to the Semitic races.







TH'HE 1G Y7P T'Ll -17S.


fighting and racing, he tilled the plot of land
apportioned to him by the state wherewith to
support himself and his family. From century
to century the son followed the profession of
his father. The power of this custom is seen to
this day among the modern Copts, and it is evi-
dent that no other practice has survived so
many thousands of years.
But the most awe-inspiring body in the state
was that of the priesthood, those wise men of
Egypt who said to Solon the greatest of Gre-
cian lawgivers, "You Greeks are but children."
They were the backbone of Old Egypt: the force.
which for a time fostered national virtue, intel-
ligence, justice and truth. They were the his-
torians, poets, lawmakers, chroniclers of sacred
events, the architects, engineers, engravers, and
the embalmers of the dead. They taught the arts
and sciences of their day; directed the build-
ing of temples, palaces and pyramids, executed
the wonderful paintings on glass and pottery, the
enamelling on gold, silver and copper, they were
the overseers of the linen and other manufac-
turies, and even superintended the quarries be-
tween the cataracts of the Nile. They filled all
those posts in the army, navy and royal house-
hold which required the knowledge of reading,
writing and arithmetic. Every officer in the army
was attended by a young priest-scribe with a
papyrus roll in his hand and a reed pen behind
his ear. It was the priests who measured the
waters of the Nile, who foretold good harvests or
famine, laid down specific rules for agriculture,
medicine, geometry, astrology and astronomy.
They superscribed the winling-sheets of the em-
balmed king and "established him for eternity,"
and the record bore the name and year of the
reigning high priest. They too summoned each
soul after death to appear before the priesthood-
tribunal; a tribunal which claimed the absolute
power of admitting a soul into paradise or doom-
ing it to eternal punishment.
This priestly ceremony was the Egyptian trial
of the dead." When the corpse was brought
back embalmed from the temple it was placed
in a sarcophagus of wood or stone, then into a
sledge, and drawn by oxen to the sacred lake,
followed by friends and relatives wailing, beating
their breasts and throwing dust upon their heads.
On the right bank of the lake sat the judges of


the dead, in their white robes with crooks and
mitred hats. All around gathered a grcat and
eager multitude. A canoe with the dread ferry-
man floated on the water. Sacred scribes, re;ldv
to record on the breast of the dead the final
verdict, sat in grim silence behind tie austere
judges.
At a signal, a dread silence fell upon the
multitude. The weeping friends and relatives
pressed nearer with beating hearts. The face
of the dead was disclosed. The chief judge
arose and read with trunmpt-like voice certain
words froii the 'ook of tlie Dead." Then
every act. public or private, of the dead man's
life was laid bare ; every deed discussed, every
sin and every virtue examined by that august tri-
bunal. The verdict was pronounced. If guilty
it was heard amid the shrieks of the friends
and relatives and the body was denied sepulture
among the righteous dead and cast out with
scorn into eternal condemnation. If not guilty,
a pair of scales were held up by the chief judge,
and the worth of the soul was weighed against
an ostrich feather of more or less perfection.
At sight of the scales the friends broke forth
into exulting shouts and the crowd chanted
praises of the righteous dead. Then the scribes
wrapped the body in its resurrection-robes, in-
scribed on its breast the symbols of truth and


THE Al'IS OR SACRED BULL OF GYI'T, WITH Pi1IESTiS
OFIERIING SACRIFICE. (From the klelsal Isitra.)

purity, and below these the significant words,
" I hTave not shortened the measure." Amid
pans of joy the sarcophagus was laid in the
canoe, the silent ferryman plied his oar, and at
length the body was committed to the tomb of

the just to await its resurrection.
As Egypt was a wheat-growing country, a full measure of
wheat symbolized tile idea of a perfectly just and ,i ghileos inanI;
hence, the words. I have not shortened the teacsure," was inscribed
at death on the body of every good man.






THE EG YPTIANS


70

The family vault of the Egyptian was his pict-
ure-gallery ; thus the portraits, manners and cus-
toms of this singular people have been preserved
intact through centuries. These strange pict-
ures have a mournful pathos in their present
desolation and decay. Equally strange and sug-
gestive was their hieroglyphic or picture-writing;
every picture represented an idea, a symbol and
a sound ; for example, the ostrich feather stood
for the idea of truth, for the symbol of justice,
and for the sound of the vowel i." The hawk
typified penetration. On the breast of the mum-
my it symbolized immortality, and it served for
the word bai, soul. In every family vault and
on the breast of every mummy, the symbol of
immortality is seen in the form of a hawk.
The ox and beetle received the highest honors.
Apis, the black bull of Egypt, showed marks,
spots and colors on his person which were re-
garded as messages from the' deity. The birth
of a black calf with a white mark on his fore-
head, a crescent on his right side, white rings
round his eyes and a tail tipped off with white
-like the finding of a white elephant in Siam--
was welcomed as a special blessing from Heaven.
It was installed with great pomp as an oracle in
the temple at Memphis ; and the man in whose
flock it was found was enriched for life.
Seven hundred years B. c. and immediately
after the Ethiopian conquest of Egypt, the grand
hieroglyphic language, for centuries the sacred
writing of the priesthood, began to lose its hold
upon the Egyptians. The common tongue of
the people came into use among the scribes.
Then, next, after the Greek conquest of Egypt,
the ancient language began to be written in
Greek characters; and after the Roman and
Arabian conquests, the language itself of the
Pharaohs and the pyramid-builders ceased to be
spoken, and now it is heard only as is the Latin,
in the services of the Coptic Christian church.
From being the first power, from being the
university of the whole world, the name of the
modern Copt is now hardly heard out of the city
of Cairo, and the land itself is the scene of
endless strife, rapine, murder and death; and
the Christian Copts, descendants of those con-
verted in the early Apostolic days by St. Mark,
branded as criminals, oppressed with heavy tax-
ation, and compelled to wear a distinctive dress.


one by one prefer to change their religion rather
than adopt a dress which marks them as one of
a subjugated race, until now they comprise less
than one fourteenth of the whole population of
Egypt; and every year by marriage or by con-
version to Mohammedanism they are being ab-
sorbed into the Moslem peoples of Egypt.
Among the better classes of the Copts boys
only are sent to school, where the Arabic lan-
guage is taught. The girls are taught at home
and only such duties as will fit them to do the
ordinary housework.* Reading, writing, arith-
metic, the accomplishments of dancing, singing
and playing on musical instruments are never
taught save to the actresses and dancing girls
of Egypt. These are divided into two classes
called the Almeh and the Ghawazie. The for-
met are without doubt the representatives of
the priestesses of ancient Egypt. A winding-
cloth around the mummy of Rameses nI. bore
record that it was the gift of "The Lady Song-
stress of Amen Ra, King of the Gods, Tait-aat-
Maut, daughter of the First Prophet of Amen,
Piankhi." The Almeh must have a good knowl-
edge of the Arabic language, of the rules of
poetry and music, and be able to compose and
sing, in a sweet melodious voice, impromptu
verses at marriage and funeral ceremonies. The
Ghawazie, on the other hand, seems to belong
to the Asiatic gypsy race. They have not the
same pains bestowed on their education. They
are seen in the streets of large cities, a
and dancing for the entertainment of the p
generally, either in open air or in tents.
Women, among the ancient Egyptians, were
treated with the highest respect. They joined
their husbands in ruling the state, in sacrificing
to the gods, and were often united at death in
the same tomb; whereas to-day a girl among
the Copts is regarded as a mere chattel. She is
bought, sold, or given in marriage with no right
of choice or refusal.
At the age of eighteen the parents of a young
Copt man invite some friend to report on the
character, charms and possessions of a certain
maiden. Astrology is then called in, and the
horoscope of each being propitious, various cere-

There are now a few girls' schools in Egypt, and that they
receive the support of one of the wives of the Khedive is a most hope-
ful sign.


.""







THE EG YPTIANS.


monies trivial in themselves, but held vital to a
true betrothal, take place.
The first rite is to send to the maiden a small
Coptic cake made of honey and flour. If this
be accepted, the young man bears in person
presents called "Sugary Wooing." Having
reached the threshold, he leaps off his horse and
treads on her door steps seven times. The
maiden's mother, who has been looking out for
him, now appears and blindfolds him, then slips
on his finger an enchanted ring, into his hand
a charmed purse containing no less than six


ridiculous ceremonies; one is to slap her seven
times on the back to expel all evil spirits. Next
morning, covered with talismans, jewels, and
veiled from head to foot, she is conducted in
procession to her future home. Here the bride-
groom, gorgeously attired and also veiled, re-
ceives her at the threshold which has previously
been sprinkled with the blood of a lamb.
The young couple then stand side by side.
The priest chants a hymn, then removing their
veils he crowns them with gilt crowns, symbo-
lizing the dignity of the married state. He next


THE TEMPLE OF ESNAY, THE ANCIENT LATOPOLIS, IN UPPER EGYPT.
(Convered by the A rabs into an hovel for cattle. This Temple fortns an oblong square, closed on three sides, but open in front.
The columns, flutted like those in the Indian Temples, have capitals ornamented wilth )ahn l caves, and
are su posed to have given the Greeks the flrst idea of the Corinthian Order.)


magical talismans, against the evil eye, skin dis-
eases, early death and poverty, and one of the
talismans is to obliterate all his wrong doing, so
at the last to defeat by magic the judge of the
quick and the dead.
The happy possessor of these talismans is
now conducted into the home and partakes of
a meal with the family, where he meets for the
first time his future wife, who is seated by his
side closely veiled. She is not allowed to speak
to him, but they are permitted to interchange a
pinch of salt.
On the evening of the wedding a Coptic priest
exorcises the young maiden by means of various


exchanges their rings, perfumes them with in-
cense, and finally concludes with prayers and
admonitions to be as loving and faithful as
Abraham and his wife Sarai. At this moment
a pair of doves, to whose wings little bells are
attached, are let loose to fly about the room,
and then are caught amid much laughter and
enclosed in a ball of candied sugar ; the first is
to typify their search for a true mate, and the
second of their union. At the close of the feast
that follows, the ball is opened, the birds are
set free with injunctions from all present to bear
to the man and wife on all occasions of strife
the olive branch of peace and good-will.






72 lROA FALL OF THI'E GRACCHJ TO POMIPEY'S DE.ATH.


FROM FALL OF THE GRACCHI TO POMPEY'S DEATH.
(Searck-Qutestions in Roman Iistory.)

By OSCAR FA\V ADAMS.


61. What Spanish town furnished a surname
to a famous Roman Consul ?
62. What caused the first Servile War?
63. What was the most important act in the
life of Tiberius Gracchus ?
64. What important objects did the legisla-
tion of Caius Gracchus involve ?
65. What means did Jugurtha constantly em-
ploy to gain influence at Rome ?
66. What important event in Sicily during
the campaigns of Marius against the Cimbri ?
67. Who was the most noted leader of the
nobles, or patricians, at this period ?
68. What occasioned the first Civil War?
69. What noted leader was once forced to
hide in the marshes near the river Liris?
70. What event stimulated the Athenians to
revolt from Rome ?
71. For whom was the Dictatorship revived ?
72. What was the design of the Leges Cornulicl
73. What noted insurrectionist had his head-
quarters in the crater of Vesuvius for a time ?
74. What Roman leader first entered the
Holy of Holies at Jerusalem ?
75. What great king took poison to prevent
his capture by the Romans, but this not proving
fatal caused one of his soldiers to kill him ?
76. What conspiracy was defeated by Cicero ?
77. Mention the principal event in each of
the eight campaigns of Caesar in Gaul.
78. What signal defeat did the Roman arms
sustain in 53 B. c. ?
79. What was the most important result of
the battle of Pharsalia ?
80. What famous leader commanded at
Utica? How did he die?

ANSWERS TO JANUARY SEARCH-QUESTIONS.

21. An assembly of Patricians and Plebeians.
22. As illegal.


23. In 494 B.c. the Plebeians withdrew to a
hill near the junction of the Arno and the Tiber
to found a new town.
24. Menenius Agrippa.
25. Spurius Cassius. This law declared that
a certain portion of the public lands should be
given to the Plebeians.
26. Caius Marcius Coriolanus, spared Rome
at the entreaty of his mother, Volumnia.
27. Cincinnatus.
28. The iEquian army surrendered to Cin-
cinnatus, passed under the yoke consisting of
two upright spears supporting a horizontal one.
29. A little over two years.
30. The enactment of the Valerian and
Horatian laws which benefited the Plebeians.
. 31. The Censorship. The Censors were the
financiers of the state, the superintendents of
the public and private life of the citizens and the
census-takers.
32. Veii. The Romans entered the city by
means of a mine constructed by their leader.
33. Camillus.
34. A midnight surprise of the Capitol was
discovered by the cackling of sacred geese kept
in the temple of Juno.
35. Marcus Manlius, thrown from the Tar-
peian Rock by the decree of the Patricians.
36. .A Lex was an established law, a Roga-
tion simply a proposed one.
37. To give the Plebeians a share in the po-
litical power, to relieve them from their financial
troubles and to remove from the Patricians the
exclusive right to the public lands.
.38. The Pubilian Laws which gave further
power to the Plebeians.
39. The long struggle between the Patricians
and the Plebeians.
40. The admission of the Plebeians to the
Senate and that all Roman citizens were equal
in the eye of the law to rights and duties.


















CHARLES PERRAULT.
(Dear Old Story-Tellers.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


THE iniquity of oblivion blindly scattereth
her poppy," writes the delightful old
physician, Sir Thomas Browne, in a famous pas-
sage which I trust you all know; and it often
happens that the deeds in a man's life which
seem to him the most important are exactly the
ones that posterity deems least worthy of its
attention. It has happened over and over again
in the annals of literature that some piece of
labored writing respecting which the author has
been unduly proud has failed to pass the terrible
winnowing of time, while some literary trifle,
the sport of his leisure hours, is all that pre-
serves his name in another age. But for one
little work upon which he placed but slight
value it is more than probable that the great
Frenchman, Perrault, would be a name to us of
this century and nothing more.
Charles Perrault was born at Paris, January
12, 1628, and was the youngest child of Pierre
Perrault, an eminent Parisian barrister of that
period. The Perraults seem to have taken an
active share in the education of their children
and in his memoirs the son writes in regard to
this :

My mother taught me to read, after which I was sent
to the College de Beauvais at the age of eight-years and
a half. My father took the trouble to make me repeat my
lessons in the evening, and obliged me to tell him in Latin
the substance of these lessons."

A rather trying ordeal for so young a lad.
He seems in his schooldays to have been fond
of making verses and even more fond of argu-
mentative philosophy. We are told of him that
vacation seemed to him just so much time lost;


but about this point I am somewhat doubtful.
A quarrel with his master resulted in his leaving
college but he continued his studies, and with a
friend of his own age read continually.
In 1651 he went with two of his friends to
Orleans to procure licenses to practice law, fear-
ing the stricter requirements of the law-schools
at Paris. Although it was late at night when
they arrived the notion seized them that they
must be examined that evening. Accordingly
they managed to arouse those learned Doctors
of the Law who hastily put on their law-gowns
over their night-clothes and went into the amphi-
theatre. A solitary candle flickered on a stand
in the great apartment and furnished but a feeble
defence against the gloom and shadows of the
place. The three doctors seem to have cared
more for their fees than for the honor of their
profession, and the replies of the young men to
'the questions put them were approved of although
they seem often to have been very wide of the
mark. While the examination was going on the
valet of the would-be advocates was counting out
the amount of the fees, a proceeding which no
doubt stimulated the examiners to pronounce a
favorable verdict.
In 1654 Pierre Perrault became receiver-gen-
eral at Paris and made Charles his clerk. Nine
years later the younger Perrault became the
secretary of Colbert, the Prime Minister of
Louis xiv. In the exercise of this office he
exerted no little influence upon the mind of
Colbert and secondarily upon Louis himself.
Perrault was chosen by Colbert Secretary of the
French Academy, then numbering but a few men
of letters, and through Perrault's influence the






CHARLES PERRAULT.


Academy of Sciences was established. He was
rapidly advanced in the favor of Colbert and
being appointed Comptroller-General of the
royal buildings he was enabled to procure for
his older brother Claude the honor of furnishing
the designs for the completion of the Louvre.
Among the competing architects were Poussin
and Bernini, whose chief work is the famous
colonnade of St. Peter at Rome ; but the skill
and diplomacy of Colbert and Perrault tri-
umphed and to Claude Perrault was committed
the important work, the completion of which
marks an important era in French architecture.
The influence of the younger Perrault was also
strong enough to procure for Claude the con-
struction of the Observatory of Paris and the
completion of the decorations of La Place du
Tr6ni. Many of the adornments of the park at
Versailles are the work of Claude Perrault whose
genius, however, might have languished in ob-
scurity but for the power of his brother Charles,
his junior by many years. To Charles Perrault,
too, is due the admission of the public to the
gardens of the palace of the Tuileries. Even
the enlightened Colbert thought they should be
kept sacred to the use of royalty, but Perrault
felt differently. He was a man of wide sym-
pathies and considered as well as understood
something of what was needed by those beneath
him in rank and station.
I am persuaded," he said very simply, but at
the same time very beautifully, "that the gar-
dens of kings are so large and spacious only
that all their children may be able to walk in
them."
His feeling in the matter was so strong that
he overcame Colbert's opposition, and the
king's garden became the garden of the king's
people. Colbert perhaps never fully under-
stood his secretary's anxiety on this point and
doubtless Perrault's contemporaries considered
it an idle if not an unwise proceeding; but it
seems to us of this later day to be yerily one of
those actions of the just which

Smell sweet and blossom in the dust."

In 1671 Perrault was formally admitted to
membership in the French Academy and he
contributed materially to the brilliancy and
prosperity of that body, into which he intro-


duced from time to time many needful reforms
in its management and customs.
The death of Colbert in 1683 closed Perrault's
official career and he retired to private life and
for a time devoted himself to the education of
his sons, The leisure which he may have vainly
coveted in his public life was now given to lit-
erary pursuits and he produced about this period
his Parallle des Anciens et des Modernes, Si'cle de
Louis le Grande, Histoire des Hommes /llustres des
Siecle de Louis XIV, Apologie des Femmes and sev-
eral lesser works.
The publication of the first two of these
resulted in a prolonged literary war between
Perrault and his fellow academician, Desprdaux,
in which the advantage of learning seems to have
been on the side of the latter, but in wit and
good-nature Perrault was decidedly the superior
of his antagonist. How little real enmity Per-
rault felt in the matter is shown in the general
good temper of his replies. After a long period,
so long indeed that the two adversaries had al-
most forgotten the original point at issue and
their friends were heartily weary of the dispute
a reconciliation was effected greatly to the re-
lief of the literary mind of the period. The
dust of this conflict has settled undisturbed for
two centuries and the works which occasioned
it lie unread and unopened on library shelves.
Despreaux is noted for little else than his part
in this long-past quarrel and Perrault, instead of
being remembered for the works he labored so
hard to defend, is honored now for very different
reasons. As the author of the Hommes Illustres
or the Parallbles he is interesting only to the lit-
erary antiquarian; as the author of the immortal
Contes des Feds, or Fairy Tales, his memory should
be dear to every child who has trembled over the
impending fate of Red Riding Hood, laughed
over the adventures of the redoubtable Puss in
Boots, or followed with breathless interest the
story of Cinderella from the chimney corner to
the trying on of the slipper.
It must not be understood that Perrault was
the inventor of these famous tales, which in
various forms had existed from earliest times,
as we have already had occasion to notice in
the case of Cinderella. But to him is due the
glory of giving to these popular legends and
nursery tales permanent form. From the vague







CHARLES PERRAULT.


and variable folk-tales which they had been till
his time, they became at his touch the real, liv-
ing stories which we know. Three of these fairy
tales, Peaud'fue, Les Souhaits Ridicules, and the
story of Griselidis were written in verse and
these are the least meritorious. One of these,
Les Souhaits Ridicules, or The Ridiculous Wishes,
contains a moral the application of which is well
worth heeding at all times. Briefly its events
are as follows :

A wood-cutter, tired of his painful life, was one day
complaining that cruel heaven had never granted one of
his desires, when Jupiter appeared to him and promised
to gratify his first three wishes whatever they might be.
The delighted man hastened to communicate this good
news to his wife, and they agreed that he must not be
hasty, but defer his first wish until the morrow. However,
seated before a good fire, enjoying the sweets of repose,
he thoughtlessly wished for an ell of sausage to accom-
pany the wine he was drinking. Scarcely was the wish
expressed when his wife perceived an immensely long
sausage meandering towards her from the chimney corner.
Vexed with her husband's stupidity, she commenced a
violent tirade against him : When you might obtain an
empire, gold, pearls, rubies and diamonds, is it a sausage
that you should desire ? '
"The husband, though meekly confessing his wrong,
was on the verge of wishing himself a widower. At last,
exasperated by the continued scolding of his wife, he
cried: Would to heaven, abominable creature, the sau-
sage were hung at the end of thy nose I '
This prayer was answered. The sausage immediately
attached itself to the nose of the irritated wife. This
ornament did not add to her beauty, but, hanging before
her mouth, it prevented her from speaking with ease, an
advantage so great that for a happy moment the husband
thought of wishing nothing further. 'I might,' thought
he, 'with one leap, become a king; but then, how the
queen would look on the throne with a nose an ell long I
I must let her decide whether she will be a queen with
the horrible nose she now has, or remain a woodman's
wife with the one she formerly had.'
Of course she chose the latter. So the poor man did
not become a grand potentate, nor fill his purse with gold,
too happy to employ his only remaining wish in restoring
his wife to her former state."

The prose tales, La Belle au Bois Dormant, Le
Petit Chaperon Rouge, La Barbe-Bleu, Le Chat
Botte, Les Fees, Cendrillon, Riquet a lea Hounpe,
and Le Petit Poucet are told in a style which is
a model for careless grace and felicity. They
were written by him with little thought that they
would constitute his greatest claim to remem-
brance ; but such as they are, the amusement of


his lighter hours, these delightful little romances
are immortal. One of these prose tales, Les Fe;s,
may possibly be new to some readers, at least in
the manner in which Perrault tells it.

"There was once a widow who had two daughters; the
elder resembled her so much in disposition and looks that
whoever saw her saw the mother. They were both so
disagreeable and proud that no one could live with them.
The younger, who was the real portrait of her father as to
gentleness and goodness was, besides, one of the most
beautiful girls that one could see. As one naturally likes
what resembles himself (olves his like) this mother was
exceedingly fond of her elder daughter, and at the same
time had a great aversion to the younger and made her
eat in the kitchen and work incessantly.
Among other things, this poor child was obliged to go
twice a day, a full half league from the house to get a
large pitcher of water. One day when she was at the
fountain there came to her a poor woman who begged her
for a drink of water.
"' Yes, indeed, my good mother,' said this fair maid;
and immediately rinsing her pitcher, she filled it at the
clearest part of the fountain and presented it to her, sup-
porting the pitcher that she might drink more easily.
The good woman, having drunk, said to her : 'You are
so handsome, so good and so obliging that I must make
you a gift; for she was a fairy who had taken the form of
a poor village woman, in order to see how far the civility
of this young girl would go. 'This is my gift to you,'
continued the fairy; with each word you speak there
will come from your mouth a flower, or a precious stone.'
When the beautiful girl reached home, her mother
scolded her for returning so late from the spring.
"' I ask your pardon, my mother,' said the poor girl,
'for having delayed so long'; upon saying these words
there came from her mouth two roses, two pearls and
two great diamonds.
What do I see said her mother in astonishment;
'I think pearls and diamonds are coming from her mouth.
How is this, my daughter ?' (This was the first time that
she had called her her daughter.) The poor child related
all that had happened to her, the words being accom-
panied by a shower of diamonds.
"' Truly,' said the mother, I must send my (aughIter
there. Here, Fanchon, see what comes from the mouth
of your sister when she speaks; wouldn't you be very
glad to have the same gift ? You have only to go to the
spring for water and when a poor woman asks you for a
drink give her some very civilly.'
"'It would be' fine to see me going to the spring,'
replied the rude girl.
"' You must go,' replied the mother,' and immediately,
too.'
Fanchon went, taking with her the finest silver flask
in the house, but grumbling all the way. She had no
sooner reached the spring than she saw emerging from
the woods a lady magnificently clothed, who came to her
and asked for a drink. It was the same fairy that had






THE TWO NYMPHS.


appeared to her sister, but who had assumed the manner
and the garb of a princess in order to see how far the
incivility of this girl would extend.
"' Have I come here,' said the proud creature,' to give
you a drink! I have brought a silver flask expressly
to give Madam a drink, have I ? I think so indeed!
Well! drink from it if you wish.'
"'You are not very civil,' replied the fairy, without
becoming angry. Since you are so disobliging, this is
my gift to you ; every time that you speak, a serpent or a
toad will come from your mouth.'
As soon as her mother perceived her, she cried out:
Well my daughter!'
Well my mother !' replied the surly one, throwing
out two vipers and two toads.
"' heavens!' exclaimed her mother, 'what do I see
there ? It is her sister who is the cause of it. She shall
pay for it;' and she ran to beat her but the poor child fled
and took refuge in a neighboring forest.
The king's son, who was returning from the chase,
met her and seeing how beautiful she was, asked her what
she was doing there all alone and why she was weeping.
Alas! sir, my mother has driven me from my home.'
The king's son, who saw five or six pearls and as
many diamonds issuing from her mouth, begged her to
tell him the cause of it. Then she related to him her
whole adventure. The prince fell in love with her; and,
considering that such a gift was worth more than the
dowry that any other could bring him, he took her to
the palace of his father, where he married her.
As for her sister, she made herself so detested, that
her own mother sent her away, and the unhappy girl after


wandering about without finding any one who would
receive her, went to die in the corner of a wood."

Perrault died May 16, 1703, regretted by the
nation at large. During his life he was the
object of much enmity, but even his bitterest
opponents never considered him other than an
upright, honest man. He must have been a
rare man of which an adversary could write
thus :

He possessed all the qualities which form the good
and honest man : he was full of piety, probity and virtue;
he was refined, modest, obliging, faithful to all the duties
demanded by natural and acquired ties; and, in an im-
portant post under one of the greatest ministers which
France has ever had and who honored him with his con-
fidence, he never used his favor for his private fortune
but always employed it for his friends."

It is'pleasant to know that this writer to whom
we owe so many delightful hours in childhood
was a man in every respect so far above reproach
in all the relations of life. Of another great
Frenchman, his contemporary, to whom we like-
wise owe a debt of gratitude, we shall hear- a
vastly different story. But in the writer Per-
rault we can honor the man as well.


THE TWO NYMPHS.

(A Fable.)

By JOEL BENTON.


T W\O nymphs who in the woods reside,
And pass by turns from place to place,
Had once a question to decide
And chose a fox to judge the case.

One of the nymphs Good Luck we call,
Ill Luck stands for the other's name;
And when events of fate befall
One has the praise and one the blame.

Now each was vain and thought that she
Had, without doubt, the fairest face,
So bringing to the fox their plea,
He played the judge with tact and grace.


For, said the fox, "I cannot tell
Your separate charms until I know
How well you walk indeed, how well
You forward step and backward go."

And so they ran the country round,
Now they were there, and now were here;
The wily fox looked most profound -
(Here fell a smile and there a tear.)

Facing "Good Luck he said at last:
When you arrive your charms we know; "
Then with his eyes on Ill Luck cast
Said: Yours are greatest when you go /"







'THE 'PH( ENICIAzNS, THE RUDDY-SKINNVED 1EN..


THE PHCENICIANS, THE RUDDY-SKINNED MEN.
( Our Asiatic Cousins.)

By MRs. A. H. LEONOWENS.


W E come now to a remarkable branch of
our Asiatic kindred, the Semitic races--
the Phoenicians, Jews and Arabs.
Emerging thousands of years ago from the
prehistoric darkness, these three peoples, each
in turn, became the greatest of historic races.
They are closely related to one another, being
no less than first-cousins. They share common
laws, customs, manners, languages, and noble
treasures of legend, song, and tradition.
It is true that the race-relations of the Phoeni-
cians have been a subject of debate among ethno-
logical scholars. In the tenth chapter of Genesis,
Sidon, the first-born of Canaan, is classed with
the Hamitic or Turanian races; but late research
into the language of the races shows a close con-
nection between the Phoenicians, Jews, and Arabs.
We are driven to accept the Biblical narrative
as being arranged not on an ethnical, but on a
geographical distribution of the races; for be-
yond that one statement there is no difficulty in
tracing the close relationship of the three.
The first to appear on the scene is the Phoeni-
cian,* a naval and commercial people.
Second, came the Jews, a people so grand
and spiritual that it would be impossible to
realize in their early simple patriarchal life the
glorious future, the higher intellectual and spirit-
ual existence opened to the human race in the
life and death of Jesus the Messiah of the
Jews.
Third, arrived the Arab, the most warlike of
the three, who under his leader Mohammed
overran Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Babylonia, Persia,
India, and Spain, and thundered at the gates of
Europe to be hurled back with equal ardor and
impetuosity by Mediaeval heroes and saints.
In the dawn of history, when the blue and sun-
The name Phoenician was given to this race by the Greeks; not,
as it has been often stated, from the Greek word Phceniz, a land of
palms, applied to Syria and its inhabitants, but from the Greek word
Phoinos, Blood-Red Men, owing to the rich dark complexion of the
race.


lit waters of the Mediterranean Sea lay silent,
when no ships floated on its surface, when no
cities animated the solitudes of its tideless shores,
when no living creature save beasts and wild
birds inhabited its coasts, a keen, thrifty, indus-
trious tribe of Semitic people, the young and
adventurous descendants of a still earlier colony,
had settled the plains near the Persian Gulf,
calling themselves Khe'na'an, dwellers-of-the-
plain. Thence, driven hard by fresh hordes of
nomadic tribes, they came across the mountains
of Lebanon and took possession of that narrow
strip of land, shut off by itself, between those
mountains and the Mediterranean Sea.
Under the tread of this tribe of ruddy-skinned
men that desolate shore awoke to activity and
beauty. They sowed fields, cultivated fruits,
built dwellings. But their highway was not on
land. No region could contain them. Having
invented the fishing-line and the net, they hol-
lowed out the trunks of trees into canoes; the
next step was to build ships with keels out of
the great cedars of Lebanon and to sheathe them
with copper which they had discovered in the
Lebanon mountains.* From those summits, they
no sooner saw the fair and lovely island of
Cyprus than they sailed across and took pos-
session of it, as well as of Crete. Here they
found pitch, timber, copper, and hemp, in fact
every requisite for ship-building. Thencefor-
ward they were a restless people, but wandering
shepherds, and tillers of the soil no longer;
rather fishermen, pirates, traders, manufacturers
and merchant-princes.
The discovery of a tiny shell-fish, the Pin-yura
Muirex, which, when crushed gives out a viscid
juice of a dark reddish blue color, proved source
of wealth to these settlers on the Mediterranean.
Xenophon is his (Economics, speaks of going down to Corinth to
see the big Phoenician ships just as we should speak of visiting a ship-
yard; remarking on the extreme neatness and tidiness of the internal
arrangements every thing was stowed away in the smallest possible
space and ready to hand.







78 THE 'PHffENICJANS, THE

They trained divers, and even pointer-dogs, to
collect this shell-fish. They built factories wher-
ever the precious creature abounded, and when
they had perfected the Tyrian dyes," they got
wool from the wandering shepherd tribes, manu-
factured it into stuffs and dyed them in deep
purples. With these rich new goods they sailed
along the coast of Egypt and Africa, landing
and encamping to sell to the natives, or to ex-
change for such native products as took their
fancy.
On one of these trading voyages, wrecked
off the sandy coast of Africa, they accidentally
made another surprising discovery -the process
of glass-making. On their return home they set
about manufacturing glass, which they soon con-
trived to color by means of their dyes; glass
beads, bottles, bangles and vases were added
to their stock of merchandise. Becoming more
adventurous they quitted the land-locked waters
of the Mediterranean and sailed out through
those ancient pillars of Hercules, which they
named after two giants of Phoenician mythology,
Calpe and Alipe one of these names being
still preserved, but Anglicized into Apes' Hill."
Here they beheld--an awful sight to these
primitive sailors--the rushing of the mighty
Atlantic tides into that narrow opening. Steer-
ing to the left they went to Morocco for ivory
.and gold-dust; on the right they came on through
the foaming waters to the British Isles. Here
they landed, pitched their goatskin tents, dis-
played their merchandise of purple stuffs, toys,
colored glass trinkets, and ornaments in gold,
silver, copper and ivory. They lighted huge
fires, to attract our half-naked, woad-painted
savage ancestors. What sights did not these
bravest and earliest of civilizers witness among
the ancient dwellers of Northern Europe The
life, the manners, the customs, the religious rites,
the amusements of those strange peoples! What
comparisons did they not draw between the huts
of Britain and Gaul and their own magnificent
cities of Tyre and Sidon; between Egypt and
its great river, its pyramids and obelisks, its
tropic heats, and the ice, snow, frost, keen winds
and desolate wastes of the North !
They opened a brisk trade in tin with the
Damnonii and the Cassiterides, the savage in-
habitants of stormy Cornwall. Thence they


RUDD Y-SKINNED MEN.


visited the ice-creeks of the Baltic Sea and pro-
cured from the gatherers in the mud along its
banks, that precious thing, amber," then in
great demand for ear and finger rings, talis-
manic charms, necklaces, cups, goblets, and
lockets. They even penetrated to the China
seas and exchanged their purples and metals for
the gayer fabrics of the Celestial Empire.
All this we know; but the exact date of these
astonishing voyages we have as yet no means of
ascertaining.
The bronze vessels in Nimrod's palace were
of Phoenician manufacture. The pearls men-
tioned in the Book of Job were brought from the
Persian Gulf by the same adventurous people.
The frankincense burned in profusion on the
Assyrian altars, the camphor, the honey, bees-
wax, and cinnamon used by the Jews from
the time of the Exodus, the sandal wood, the
spices of Malabar and Ceylon, the nutmegs of
Malacca, the muslins and shawls of Hindostan,
the cloth-of-gold from Benares, India-lacca, raw
cotton, ebony, peacock feathers and elephant
tusks (which even in the Hebrew tongue pre-
serve to this day their Aryan names) were bought
from one part of the world and sold to the other
by these early ruddy-skinned seafarers. They
brought to the luxurious kings of India and to
the pleasure-loving Greeks, the palm and grape
wines of Syria in decanters of exquisitely painted
glass.
Agadir, now Cadiz, in Spain, was long a flour-
ishing colony of the Phoenicians, and close by
was Tartessus, the Tarshish of Holy Scripture,
rich in iron, tin, lead and silver. The Pheni-
cian settlement of Tarshish is mentioned by
Ezekiel, and the prophet Isaiah speaks of it as
one of the finest colonies of Tyre and Sidon.
On land the Phoenician caravans traversed the
deserts, with camels for ships and the Bedouins
for pilots. We find their merchants everywhere;
in Persepolis, Babylon, Memphis, Palmyra on
the confines of the great desert, in Petra in
Arabia, and even at Gerrah, that curious old
city on the rainless shores of the Persian Gulf,
built of rock salt and kept in repair by the
application of salt and water. Malta and Sar-
dinia were their great naval stations. So the
Phoenician cities, Tyre and Sidon, became the cen-
tre of all the industry and commerce of the world.






THE PH(EEICIANS, THE RUDD Y-SKINNIED MEN.


Even before the siege of Troy, nearly five hun-
dred years before Homer, Joshua 1444 B. c.
speaks of the great Sidon as one of the most
powerful cities of his day.
Thus we see that narrow tract, that bare
belt of sand, smaller than the smallest of New
England States, varying in breadth from one to
twenty miles, and about one hundred and fifty
in length, converted into a fruitful garden, ter-
raced upon the hills, and laid out in vineyards,
orchards and plantations, and sending out a race
of powerful civilizers.
The early Greek poets, especially Nonus, sang
the praises of Tyre, in glowing verse :

"The gleaming terraced hills, the treasure-laden temples,
the marble palaces, the beautiful nut-brown Phoenician
maidens, the ruddy-skinned stalwart youths, the splendor
of the air and sky, the liquid azure of the sea, the rich
verdant land, the forest of masts, the sailor furrowing the
waters, the plowman the soil, the lowing of ten thousand
cattle, and the singing of innumerable birds as if in re-
sponse to the low deep hymnals of the ever-murmuring
sea."

What a contrast does Tyre now present to the
traveller who visits the spot!
So far we have looked at these ruddy-skinned
Asiatic cousins, travellers and traders, as inven-
tors of arts and luxuries, as ministers of taste
and comfort. But learning and human inter-
course owe them a debt. Although it is un-
certain whether or not they invented the letters
of the alphabet, there is no doubt that they first
arranged a series of phonetic sounds in some
such order as we now possess and use them.
Wherever a factory was established for the
purposes of trade -on the shores of the Grecian
Archipelago, in Greece itself, on the marshy
borders of the Black Sea, in Italy, Spain, Sicily,
on the Arabian and African coasts it was
found convenient to employ the natives on the
spot as agents, clerks, accountants, and bankers.
The Phcenician merchantmen therefore took
with them scribes so that those whom they
employed could be instructed in their business
methods. Thus it was that the ancient Greeks
received from the Phoenicians the first rudiments
of education, the Greeks in their turn becoming
the schoolmasters of Rome. The Jews, the
Arabs, and every European nation became in
turn debtors to the Phoenician phonetic system,


and so it was that it came about that the Aryan
nations of Europe adopted Semitic letters in-
stead of the Sanskrit alphabet proper to their
branch of human language.
It was nature perhaps that first forced the little
phonetic sounds "alpha," "beta," "gamma,"
upon our remote ancestors; but how wonderful
that the power of these tiny sounds should have
survived the greatness and glory of their ruddy-
skinned utterers!
Whirled along in the breathless gathering up
of treasures from all parts of the earth, the
Phoenicians failed to provide for the defense
of their country; and gradually, too, the majority
gave themselves up to the pleasures and excite-
ments created by their unparalleled success and
wealth the rich banquets, the song, the dance
and the strange religious rites and festivals of
their peculiar idols.
Their chief god was called Melkarth, and was
represented in the form of an enormous coni-
cal emerald, called by the Greeks the Tyrian
Hercules, which always stood in the middle of
the altar, while near was another object of
worship the Tree of Knowledge of Good and
Evil with the serpent twining round it. In an-
other part of the temple stood an altar dedicated
to the Fire God, with a double-headed serpent,
symbol of Wisdom and Ignorance, issuing forth
from beneath it. The temple of Melkarth, like
that at Jerusalem, was a national sanctuary and
attracted yearly pilgrimages of devout Phoeni-
cians with costly offerings from all parts of the
world.
But, now, in their unguarded harbors there
appeared a formidable being, the astute, clever,
unscrupulous Greek. Having acquired the art
of ship-building, the Greeks proceeded to sup-
plant their benefactors. An irresistible spirit
urged them to great deeds of conquest and
prowess, as well as to great accomplishments in
the arts and sciences greater than were ever
dreamed of by the Phoenicians. On land, at
the same period, there appeared their own first-
cousins, the Ibrhi, the Hebrews, or Men from
beyond the Euphrates. These invaded and deso-
lated Phoenicia under the command of their
young and spirited leader, Joshua. The wars
and devastations of the Egyptians and the Baby-
lonians followed. Finally when Necho and







8o THE PHIENICIANS, THE RUDDY-SKINNED MEN.


Nebuchadnezzar disputed the sovereignty of the
Syrian empire, the Phcenicians chose the losing
side, and in the contest the cities of Tyre and
Sidon were almost demolished and the Persians
forced them to surrender into their service their
noble fleets.
Again, in the famous Macedonian war, instead
of hailing the all-conquering Greek as a deliverer,
they made the mistake of siding with their oppres-
sors the Persians, sending their wives and chil-
dren for safety to Carthage, the greatest and


the savages of the coast; she had secured the
allegiance of many brave negro tribes, and'long
before the introduction of camel caravans in
this part of Africa negro slaves bore on their
shoulders, across the desert, ivory and other
merchandise of Carthage to far Timbuctoo, a
human caravan, often death-doomed as is shown
by the innumerable bones and skulls which to
this day mark that ancient route ; tons of gold-
dust were brought back by these caravans, from
the Niger, and the Carthaginians wrought this


COINS BEARING THE SYMBOLS OF PH(ENICIAN RITES.


most formidable of their colonies. Once more
Tyre and Sidon were almost levelled with the
dust.
Nevertheless the Phoenicians still clung to
their idea of commercial prosperity, and though
growing weak in their native East, they turned
their eyes to their grand new city, Carthage, in
the West; there she stood, their stronghold, on
the green slopes of the Atlas range -the beauti-
ful young daughter of her tottering old parents
Tyre and Sidon. She was mistress of Africa.
She had reduced, by the traffic of her purple
cloth, beads, amber and other glittering gewgaws,


yellow dust into wondrous ornaments, statues
of gods and heroes, and glittering obelisks and
spires to crown the city.
To be sure, the Carthaginians encountered
the enemies which had brought ruin on Tyre
and Sidon. Generation after generation Sicily
was the battle-field of the rival nations. Still
Carthage held her own and plumed herself on
her greatness, prosperity, and ascendency. And
when in 236 B. c. she lost her finest possessions,
Sardinia and Corsica, the great leader of the
Carthaginian commonwealth, Hamilcar, at once
founded in Spain a new Carthage and secured






THE PH(ENICIANS, THE RUDDY-SKINNED MfEN.


for his beloved nation a population of millions
of inen ready to do her slightest bidding. Once
more Carthage felt secure. Again she could
laugh to scorn her rivals and boast that no man
could wash his hands in salt water without her
permission.
Alas! for this young Phcenicia. Already a
new face was at her 'door, and a new foe peer-
ing around her walled and battlemented cities.
Rome the city of outlaws, runaway thieves, rob-
bers, and murderers, had risen from her seven
hills, rapid and mysterious, and was gliding
abroad like a nightmare over land and sea.
Rome was the evil genius of the new Phceni-
cian commonwealth. The Roman nation was an
army; and divinity was the crown Rome awarded
to her defenders by land or sea.
She attacked the ruddy-skinned men in a fleet
of ships built after the Carthaginian model, but
on which were placed curious machines of de-
struction. The sight of this armament sent the
navies of the Phoenician commonwealth into loud
laughter. But when the Romans approached,
these machines grappled the Carthaginian ships
so as to form a gangway, over which the Roman
soldiers poured and fought like wild beasts, hand
to hand; and though the Carthaginians are im-
mortalized in history on account of the three
wars sustained against Rome, each characterized
by an imperishable name, Regulus, Hannibal, and
Scipio the younger-still Carthage fell. She
rose again -but as a great Roman city.
Meanwhile Tyre and Sidon gave place to the
famous El Skanderish, or Alexandria, the Hel-
lenic capital of Egypt; and although Tyre down
to the sixth century A. D. furnished the purple
robes to the Popes of Rome, the finishing stroke
was given her by Hassan the leader of the Arabs
and Turks A. D. 647. Then fell utterly Tyre and
Sidon; and with them fell again their beautiful
daughter Carthage, prostrate in the dust never
to rise. Even the secret of that famous old
purple dye was lost; and the Popes of Rome


changed the color of their pontifical robes to
scarlet.
The Ruddy-Skinned Men had accomplished
their destiny. They had ploughed the seas and
brought up the treasures from their depths. They
had opened the spacious workshops of the world,
they had set up looms of precious stuffs, vats of
wondrous rainbow dyes, distilleries of aromatic
amber-colored wines. They had quarried the
earth for marbles, riddled her with mines for
the precious metals, they had fixed the anvil
and forge, and fired the furnaces for smelting
gold, silver, iron, copper, bronze and for fusing
glass. They had adjusted themselves to the di-
vine work of preparing the way for their first-
cousins the Ibrhi or Men from beyond the
Euphrates; and they had placed in the hands of
humanity the greatest of their gifts -the Alpha
and Omega of the Greek alphabet.
To-day, Sidon, now called Saida, the mother
of all the seaports in the world, is reduced to a
miserable condition ; the vast city of the dead
is the only remaining vestige of her ancient
splendor.
Tyre the Rock of the ancient world, is a
place for the spreading of fishermen's nets in
the midst of the sea. Berytus, now Beirut, or
Beyrout, has a motley population: the Druses
with their strange belief in a living man-god,
the Maronites, that curious sect living in Mount
Lebanon Greeks, Turks, Arabs, Jews and Ethi-
opians, all differing in thought, feeling, religion,
manners, customs, dress and nationality.
The old harbors of Syria, which played so
important a part in the history of ancient civili-
zation, are now nearly filled up save that of
Beyrout, the ancient Berothah of the Phoenicians.
Even the ruins of Carthage are buried in the
dust, and it might be totally unknown, but for
the crumbling arches of a grand aqueduct which
serve to guide the footstep of some interested
traveller to the spot where once stood the great
republican city of the Phoenicians.







HOW TO WRITE RAPIDLY.


HOW TO WRITE RAPIDLY.

(Ways To Do Things.)

By AUNT MARGERY.


IN the November WIDE AWAKE, I read an
article entitled "Ways To Do Things," in
which is described the method adopted by two
young ladies to abbreviate their handwriting
and thus more quickly prepare their composi-
tions and essays. The subject interested me,
and especially the little people who gather
around my library table in the long winter even-
ings. Most of them are already familiar with
the elementary principles of M. de Fontaine's
condensed-hand, which like phonography is
based on the writing of words as they are pro-
nounced, not spelled, and the omission of all
silent and unnecessary letters; and they have
asked me to write and tell other young folks
how much simpler and easier to learn this sys-
tem is than that of Mr. Ritchie's.
In the first place, every letter in the alphabet
represents some common word that sounds like
it, so that frequently three or four words can be
easily written together, as for instance : "tlb, it
will be;" imv, you may have; "cug, can you
go; yle, why will he;" wtstbdon, what is to
be done." I might as well add the list here, so
that others can try it and enjoy the same amuse-
ment as ourselves. The letter-words are as fol-
lows:


B be
C can, con, corn, come.
D do.
E he, the.
F for, fore, full.
G go, ing.
I who, whom.
I I, eye.
J advantage.
K could, kingdom.
L will.
M me, my, may.
N in, en, an.


oh.
up.
qua], quent, quence.
are, or.
is, his.
it, to.
you.
of, have.
we, with.
extra, extraordinary.
why, your.
as, has.
and.


The soft c is written like s as in desnsy, and
the hard c as in ache, is used thus, ak. The


full vowels are generally written; the short
vowels are omitted. G at the end of a word
means ing. The endings fore and full are rep-
resented by a simple f as in wrf, wherefore,"
"'fthf faithful." Con and corn at the beginning
of a word are represented by c, as ctan, "cptnt,
competent," "cfr, confer," "cntrry, contrary."
Income is written nc, in consequence, ncsg."
In De Fontaine's condensed long-hand, the
punctuation marks are used to signify certain
syllables, and are very useful for prefixes and
suffixes. Thus a comma before a syllable means
enter, intri, intro, as in ,mx, ,tn, ,ds; intermix,
entertain, introduce." The apostrophe ex-
presses the prefix dis as in 'trb, disturb "',
disinter." Oi or oy is a quotation mark", as
b", v"s, n"z, boy, voice, noise." A semicolon
is st, as "e; east," ";m stem," m; must," "r
rest." The colon is str, as "e: Easter," "f.
faster," "sq.: sequester," ": njr, stranger." Two
,periods indicate the sound of shall or cial as
"i..bwu, I shall be with you," "so.. social," "fa.
facial." Two commas indicate the prefix, or
suffix, ment, as ",,, mental," "sd,, sediment."
The left-hand parenthesis represents th, the, they,
or think: "o(, oath," "(ss, this is," (mnzmht,
the man has my hat.) The opposite parenthesis
signifies the sound of shn as in "o), ocean," "n),
notion," "dt), condition," "ssp), suspicion."
The hyphen becomes thr as in "o-, other," and
also stands for there or they are as in "bf- before
there," "-tb, they are to be," "-nn(ls, they are
none the less." Two hyphens represent shr or
zhr as "m--, measure," "im--ul, I am sure you
will."
Some of the figures are also made to play an
important part in the work of abbreviation. 2,
for instance, takes the place of pr and occurs in
hundreds of words as zm, prim," "22, proper,"
2S2, prosper." 4, is able or ible as in "ps4,
possible," ncsol4, inconsolable," "ru4, are you
able," "4tv, able to have." 8, is the synonym







A BALL OF TWINE


of ality or ility, as r8, reality," ut8, utility."
7, signifies under or understand, as "71 urgg, I
understand you are going; wisy 7g v(siy,
what is your understanding of the subject ? "
These examples will demonstrate the facility
with which we have learned to write three or
four times faster than we could with the ordi-
nary hand and with quite as much satisfaction
as if we had spent months in the acquisition of
phonography. We have found it useful in mak-
ing notes of our studies, and enjoy not a little
pleasure as well as profit in winning prizes from
one another in the contests of skill ; that is to
see who shall write most rapidly. Robbie who
is seventeen has written seventy words in a min-
ute, and Edith who is only sixteen has written
seventy-five. A girl is always ten years older
and smarter than a boy of the same age. That's
one of my contentions.


Following the example of your article on this
subject, I give you an illustration of our system
by quoting a few of the lines first written above.
N( Nvmbr nmbr vwidawak I rd an artcl
ntitld waz td (gs n chs dscrbd (m(d adptd b
2yng Idz t abrvyat hndrtg & (s mr qkl 2pr -
cps)s & esaz. ( sbj ,std m vr inch & esp ( Itl
ppl h g- arnd m libry t4 (ez Ig -tur evngs. M;
v(m r alrd fmlyr w( el,,ry 2nspls v Mr. d Fntans
cdnsd lghd ch lik fngrf s ba; on( ritg v wds z-
2onnsd, nt spld &( om) v -1 silnt & unssr Itrs &
(v asked m trit &tl o- yng fks inch smplr & ezr
tirn (s sstm s (n (tv Mr. Rchz wa td (ngs."
You will observe that these abbreviations are
only an enlargement of the system of business-
symbols that are used by merchants and others,
when they write dr. cr. pkge, mnifr, dl'r, C. O. D.
and other phrases and words that occupy two
or three pages in Webster's Dictionary.


A BALL OF TWINE.
(Ways To Do Things.)

By M. J. TILGHMIAN.


WE all know how often when we want a
string it is difficult to find a piece.
Let me tell you how to make the very pretty
house for a ball of twine which I saw the other
day; I said to myself that if I found time I
would make at least a dozen of them during
the year to be ready as Christmas-presents for
friends.
First you must choose two colors of satin
ribbon which will contrast well together and get
three fourths of a yard of each in No. 9. You
will also need six little brass bells, and one
yard of fine yellow silk cord; also a tiny pair of
scissors, not over an inch and a half long; and
of course you will want the ball of twine itself -
of some pleasant color and sufficiently strong to
tie up small bundles.
Now you must cut each piece of ribbon into
six lengths; three to be five inches long, and
three to be four inches long; twelve pieces in
all. Take your six five-inch pieces and sew


them together, alternating the colors of course,
which will give you a dainty little striped satin
bag.
Hem this bag around the bottom, run your
yellow silk cord into the hem, cut off just enough
cord to go round, have the ends so that it can-
not slip out, draw it up as tightly as you can
and then tie it in a bow-knot. This is the door
of the house, by which Mr. Twine may go in
and come out.
Now take your six four-inch pieces, and sew
them along the top of your bag, taking care to
put your seam on the outside of the bag-that is
to say, lay the satin sides of the ribbon upon the
inside of your bag. You do this because these
pieces are to turn over and hang down round
the outside of your bag and you want the satin
surface to show. After sewing, turn them over,
and about a quarter of an inch from the top of
the bag run a line of sewing; this will hide your
seam and make a casing in which to run the







TH E MIXED STONES.


remainder of your yellow silk cord. Turn in
the other ends of your four-inch pieces so as
to make a point, and sew a little bell on each
point.
Now run your silk cord through your scissors,
and knot it about two inches from them, so that
they can open, yet not get away, but always be
handy at Mr. Twine's front door, and not keep
you looking for the scissors after you find the
string. Next, put the two ends of the cord
through your casing, and sew them together;
pull about three inches through and tie so as to


make a loop by which to hang the gay little
house. Draw the cord as tightly as you can and
tie it in a hard knot on the other side, so as to
leave no place for Mr. Twine to jump out after
he is in.
Now take the ball, find the inside-end so that
it will pull easily, untie the cord at the bottom
of your bag and pop Mr. Twine into his house,
which ought to be quite a tight fit. Draw up
your bag again and tie tightly, leaving a bit of
the twine hanging out so that you can pull it
whenever you need a piece of string."


THE MIXED STONES.
(" Diamond Dust." )

By SUSAN POWER.


THE costly stones, the diamond, the sapphire
and its family, are not more interesting
than the mixed stones, agates, garnets, turquoise
and tourmaline. These are more familiar than
the fire-gems; we know more of how they are
made, their price places them within reach; as
they are found in this country we know them
in their rough state and in their haunts. We
gather agates and cornelians on the beach at
Mount Desert, or Lake Superior. Massachusetts
has beryls, agates, hyacinth, cornelians and gar-
nets; they lie about Mount Tom and Holyoke,
Greylock and the gold mines near Newburyport.
New England is of volcanic formation, and its
volcanoes near the coast had hardly done smok-
ing before the country was discovered. Where
there has been volcanic work you find the trap
rock, the granite, and gneiss, and in their crev-
ices the quartz crystals and the mica sheets; and
where you find the mica, precious metals are apt
to follow. The miners in a rude camp on the
Rio Grande showed us bits of glistening mica
from the flanks of Mount Ouray as the most
convincing sign of the presence of gold. Where
there are iron mines you find garnets. About
copper mines the turquoise and malachite are
found. Where there is manganese, look for
tourmalines and amethyst quartz.


Connecticut has beryls and agates near Had-
dam, and in the Farmington River region; New
York has them about Greenfield, near Saratoga,
and at Trenton Falls; you find them at Orange
Summit, Vermont, and in the valleys of the White
Mountains, and the marble quarries. Maine has
store of tourmalines, amethysts and garnets.
New Jersey is rich in rare stones of more or less
value in the arts. I think if you would get the
reports of the State geologist for your own State
and look up the record of your own county and
township, you might be surprised to find what
treasures existed undreamed of near you. Young
people often complain of country life, or life in
small towns, as being dull, when they have not
taken the slightest pains to find out what objects
of life-long interest are around them. If quar-
ries, beaches, cliffs or old mines exist near you,
do not be satisfied till you have explored them
for all of curiosity they may hold.
Would you not like to have been one of those
Maine boys, students of the Town Academy who
coming home from a walk over the quiet hills
near their home happened upon the tourmaline
mine ? It was just about dusk, but there was
light enough to show bits of bright crystal scat-
tered among the roots of a tree. The boys gath-
ered what they could while the light lasted, and






THE MIXED STONES


marked the place, to return next day. But that
night the first fall of snow came and hid the
spot. Next spring however they found it again,
and took out tourmalines by the bushel before
they had done. But the sadness of the story
is, however, that though the tourmalines were
splendid enough to bring the Russian minister
and a noted European geologist on from Washing-
ton to visit the mine, not one of those American
boys knew the value of the stones sufficiently to
profit by them a quarter as much as they ought,
or to preserve the mine from being despoiled in
a vandal way by curiosity-hunters who cared as
much for the crystals as for so much glass.
Here was one of the most curious of minerals
and most interesting in a scientific view, wasted
as far as any real good to its finders was con-
cerned ; for the huge crystals, more perfect than
any before discovered, were sold for a trifle of
their value, and sent to European cabinets, while
hundreds of beautiful specimens were broken in
rude efforts to chip them from the rock. It
makes one vexed to think how such treasure
was thrown away for want of a little practical
knowledge of a not uncommon ,ort.
After the crystals of nearly pure alumina,
the corundums or most precious stones, come
those in which there is larger per cent of other
materials. The Oriental topaz is the last of the
'true corundums, being nearly all alumina with
just enough of the oxide of iron to give its color-
ing of beautiful golden yellow, like solvent sun-
shine. This topaz, this sunlight-stone, was the
chrysolite of the ancients, which you want to
remember in reading Browning's poems where
it is mentioned several times. When you read
the line

The west had grown one perfect chrysolite,"

you naturally wish to know whether the west
looked yellow, red, or apple green, as people do
not have chrysolites in their table drawers for
comparison everywhere. See how much that bit
of knowledge adds to the comprehension of a
fine poem which else would be a vague splendor.
So in the Bible it is of service to remember that
where rubies are spoken of it means all manner
of red stones, which the ancients called by that
name; but when carbuncles are mentioned, it
means the true and precious ruby alone.


The chrysoberyl, or cymophane, is a very bril-
liant gem of a greenish color, sometimes lively
as the emerald, often yellowish green or bluish.
When opalescent or semi-transparent, with a
floating ray within, it is the cat's-eye, which is
held such a lucky gem that a handsome one
for a ring stone sells for a hundred dollars.
The yellow chrysoberyl is as lustrous as a yellow
diamond and was once in high fashion. A
jeweller tells me that very fine stones of this
sort which fifteen years ago would bring sixty
dollars can now be bought for ten. The way, he
says, to secure a collection of good stones at
low price is to buy fine specimens when out of
fashion, and keep them till their use revives
again. Really good stones are' rarely out of
wearing long. Chrysoberyls, fine ones, are found
at Haddam, Conn., Greenfield, N. Y., and Orange
Summit, Vt.
The spinel ruby is a crystal little more than
three fourths of which is alumina, the rest chiefly
magnesia, colored with oxide of chromium. It
is wholly different in composition from the true
ruby, but is a beautiful stone, varying from vivid
poppy-red and lively garnet to purplish pink
and bluish white. The balas-ruby, the rubicelle
and almandine are varieties of the same gem,
differing only in color, and all are sold as rubies
although worth much less than the Oriental ruby.
The sapphirine is a pale blue spinel, and there is
a green spinel from the Ural Mountains, while
dark spinels are found in the United States both
North and South.
The Oriental turquoise is a highly fashionable
and beautiful stone, of rarity enough, when of
fine color and large size, to merit setting in
diamonds. Russian and French ladies are very
fond of these ornaments, and two or three sets

of famous turquoises have given their wearers a
Continental reputation. The composition, half
alumina with much phosphoric acid and copper,
which renders the turquoise sensitive to change
adds to the sentiment with which it is regarded.
It will change from fine blue to a sickly tint;
if laid near musk, camphor, attar of rose or
other scents it loses color entirely and it is said
to vary in hue with the health of the wearer.
This I am inclined to think true, as water or
damp affects it, and if so, why not the state of the
perspiration of the body nearest it ? The French






THE MIXED STONES.


turquoise found in Languedoc is fine in color
but is merely fossil ivory colored by phosphate
of iron. The turquoise of New Mexico is not
a true turquoise, but specimens of very pretty
color are found which might be used for inlaying
framework, like those wonderful windows of a
London artist's house, which have windowpanes
of Mexican onyx, and sills of costly stone, or
for a change in those cabinet knobs of agate,
lapis and beryl which he designed for his wife's
rooms.
The quartz crystals are a large family, not so
large in price as of much beauty, and the art
employed in carving and setting them commands
a high price. We think very little of rock crystal,
but it is really lovely with its cool polish and
soft lustre, far more agreeable to the eye than
the sparkle of cut glass. The Venetian chande-
liers, sconces and flagons of rock crystal are
more valuable than the same things in solid
silver, and are found only in houses of great
luxury. All nations of artistic instincts value
this material. The East Indian crystal is made
into cups, goblets and vases of exquisite thin-
ness engraved with much beauty. The Chinese
delight in crystal, though they prefer it in heavy
plain articles of perfect polish. In the Middle
Ages it was believed that crystal goblets would
betray poisons by growing dim or breaking,
and in days when these compliments of death
were freely administered such cups were highly
valued. The Emperor Nero had two magnifi-
cent crystal cups engraved with subjects from
the Iliad which cost enormously. At the revolt
which caused his downfall, he destroyed them
both so that no other lips should ever drink
from them. Among the treasures of the French
crown at the time of the revolution were a great
number of crystal goblets, vases, urns and salvers,
polished like bubbles, or superbly engraved, and
the collection was valued at more than a million
francs. The East Indian brooches of crystal set
with small colored stones are beautiful forms of
inexpensive ornament.
Many of our best known stones are quartz
crystals differently colored by nature. The sky-
blue water-sapphire is quartz colored blue by
iron and alumina. With a trace of iron and
alumina quartz becomes the Montana topaz;
colored rose by iron and manganese it is the


Brazilian ruby. With oxide of manganese it
is the beautiful violet of the common amethyst
found in France, Hungary, Ceylon, America--
the finest of all coming from Carthagena in
Spain. Darkened by a bituminous trace it is
the smoky topaz we all admire. With much oxide
of iron it is the brown-red hyacinth.
The iris is a lovely old-fashioned stone, seen
only in antique jewels, once a favorite of the
Empress Josephine who had a celebrated parure
of iris. It is a very limpid quartz, crystallized
with myriads of invisible flaws which in the light
glitter and flame with all the tints of the rain-
bow, like a more vivid opal.
With the iris we leave the crystallized stones
and glance at those which have been deposited
from strong solutions without heat or evapora-
tion. The finest of these is the opal, which is a
resinous quartz, with many fissures filled with
air and moisture which reflect all the colors
of other gems. Ceylon, Hungary, Mexico and
Honduras furnish the finest opals, and they are
found in various parts of this country. The
ancients believed this stone to possess all the
virtues of the arnethyst, ruby and emerald, and
the modern belief that the opal is unlucky arose
after the fashionable world went wild over Sir
Walter Scott's novel of Anne of Geierstein. The
fact that the fire opal loses color when exposed
to water and regains it by heat was used with'
the novelist's skill to produce a supernatural
effect, and ever since the opal has had the
repute of being unlucky for its wearer. Still it
is esteemed of high rank, as it is very beautiful
and the only precious stone which defies imita-
tion. It is said that two hundred and fifty
thousand dollars has been refused for the great
opal at Vienna, and one thousand dollars is not
an uncommon price for a fine stone.
The peridot is a stone used in antique jewelry
which has lately come again into fashion and
favor for its brilliance and lively tint of a yel-
lowish green, which often causes it to be taken
for the chrysolite or topaz. Jewelers often call
it a variety of topaz which is incorrect, as it
differs materially in composition from that gem.
It is as much a favorite for a ring-stone as the
amethyst was a few years ago, and shares popu-
larity with the cat's-eye. But few of its wearers
however are aware of its celebrity as the only






KITTY IN THEV RAIN.


stone literally of celestial descent, the only one
yet found fallen from space in aerolites or
meteoric stones.
The tourmaline, as I have said, is more curious
in a scientific way than as ornament. It is one
of the handsomest of specimens for a cabinet
however, in its perfect crystals, which frequently
are six inches long and thicker than a man's
thumb, while in color they are green outside,
and rosy red as you look into them length-
wise.
The agate you know in its varieties : the
clouded agate, where the gelatinous silica of
which it was formed settled in waves of differ-
ent tints; the moss agate, where it settled in
fibres which in other sorts look like stars, snow-
crystals, landscapes and fortifications. Corne-
lian is an agate of fine grain, heliotrope is a
lucid agate of lively leek-green spotted with red,
and takes its name from its use for glasses to
view the sun. The onyx, in its varieties of sard
and sardonyx, is a tinted agate, and all these can
be stained and the color deepened or changed just
as the Swiss beryl beads are, which are liked so
well in necklaces, and which are nearly all arti-
ficially colored.


The garnets, green, yellow, pink, clear red and
jet black, have almost disappeared from society,
though I can remember a time when a set of
deep garnets, or carbuncles as the finest are
called, mounted with pearls was among the orna-
ments of every dressy woman. I dare say you can
even now rummage from forgotten hoards the gar-
net necklaces of small beads in many strands like
the coral beads of later date worn by little girls.
I have a partiality to fine garnets. Their rich,
cheerful glow relieves a white hand or a dark
dress pleasingly, and their color recalls the belief
of the ancients that the garnet caught its fire from
the sun. The carbuncle was Margaret Fuller's
favorite stone, and no unfit emblem of her ardent
spirit. It is a pleasing superstition to think as
the world formerly did, that precious stones
impart their own qualities to the wearer. At
least we find in different stones qualities which
reflect those, whether in the capricious sensitive
opal, the nervous turquoise, or the brave invinci-
ble garnet, fabled source of fire. The world has
not learned half the secrets of gems, and when
science understands their formation, we shall
know better than we now do how the world
itself was made.


'...r..L--.!- Tz

C '

te^^^^


,,.


MY kitty would not wet her fur,
Or paws, if she could choose;
So she shall have a gossamer,
And she shall have gum shoes.


J- -- AXnd she shall have a parasol-
Ho, kitty'll be quite vain !
PROTECTED. And then she will not care at all
How often it may rain.






THE LAST DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC.


THE LAST DAYS OF THE REPUBLIC.

(Search-Questions in Roman History.)

BY OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


8r. In what important respect did the final
triumph of Casar over his opponents differ from
those of Marius and Sulla ?
82. As Pontifex Maximus what important
act did he perform ?
83. What is meant by the Lupercal in Shake-
speare's Julius Ccesar when Antony says:
"You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown."
84. In the same play where is allusion made
to Cmsar's attacks of epilepsy ?
85. Which conspirator first attacked Caesar?
86. What was done to rouse public indigna-
tion against the conspirators ?
87. What serious mistake of the populace is
related in the play referred to above ?
88. What noted man became at this time
the bitterest enemy of Antony?
89. What was the first act of the Triumvirs ?
90. At what place was Brutus defeated ?
91. Mention two allusions by Shakespeare to
the death of Portia.
92. What noted personage is referred to in
these lines, and where are they to be found ?
"The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne
Burn'd on the water."
93. What naval commander several times
defeated Octavian ?
94. When did the Triumvirate become a
Duumvirate ?
95. How did Antony forfeit the support of
the Roman world?
96. What naval battle decided Antony's fate ?
97. In what strange manner is a certain
famous woman said to have died rather than be
taken to Rome as one of Octavian's captives?
98. When was the temple of Janus closed
for the third time ?
99. What title hitherto unknown was con-
ferred upon Octavian ?


Ioo. What social forces had by this time
practically made a Republic an impossibility ?

ANSWERS TO FEBRUARY SEARCH-QUESTIONS.

41. In 362 B. c. a chasm opened in the Roman
Forum which the augurs declared could only be
filled by casting into it whatever Rome held
dearest. Marcus Curtius, asserting that Rome
esteemed nothing so much as her brave citizens,
mounted his horse and leaped into the gulf and
the earth closed above him.
42. For the supremacy of Italy.
43. The first Samnite War.
44. At the battle of the Caudine Forks in
the Second Samnite War.


45.
46.
47-
named
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.


Caius Pontius.
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.
Appius Claudius, for whom the road was
the Via Appia.
As a naval power.
The possession of Sicily.
Hiero of Syracuse.
Regulus.
Hamilcar Barca.
In the year 235 B. c., because Rome was


then at peace for the first time since Numa.
54. Hannibal.
55. Scipio Africanus.
56. The withdrawal of the Macedonian forces
from Greece and the consequent freedom of that
country under the protection of Rome.
57. Cato.
58. Perseus, dying a state prisoner at Alba
on the Fucine lake, his son remained there a
clerk.
59. The decree of the Senate that Carthage
must be destroyed, its inhabitants to erect an-
other city ten miles from the coast.
60. The battle of Pydna, 168 B. c., which
closed the Third Macedonian War.






















11


a
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A CHINESE. IOLIDAY.- lYING THE' LANTIEN.


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THE BROTHERS GRIMM.
(Dear Old Slo/;- Tec/rsc.)

By OSCAR FAY ADAMS.


THERE is something very attractive to most
people in the thought of literary com-
panionship extending over a long period of
years, or for a lifetime even, and the names
thus linked together have a double claim upon
-our remembrance. Who ever thinks of Beau-
mont without Fletcher, of Erckmann apart from
ChMtrian, of William Howitt and not at the
same time of Mary Howitt his wife ?
It is thus we think of Jacob Ludwig Karl
Grimm and of Wilhelm Karl Grimm his brother.
It is not easy, so intimately were they associated
in their life-work, to always think of them as
two men with separate and distinct individuali-
ties; it is rather of one delightful personality
that we speak when we name "the brothers
Grimm."
There was but a year's difference in their
ages, Wilhelm having been born in Hanau, Ger-
many, in 1784, and Jacob a year later, in 1785.
Their father was amtmann or bailiff of the dis-
trict, but removed to Steinau when Jacob was
.about ten years old and, dying soon after, left
his family comparatively poor.
When very young Jacob was noted for his
precocity. He read with ease when his mates
were still involved in the mysteries of the alpha-
bet. The death of his father might have put
an end to the education of the brothers but for
the kindness of their aunt, Henrietta Philippina
Zimmer, who lived at the Electoral Court at
Cassel. She invited the boys to Cassel and un-
der her care they prepared for the university at
the Lyceum in Cassel. A taste for drawing
seems to have been common with the brothers
at this time a taste shared also by a younger


brother Emil, who afterwards became a profes-
sor of the art. After leaving the Lyceum the
brothers studied at the University of Marbourg
together and here they came under the instruc-
tion of the learned jurist Savigny, whose influ-
ence had a marked effect upon them, and it was
during this period that they received the first
impulse towards linguistic study to which their
lives thereafter were largely devoted.
In the winter of 1805 Savigny, who was then
in Paris, sent for Jacob Grimm to assist him in
his work there. So complimentary an invitation
was not to be put by, but Frau Grimm's anxiety
about her son's safety was so great that while
he was on his way to Paris she could not sleep
but was constantly getting up from bed to notice
the weather fearing, like the loving German
mother that she was, that he might freeze to
death in the diligence, or meet with some acci-
dent. She did not live long enough to enjoy
the fame her sons afterwards attained but died
in 1808 while Jacob was still a clerk in the War
Department with the wretched salary of one
hundred thalers a year.
In July, however, of that year he became the
librarian of the King of Westphalia, an office
which brought him a handsome salary and lei-
sure to pursue his studies. It must have been
a quiet place, this royal library of Westphalia,
for no one but the king could take books from
it, and his majesty seldom availed himself of his
privilege. Here for five years Jacob lived and
studied, much of the time with his brother Wil-
helm, until the restoration of the Hessian gov-
ernment put an end to the kingdom of West-
phalia. A year or two later he was appointed






THE BROTHERS GRIMM.


second librarian in the Electoral library at
Cassel and to his great delight a place was also
found for Wilhelm in the same library, and here
they remained till 1829.
The thirteen years which they spent here were
full of hard work for both, but it was labor into


WILHELM KARL GRIMIM.

which they put their whole souls, and work which
none could do as well as they. While Jacob was
custodian of the Westphalian library he and his
brother had published several books together as
well as separately, mainly in the department of
legendary tales and ballads. But it was in 1812
that they published the volumes which have
made their names familiar to every German child
and to countless children beside in other lands.
These were the three volumes of the Children's
Tales and Household Tales, the Kinder-und
Hausmaiircen. The stories in these books were
gathered from the peasantry in Hesse and Hanau
and written down in a style unequaled for sim-
plicity, ease and truthfulness. Many of these
tales were told them by the wife of a cow-herd
in Niederzwharn, near Cassel, who seems to
have been in many respects a most remarkable
woman. Her memory appears to have been a
perfect mine of folk-lore and she seems to have
delighted in relating these tales. Say they:


She told her stories thoughtfully, accurately and with
wonderful vividness, and evidently had a delight in doing
it. First she related them from beginning to end, and
then, if required, repeated them more slowly, so that after
some practice it was easy to write from her dictation."

Of their own part in the work, that of putting
these tales into permanent form, the brothers
tell us:

Our first aim in collecting these stories has been ex-
actness and truth. We have added nothing of our own,
have embellished no incident or feature of the story, but
have given its substance just as we received it. It will of
course be understood that the mode of telling and carry-
ing out particular details is due to us, but we have striven
to retain everything that we knew to be characteristic,
that in this respect also we might leave the collection the
many-sidedness of nature."

It is the simple form in which the brothers
cast these tales that has invested them with so
great a charm, the homely directness which has
lost nothing in its translation from the peasant
dialects in which they were first heard, to the
polished High German tongue.
But the Grimms had something more in mind
than simply the collection of a number of curious
peasant nursery tales. They believed that in
the study of the history of nations the humbler
spheres of life must not be disregarded. Before
their day history concerned itself very little
with the life of the common people. Their ex-
istence was not considered to have any bearing
upon the nation's life and it is for this reason
that we search in vain in the histories written
previous to this century for any glimpses of the
actual life of the people who form the major
part of any nation. Modern history in the main
is written from a different stand-point and does.
not disdain to show us something of the life of
the yeoman as well as of that of the rulers and
nobles. To this change in the manner of writ-
ing history the Grimms were most important
contributors, since they were practically the first
to recognize the importance of considering the
humbler walks of life as an aid in the study of
history.
For several years after this the brothers con-
tinued to write and publish together and among-
the works thus produced were Old German For-
ests, a selection of extracts from the Erder Edda,
a collection of German legends, and a volume






THE BROTHERS GRIMM


of Irish fairy legends. But the first great work
of Jacob Grimm's life was a German grammar,
in four large octavo volumes which appeared at
intervals from 1819 to 1837. Of this work,
which was really a study of the German lan-
guage, it has been said that it showed to the
learned world for the first time what a language
is. While this book was in progress he pub-
lished a profound work on the legal antiquities
of Germany which aimed to show how close a
relation exists between a nation's law and its
manners and customs and its archaeology.
While Jacob Grimm was engaged upon themes
like these, Wilhelm was equally busy although
the books that he published were not of so am-
bitious a character as those of his brother. One
of these, however, a work on the Heroic Legends
of the Germans, was considered by Jacob to be
Wilhelm's masterpiece. The same year in which
this appeared, 1829, the brothers received ap-
pointments to the University of G6ttingen, Jacob
as professor and librarian, Wilhelm as assistant
librarian. Although they regretted leaving Cas-
sel, the change in many ways was advantageous
and the salaries attached to their new positions
being liberal they were not subject to pecuniary
embarrassments as heretofore.
At G6ttingen Jacob lectured often on com-
parative German grammar and some other topics
and Wilhelm, whose style was not unlike his
brother's, upon old German literature and the
Niebelungenlied. Both, it is pleasant to know,
were great favorites with the students at the
University. The principal work produced by
Jacob Grimm at Gittingen was his well-known
German Mythology in which book he clearly
demonstrated that common superstitions and
beliefs are often the remains of a nation's ear-
liest religion.
In 1837 certain political events occurred which
put an end to the residence of the Grimms in
Gottingen. William iv. of England, who was
also King of Hanover, having died, the two
kingdoms were declared distinct and the Duke
of Cumberland, brother to William iv., became
the new King of Hanover. The new monarch
refusing to recognize the liberal constitution
which his brother had given to Hanover, a pro-
test was entered against the act by the Univer-
sity of G6ttingen signed by seven of the pro-


fessors, among whom were the brothers Grimm.
The immediate result of this was the removal
from office by the king of the seven professors
and the order that three of them, Dahlman and
Jacob Grimm and Gervinus, should leave the
kingdom within three days. The exiled pro-
fessors were accompanied to the frontiers by
the students in a body who resolved not to re-
demand the lecture fees which they had paid
the professors in advance.
A year later Wilhelm followed Jacob to Cassel
where they began jointly to prepare their great
German Lexicon, "Deitsches Wrii-trbuch," the
first volume of which appeared in 1852 and the
last in 1862. In 1841 the brothers were invited
to Berlin as members of the Academy by the
King of Prussia, Frederic William Iv., and in
Berlin the remainder of their lives was mainly
spent. Although Wilhelm from this time pub-
lished a number of minor works his principal
labor was given to the great lexicon, the work
upon which in the last seven years of Wilhelm's













i





Pi.' .





JACOH LU)\VIG KARL GRIMM.

life was shared equally with his brother. Dur-
ing his life in Berlin Jacob Grimm published a
History of the German Language in two large
volumes and a number of other works beside
working diligently upon the Lexicon with his






THE BROTHERS G II MM.


brother. When one thinks of the amount of
work achieved by these two men in the course
of their lives it seems as if they could never
have known an idle moment, yet Wilhelm de-
voted only the daytime to study and Jacob would
never refuse a visitor at any time.
Nothing seems ever to have marred the har-
mony which existed between these two. In
their early years they roomed together, studied
at the same table and even dressed alike, and
for a long time after they became men they had
their study-chamber in common. Later they oc-
cupied study-chambers which joined. Wilhelm
was intolerant of interruptions and could work
only in silence, while Jacob, who if left to him-
self would keep at work without intermission,
was able to resume his task with perfect ease
after any interruption. The marriage of Wil-
helm in 1825 did not disturb the intimacy of the
brothers, for Jacob became one of his brother's
family and Frau Grimm attended to his interests
as faithfully as to those of her husband. The
brothers possessed their library in common and
of this library Jacob was custodian. So familiar
was he with his books that he could find any one
of them at night without a light, and he de-
lighted to get up and put his hand directly upon
some volume for which the others were search-
ing in vain.
Besides their common passion for books they
were equally fond of flowers. They had little
opportunity to indulge this taste as their life
was spent in cities, but in Wilhelm's windows
primroses bloomed luxuriantly while in Jacob's
were gilliflowers and heliotrope.
It was not until December, 1859, that the
earthly end of this beautiful friendship came.
Then the long companionship was broken by
the death of Wilhelm. On the twentieth of
September, 1863, nearly four years later, a short
illness closed the life of Jacob, the greatest of
the two brothers whose long lives were so full
of noble achievement and were such eminent


examples of the value of patient industry. The
character of the younger brother was the strong-
er of the two and to him was due the planning
and original suggestion of everything which
they wrote in common. He combined in him-
self a delicate poetic sense with the exactness
and thoroughness of the scientist, while his devo-
tion to truth was the mainspring of his life. His
literary style was unlike that of any writer of
his time except that of his brother, whom in
originality of thought he much excelled. But
the life of both was modeled upon the same
plan and the attainments of Wilhelm are inferior
in degree only, and not in kind to those of his
brother. How complete the harmony and mu-
tual comprehension was may be seen from the
dedication of the third volume of Jacob's gram-
mar:

"MY DEAR WIIHELM:- When last winter you were
so ill, I was obliged to fear that your faithful eyes might
perhaps never light upon the pages now before you. I
was seated at your table, in your chair, and my mind was
filled with inexpressible sadness when I saw with how
much order and neatness you had read and extracted from
the first volumes of my work. It appeared to me then
that I had written it for you alone, and that, if you were
taken away from me, I could never proceed any further
with its composition. God's mercy has protected us
and left you with us, and it is therefore to you in all jus-
tice the present volume more especially belongs. It has
been said truly, that certain books are written for pos-
terity; but it is nevertheless even more true, that at the
same time each work of the kind belongs first of all to
the limited circle in which we live, and that that circle
alone contains the key to its most intimate sense, which
often may remain sealed to all the rest. At any rate,
when you read me, you who know exactly my manner,
with all its commendable qualities and its defects, I expe-
rience more satisfaction than if I were read by a hundred
others, who may not comprehend me properly here and
there, or to whom my work, in many a part of it, may be
a matter of indifference. But as for you, I know that you
peruse every portion of my book with the most impartial
and most constant interest, and that not only on account
of the subject itself, but also for my own sake. May you
therefore be fraternally contented with that which I now
dedicate to you."







THE PLEASURES OF A YOUNG NUMISMATIST.


THE PLEASURES OF A YOUNG NUMISMATIST.

BY MARY C. BALLARD.


A FEW years ago, there was a story in \IDE
AWAKE,* of John Gilman, a boy who
proved the truth of the adage, that the birth-
place of genius is often in the prison-house of
trial." His finding of the coins in the attic
developed a taste that transformed him from an
idle boy to a scholar. This same boy has just
graduated from the High School, and his essay
on Numismatics," was the finest paper read on
Graduation Day.
This essay showed the writer's study of the
languages, as he traced the derivation of the
names applied to money: numismatics, from
numisma, a coin ; pecuniary from pecus a flock-
flocks and herds being formerly used as equiva-
lents for money, Homer estimating the value
of the armor of his horses in oxen ; cash, from
the French caisse, a strong box ; money from the
temple of Juno Moneta, where the first stamped
coins of the ancient Romans were made.
In fact all of John's studies seemed to have
helped him to acquire his knowledge of coins.
In a forcible way, he brought out the useful-
ness of the study of coins in the different pro-
fessions and pursuits. The historian found on
them records of remarkable events that might
otherwise have been lost to the world; Roman
history, especially to-day, owed much to the
confirmation of the Imperial coins, which were
mostly struck to commemorate some important
national event.
The statesman found on them various memo-
randa of the political systems of ancient nations,
the coins telling of the rise and fall of monarchies
and the birth of republics.
The theologian read on many of them the creed
of the nations by whom they were used; even on
the earliest-known coined money that of the
Asiatic Greeks are found devices expressing
their religious beliefs. The religious history of
the Jewish nation finds record on the coins of
Palestine; they are full of interest, from the
first silver shekel paid by Abraham for the grave
John's Schoolmaster," April 1882.


of Sarah, to the last copper mite, the gift of the
poor widow. With the silver denarius comes a
thought that made him touch reverently a coin
that might be the very one once held in the
hand of the great Teacher, and used as object les-
son to the Pharisees. He reads of the destruction
of Jerusalem and the dispersion of the Jews on
the large bronze coin struck by the Emperor
Titus. Those struck in the time of Constantine
bear the labarum, with the monogram of Christ,
and on the rare coin of Vetranis is the legend:
" In hoc signo victor eris." The Irish penny of
King John, A. D. I 85, bearing the triangle on
the obverse, proclaimed the doctrine of the
Trinity, which was preached by St. Patrick and
resulted in the conversion of Ireland to Chris-
tianity a faith still kept in remembrance by
the Irish triangular harp and the beloved sham-
rock. The gold ducat of 1617, issued by John
George, the First Duke of Saxony, called to
mind the Reformation, and Martin Luther, in
whose honor it was struck. Another gold ducat
bore the heads of Martin Luther and Philip
Melancthon. The coins often breathed a prayer;
on the elephant half-penny of 1694 were the
words, God preserve New England," and
the Carolina half-penny of the same date bore
the same petition. On our own dollar of to-day
is declared our faith : In God we trust."
The artist studied on coins the artistic attain-
ments of the age; they furnished him reliable
likenesses of men who lived in ancient days.
The Roman bronzes preserve the faces of the
Emperors more perfectly than could be done in
marble or colors, showing not their own skill,
but that of Greek artists, who were employed
by the Romans to make the dies for their coins
because they excelled in portraying individual
likenesses. An Athenian drachm of the earliest
date, showed the status of artistic culture in the
city which bore the highest reputation for taste
in art; this coin has on its face the rude figure
of an owl, a bird sacred to Minerva the patron
deity of Athens, and the reverse shows only







94 THE PLEASURES OF A

the blows of the hammer. The growth of art
can be noted as the head of Minerva appears
on the coins, at first in a rude form, as on the
Athenian drachm, and finally in the magnificent
head of the Athenian tetradrachm of 230 B. c.
Just turn this same coin-and there is the
primitive owl as ugly as ever-long usage
allowing no change in the favorite device. The
artist comparing the beautiful Greek and Roman
coins of two thousand years ago with those of
to-day, wonders if the world has stood still.
Coins interest all workers in metal, who learn
that the first rude coins were formed by placing
a lump of metal over a die bearing some device
of religious or national faith; a wedge placed
back of the metal was struck with a hammer
until the metal was pressed into the die, and its
surface impressed with the marks of the die -
the reverse naturally taking the same form as
the wedge placed at the back to hold it securely.
Not until 480 or 460 B. c. were coins issued with
the image of a human head in the hollow of the
punch-mark; the first were coined is Syracuse,
bearing probably the head of Proserpine. The
first coin' to bear a date or name of a living
monarch, was a tetradrachm issued in the time
of Alexander I. of Macedonia, 500 B. c.; it bore
on the obverse one of the celebrated horses
of Thrace led by a man wearing the peculiar
Macedonian hat. In Greece the coiner's art
did not attain sufficient skill to form a perfect
reverse until the reign of Philip of Macedon.
What a change in the coiner's work from the
slow and laborious primitive process to the pres-
ent steam-coining press, that turns out beautiful
and perfect specimens with one stroke of the
hammer.
In short, John's graduating essay embodied
several years of out-of-school work, and its
glowing style showed that it was written by an
enthusiast.
Of course he had foregone many a game of
base-ball, many an excursion, to gain time for
the Art Museum or Public Library. He read
all the available standard works on coins.
W. C. Prince's work, Coins, Medals and Seals,
Ancient and Modern, was greatly valued by him.
He learned by heart" literally, The Coinage
of the World* a book that gives in a popular
Coinage oftle World. By Geo. D. Mathews.


YO UNG TUMISMA TIS '.


style, yet concise form, the history of coins from
the earliest ages, a book invaluable to those who
have neither the money to buy the expensive
works of the old writers, nor the time to study
the ponderous volumes of which this is the very
essence.
An illustrated history of the United States Mint
gave him information concerning the United
States and Colonial coins. He read diligently
all the Numismatic Manuals and Catalogues that
he could lay hands upon.
The Coin Collectors' Journal helped him to much
knowledge in regard to collecting coins, their
rarity, their prices, and the best way of cleaning
and preserving them. He found that he had
done an unwise thing in using acids and scour-
ing-brick in his first experience of cleaning coins.
He now cleaned his silver coins with a soft brush
and soap and warm water, sometimes giving them
a final polish with prepared chalk and a chamois.
He cleaned his copper coins in the same way,
using powdered soapstone for polishing. His
brass coins were cleansed with prepared chalk
and ammonia--the white metal coins with alco-
hol or chalk and ammonia. He touched very
carefully the old coins encrusted with the green
enamel, called patina, for which he had a par-
ticular admiration.
Through these publications, with their numer-
ous illustrations, he became familiar with rare
coins which did come in his way. He acquainted
himself with the selling price of every coin in
his own collection, often finding a coin which he
thought of little value to be high-priced.
When one is studying a subject how informa-
tion will greet them whichever way they turn.
When John opened the daily paper, his eye
instinctively turned to the account of auction
sales of coins, and he read of new discoveries
of coins.
He was much elated when a Connecticut
copper of 1787 was found on a New England
farm, and greatly excited when on the distant
island of Euboea was found a vessel containing
coins of pre-Roman times, among them seventy
Athenian tetradrachms, which lessened the price
of his own specimen of the coin that he had ob-
tained with great pains and large cost. He thus
learned that what was a rare coin at one time,
commanding a high price, might become of little






A YOUNG NUAMISAfATIST.


value when by chance whole boxes of these same
coins were discovered buried in the earth, often
in a fine state of preservation.
The story of the New York obelisk had for
him a special interest because there had been
found by Commander Gorringe, while excavating
the ground in Alexandria, on which it stood, four
hundred and forty-nine coins, dating from the
fourth century before Christ all the way down
to 1868. He coveted the knowledge of Mr.
Feuardent, the antiquarian, who so skillfully de-
ciphered these coins, most of them lost byvisitors
to the monument, only seventy-seven coins of
Roman imprint bearing evidence that they were
,deposited there for safe keeping between A. D. 293
and 305.
John not only gained book-knowledge of coins,
but he acquired much practical knowledge of
collecting coins, as he constantly added to the
collection that had been a legacy to him from
Uncle Fred. He developed business habits in
trading off his bats and balls and the motley
.collection of playthings that every boy must
possess to be happy; all these he traded for
coins, which the boys were sure to bring him
for exchange -almost every household furnish-
ing some old thrown-aside coin. He made friends
with the merchants, who were pleased with his
intelligence and willingly saved for him the odd
foreign coins that were often brought to the
stores. They furnished him with large numbers
of the old United States cents, only asking him
to redeem them at their face value. Often among
them he found high-priced coins; once a cent of
1799, well preserved and worth ten dollars. He
found too the nickel cent of 1856. Among old
dimes and half-dimes, he found the dime of 1804,
worth from five to ten dollars; once a dirty half-
dime which, when cleaned, revealed the rare date
of 1802; fine specimens of this half-dime are
-worth one hundred dollars. But he looked in
vain for a half-dime of 1804; a coin so rare that
-even the cabinet of the United States Mint is
without a specimen, and not many years ago one
was sold in New York for four hundred dollars.
John's search for coins often led him into
-experiences and adventures so pleasant that he
felt he tasted the very cream of enjoyment while
pursuing his favorite study. In his constant col-
lecting he often had several coins of the same


date; he thus gradually filled out whole series
of coins and sent them to the numismatists for
sale, always realizing fair profit for his labor.
Some series were the purple cents; some bore
the olive tint. He not only arranged series by
dates, but his study taught him the value of the
different types and varieties of the same series of
coins, and the slight difference in these varieties
that enhanced their value.
The early copper coins of our country gave
full scope for his taste for variety. He found
that in 1793 there were three types of cent, the
Liberty-cap, the chain, and the wreath, and that
in these types there were differences which only
a student would notice, and which increased its
value. There were three varieties of the half-
cent of 1795; one with the Liberty-cap, the
most highly prized, the Liberty-cap. with no pole,
and the thin planchet. Two additional stars
doubled the price of the second variety of half-
cents issued in 1817.
Our silver currency also afforded a large variety
of types. There were two varieties of dollars in
1796; on one the date was in small, the other
in large figures. In 1797, on the first variety of
dollars were six stars, the second seven stars.
In 1798, on the first variety were thirteen stars,
on the second fifteen stars (every star seeming
to shine with joy at the growth of the States).
The variety of the Standard, or Bland dollar,
first issued in 1878, with eight feathers in the
tail, was worth ten dollars.
In the half-dollars there were similar differ-
ences in the stars. In 1806 there were three
varieties of half-dollars ; the one with blunt 6,
the pointed 6, and that with no stem. Some
years the addition of a barbed arrow each side
of the date marked the only difference in the
issue. The variety of half-dollars with the let-
tered edge of 1836 commanded only a small
premium; while those with the reeded edge,
and head like that of 1837, were worth six
dollars and seventy-five cents. The variety of
1866, without the motto, "In God we trust,"
was worth ten dollars. This same price could
be obtained for the quarter-dollar of 1853 with-
out arrows or sun on reverse.
In foreign coins were also found similar vari-
eties, as John discovered one Christmas, when
he received as a gift from his father, a five-franc


THE PLEASURES OF







96 THE PLEASURES OF A

piece of 185i. As he already had one of that
date, he thought it strange that his father should
value it highly enough to give to him for a
Christmas gift; but he soon discovered it was
one of those rare coins where the lock of hair
is curled forward on the forehead of Prince
Louis Napoleon, whose image it bears. There
were only twenty-three of these coins issued,
when Napoleon had the mould altered, being
offended with the stray lock of hair. John's
father had obtained the coin for his son through
a friend in Paris, by paying for it one hundred
and thirteen francs.
These slight differences taught John the habit
of close observation, for on them depended the
value of the coin. Perhaps one of the pleasant-
est results of John's work in coins was that it
brought father and son together in such a happy
way the father entering into the spirit of the
collecting with almost the same zest as the boy.
The two seemed to be of like mind; what red-
letter hours they spent together! John antici-
pated his father's wishes in so many ways as to
relieve him of considerable care, and he always
was at hand whenever his father needed help in
writing or copying ; and in return to what rare
good times did the father treat the boy! taking
him to the United States Mint, to the city Mu-
seums, to all auction sales of coins, and prom-
ising to take him some day to Europe, where
nearly all of the principal cities have valuable
numismatic collections.
Being so much with his father, John often met
his father's friends, who, appreciating the boy's
intelligent interest in coins procured for him
many foreign specimens.
In this way there came to him from Siam
some of the recently coined flat money, with a
pagoda on one side, and on the other the elephant,
the sacred animal of Siam; there came in the
same package some of the former style of bullet-
shaped coins, made of seven oval pieces of silver,
fastened skillfully together, each piece bearing a
stamp showing its value.
Another friend of his father brought him coins
from Turkey, and taught him to decipher the
Arabic characters, so that he found no difficulty
in understanding the monogram of the Sultan,
which is usually on one side, while on the other
is the year or the Sultan's reign, the date from


YOUNG NVUM/ISMATIST.

the Hegira, and the name of the mint: the coins
bore no heads of the Sultans, as the Moham-
medan religion forbids the making of any like-
ness. These Turkish coins led him to study
Marsden's work on Oriental Coins, and several
other books recently issued by the British
Museum, treating of Arabic inscriptions.
Still another gentleman brought him a skeatta,
the smallest of the early British coins of A. D. 606
when, after the departure of the Roman con-
querors, they commenced an independent coin-
age. This skeatta was of silver, and bore no
inscription, and the rude profile showed little
skill in art. What a change to the British coins
of to-day, bearing the finely-cut head of Queen
Victoria, and especially to the coin with the
splendid Gothic Crown prepared in 1847, but
never in active circulation ; or to the last issue
of gold, made from the new die, representing
the Queen wearing the Imperial crown, and with
her features to-day. John had also a British
"siege-piece of Charles I., made of the family
plate, with hammer and anvil on the field of
battle.
He had specimens of Maunday Money, which
were easily distinguished from ordinary currency
from having no milling on the edge. They were
given in olden times as a royal bounty to the
poor, on the Thursday of Holy Week, in memory
of the day when Pilate gave his order for the
crucifixion of our Lord. In England, the num-
ber of the "Maunds distributed was according
to the years of the monarch.' The practice is
still continued, but is not given in person by
the sovereign, or the Lord High Almoner, as in
olden time; a money-payment being received
from the clerk of the Almonry office.
John obtained many coins by exchange through
the magazines. In this way he even procured a
very rare coin of our own country a-half-dime
of 1793, struck from the private plate of Wash-
ington, bearing the head of Martha Washington
who sat to the artist who designed it; it bore
her features, but was emblematic of Liberty.
John knew the rarity of a coin was no test
of its numismatic value; if he were to make this
his standard it would change him from a numis-
matist into a speculator. Still he had a great
longing for rare coins. If it had been in his
power he would not have thought it a waste of




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