Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Mathematical geography
 Physical geography
 Map drawing
 Physical Western Hemisphere
 Physical Eastern Hemisphere
 Comparative physical geography
 Political geography
 Physical North America
 Political North America
 Physical United States
 Political United States
 North Atlantic states
 Middle Atlantic states
 Atlantic and Central states, Southern...
 North Central states
 West Central states and states...
 Western states
 Commercial United States
 British America
 Commercial United States
 Mexico - Central America - West...
 Physical South America
 Political South America
 Physical Europe
 Political Europe
 Great Britain and Ireland
 Western and Central Europe
 German Empire and Netherlands and...
 Physical Asia
 Political Asia
 Physical Africa
 Political Africa
 Physical geography
 Political geography - Commercial...
 Statistical tables
 Pronouncing vocabulary
 The old and new systems of railroad...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Harper's school geography : with maps and illustrations prepared expressly for this work
Title: Harper's school geography
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085423/00001
 Material Information
Title: Harper's school geography with maps and illustrations prepared expressly for this work
Physical Description: iv, 130, 20 p. : ill., maps (some col.) ; 32 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Book Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: American Book Company
Place of Publication: New York ;
Cincinnati ;
Publication Date: c1896
Edition: Ed. for Ohio, Indiana and Illinois
Subject: Geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Ohio   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Indiana   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile literature -- Illinois   ( lcsh )
Textbooks -- 1896   ( rbgenr )
Maps -- 1896   ( gmgpc )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1896   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1896
Genre: Textbooks   ( rbgenr )
Maps   ( gmgpc )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Ohio -- Cincinnati
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
Statement of Responsibility: by eminent American artists.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on front paste-down endpaper.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00085423
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223616
notis - ALG3867
oclc - 234189785

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Mathematical geography
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Physical geography
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Map drawing
        Page 7
    Physical Western Hemisphere
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Physical Eastern Hemisphere
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Comparative physical geography
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Political geography
        Page 18
    Physical North America
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Political North America
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Physical United States
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Political United States
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    North Atlantic states
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Middle Atlantic states
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Atlantic and Central states, Southern division
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    North Central states
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    West Central states and states of the Plains
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Western states
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Commercial United States
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    British America
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Commercial United States
        Page 70
    Mexico - Central America - West Indies
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Physical South America
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Political South America
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Physical Europe
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Political Europe
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Great Britain and Ireland
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Western and Central Europe
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    German Empire and Netherlands and Belgium
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Physical Asia
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Political Asia
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Physical Africa
        Page 116
    Political Africa
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Physical geography
        Page 122
    Political geography - Commercial geography
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Statistical tables
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Pronouncing vocabulary
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    The old and new systems of railroad time
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


For primary work in Home Geography . ... $0.25

For supplementary reading in Grammar Schools
ASIA . . . .... .60
SOUTH AMERICA. (In preparation)

For High Schools . . . I.oo

For Teachers and High School Students
Ten Monographs, separate . . each .20
Bound in one volume . . 2.50

For map drawing in Geography and History classes per ioo .o50

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IN presenting to the public this work on geography, the publishers
respectfully invite the attention of Boards of Education, teachers, and
parents to the following statement of its plan and leading features:-
The study of geography is now, much more than at any former pe-
riod, an essential element in education. It is second in importance
-only to reading, writing, and rudimentary arithmetic. The newspaper
is and must continue to be the chief source of that knowledge of cur-
rent events which is indispensable to every intelligent person. Its
telegrams and other items and articles necessarily assume that the reader
possesses a knowledge of certain geographical facts. It is the aim of
this work to present and impress these facts.
To this end the careful selection and arrangement of topics.have been
regarded as matters of prime necessity in order to insure such a unity of
plan as to present a simple, yet practical, definite, and coherent view of
the subject.
The geography of commerce has been made the leading line of
thought, because commerce, domestic and foreign, is becoming more
and more a dominant interest in the affairs of the leading nations of
the world, and because no other department of the general subject
presents in such bold relief their rivalries and mutual dependencies.
It involves a systematic presentation of the resources and industries
of countries as dependent upon climate, soil, mineral deposits, and other
physical conditions. It also includes the most important information
concerning cities and towns as commercial, manufacturing, and mining
centers, and an outline of the system of transportation, domestic and
international. The tables of reference show the total imports and ex-
ports of the leading maritime nations, and particularly the commerce of
each of these countries with the United States.
The work is essentially in two distinct parts, -a physical geography
and a political geography. The physical geography is treated with
sufficient fulness, and presents no difficulty greater than the description
of a chain of mountains or of the course of a river. A systematic
outline of this department will be found in the questions of the general
review. Each of the two parts has a series of special maps, exercises,
and descriptions. Each series is complete in itself, and may be so

taught if it be thought desirable. Again, by a difference in type and
by the arrangement of the questions, each series presents the choice of a
simple outline or a fuller course.
The questions are so clearly related to the maps and the text as to
avoid the serious difficulties which frequently arise from obscurity in
this connection. The cities and towns called for by the text are at
once pointed out both by the prominence of the type and by a peculiar
device of color which will be found upon the maps.
Among the many other original matters of great practical importance
to pupils and teachers are the map showing the divisions and subdivis-
ions of the United. States, and the Industrial and Commercial Map of
the United States, exhibiting the leading industries and resources of the
country, and its various existing and proposed systems of transportation
by railroad, coast lines, and ir,.r;or water ways, the whole so simple
and clearly presented as to be easily committed to memory.
The definitions are few and brief, and, like the rest of the work, are
expressed in the simplest language which the subject will allow.
The map-drawing exercises and the tabular reviews are simple and
practical, and will commend themselves to teachers.
The perfect clearness and legibility of the maps, and the character of
the type used in the text, prevent injury to the sight of the pupil and
In view of the limited time which can be given.to geography in school,
this treatise has been made as concise as possible, without limiting its
comprehensiveness. This is not only very desirable in itself, but was.
made necessary by the large type and the great space given to the in-
structive pictorial illustrations. While great care has been taken to
reject all matter not strictly relevant, it is believed that no other School
Geography presents so many essential facts and principles in so few
The character of the type, and the quality of the illustrations, maps,
paper, and binding of this work, leave it without a rival in the beauty
and excellence of its mechanical execution.
The work in all its details shows that the author is a practical teacher,
to whom the difficulties of the classroom are thoroughly familiar.


Copyright, 1875 and 1885, by HARPER & BROTHERS.
Copyright, 1894 and 1896, by AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.
.W. P. 12
























66, 67
1 I00

20, 121







12 $

: :


I. Geography is a description of the surface of the
earth, and of its countries and their inhabitants.
2. The shape of the earth is nearly that of a ball,
globe, or sphere.
The earth does not appear to be shaped like a ball,
but looks like a large plain, stretching out in every di-
rection. The reason of this is that we see only a small
part of it at one time.
NOTE. To insure correct conceptions on the part of the pupil, it is recom-
mended that the lessons on Mathematical Geography be illustrated by means
of a globe.

3. We know that the earth is shaped like a ball from
the following facts :-
First, Ships have sailed around it.
Second, When a ship sails away from the land, the hull
or body first disappears from sight, then the sails,
and last the tops of the masts.
When a ship is coming in from sea, the tops of the
masts are seen first, then the sails, and lastly the hull
or body. If the surface of the water were flat, the
hull would be seen as soon as the masts.
In like manner, in traveling across broad plains we
see the tops of distant mountains long before their
bases are visible.

` <4- '


Third, The shadow which the earth casts upon the
moon is always circular.
A ball or sphere being the only body that always casts
a circular shadow, we conclude that the earth has the
shape of a ball or sphere.

4. A diameter of a sphere is any straight line dravwn
OgM through the center from surface to
The diameter of the earth is nearly
SIAeight thousand miles.
IRUERECE 5. A circumference of a sphere is
the greatest distance around it.
The circumference of the earth is
nearly twenty-five thousand miles.
6. The surface of the earth contains nearly two hun-
dred millions of square miles.

7. The horizon is that circle upon which the earth
and the sky appear to meet.
That point of the horizon
towards which your shadow
falls at noon is called north.*
The opposite point is called C -
south. If you face the
north, your right hand is to-
wards the east, and your left hand is towards the west.

8. North, east, south, and west are called the cardinal
points of the horizon. The points midway between these
are called northeast, southeast,
NoRm southwest, and northwest.

9. The compass is an instru-
S ment used by mariners and sur-
veyors. It consists of a circular
E card representing the horizon and
its points. Over the center of the
card is a magnetic needle, balanced
4 on a pivot: this needle points to-
wards the north.

Questions. What does this section tell about ? I. What is geography ? -
z. What is the shape of the earth ? How does the earth appear to us ? Why is this ?
-3. What is the first fact by which we know that the earth is a globe ? The second
fact ? The third fact ? 4. What is a diameter of a sphere ? How long is the earth's
diameter ? 5. What is a circumference of a sphere ? How long is the earth's cir-
cumference ? 6. How many square miles in the surface of the earth ? 7. What is
the horizon ? Which way is north, south, etc.? 8. Which are the cardinal points ?
The points between these ? 9. Describe the compass.

' This is always true only in the North Temperate and North Frigid zones.



I. The earth has two constant motions,--the daily and
the annual.
2. The daily motion of the earth is its rotation on
one of its diameters. The direction of the motion is
from west to east: this causes the sun to appear to move
from east to west. The sun appears to rise in the east
because the place where we are is moving towards it; it
appears to set in the west because the place where we are
is moving from it.
The diameter on which the earth turns is called its
axis. The time in which the earth turns on its axis is
called a day.

3. The daily rotation causes the succession of day and
night. Each place is carried into the sunlight, and then
into the shade of the earth.

4. The poles are the points at the ends of the axis.,
One is called the North Pole; the other, the South Pole.

5. The swiftness of the rotation has caused the earth to
be slightly flattened at the poles, and
to bulge out a little midway between ., o
them. A globe flattened at the poles
is called an oblate spheroid. The
length of the earth's axis, or shortest
diameter, is 7,899 miles; the longest
diameter is 7,925 miles. The greatest
circumference is 24,899 miles. '. ---.-
South Pole
NOTE. The polar diameter is about one three-hundredth less than the equatorial.

6. The earth moves around the sun in a nearly circu-
lar path, called its orbit. The time in which the earth
revolves around the sun is called a year. It contains
nearly 365% days. This motion is called the annual

7. The axis of the earth is inclined to its orbit.
inclination may be regarded as constant.


8. The annual revolution of the earth, and the inclina-
tion of its axis, cause the change of the seasons.

Questions. What does this section tell about ?-- I. How many motions has
the earth ? What are they ? 2. What is the daily motion of the earth ? In what
direction is it ? How does the sun appear to move ? Why does it appear to rise and
set? What is the axis of the earth ? What is a day ? 3. What is caused by the daily
rotation of the earth ? 4. What are the poles ? What are they called ? 5. What
effect has the swiftness of the rotation ? What name is given to the true shape of the
earth ? What is an oblate spheroid ? How many miles difference between the longest
and the shortest diameter ? How long is the greatest circumference ? 6. What other
motion has the earth ? What is the shape of its path ? Its name ? What is a year ?
How long is it? 7. What is the position of the earth's axis ? Does the inclination
change ? 8. What cause the change of the seasons ?




i. The circles of the earth* are lines imagined to be
Jrawn on its surface.
These circles are of two kinds, great circles and small
2. A great circle is one that divides the earth into two
equal parts. Each of these parts is called a hemisphere,
which means a half sphere.

3. A small circle is one that divides the earth into two
unequal parts.
4. Every circle is divided into 360 equal parts called
degrees; each degree is divided*
into 60 equal parts called min- o20 00o o0o
utes; and each minute into 60 -
equal parts called seconds. 1o

The smaller the circle, the short- 18
er are the degrees. Degrees
are marked O, minutes ', and seconds ". Thus twelve degrees,
fifteen minutes, and ten seconds are written 12 1.5' 1o".

5. The Equator is that great circle which
between the poles. It divides the earth into
and a southern hemisphere.

is midway
a' northern





6. Meridian circles are those great circles which pass
through the poles. Each divides the earth into an east-
ern and a western hemisphere.

7. A meridian is half of a meridian circle, and extends
from pole to pole.

8. Parallels are small circles parallel to the Equator.
The principal parallels are the two tropics and the two
polar circles.

In Geometry a distinction is made between the circle and its boundary line or
circumference. 'The circle is really the space or surface bounded by the circumfer.
ence. This distinction is not necessary in Geography.

9. The tropics are those parallels which are 23% de-
grees from the Equator. The northern is called the
Tropic of Cancer, and the NoRTHPOLE
southern the Tropic of Cap-
.. ..
131S./'-" "/ \4.
io. The polar circles are ..
those parallels which are TO -
23Y degrees from the poles. ..oO '
The northern is called the TROC
Arctic Circle, and the south- -^ IR
ern the Antarctic Circle. SOUTH POLE

Questions (I.) I. What are the circles of the earth ? How many kinds of cir-
cles ? What are they ? 2. What is a great circle ? What is a hemisphere? -3. What
is a small circle ? 4. How is every circle divided ? How are degrees divided ? How
are minutes divided ? 5. What is the Equator ? Into what does it divide the earth?
- 6. What are meridian circles ? Into what does each divide the earth ? 7. What
is a meridian ? 8. What are parallels ? Which are the principal parallels? 9. What
are the tropics ? Give the name of each. ro. What are the polar circles ? Give the
name of each.
(II.)- Read 32 15' 47" ; 49' II' 37". Which is larger, a degree of the Equator
or of a tropic? Why? Of the Equator or of a meridian? Why? Of a tropic or
of the Arctic Circle ? Why? Which is the greater, the Eastern Hemisphere or the
Northern? Why? How many meridian circles may there be? How many Equa-
tors? How many parallels? How many meridians ?



I. Latitude is distance north or south from the Equa-
tor. It is measured, in degrees, on a meridian. Places
between the Equator and the North Pole are in north
latitude; those between the Equator and the South Pole
are in south latitude; those on the Equator have no lati-
tude. The poles have the greatest possible latitude,
which is 90 degrees.

2. Longitude is distance east or west from a selected
meridian. It is measured, in degrees, on the Equator or
any parallel. The selected meridian is called the first

The meridian in most common use is that which passes through
Greenwich Observatory, near London. In the United States
the meridian of Washington is sometimes used; in France, that
of Paris; in Germany, that of Berlin; etc.

Places on the first meridian have no longitude.
greatest longitude is 18o degrees, east or west.


A degree of the Equator measures 60 geographical miles, or about
69 statute miles of the United States. A degree on the parallel
of 600 is just half as long.

3. Zones are broad belts or divisions of the earth's
surface parallel to the Equator. They are bo0iAded by
the tropics and the polar circles.

W.,i /"


4. There are five zones, one Torrid, two Temperate,
and two Frigid zones.
5. The Torrid Zone extends from the Tropic of
Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn.

Torrid means hot." This zone is the hottest part of the earth,
because the sun is always shining directly down upon some part
of it. It is 47 degrees wide, or 23 degrees on each side of the
Equator, and is the largest zone.

6. The North Frigid Zone extends from the Arctic
Circle to the North Pole.
The South Frigid Zone extends from the Antarctic
Circle to the South Pole.

Frigid means "frozen." The Frigid zones are the coldest parts of
the earth, because the sun shines upon each of them during only
a part of the year, and with very slanting rays. Each extends
23y/ degrees from the pole at its center. They are the smallest,
least important, and least known of the zones. The South Frigid
Zone is not known to have one human inhabitant.

7. The North Temperate Zone extends from the
Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Cancer.
The South Temperate Zone extends from the Ant-
arctic Circle to the Tropic of Capricorn.

Temperate means "moderate." Each of the Temperate zones is 43
degrees wide. The North Temperate Zone is the most impor-
tant portion of the world. It contains nearly three fourths of
the human race.
NOTE. The axis of the esth is inclined 23Y/ degrees towards its orbit. This
determines the breadth of the several zones; the tropics being 23% degrees
from the Equator, and the polar circles being 23% degrees from the poles.

The four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, and win-
ter, are found only in the Temperate zones.



SQuestions (I.) I. What is latitude? How is it measured? On what? In
what directions? What places are in north latitude? In south latitude? What
places have no latitude? What places have the greatest latitude? How many de-
grees? 2. What is longitude? How is it measured? On what? In what direc-
tions ? What is the name of the meridian from which longitude is reckoned ? What
places have no longitude? What is the greatest longitude a place can have?-3.
What are zones? By what are they bounded? 4. How many zones are there?
Name them. 5. Where is the Torrid Zone ? 6. The North Frigid ? The South
Frigid ? 7. The North Temperate Zone ? The South Temperate Zone ? Which
zones have four seasons during the year ?
(II.) 2. What meridian is in most common use ? What meridian is sometimes
used in the United States ? In England ? In France ? In Germany ? 3. How many
miles in a degrde of a great circle ? On the parallel of 60 ? 5. Which is the hottest

zone? Why? What does its name mean? How wide is it? What great circle
passes through the middle of it? 6. Which zones are the coldest parts of the earth ?
Why? What does their name mean? What point in the center of each ? How
wide are they?-- 7. How wide are the Temperate zones? What does their name
mean ? Which is the largest zone ? The smallest ? The hottest ? The least im-
portant? Why? The most important? Why? Where are the coldest parts of
the Temperate zones? Where are the warmest parts?




I. The surface of the earth may be represented by
globes and maps.

2. A globe is a sphere representing the form of the
earth, its circles, and the principal divisions of the land
and water.

3. A map is a representation of the whole or a part of
the earth's surface on a plane.

A plane is a flat surface. The surface of a sphere cannot be
exactly represented upon a plane. Small portions of the earth's
surface can be more correctly represented upon maps than very
large ones.

4. Parallels cross the map from side to side; meridians,
from top to bottom. East is in the direction of the par-
allels towards the right; west, towards the left. North
is in the direction of the meridians towards the top;
south, towards the bottom.

5. Figures showing the latitude are placed on the sides
of the map; those showing the longitude are placed at
the top and the bottom.

EXCEPTION.-In the maps of the Eastern and Western
hemispheres the longitude is marked on the Equator.

Questions (I.) I. How may the surface of the earth be represented? -2.
What is a globe ? 3. What is a map? -4. How are parallels represented upon a
map? How are meridians represented? Which way is east? West? North?
South ? 5. Where are the figures showing the latitude placed ? Those showing the
longitude? What exception?
(II.)- 3. What is a plane ? Can the surface of a sphere be exactly represented
upon a map? Why? (Experiment with the peel of half of an orange.) Which can be
made the more accurate, -a map of a large portion of the earth's surface, or one of
a small portion? Why? Which represents the earth with more exactness, --\
globe, or a map? Why?

i th''-





I. The surface
of the earth con-
sists of land and
water. About one
fourth is land, and
about three fourths
The Northern Hemi-
sphere contains
about three times
E uato as much land as
the Southern; the
Eastern Hemi-
sphere about two
much as the West-
ern. The earth
: ~may be so divided
that_ nearly all the
land would be in
one hemisphere,
and the other would
be nearly all water.

face of the earth is divided into continents and islands.

3. A continent is a very large body of land.
4. There are six continents. Four are in the Eastern
Hemisphere, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. Two
are in the Western Hemisphere,- North America and
South America.
The three large continents of the Eastern Hemisphere are joined
into one great land mass called the Old World (see map on
p. 4). The united continents of the Western Hemisphere form
the New World. It is so called because discovered only a few
centuries ago. Some geographers call the Old World the Eastern
Continent, and the New World the Western Continent or the
American Continent.
5. An island is a body of land entirely surrounded
by water.,
Australia, the smallest continent, is much larger than the largest
island. The chief distinction between a continent and an island
is the difference in size.

6. An archipelago is a group of islands.

7. A peninsula is a body of land nearly surrounded
by water.
8. A cape is a point of land extending into the water.
A mountainous cape is called a promontory. A cape is usually
much smaller than a peninsula.

i. Island. 5. Isthmus. 9. Lake. 13. Mountain. 17. Shore.
2. Peninsula. 6. Archipelago. io. Sound. 14. Mountain Range. 18. Cape.
3. Bay. 7. River. ii. Hill. IS. Table-land. 19. Volcano.
4. Strait. 8. Delta. s1. Crater. 16. Plain. 2o. Sea.
A coast or shore is the land bordering on the water. Coasts are
often broken by peninsulas and capes.

9. An isthmus is a neck of land connecting two
larger bodies of land.

Questions (I.) I. Of what does the surface of the earth consist ? How much is
land? How much is water ? 2. How is the land surface divided ? 3. What is a
continent ? -4. How many continents are there ? 'How many in the Eastern Hemi-
sphere? Name them. How many in the Western Hemisphere? Name them. -
5. What is an island ? 6. What is an archipelago ? -7. What is a peninsula ? 8.
What is a cape? 9. What is an isthmus ?
(II.) I. Which hts the more land, the Northern Hemisphere, or the Southern ?
How many times as mush ? The Eastern Hemisphere, or the Western ? How many
times as much? What is meant by the land hemisphere ? -4. What is meant by the
Old World? What other name is given to it by some geographers? What is meant
by the New World? Why so called ? What other name has it ? 5. How does the
smallest continent compare with the largest island? What is the chief distinction
between a continent and an island ? 7. What is a promontory ? What is the chief
difference between a cape and a peninsula ? What is a coast or shore ? By what are
coasts broken?



I. The chief elevations of the land surface are moun-
tains, table-lands or plateaus, and lowland plains.

Mountains and plateaus are sometimes called highlands. The
height of elevations is reckoned from the surface or level of the

2. A mountain is a very high elevation of land.

If the elevation is not very high, it is usually called a hill.
The summit of a mountain is its highest point; the base is its
foot; the slopes are its sides.

3. A range or chain is a line of mountains or hills.

-- b


4. A volcano is a mountain which sends forth flames,
melted rock, clouds of steam, ashes, or other heated sub-
stance, from an opening called a crater.
5. A table-land or plateau is a broad extent of high
Table-lands are often crossed or bordered by mountain ranges. The
breadth of a mountain is generally less than that of a plateau.
6. A lowland plain is a broad extent of land not much
above the level of the sea.
A valley is land between hills or mountains. A desert is a barren
tract of land. An oasis is a low fertile spot in a desert.

7. The natural divisions of the land are continents
and islands. Their shores have peninsulas, capes, and
isthmuses; their surfaces have mountains, plateaus, and
lowland plains.
If we imagine a division of land to be cut through from side to
side and down to the level of the sea, the outline representing
the edges of such a cut is called a section.



Questions (I.)- I. Name the three chief elevations of the land. 2. What is a
mountain ? 3. A range or chain ?- 4. A volcano? A crater?- 5. A table-land or
plateau?-6. A lowland plain?-7. What are the natural divisions of the land?
What projections have their shores? What elevations have their surfaces?
(II.)-- I. What are mountains and plateaus sometimes called? From what are
their heights reckoned ?- 2. What is a hill ? What is the summit of a mountain ?
The base? The slopes?-- 5. Which is broader,-- a mountain, or a plateau? By
what are table-lands sometimes crossed or bordered?-6. What is a valley? A
desert? An oasis? 7. What is a section?



I. The waters on the surface of the earth are divided
into ocean waters and drainage waters.
2. The ocean is the great body of salt water that sur-
rounds all of the continents. Its five principal divisions
are also called oceans: namely, the Atlantic, the Pacific,
the Indian, the Arctic, and the Antarctic oceans.
3. A sea is a large division of the ocean nearly inclosed
by land. The ocean itself is sometimes called the sea.
4. A gulf or bay is a body of water in a bend of the
As there is but little difference between seas, gulfs, and bays, these'
names are sometimes given to similar bodies of water. A haven
or harbor is a small bay in which ships are safe from storms.

5. A strait or channel is a narrow passage connecting
two larger bodies of water.
A sound is a shallow channel or bay.

6. An ocean current is a great stream of water flow-
ing through the ocean.
7. The drainage waters, or waters on the stirface of
the land, are rivers and lakes.
8. A river is a large stream of fresh water.
A river flowing into another is called a branch or tributary. "The
place where a river begins or rises is its source; the place where
it flows into a sea, lake, or another river, -is its mouth.
9. A lake is a body of water wholly or nearly sur-
rounded by land.
S1. The natural divisions of the water are oceans,
rivers, and lakes. The subdivisions or arms of the ocean
are called seas, gulfs, bays, sounds, straits, and channels.

Questions (I.)-- I. Into what two great divisions may the waters be divided?--
2. What is the ocean? To what else is the name given? Name them. 3. What
is a sea? What is the ocean sometimes called? 4. What is a gulf or bay? 5. A
strait or channel ? 6. An ocean current ? 7. Which are the drainage waters ? -
8. What is a river?--9. What is a lake ? o. Name the natural divisions of the
water. What are the subdivisions or arms of the ocean called?
(II.)- 4. What three names are sometimes given to similar bodies of water?
Why? What is a haven or harbor? 5. What is a sound? -8. What name is
given to a river flowing into another ? What is the source of a river? The mouth?



I. Geography may be divided into Mathematical Geog-
raphy, Physical Geography, and Political Geography.
2. Mathematical Geography is a description of the
form, size, position, motions, circles, and zones of the
earth, and of the relative positions of places on its sur-
3. Physical Geography is a description of, the natural
divisions of the surface of the earth.
It treats, first, of its simplest divisions into land, water, and atmos-
phere; second, of the position, distribution, and extent of the
land and water, and of the great currents in the water and in
the atmosphere; third, of the character of the climates in differ-
ent parts of the earth, and the distribution of minerals, plants,
and animals; and, fourth, of the laws, causes, mutual relations,
and consequences of these facts, and of niany of those of Mathe-
matical Geography.

4. Political Geography is a description of the nations
and peoples of the earth, their social condition, and the
countries they inhabit.
It includes an account of towns, cities, states, industrial produc-
tions, and commerce. The Political Geography of a country is
so closely dependent upon its Physical Geography, that the two
should be studied together.
Questions (I.)-- I. How may Geography be divided? 2. What is Mathematical
Geography? 3. What is Physical Geography?-4. What is Political Geography?
(II.)-- 3. Of what does the first part of Physical Geography treat? The second?
The third? The fourth?-4. What does Political Geography include? Upon
what is it dependent ?




Map drawing, as a branch of the study of Geography, presents itself
under two aspects and as two distinct exercises.
First and most important, Sketching. This is an exercise by means
of which the leading facts of local geography are rapidly and efficiently
reviewed in the construction of quickly drawn outline maps, approx-
imately correct, and showing the actual condition of the pupil's knowl-
edge of the location of mountains, rivers, railways, towns, etc. The ex-
ercise is best prepared for in the classroom; it can then be gone over
at home by the pupil, if thought desirable, and should finally be re-
viewed and repeated in the classroom
as the equivalent of a recitation. An
illustration of the method is given
below. It should be remembered that
the chief object of this exercise is not
to test the pupil's skill in map draw-
ing, but his knowledge of location.
The second kind of exercise in
map drawing is that known as Car-
tography. This is much more elab-
orate, exact, and deliberate than
sketching, and aims to present an
accurate copy of some particular
map. It is a valuable exercise,
training the pupil to close and mi-
nute observation both of the prin-
cipal and of the less important con-
tents of the map, and to careful and
artistic manipulation. The simplest
and most efficient method of pursu-
ing this exercise is illustrated in the
concluding portion of this book.
Where circumstances will permit,
it is advisable that the exercises in
sketching should precede those in
cartography. Those, however, who
choose to begin with cartography,
and omit sketching until a later
stage, may readily do so.

Preparatory. After the map
questions relating to any state (let it
be Maine, for instance) have been
carefully studied, all the pupils of the
class should take their slates and pen-
cils and sketch the simple outlines
of the state with the map open be- OUTLINE MAP OF TJ
fore them. The sketch should be
drawn upon as large a scale as the size of the slate will conveniently
In the first lessons it will be well to let each pupil be furnished with
a slip of stiff paper or cardboard, divided into equal parts, to be used
in measuring. A model is furnished at the foot of this page. In the
second and more important review, in which the map is to be drawn
from memory, the measure should not be used. The exercise will then
be a sort of free-hand drawing. The work will be quite crude in the first
attempts, but with
and reasonable pa-
tience, very neat
work can be pro-

duced. One or more of the class should draw the map on a large scale
upon the blackboard.
First Step. Teach the pupils to estimate, approximately, of course,
the proportion or relation between the length of the state and its breadth,
measuring in the direction of the meridians and parallels whenever pos-
sible. Let the estimate first be made by the eye only, then stated, and
lastly tested by the measuring slip.
Questions. -Is Maine longer from east to west or from north to south?
(North to south.) How much longer? (One fourth.)
Second Step. Lead the pupils to observe the number (usually four),
direction, and length of the lines bounding the state, and whether they
are straight or curved or otherwise.
This step will usually require more
time and care than any other.
Questions.- How many lines form
the boundary of Maine? (Five.) How
many of them are partly or entirely
straight ? In what general direction
does each lie? Which is the short-
est line ? (The northern.) Which
is the longer boundary, the north-
Western, or the western? The east-
ern boundary, or the coast line ?
Third Step. Draw the outline
First draw lightly the line of great-
est length, A A, and that of greatest
breadth, B B; many states are so
simple as not to require these lines.
Draw the northern boundary; the
northwestern; the western; the east-
ern; the coast. As soon as the third
step is complete, it will be well to
inspect the work. Do the same at
the close of each succeeding step, or
even after each separate item.
Fourth Step. Sketch the moun-
tains, if there are any.
Questions. What mountains in
Maine, and where are they? Draw
Fifth Step.- Draw the rivers,
first noticing the direction of each.
Questions.- What boundary river on
the north ? Draw or go over it. On
the east? Name the three chief riv-
ers in the state. Draw the Penob-
scot. The Kennebec. The Andros-
coggin. Two or three chief lakes,
Sixth Step. Locate the princi-
pal cities and towns, beginning with
the capital. Use a star (*) for the
HE STATE OF MAINE. capital, and a small circle or dot (o .)
for the other cities and towns.
Questions.--What city is the capital? On what river? Locate it. Name
and locate the largest city. What city on the Penobscot ? On which side
of the river ? Locate it. Where is Lewiston? Biddeford? (Other cities
and towns may be drawn if required.)
Seventh Step. Draw the chief railroads.
Question.-- Between or through what towns and cities is each?
A further step, involving another form of review, is to require the
pupils to add initial letters to the several points drawn : Rivers A. R.,
K. R., P. R., St. J. R., St. C. R. Cities-A., P., L., B.
In rapid work,
the writing or print-
ing of the full name
will take too much




Continents. What two continents are in the Western Hemisphere ?
By what isthmus are they connected? What three oceans wash the
shores of North America ? Which one is on the north ? On the east?
On the west ? What ocean bounds South America on the north and
east? On the west ? What ocean south ?
;Islands. What large island northeast of North America ? What
island is east of it? What archipelago between Greenland and the
continent,? What island near the eastern point of North America?
What group southeast? What archipelago between North and South
America? Which are its two largest islands? What group north of
Cuba? What islands still farther northeast ? What group at the southern
end of South America? What group east ? What group in the Pacific
Ocean near the parallel of 20 north ? Of 500 north ? Of 400 south ?
What general name is given to the islands of the Pacific?
Peninsulas. What peninsula in the northwestern part of North
America? In the eastern part? In the western part? What two
near the island of Cuba ?
Capes. What cape at the southern point of Greenland ? At the
eastern point of Newfoundland ? At the southern point of'California?
What cape of North America is near Asia? What cape opposite'?
What cape is the northern point of South America? The eastern
point? The southern point? The western point?
7 Mountains. -What chain of mountains in the western part of North
America? In the eastern part? In the western part of South America ?
In the eastern part? On which side of South America are there many
volcanoes ? (See red dots on the map.) On which side of North America ?
-/ Plains and Plateaus. What plateau in the northern part of North
'America? What lowplain? In the central part? What high plains
west of the central plain ? What plateau west of the Rocky Mountains ?
What is the name of its southern' part? What plateau in the eastern
part of South America? In the northern? In the western? What
plains in the southern part? North of the plateau of Guiana? South?
Seas, Gulfs, and Bays. What bay west of Greenland ? In the.Arctic
Plain ? What gulf west of Newfoundland ? South of North America?
What island and two peninsulas nearly close that gulf? What sea
south of the West Indian Archipelago ? Between Alaska and Asia.?
Straits. What strait connects Bering Sea with the Arctic Ocean ?
At the entrance of Baffin Bay ? Of Hudson Bay ? Between Cuba and
Florida ? Between Tierra del Fuego and the continent?
". Rivers. What river flows through the northwestern part of the Arctic
Plain? Into what ocean? What river flows into the Gulf of St. Law-
rence? From what lakes? From what plain? What other river flows
through that plain? Into what gulf? What branch has it? What
river of North America flows into the Pacific Ocean ? From what
plateau? Into what ocean do the rivers of South America flow?
Which is the greatest river of South America ? Through what plains
does it flow? What river north of the Amazon? What river in the
southern part of South America?
Ocean Currents. What current flows from the Strait of Florida?
Across what ocean ? In what direction ? What current flows from
Baffin Bay? What current northeast of South America? Southeast?
West? What current crosses the Pacific near the Equator? Near
the parallel of 500 north ?
Zones. -What. circle crosses the northern part of North America?
In what zone is Cuba? The Hawaiian Islands? The Mississippi
River? In what zones is North America? South America?

Continents. -How bounded?
MODEL FOR STATING BOUNDARIES. South America is bounded on the north
by the Caribbean Sea, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the
Antarctic Ocean, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
North America? South America?
Islands. In what direction from the nearest land ? By what waters
surrounded ?
MODEL. Newfoundland is east of North America, and is surrounded by the
Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic Ocean.
Arctic Archipelago? Greenland? Iceland? Newfoundland ? Azores?
Bermuda Islands? Bahama Islands? West Indian Archipelago ?
Cuba? Haiti? Falkland Islands? TierradelFuego? NewZealand
Islands? Hawaiian Islands? Aleutian Islands? Oceanica?
Peninsulas. From what part of the continent does it project ? Into
what water, or between what waters ?
MODEL. California projects from the western part of North America, be-
tween the Gulf of California on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the west.
Labrador? Florida ? Yucatan? California? Alaska?
Capes. From what land does it project? From what part of it
Into what body of water ?
MODEL. Cape Race projects from the eastern part of Newfoundland into
the Atlantic Ocean.
Farewell? Race? St. Lucas ? Prince of Wales ? Gallinas? Horn ?
St. Roque? Blanco? East Cape?
Mountains. -In what part of the continent are they ? In what direc-
lion do they extend ?
MODEL. Appalachian, in the eastern part of North America, extend northeast
and southwest.
Appalachian? Rocky? Brazilian? Andes?
Plains and Plateaus. Where situated
MODEL. Arctic Plain is in the northern part of North America.
Arctic Plain? The Great Plains? Central Plain? Plains of the
Orinoco? Plains of the Amazon ? Plains of La Plata? Arctic Plateau?
Western Plateau? Mexican Plateau? Plateau of Guiana? Plateau of
Brazil ? Plateau of Bolivia?
Oceans. Of what continents does it wash the shores, or around what
pole is it?
MODEL. Pacific Ocean washes the western shores of North and South Amer-
ica; Antarctic or Southern Ocean, around the South Pole.
Arctic or Northern ? Antarctic or Southern ? Atlantic? Pacific ?
Seas, Gulfs, and Bays. What coast does it indent or wash ? Of
what ocean or other body of water is it an arm 7
MODEL. Hudson Bay indents the northeastern coast of North America, and
is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean.
Baffin Bay? Hudson Bay? Gulf of St. Lawrence ? Gulf of Mexico?
Caribbean Sea? Bering Sea?
Straits. Between what lands ? What waters does it connect ?
MODEL. Bering Strait, between Asia and North America, connects the Arc-
tic Ocean with Bering Sea.
Bering? Davis? Hudson? Florida?' Yucatan Channel? Magellan?
Rivers. In what continent does it rise ? In what part of it? In
what mountains ? In what direction does it flow ? Into what water ?
MODEL. Missouri River' rises in the Rocky Mountains in the western part
of North America, and flows southeast into the Mississippi River.
Mackenzie? St. Lawrence? Mississippi? Missouri? Columbia?
Orinoco? Amazon? La Plata?
Ocean Currents. In what ocean ? In what part of it ? In what
direction does it flow ?
MODEL. Brazilian Current, in the southwestern part of the Atlantic O an,
flows towards the southwest.
Polar ? Gulf Stream ? Equatorial ? Brazilian ? Peruvian ? jaan
Stream ;

?LlAliI~hIIII YI [1 11 : Ii l; ii il~l II -% 1f1j ffhii1i rmi
JI I ---
________________________________j Ti i''1111

LowPlains.. ................
Plateau ............ ...........
volcanoes .... .. ............
Lytection of Ourrents ............ ... ^




Continents. What four continents are in the Eastern Hemisphere ?
Which three are united into one great land mass? What isthmus
between Asia and Africa? Which is the largest of these four conti-
nents? The next in size? The smallest? What ocean bounds Europe
and Asia on the north? What ocean east of Asia? What three oceans
border on Australia? What three continents border on the Indian
Ocean? What ocean west of Europe and Africa?
X Islands. What two groups of islands are east of Asia ? What archi-
pelago southeast? What four great islands in the Malaysian Archipel-
ago? What island north of Australia? South? Southeast of Africa?
What group west of Europe? What island northwest? What islands
in the Arctic Ocean ? What islands west of Africa ? Northwest?
What lands in the Antarctic Ocean?
Peninsulas. What peninsula in the northeastern part of Asia? In
the eastern part? Southeastern? Southern? In the southern part of
Indo-China? What island south of Hindostan? What peninsula in
the southwestern part of Europe ? In the northwestern part ?
Capes. What cape at the northern point of Europe ? At the north-
ern point of Asia? At the southern point of Malay Peninsula? Of
Hindostan? At the eastern point of Africa? At the northern point?
The western point? The southern point? Near Cape Agulhas?
Mountains. What mountains in the southern part of Europe? Be-
tween Europe and Asia? In the southern part of Asia? For what are
the Himalaya Mountains remarkable? (They are the highest in the
world.) How high is the highest peak? (About 5Y7 miles.) What
mountains near the center of Asia? In the northern part of Africa?
In the southern part? In the southeastern part of Australia? What
archipelago contains many volcanoes ?
SPlains, Plateaus, and Deserts. Which is the chief plain in Eu-
rope? What plain in the north of Asia ? What plain south of the Arc-
tic Plain? What plain in Eastern Asia? In Southern Asia?. What
plateau north of the Himalaya Mountains? South of the Altai? What
plateau in the western part of Asia? What one southwest of the
plateau of Iran? What other peninsula of Asia contains a plateau?
Which continent is nearly covered by plateaus? What desert in the
plateau of Mongolia? In what part of Africa is the great desert of
Sahara? For what is it remarkable? (It is the largest desert in the
world.) 'In what other part of Africa is there a desert ?
Seas, Gulfs, and Bays. What sea west of Kamchatka? Of the
Japan Islands? Of Corea ? Of the Philippine Islands? In the Malay-
sian Archipelago? West of Hindostan? Of Arabia? Between Africa
and Europe? East of the British Islands? Northeast of the Mediter-
ranean? East of the North Sea? What gulf west of Africa ? .East of
Arabia? What bay east of Hindostan? West of Europe?
Straits.- What strait between Java and Sumatra? Between Tas-
mania and Australia? Between Australia and Papua? At the entrance
of the Mediterranean Sea? At the entrance of the Red Sea? What
channel between Madagascar and Africa?
Rivers. What three rivers of Asia flow into the Arctic Ocean ?
What four rivers in Eastern Asia? What river flows into the Bay of
Bengal? The Arabian Sea? What river of Africa flows into the Gulf of
Guinea? The Atlantic Ocean? The Mediterranean Sea? What river of
Europe flows into the Caspian Sea? What rivers flow into the Black Sea?
Lakes. What lakes in South Central Africa ? What two lakes in
Western Asia are called seas ? What lake in Australia?
Ocean Currents. What current flows westward through the Indian
Ocean ? What current southwest of Africa ? Northwest of Europe ?

Zones. What circle crosses the northern part of Asia? What circle
crosses the desert of Sahara? What continents does it cross? What
great circle crosses Borneo? What continent does it cross? What
circle crosses Australia ? What other continent does it cross? What
circle bounds the South Frigid Zone ? What lands does it cross ? In
what zone is Sumatra? Nova Zembla? Cape of Good Hope? The
Mediterranean Sea? In what zones is Africa? Asia? Europe? Aus-
tralia ?


[For method of recitation, see XI.]

Continents. How bounded?
Europe? Asia? Africa? Australia?
Islands. In what direction from the nearest land ? By what waters
surrounded ?
Japan Islands? Malaysian Archipelago? Philippine Islands? Java?
Celebes? Sumatra? Borneo? Papua? Tasmania? Madagascar?
Ceylon? British Islands? Iceland? Spitzbergen? Nova Zembla?
Madeira Islands? Canary Islands? St. Helena?
Peninsulas. From what part of the continent does it project Into
what water, or between what waters ?
Kamchatka? Corea? Indo-China? Malay? Scandinavian? Hin-
dostan ? Spanish?
Capes. From what land does it project? From what part of it ?
Into what body of water ?
North? Northeast ? Romania? Comorin? Bon? Good Hope?
Guardafui? Verde ? Agulhas?
Mountains. In what part of the continent are they ? In what direc-
tion do they extend?
Alps? Ural? Altai? Himalaya? Atlas? Snowy? Blue?
Plains, Plateaus, and Deserts. Where situated?
Great Plain of Europe? ArcticPlain? SiberianPlain? Plain of
China? Plain of the Ganges? Plateau of Mongolia? Plateau of
Thibet? Plateau of Iran? Plateau of Arabia? Desert of Gobi?
Arabian Desert? Sahara Desert?
Oceans. Of what continents does it wash the shores, or around
what pole is it ?
Arctic? Pacific? Antarctic? Atlantic? Indian?
Seas, Gulfs, and Bays. What coasts does it indent or wash ? Of
what ocean or other body of water is it an arm ?
Okhotsk? Japan? Yellow? China? Java? Bengal? Arabian?
Red? Persian? Guinea? Mediterranean? Black? Biscay? North?
Baltic ?
Straits. Between what lands ? What waters does it connect ?
Sunday? Bass? Torres? Gibraltar? Bab el landebiP Mozam-
bique? ? % .
Rivers. In who continent does it rise ? In what par! of it ?
In what mountains ? In what direction does it flow ? Into what
water ?
Obi ? Yenisei? Lena? Amoor ? Hoang Ho? YantfzeKiang ?
Ganges? Cambodia? Indus? Niger? Nile? Kongo? Volga?
Danube ? Dnieper?
Lakes. Where situated ? What outlet has it ?
Albert Nyanza? Victoria Nyal za ? Caspian Sea? Aral Sea? Eyre?
Ocean Currents. In what oIean ? In what part of it In what
direction does it flow ? \
Equatorial Current? South Atlatic Current? Gulf Stream ?


IV 97

Low Plains.......................
Plateaus ................. ........
VeryElghIan: ...................
Volcanoes ......................
2b Dlrection of unt .... ......






I GO 1 -. 040 0 4o 80 so W
1 --1- -
i.. -' ,

6 T HaT

10 5 .40 0 40 so 1 .
I .' i' ,, -


i. The Old World has more than twice as much land
surface as the New World. Its line of direction, or line
of greatest length, is from northeast to southwest. The
New World extends from northwest to southeast.
2. Each of these great land masses consists of two parts,
the larger being to the north. Africa is joined to Asia
by the narrow Isthmus of Suez, and South America to
North America by the Isthmus of Panama.

These two isthmuses are of great commercial importance, because
the principal routes connecting the commerce of the great oceans
pass across them.

3. The southern continents, South America and Africa,
are much alike in shape and direction.
Their similarity is somewhat like that of the two hands.

4. Each continent widens toward the north, and iar-
rows to a point at the south.
5. Nearly all the great peninsulas point in a southerly

They project from the three northern continents. The principal
shore lines of the continents, nearly all of the great mountain
ranges, and most of the great chains of islands, lie in a south-
easterly or southwesterly direction.

6. The three northern continents North America, Eu-
rope, and Asia are irregular in form. The three south-
ern continents are South America, Africa, and Australia;
the first two are peninsular in form.

7. The coasts of the northern continents, and particu-
larly those of Europe, are much broken by inland seas.
Those of the southern continents are nearly unbroken by
peninsulas or by arms of the ocean.
Each northern continent has three great peninsulas projecting
from its southern border. These peninsulas are curiously alike
in some particulars; Indo-China, Greece, and Florida, at the
southeast, have each a large archipelago southeast of them

Arabia, Spain, and California, at the southwest, are very simple
in form, and have no such islands; Hindostan, Italy, and the
long isthmus of Central America correspond in position.

Questions (I.) I. Which has the greater surface,- the Old World, or the New
World ? How many times as much ? What is the line of direction of the Old World?
Of the New World ? 2. Of what does each of these land masses consist ? Which part
is the larger ? How is Africa joined to Asia? North America to South America ?-
3. In what are South America and Africa alike ?-4. In what direction does each con-
tinent widen ? In what direction does it narrow ? -5. In.what direction do nearly all
the great peninsulas point ? 6. Name the three northern continents. What is their
form ? Name the three southern continents. What is their form ? 7. How do the
coasts of the northern continents differ from those of the southern continents?
(II.) -2. Why are the two isthmuses of great commercial importance?-3. To
what may the similarity of South America and Africa be compared ? 5. Which con-
tinents have nearly all the great peninsulas? In what two directions do the principal
shore lines, mountain ranges, and island chains lie ? 7. What points of resemblance
have the three northern continents ?



I. Nearly all the islands lie in curved chains or in
groups. Some are the tops of hills or mountain ranges
whose lower parts are under the sea.
2. Islands are of two kinds, continental and oceanic.

3. Continental islands are those lying near the con-
tinents of which they appear to have been once a part.
The principal chains of continental islands lie east and
southeast of Asia and North America.

4. Oceanic islands are those lying far out in the
The principal chains of oceanic islands are in the
Pacific Ocean.

The Azores and Bermudas are oceanic
Ascension are solitary oceanic islands.

groups. St. Helena and


Volcanic islands are those which have been raised by volcanic
forces from the depths of the ocean. They have bold shores
and lofty peaks, and may be either continental or oceanic. Most


of the coast islands of Asia, the Galapagos and Hawaiian groups
of the Pacific, and Iceland, the Azores, Cape Verde, St. Helena,
and Ascension of the Atlantic, are volcanic islands.
Coral islands are those composed of coral, a limy substance formed
from sea water by certain small animals, and are found only in
the warmer parts of the ocean. They are usually small and low.
The Bahamas and Bermudas in the Atlantic and many oceanic
chains in the Pacific are coral islands.

Questions (I.) I. How are most islands arranged ? What are some of them ?
-2. How many kinds of islands? What are they?- 3. What are continental
islands? Where are the principal chains of continental islands ? 4. What are oceanic
islands? Where are the principal chains?
(II.) -4. Name some oceanic islands. What are volcanic islands? What kind
of shores and surfaces have they? To which class do they belong? Name some
volcanic islands of the Pacific. Of the Atlantic. What are coral islands? Where
found? Of what size? Name some coral islands.



i. A mountain system is a number of nearly parallel
ranges covering a wide belt of country.

2. The New World has the longest mountain system;
its length is about ten thousand miles.

It has two principal divisions, the Andes chains in South Amer-
ica, and the Rocky Mountains and parallel chains in North
America. Its highest point is in South America, and is nearly
24,000 feet, or over 4Y miles, above the level of the sea.

3. The chief system of the Old World begins on the
Atlantic shores, and extends in an irregular line to the
Pacific. It is about eight thousand miles long, and is
composed of many smaller systems.

Among them are the Himalaya Mountains, which are the highest
in the world, the Caucasus, and the Alps. The highest point of
the Himalaya Mountains is about 29,000 feet, or 52 miles, above
the sea level. The greatest known depth of the ocean is about
28,000 feet.
These two great systems are not far from the shores of the c6nti-
nents in which they lie. The principal systems of Africa and
Australia lie near their eastern coasts.
The tops of many of the great mountain chains are always covered
with snow, even in the Torrid Zone.

4. Volcanoes are found chiefly in mountainous islands,
or in mountain ranges which are near the sea. The great
lowland plains have no volcanoes.

The volcanoes of the Western Hemisphere are mostly found in its
great nbountain systems; those of the Eastern, in the island
chains bordering the coasts of Asia. Many of the oceanic islands
in the Pacific contain volcanoes. Most of the volcanoes of the
world are in the Pacific Ocean or near its borders.

5.* Mountains are of great importance: they condense
a large part of the moisture that falls from the atmosphere
as rain or snow; they contain the sources of nearly all

the great rivers of the globe; their cold summits temper
the fierce heat of the Torrid Zone ; in them are found
most of the metals and other minerals so important to
the well-being of man.

Questions (I.) I. What is a mountain system ? 2. Where is the longest sys-
tem? How long is it?- 3. Describe the chief system of the Old World. How long
is it ? Of what is it composed? -4. Where are volcanoes chiefly found? Where
are none found ? 5. State some of the uses of mountains.
(II.) 2. How many divisions has the great mountain system of America ? What
chains in each ? Where is its highest point ? How high is it ? 3. Which are the
highest mountains in the Old World ? How high is their highest peak ? What other
mountains in the same system ? Where are the two great systems ? Where is the
principal system of Africa ? Of Australia? With what are the tops of many of the
great mountain chains covered ? 4. Where are most of the volcanoes of the West-
ern Hemisphere found ? Of the Eastern ? What oceanic islands contain volcanoes?
Where are most of the volcanoes of the world found ?



I. The great plateaus of each continent are in the
same regions and lie in the same direction as the chief
mountain systems.

These mountains either stand upon the plateaus or form their
border walls.

2. The chief plateau belt of North America ex-
tends from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to the Arctic
Its highest part, the plateau of Mexico, is from 4,000 to 8,000 feet
above the level of the sea. The Rocky Mountains divide these
plateaus into two sections: the eastern section is known as the
Great Plains; the western section is covered with numerous
parallel chains of mountains.

3. The chief plateau belt of South America ex-
tends in a band parallel with the western coast.

Its highest and widest part, the plateau of Bolivia, is more than
12,000 feet above the sea. Its edges are formed by two great
chains of the Andes. In the eastern part of South America
there are low and broad plateaus.

4. The plateaus of Asia. are the highest and most
extensive in the world.
The plateau of Thibet is the highest; it reaches an elevation of
from 14,000 to 15,000 feet. It is bordered on the south by
the Himalayas.
5. The plateaus of Africa cover nearly the whole of
that continent.
The highest is east of the Nile River, and is from 6,000 to 7,000
feet in elevation. Africa is bordered on nearly every side by
mountains. The Atlas, Snowy, and the ranges near the eastern
coast, are the principal chains.

6. The plateaus of Australia are comparatively low.
This continent resembles Africa in its almost unbroken coasts and
mountain borders.


7. Europe has no large plateaus.
8. Nearly all deserts are plateaus.
Questions (I.) I. Where are the great plateaus of each continent found? In
what direction do they lie? 2. Where is the chief plateau belt of North America ? -
3. Of South America? -4. What is said of the plateaus of Asia?-5. What is said
af the plateaus of Africa? 6. Of the plateaus of Australia ?- 7. Of Europe ?- 8.
What is said of deserts ?
(II.) I. What relation have the mountains to the plateaus with which they are
connected ? 2. What name is given to the highest plateau of North America ? How
high is it ? How do the Rocky Mountains divide these plateaus ? What name is
given to the eastern section ? What is the character of the western section ? 3.
What name is given to the highest plateau of South America ? How high is it? What
mountains border the high plateaus of that continent ? Where are its low plateaus ? -
4. What name is given to the highest plateau of Asia? How high is it ? What
mountains border it ? 5. Where is the highest plateau of Africa ? How high is it?
How is that continent bordered ? Name the principal chains. -6. In what respects
does Australia resemble Africa?



I. The great lowland plains of the American con-
tinents lie between the high plateaus and the coasts of
the Atlantic Ocean, from which they are partly separated
by low plateaus and mountains.
The great lowland plains of Europe and Asia lie
between the high plateaus and the shores of the Arctic
These plains are the most extensive in the world. Their greatest
length is in the same direction as the principal mountain systems
and the belts of plateaus. Smaller but important plains are
found in other parts of these four continents.

2. The lowland plains of Australia lie in the central
and southern portions of that continent.
The greater part of these plains is yet unexplored.

Africa has no large and important lowland plain.

3. The most fertile soil and the largest navigable rivers
are found in the low plains of the Torrid and Temperate
The greater part of the population of the world, and the chief seats
of civilization, are found in these plains. The most densely
populated are the plains of China, of the Ganges, and the western
part of the great plain of Europe.
More than one third of the population of North America inhabit its
central plain.

4. The plains which border the Arctic Ocean are among
the coldest regions of the globe.
Questions (I.) I. Where are the great lowland plains of the American conti-
nents? By what are they partly separated from the Atlantic ? Where are the great
low plains of Europe and Asia ? 2. Of Australia ? Of Africa ? 3. What is said of the
plains of the Torrid and Temperate zones ? 4. Of those bordering the Arctic Ocean ?
(II.) I. Which are the most extensive plains in the world ? In what direction is
their greatest length ? Are there any other important plains in these four continents ?
- 2. What can you say of the lowland plains of Australia ? 3. What are found in
the plains of the Torrid and Temperate zones ? Name the most densely populated.
How much of the population of North America inhabits its central plain ?



I. The Pacific Ocean is about as large as all the other
oceans taken together.
It is remarkable for the number of its islands and border seas;
these seas are inclosed or partly inclosed by curved lines of

2. The Atlantic Ocean is about half as large as the
It is remarkable for the many inland seas that branch from it, and
for the number of great rivers that flow into it. Its northern half
is the chief theater of the ocean commerce of the world.

3. The Indian Ocean is much smaller than the At-
It is remarkable for the fewness of its seas and islands, and for the
violence and frequency of its hurricanes.

4. The Arctic Ocean is much the smallest of the
It is a part of the Atlantic rather than a separate ocean.
All the great plains border on the Atlantic and Arctic oceans.

5. The Antarctic or Southern Ocean is not properly
a separate ocean, but a combination of the southern parts
of the three great oceans.
It is remarkable for the intensity of its cold, and for the number and
size of its icebergs.
The greater part of the polar oceans, and especially the Antarctic,
has never been explored.

Questions (I.) I. What is said of the size of the Pacific Ocean? 2. Of the
Atlantic ?-3. Of the Indian ? -4. Which is the smallest ocean ?-5. Is the Antarc-
tic Ocean a separate ocean ? What is it ?
(II.) I. For what is the Pacific Ocean remarkable? By what are the border
seas inclosed ? Name four of the border seas of the Pacific Ocean. (See maps of
hemispheres.) -2. For what is the Atlantic Ocean remarkable? What is said of its
commercial importance? Name four inland seas of this ocean. Name two great
rivers flowing into it from North America. Three from South America. One from
Africa. 3. For what is the Indian Ocean remarkable ? Name the two great bays
of that ocean. 4. Of what ocean is the Arctic a part ? Name the three continents
surrounding it. What lands border on these two oceans ? 5. For what is the Ant-
arctic Ocean remarkable ? Have the polar oceans been explored? Why?



i. The ocean is the source of all the waters upon the
surface of the land.
The winds and the heat of the sun are constantly carrying away in-
visible vapor from the surface of the ocean; this forms clouds,
and falls upon the land as rain or snow. .This water leaves the
land surface in three ways : first, the greater part is evaporated;
second, a part flows directly away, forming lakes, rivers, and
smaller streams; third, a part sinks into the soil, and issues again
at a lower level as springs.



2. Many large rivers have their sources in the snow-
covered mountains of the table-lands.
Most rivers begin at springs, and are enlarged by rains and melted
snows, and by other rivers.

3. A river system is a river with its branches.
A basin or valley is the whole country drained by a
river system.
A watershed is the line of highest land that divides
two basins.
In the United States it is sometimes called a divide.
An estuary is a broad mouth of a river. When a river enters the
sea by two or more mouths, the land between the mouths is
called a delta.
A cation is a deep and narrow gorge through which a river runs.
Rapids are those parts of a river in which the current is very swift.
Falls are those parts of a river in which the water flows over a
precipice. Falls of small streams are called cascades; of large
rivers, cataracts.

4. The rivers in the low plains are the chief natural
channels of commerce, especially since the invention of
the steamboat, by means of which their swift currents
may be ascended. Commerce is less expensive by water
than by land.
In the hill countries, rivers whose falls or rapids inter-
rupt navigation furnish valuable water power for manu-
facturing purposes.
Some rivers overflow their banks at certain seasons,
and by a rich deposit of mud fertilize the low lands
through which they run.
Where rivers run through lands which are very dry
during the summer, their water is sometimes used to ir-
rigate the soil.

Questions (I.) I. What is the source of all the waters which are on the sur-
face of the land ? 2. Where do many large rivers have their sources ? 3. What
is a river system? What is a basin or valley ? What is a watershed? -4. State
some of the uses of rivers.
(II.) i. How is water constantly taken from the surface of the ocean? In
what form does it fall again? In how many and what ways does it leave the land
surface again? 2. At what do most rivers begin? How are they enlarged? 3.
What is a divide? An estuary? A delta? A caion? What are rapids? Falls ?
Cascades ? Cataracts ?



i. Lakes are of two kinds, salt and fresh.
2. A salt lake is one that has no outlet. ._
Small quantities of salt are washed out of the soil by the rains; if
carried to a lake having no outlet, the salt is left in the lake by
the evaporation of the water.

3. The plains and plateaus of Asia have the largest
salt lakes in the world.
The largest of these are the Caspian and Aral seas.

4. The plains of North America and the plateaus of
Southern Africa have the largest fresh-water lakes in the
Their principal outlets are the St. Lawrence and Nile rivers. Titi-
caca, on the plateau of Bolivia in South America, is the most
elevated of the large fresh-water lakes: it is 13,000 feet above
the ocean level.
5. Glaciers are vast river-like fields of ice. They are
formed from snow, which is solidified by the pressure of
its own weight, and by melting and freezing.
They are formed in the high mountain valleys in the regions of
perpetual snow. They move very slowly down the valleys, only
a few rods in a year. In the Temperate zones they are found in
the highest part of the highest mountains, as in the Alps and the
Himalayas. In the Frigid zones their lower edges project into
the sea; the tides and waves here wash away their bases, and the
overhanging portions at last break off by their own weight and
fall into the sea: they are then called icebergs. (See p. 122.)


6. An iceberg is a large floating fragment of an arctic
or antarctic glacier.
The great glaciers of Greenland are famous for the numerous ice-
bergs which they send off; many have been seen projecting more
than 300 feet above the sea, seven eighths of their mass being
under water. Icebergs are largest and most numerous in the
Antarctic Ocean; they are formed in the unknown lands around
the South Pole.
Questions (I.) I. How many kinds of lakes ? What are they ? What is
a salt lake ? 3. Where are the largest salt lakes in the world ? 4. Where are the
largest fresh-water lakes in the world ?- 5. What are glaciers? How are they
formed ?- 6. What is an iceberg ?
(II.) 2. How is a salt lake formed ? 3. Name the twc largest salt lakes.-4.
What are the outlets of the largest fresh-water lakes? Which is the most elevated ot
the large fresh-water lakes ? Where is it ? How high ? 5.,Where are glaciers
formed? Describe the origin of an iceberg. 6. What can you say of the glaciers
and icebergs of Greenland ? Of the Antarctic Ocean ? Where are they formed?




I. An ocean current is a broad stream of water flow-
ing through the ocean.
The great ocean currents are so connected with each other as to
form a circulatory system; some of them are of great depth.
2. Constant currents are those that always flow in the
same direction.
Some of them have been traced many thousands of miles. All the
rivers in the world are insignificant when compared with some
of these currents. The chief cause of ocean currents is the dif-
ference of temperature of the ocean waters in the Torrid and
Frigid zones: the warmer and lighter water flows towards the
poles, an equal quantity of the colder and heavier water flowing
at the same time towards the Equator. The ocean currents thus
assist to cool the tropical and to warm the polar regions.
The direction and velocity of currents are modified, first, by the
earth's revolution on its axis; second, by the constant winds of
the Torrid Zone; third, by being turned aside by the shores.

3. The Equatorial Currents are the widest and long-
est of the constant currents.
They are found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans, and
move from east to west.

4. The most important current is the Gulf Stream.
A division of the Atlantic Equatorial Current passes along the outer
or ocean shores of the West Indies. A branch from this enters
the Caribbean Sea and again subdivides. One part passes east-
ward along the shores of Haiti, and rejoins the outer current.
The other part passes through Yucatan Channel, and issues from
the Strait of Florida as a swift and deep current known as the
Gulf Stream. It rejoins the outer current at the Bahamas, and
gives its own name to the entire current, which then crosses the
Atlantic in a northeasterly. course, and, with the winds which
sweep over its warm waters, gives a mild climate to Western

5. The Japan Stream, a current similar to the Gulf
Stream, passes from Japan towards North America.
6. The Polar Currents are the cold currents passing
from the polar regions towards the Equator.
They bring vast quantities of ice from the polar regions. But lit-
tle is known of the cold currents which flow at the bottom of
the ocean. The ocean water at great depths in the Torrid Zone
is nearly as cold as that in the Arctic Ocean. The two broad
oval spaces between the Equatorial Currents on the south and the
Gulf Stream and the Japan Stream on the north are called Sar-
gasso or Grassy seas, because covered with floating seaweeds.
Questions (I.) I. What is an ocean current ? 2. What are constant cur-
rents ? 3. Which are the greatest of the constant currents ? 4. Which is the best
known current ? 5. Describe the Japan Stream. 6. Describe the Polar Currents.
(II.) -- I. How are the ocean currents connected ? What is said of their depth ?
-2. How far have some been traced ? How do they compare with rivers ? What
is their chief cause ? Of what use are they? How are their direction and velocity
modified?--3. Where are the Equatorial Currents found? What is their general
.direction?-4. Describe the origin and course of the Gulf Stream. How does it
affect the climate of Western Europe ? 6. What do the Polar Currents bring from
the polar regions ? What is said of the deep cold currents ? Of the deep water in
the Torrid Zone ? Where are the Sargasso or Grassy seas ? Why so called ?



1. The atmosphere covers the earth to a height of
two hundred miles or more.
The upper portions of the atmosphere press upon the lower, and
"make them denser. Nearly all the moisture and all animal and
vegetable life are found within three and a half miles of the level
of the sea. Above this the thinness and dryness of the atmos-
phere, and the intense cold, render plant life, and 'consequently
animal life, impossible.
The mountains of Thibet have been ascended above four miles.
A balloon has reached an elevation of five and three quarters
miles. These are the greatest heights ever reached by man.
In both cases the suffering was very great.
2. Heat causes air, first, to expand and become
lighter; and, second, to absorb and render invisible large
quantities of water. Cold produces opposite effects.
3. The heat of the sun produces ascending currents
of hot air, particularly in the Torrid Zone; other air
flows in below to fill the space.
4. Winds are currents of air.
The currents from the polar regions tend at first directly towards
the Equator ; as they pass towards and into the Torrid Zone, the
revolution of the earth on its axis causes them to turn more and
more towards the west: these currents are then called the Trade
5. The Trade Winds are constant winds between the
parallels of 30o north and south latitude, and always blow
from an easterly direction. They carry immense quanti-
ties of vapor from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian
The masses of heated air rise some miles from the surface of the
earth, and flow over in two sets of currents, one towards each
pole, to fill the places left vacant by the Polar Currents; they
gradually cool and settle towards the surface, striking it beyond
the parallels of 300 ; they are then known as the Return Trade
Winds, or Counter Trade Winds.
6. The Counter Trade Winds are the prevalent winds
beyond the 3oth parallels. In the Northern Hemisphere
they blow from the southwest, and in the Southern from
the northwest.
The Trade Winds and Counter Trade Winds are similar to the
ocean currents both in cause and general direction.
Questions (I.) I. To what height does the atmosphere extend ?- 2. What
are the effects of heat upon air? Of cold ?- 3. What are the effects of the sun's
heat? In what zone are these effects most marked ? What other effect follows ? -
4. What are winds ?- 5. What and where are the Trade Winds ? What is their
direction? What do they carry? 6. What and where are the Counter Trade
Winds ? In what direction do they blow?
(II.) I. How do the upper portions of the atmosphere affect the lower ? What
are found only within three and a half miles of the level of the sea? Why is there
no life above this height? What are the greatest heights ever reached by man?
What was the effect ?- 4. In what direction do the Polar Currents at first flow ?
In what direction afterwards? What causes this change? What are they then
called?- 5. Describe the course of the ascending currents of the Trade Winds.
Where do they again strike the surface of the earth ? What are they then called ? -
6. In what respects are the Trade Winds similar to the ocean currents ?




I. The climate of a country is the general condition
of its atmosphere in regard to heat and moisture.
2. Climate depends upon distance from the Equator,
elevation above the sea level, the prevailing winds and
ocean currents, and distance from the sea.

3. The Frigid zones have an intensely cold climate.
4. The low plains in and near the Torrid Zone are very
hot. If they are open to the ocean winds, their climate
is moist; if not, it is dry.

5. The high plateaus within and near the tropics have
a mild, spring-like climate.
6. The high mountains in the same regions have their
tops covered with perpetual snow.

The lower limit of perpetual snow is called
of less and less elevation towards the poles.

7. Winds and ocean currents mod-
ify climate. The winds have by far I
the more marked effect. I

the snow line: it is

When a warm ocean wind strikes the '''
sides of a high mountain chain, it
passes up the slope, growing colder, -
and gradually losing its moisture in '
rain or snow as it ascends, and at last ." -
passes over the range and down the
opposite slope as a cold and dry wind.
The warm and moist Return Trade
Winds of the Atlantic blow upon Mr. :.-P',: ,1 P-
Western Europe, and the warm waters NE_
of the Gulf Stream reach its shores. A
In the same latitude, the shores of
Greenland and Labrador are washed 20 .. -,
by the icy waters of the arctic cur-
rents, and swept by the polar winds. -- -. Eh ..
The one region has a mild climate,
and is occupied by the most enlight-
ened nations of the world: the others
are frozen wastes, sparsely inhabited ^-- ...-..
by degraded savages and a few Eu- o
ropean traders.
8. The rainfall of a country is the quantity of water
that falls upon it as rain or snow.
In the Torrid Zone the average annual fall is about zoo inches,
but in some places in that zone it is' four or five times as much.
In the deserts it is only a few inches at the most. In the Tem-
perate zones it is from 35 to 40 inches, or little more than one
third as much as in the Torrid Zone. In the Frigid zones it is
much less. The rainfall usually diminishes as the distance from
the sea increases.
9. The tropical rain belt is a broad, movable belt of
rain extending around the world. It is about ,ooo0 miles
wide from north to south.

The sun is vertical at a place when it is directly over that place.
This can happen only in the Torrid Zone.
As the sun passes from one tropic to the other, the parts of the
zone over which it is vertical have their greatest heat, and conse-
quently their greatest evaporation. In those regions which are
open to the Trade Winds, a heavy thunderstorm begins early in
the afternoon, and continues until near sunset; the sky then
becomes cloudless until the next day about the same hour.
After some weeks, the sun being no longer vertical, the rains
become less frequent, and at last cease for months, till the sun
again returns.
The only seasons of the Torrid Zone are the wet season while under
the rain belt, and the dry season during its absence. Places
near the Equator have therefore two rainy seasons and two dry
seasons: other parts of the Torrid Zone have one rainy season
and one much longer dry season.
The heat and moisture of the tropical rain belt produce the most
luxuriant vegetation in the world.
A great belt of deserts stretches across the Old World from the At-
lantic nearly to the Pacific Ocean: it is caused by the absence
of rain-bearing winds.
These rains of the Torrid Zone are called periodical rains: the
more irregular ones of the Temperate zones are called variable

Questions (I.)-I. What is climate?-2. Upon what does it depend?-3.
What is the climate of the Frigid zones ? 4. Of the low plains in the Torrid Zone ?
When is it moist ? When dry? 5. What is the climate of the high plateaus in that
zone ? 6. Of the high mountains ? 7. What effect have winds and ocean currents ?
Which have the greater'effect? -8. What is the rainfall of a country?- 9. The
tropical rain belt? How wide is it ?
(II.) 6. What is the snow line ? How does its height vary ?- 7. Describe the
effects of high mountains upon ocean winds. What two principal causes modify the
climate of Western Europe ? Of Greenland and Labrador? What are the effects?
- 8. What is the average annual rainfall in the Torrid Zone ? In the Temperate
zones? In the Frigid zones? What effect has distance from the sea?--9. When
is a place said to have a vertical sun ? In what zone can this occur ? How does it
affect the heat ? The evaporation ? Describe the tropical rains. Which are the
only seasons in the Torrid Zone ? What seasons at the Equator? In other parts of
that zone? What effects do the heat and moisture produce? Where is the great
belt of deserts? By what is it caused? What are periodical rains? Variable rains?
Where do they occur ?




I. The number of inhabitants upon the earth is
estimated at about 1,450 millions.
2. They are divided into five great races, -the Cau-
casian, the Mongol, the Ethiopian, the Malay, and the
American or Indian.
3. The Caucasian or white race is the most widely
spread. It occupies Western Asia, Europe, Northern
Africa, and large parts of North and South America and
It is the most restless, intelligent, and powerful of the races, and
includes all the great historic nations.

4. The Mongol or yellow race is found chiefly in East-
ern and Northern Asia.
5. The Ethiopian or black race is found chiefly in
Central and Southern Africa.
6. The Malay or brown race inhabits Southeastern
Asia and most of the islands of the Great Archipelago
and the Pacific.
7. The American or red race inhabits portions of
the American continents from Cape Horn to the Arctic
The Caucasian and Mongol races are about equal in numbers.
Together they constitute more than four fifths of the whole hu-
man family. The Ethiopian race comprises about one seventh,
the Malay about one twenty-fifth, and the American about one
one-hundredth, of mankind.
Questions (I.) I. What is the number of-inhabitants upon the earth ? 2. Into
how many races are they divided ? What are they ? 3. Which is most widely spread ?
What regions does it occupy ? 4. Where is the Mongol or yellow race found ? 5.
The Ethiopian or black race? 6. The Malay or brown race?-7. The American
or red race ?
(II.) -3. For what is the Caucasian race distinguished ?- 7. What part of man-
kind is comprised in each race ?



1. Nations and tribes may be divided, in respect to
their socita-condition, into five classes, savage, barbarous,
half-civilized, civilized, and enlightened.
2. Savages are those who live in tribes, and obtain
their food by hunting and fishing.
3. Barbarians are those who possess flocks and
herds, and practice a rude agriculture.
Those who live in tents, like the Bedouin Arabs, are called nomads.

4. Half-civilized nations are those that depend

chiefly upon agriculture, have made considerable advance
in the mechanic arts, and have towns and cities.
5. Civilized nations are those that engage in com-
merce, practice the art of writing, and have made con-
siderable progress in knowledge and morality.
6. Enlightened nations are those civilized nations
that possess a thorough division of labor, have established
general systems of education, and have made the greatest
progress in knowledge and morality.
Many nations are partly in two or more of these classes.
The enlightened and civilized nations are nearly all Caucasian.
Questions (I.) I. Into how many classes may nations be divided in respect
to social condition ? What are they ? -2. What are savages ? 3. What are bar-
barians ?-4. What are half-civilized nations ?-5. What are civilized nations?-
6. What are enlightened nations ?
(II.) -3. What are nomads ? Name some nomads. 6. Does each nation belong
exclusively to one of these classes? To which race do most of the civilized and en-
lightened nations belong?



I. The principal forms of government are the repub-
lican and the monarchical.
2. A republic is a country governed by men who are
chosen by the people. The chief magistrate is usually
called a president.
Nearly all the governments of the New World are republican.

3. A monarchy is a country in which one person
succeeds to the chief power by inheritance, and holds it
for life.
Nearly all the governments of the Old World are monarchical.
An unlimited monarchy or despotism is one in which the will of
the monarch is the supreme law.
A limited monarchy is one in which the power of the ruler is
limited by a system of laws called a constitution.

4. A kingdom is a country governed by a king or
5. An empire is a monarchy, usually of great extent.
Most empires are unlimited monarchies.
The sovereign is called an emperor, sultan, shah, czar, or mikado.

6. The capital of a country is the seat of its govern-

7. The metropolis is the largest city.

Questions (I.) I. What are the principal forms of government ?-2. What is
a republic ? What is the title of its chief magistrate ? 3. What is a monarchy ? -
4. What is a kingdom ? 5. An empire ? Is it limited or unlimited ?- 6. What is
the capital of a country ? 7. The metropolis ?
(II.) 2. What is the form of most of the governments of the New World ? -
3. Of the Old World? What is an unlimited monarchy ? What is a limited mon-
archy?- 5. What title has the sovereign of an empire?

,*pr ;kUF D

[For Section XXVIII., see p. 21.]



I. The surface of North America is naturally divided
into four parts,-the Western Highland, the Eastern
Highland, the Low Central Plain, and the Atlantic Plain.
2. The Western Highland, or Great Plateau Belt,
extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Isthmus of Te-
huantepec. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges are
on its western border, and the Rocky Mountains divide
it into two nearly equal parts.
These ranges are the highest in North America, and reach their
greatest elevation, about 14,000 to 15,000 feet, in the broad,
middle region of the table-land. The table-land itself is quite low
in the north, but rises gradually to nearly 8,000 feet in the pla-
teau of Mexico. At the ends of this highland are many vol-
canoes. Of these, peaks near St. Elias in the north, and Ori-
zaba peak in the south, are the highest on the continent.
The long and mountainous isthmus of Central America may be re-
garded as a continuation of this plateau belt.
3. The Eastern Highland extends from Labrador
nearly to the Gulf of Mexico. Its mountains are the
low ranges of the Appalachian system.
The highest peaks are from 6,000 to 6,700 feet in elevation. It
has very little table-land.
4. The Atlantic Plain is the strip of low land be-
tween the Appalachian Mountains and the ocean.
5. The Low Central Plain lies between the two
highlands, and extends from the Arctic Ocean to the
Gulf of Mexico.

It is crossed nearly midway by a low swell called the Height of
Land, which divides it into two gentle and opposite slopes. The
northern slope is the Arctic Plain : nearly all of the other slope,
or Southern Plain, lies in the basin or valley of the Mississippi.
Questions (I.)-I. How is the surface of North America naturally divided?
Name the divisions. 2. Where is the Western Highland? What and where are
its principal mountains ? 3. Where is the Eastern Highland ? What mountains
has it ? 4. Where is the Atlantic Plain ? 5. The Low Central Plain ?
(II.)--2. Which are the highest ranges in North America? Where is their
greatest elevation ? How high are they? Describe the table-land. Where are vol-
canoes found ? Name two.' For what remarkable ? What is said of Central Amer-
ica ? 3. How high are the highest peaks of the Appalachian system? Has the
Eastern Highland any table-land ? 5. By what is the Low Central Plain divided ?
Into what ? What name has each ? In what basin is the southern slope ?

I. The West Indies, Central America, and a large part
of Mexico have a tropical or constantly warm climate.
The season of tropical rains lasts many weeks, the rest of the year
being dry.
The vegetation is luxuriant. Coffee, sugar, corn, cotton, and to-
bacco are extensively cultivated; and the banana,, pineapple,
.lemon, orange, and other tropical fruits are produced with little
labor. European grains are grown on the plateaus. The forests
abound in mahogany, rosewood, and palm trees.
2. The northern third of the continent has a very cold
climate, excepting a strip along the western coast.
The Polar Current passes along the eastern coast to Newfoundland.
Ice nearly closes the broad entrance to Baffin Bay, and the en-
trance to Hudson Bay is open only about two months in the year.
The western coasts, from the peninsula of Alaska to the Columbia

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[For continuation of p. 19, see next column.] ,

River, have a much milder climate and fre-

Outlines. -What three oceans wash the shores of
North America ? What great island northeast of the
continent ? What archipelago between them? What
is the general direction of the Arctic coast? What
S great bay breaks this coast? What island at its en-
trance? What strait? What bay south? What island
near the eastern point of the c.aftinent? What gulf
and strait cut it off? What is the general direction
of the Atlantic coast ? What two peninsulas partly
inclose the Gulf of Mexico? What strait and what
channel lead to that gulf? What island at the en-
trance ? In what archipelago ??' What ocean current
passes through these waters? What is the general
direction of the Pacific coast? What peninsula near
its northern extremity? What peninsula and gulf
break the southwest shore? What long isthmus con-
nects North and South America? Between what
smaller isthmuses does it extend ?
High Surface.- What two great highlands in
North America? Which is the greater? What is
its general direction ? At what ocean does it end on
the north ? At what isthmus on the south? (Tehuan-
tepec.) What mountains .near its western border?
What high plain forms its eastern part? What
mountains separate this plain from the rest of the
highland? What high plateau in the southern part
of the highland? What plateau basin near the cen-
ter? In what direction does the Eastern Highland
extend? What mountain system does it contain?
Near which coast of North America are there volca-
noes ? Near what river is the central group ? Where
'is the greatest group? Where the northern? Name
one in each group. What volcano in Iceland?
Lowlands and Drainage. What plain between the
two highlands? What ocean north'l it ?- What gulf
south ? What name is given to its, northern portion ?
What name to its southern portion ?'" W\hat low swell
of land separates the Southern from the Arctic Plain ?
What low plateau north of the Arctic Plain? What
rivers drain the Arctic Plain ? What lakes connected
with them? What river drains the greater part of
the Southern Plain? Name its four chief branches.
What chain of lakes in the Southern. Plain? What.
river drains them? What lowland plain between the
Eastern Highland and the Atlantic Ocean? Name
the chief rivers which drain the Western Highland.

quent rains, the effect of the warm ocean cur-
rents and Counter Trade Winds of the Pacific.

3. The remaining portions of the conti-
nent have a more varied climate, warm in
the south, colder in the north, and very dry
in the Western Highland.

Moist winds from the Gulf of Mexico and the
Atlantic Ocean cause frequent rains in the
Southern and Atlantic plains and in the
Eastern Highland. Excepting the prairies,
these regions were originally one vast forest
of oak, chestnut, pine, and other trees, of
which a large part in the lowlands has been
cleared away. This forest extends into the
southern part of the Arctic Plain, where the
trees are mostly pines and firs: farther north
the trees are small, and at last disappear,
and mosses and lichens are the only vegeta-
In winter the tropical rain belt passes to the
south, and the Counter Trade Winds of the '
Pacific shift in the same direction (see pp. I6
and 17). This gives a rainy season of sev-
eral months to the region between the Pa-
cific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. The
greater part of the moisture falls between the
summits of the Sierra Nevada and the coast,
and is a chief cause of the vast crops of wheat
and other grains grown in that region.
The moist .regions in the Rocky Mountains, on
". the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and
from the Columbia River to Alaska, are cov-
ered with forests of gigantic pines, cedars, and
other evergreens.

4. The polar bear, reindeer, musk ox,
moose, walrus, grizzly bear, and many fur-
bearing animals, are found in the northern
parts of the continent. Among other wild
antu. als are the deer, wolf,/fox, beaver, and
alligator. The buffalo, or bison, once found
in great herds on the high western plain,
is now nearly extinct. .Great numbers of



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22 .).



domesticated animals, such as the horse, ox, sheep, and
hog, are possessed by the civilized inhabitants; these
were originally introduced from Europe.
5. Cotton is the chief production of the lowlands near
the Gulf of Mexico, and corn of the central, and wheat
of the northern, portions of the Mississippi Valley.
The rainfall upon the slopes of the lofty mountains bordering the
Western Highland leaves but little moisture to be carried over to
the table-lands; these, including -those parts of the plateau of
Mexico that are not visited by the tropical rain belt, are there-
fore extremely dry. Though scattered trees border many of the
streams, and some of the higher mountains are covered with
forests, by far the larger part of this vast region is nearly desti-

tute of vegetation. The sagebrush and cactus are the principal
plants which the parched soil produces.
Questions (I.)--I. What parts of North America have a tropical climate?-
,2. What parts have a cold climate? What exception to this?-3. What is the
climate of the rest of the continent?-4. What wild animals are found in the
Arctic Plain ? What other wild animals are found? What is said of the buffalo?
Of domesticated animals? 5. Where is cotton the chief production? Corn?
(II.)- I. What is said of the tropical rains? Of the vegetation ? What staples
are cultivated ? What fruits ? What grains? Name some of the forest trees. 2.
How do the polar currents affect the northeastern coasts of the continent? What is
the climate of the western coast north of Columbia River ? Why ? 3. What are
the chief sources of the rains of the southeastern portions of the continent ? De-
scribe these regions. What is said of the vegetation of the Arctic Plain ? What is
the cause of the rainy season in the region between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky
Mountains ? What is its effect? What is said of the forests of the moist regions?
- 5. Why is the Western Highland so dry ? How does this affect the vegetation ?




Countries. What two countries occupy the greater part of North
America? Which is farther north? What country northeast of Do-
minion of Canada? Northwest? Island east? What country south-
west of the United States? Southeast of Mexico? Name the countries
of North America.
Danish America.- To what country in Europe does it belong?
(Denmark.) Name its two principal islands. What is the capital of
Iceland? Which is the most northern town in North America?
Canada. What country and island east of it ? What general name
is given to Canada, Labrador, and Newfoundland ? (British America.)
To what country of Europe do they belong? (Great Britain.) What
mountains in the western part of Canada? What island? What pen-
insulas project from Canada? What capes? What city is the capital ?
Name other cities of Canada. Name the capital of Newfoundland.
United States. -What country north of the United States? South-
west? What gulf south? What islands southeast of Florida? Name
the capes on the east coast of the United States. What cape at the south-
eastern point of the United States ? What capes on the west coast?
What mountains west of the Sierra Nevada ? What two bays on the
east coast of the United States ? What river flows into the Atlantic
Ocean near Sandy Hook? What river between Mexico and the United
States? Into what does it flow? What mountains does the Columbia
break through ? What lake between the Colorado and the Columbia?
What two cities near the head of Chesapeake Bay? What is Wash-
ington? (The capital of the United States.) What city northeast of
Baltimore ? Northeast of Philadelphia? Northeast of New York?
Near the mouth of the Mississippi ? Near the mouth of the Missouri?
On Lake Michigan ? On the Pacific coast? On the north bank of the
Ohio ?
To what country does Alaska belong? What is the name of its chief
river? Into what does it flow? What islands in the southern part?
What town on Baranof Island ? What town on Kadiak Island ?
Mexico. What peninsula and gulf in the northwest of Mexico ?
What cape at the end of the peninsula? What bay west of Yucatan ?
What mountains in Northern Mexico? What is the capital? What
volcano near it? What city east of Mexico ?
Central America. What waters wash the shores of Central America ?
What lake in Central America? What city in the northwest? Name
the four principal islands in the West Indies. What city in'Cuba?


[For models, see Review of Western Hemisphere, p. 8.]
Countries. Where is it ? How bounded? What is the capital?
MODEL. Mexico is in the southwestern part of North America. It is
bounded on the north by the United States, on the east by the Gulf of
Mexico, on the south by Central America and the Pacific Ocean, on the
west by the Pacific. The capital city is Mexico.
Danish America ?- Canada ? Newfoundland ? United States ?
Mexico? Central America?
Islands. Arctic Archipelago ? Southampton, B. ? Greenland,
D. ? Iceland, D. ? Newfoundland, B. ? Bermuda Islands, B. ? West
Indies? Bahama Islands, B.? Jamaica, B. ? Cuba, I.? Haiti, I. ?
Puerto Rico, U. S.? Vancouver, B.? Queen Charlotte, B.? Baranof,
U. S. ?
NOTE.-The countries to which they belong are thus indicated: Denmark,
D.; Great Britain, B. ; United States, U. S. ; Independent, I.
Peninsulas. Labrador? Nova Scotia? Florida? Yucatan?
Alaska ? California ?
Capes. Farewell? Race? Sable, N. ? Cod ? Sandy Hook?-
Hatteras? Sable, S. ? St. Lucas? Prince of Wales ? Mendocino?
Flattery ?
Isthmuses. What countries does it connect ?
Tehuantepec? Panama? Isthmus of Central America?
Mountains. Appalachian ? Rocky ? Sierra Madre ? Sierra Ne-
vada? Cascade? Coast ranges? Popocatepetl (v.)? Hecla (v.) ?
Seas, Gulfs, and Bays. Baffin ? Hudson ? James ? St. Lawrence ?
Delaware? Chesapeake? Mexico? Campeachy? Honduras? Ber-
ing? Caribbean? California?
Straits. Davis? Hudson? Belle Isle? Florida? Bering?
Rivers. Yukon ? Mackenzie? Churchill? Nelson? Severn?
St. Lawrence? Hudson? Mississippi? Missouri? Arkansas? Ohio?
Rio Grande? Red? Colorado? Columbia?
Lakes. -Where situated? What outlet has it?
Great Bear? Great Slave? Athabasca? Winnipeg? Superior?
Michigan? Huron? Erie? Ontario? Great Salt? Nicaragua?
Cities and Towns. In what country is it In what part ofit On
or near what water ?
Reykjavik? Upernavik? Halifax? Ottawa? Montreal? Quebec?
St. Johns? Washington? Philadelphia? Boston? New York? Bal-
timore? New Orleans? Cincinnati? St. Louis? Chicago? San
Francisco? Mexico? Vera Cruz? New Guatemala? Havana?

* -.

. ,,



4o mo000 s0 ., 4. .

40.000 Sq.niles.





Which half of the United States is a highland ? (The
western half.) What smaller highland in the eastern half?
(See Physical Map of North America.) What plain east
of this highland? What plain between the two highlands ?
What great river drains the Central Plain? Name its chief
branches. Which branch rises in the Eastern Highland ?
What branch has it? Which branches rise in the Western

Highland ? Name the great lakes in the northern part of
the Central Plain. Where are the prairie regions ?
What plains in the eastern part of the Western High-
land ? What rivers cross the Great Plains ? What name
have they in the south ? (Llano Estacado, or Staked Plain.)
What belt in the north has a peculiar climate ?
What mountain system crosses the Western Highland
from north to south near its center ? What mountains near
its western border? What two plateaus between these sys-
tems ? What cross range separates these two plateaus ?
What large lake in the Great Basin? Why is it salt?

What river drains the northern plateaus ? The southern ?
What lowland basin west of the Sierra Nevada ?
What are the staple agricultural productions in the
southern part of the Central Plain ? In the central part ?
In the northern part ? What minerals and metals are found
in the Eastern Highland ? In the Western Highland?
On the shores of Lake Superior ? In the central part of
the Central Plain ? Where is salt obtained? Lumber ?
Petroleum? Coal? Iron?
What plants characterize the dry parts of the Western
Highland ?




The United States occupies the middle
of North America.

It extends from Canada on the north to the Gulf of
Mexico on the south, and from the Atlantic Ocean
to the Pacific. Its average breadth from north to
south is about 1,300 miles; its average length from
east to west is about 2,500 miles.

2. The area of the United States exceeds
3,000,000 square miles, not including Alaska,
which contains over 500,000 square miles, or
the Hawaiian Islands in the mid-Pacific.

3: The surface presents two nearly equal
divisions of widely different character,- the
high western half and the low eastern half.
REMARK. Each of these has several important and well-marked
natural subdivisions, which will be made the basis for arrang-
ing the states into groups for convenience of study. (See p. 29.)

Questions (I.) i. What part of North America is occupied by the
United-States ? 2. What is the area ? 3. Howis the surface divided ?
(II.)- I. What are the northern and southern limits of the United
States ? The eastern and western limits ? 'What is the average
breadth ? The average length ?



I. The western half of the United States
is a broad highland. It is divided by the
Rocky Mountains into two nearly equal sec-
2. The eastern section is a gently descending
slope known as the Great Plains.
A large part of this region is a succession of long rolls
like waves of the ocean. These plains gradually
Increase in elevation from the east, until at the base
of the mountains they are.from 5,000 to 6,6oo feet
high, or twice the average height of the Alleghanies.
Excepting the Missouri and the Yellowstone, the
rivers which cross these plains are too swift and
too shallow to be navigated, their average fall being
five feet to the mile ; that of the Mississippi, Ohio,
and St. Lawrence, including the Great Lakes, being
only about four inches. The Red and the Arkansas
are navigable in the eastern lowland.

3. The western section of the highland,.
known as the Plateau Belt, is bordered by
the Rocky Mountains on the east, and on the
west by the low Coast ranges of the shores

of the Pacific. Between these, and near the
Coast ranges, are the high chains known as
the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains.
The Sierra Nevada, Cascade, and Rocky Mountains
are the loftiest ranges in North America. They
average from 9,000 to 12,000 feet, with many peaks
of over 14,000 feet.
The elevated tract within these lofty mountain walls
has three principal plateaus. It is ribbed with nu-
merous short parallel mountain chains, and has
been likened to a sea filled with waves many thou-
sand feet high.
The Great Basin occupies the central part
of the Plateau Belt.
It incloses Great Salt Lake and other salt lakes which
have no outlet to the ocean. It is separated from
the Colorado Plateau by the lofty range of the
Wasatch Mountains, and is from 3,000 to 4,000
feet above the level of the sea.
The Colorado Plateau occupies the south-
eastern part.
It is from 6,000 to 7,000 feet high.
The plain of the Columbia, or Spokane
Plateau, occupies the northern part.
It is about 2,000 feet above the Pacific Ocean, and
About 1,000 feet above the Columbia River.





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4. Three large and rapid rivers drain the greater part
of this Plateau Belt: the Columbia River on the north
breaks through the lofty Cascade range, and flows into
the Pacific; the Colorado on the south reaches the Gulf
of California after passing through a number of great
cautions, which are a series of the most frightful mountain
gorges in the world; the Rio Grande flows from the
mountains bordering the Colorado Plateau through a long,
narrow, and elevated valley to the Gulf of Mexico.
The beds of nearly all the rivers of the entire highland
region are far below the general level of the country
through which they flow.

5. The Western Highland has a warm and very dry

The warm southwest winds from the Pacific discharge most of their
moisture as rain or snow on the high cold slopes and summits of
the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges, and much of the remain-
ing portion upon the lofty sides and tops of the Rocky Moun-
tains. The plateaus are consequently dry and barren, while the
coast regions have abundant rain, and, particularly towards the
north, are covered with dense forests. In like manner, the winds
from the Atlantic and the 'Gulf of Mexico lose their moisture
before they penetrate so far inland, and in consequence a large
part of the Great Plains at the foot of the Rocky Mountains is
one of the most desolate and arid regions of the continent. The
cactus and the sagebrush are the characteristic vegetation; they
indicate a very dry climate. Wherever the streams from the
melting snows of the mountains can be used for irrigation, abun-
dant crops can be raised, but the greater part of the entire high-
land is hopelessly barren.

6. The chief wealth of the Western Highland is in
the exhaustless mines of gold, silver, and other valuable
minerals with which the entire mountain district abounds.

Nowhere else on the globe is there known to be so extensive a de-
posit of the precious metals. There are hundreds of thousands
of square miles rich with ores of gold and silver.

7. The bison, or American buffalo, a large and ox-like
animal, once roamed in vast herds over the Great Plains
and in the mountain valleys. They have been eagerly
hunted for their skins or for sport, and are now nearly, if
not quite, exterminated.

For unknown ages these animals had furnished the Indians with
food, and with materials for tents and clothing.

8. Between the Western Highland and the Pacific lies
the small rich lowland of the California Basin.

Questions (I.) What is the character of the western half of the United
States ? By what and how is it divided ?- 2. What and where are the Great Plains ?
- 3. What is the western half of the highland called? What mountains border it?
What high mountains parallel and near the Coast ranges? Where is the Great
Basin? Where is the Colorado Plateau ? Where is the plain of the Columbia? -
4. How many great rivers drain the Plateau Belt ? What is said of the Columbia?
Of the Colorado ? What are the cautions ? Which is the third great river ? What is
said of most of the river beds ?- 5. What is the general character of the climate of
the Western Highland ?- 6. In what is the chief wealth of the highland ? 7.
What is said of the buffalo ? 8. What and where is the California Basin ?

(II.)-2. What is said of a large part of the Great Plains? Where are the
plains highest ? How high are they? Which of their rivers are navigable? Which
are not? Why ? 3. Which are the highest mountains in North America? How
high are they ? How many principal plateaus ? With what is the whole tract ribbed ?
To what has it been likened ? What does the Great Basin inclose ? By what sepa-
rated from the Colorado Plateau ? How high is it ? How high is the Colorado
Plateau ? How high is the plain of the Columbia ? 5. What kind of a climate has
the Plateau Belt of the Western Highland? Why? The Great Plains? Why?
The Coast regions ? Why ? What plants are characteristic ? What do such plants
indicate ? What is said of irrigation ? What is the source of the water that may be
used for this purpose ? What portion of the region is barren ? 6. What is said of
the quantity of gold and silver ? 7. What is further said of the buffalo ?



I. The eastern half of the United States presents a
strong contrast to the western half. It is fertile and well
watered throughout.
It contains the Eastern Highland and two important
lowland plains.
2. The Eastern Highland is small and low in com-
parison with the Western.
It consists of the several parallel ranges of the Appalachian system,
and extends from the Dominion of Canada almost to the Gulf of
Mexico. Its highest peaks are about as high as the plains at
the foot of the Rocky Mountains. It contains many fertile ele-
vated valleys, but no extensive plateaus.

This highland is rich in water power, in timber, and in
mines of coal and iron. At its nearest approach to the
Atlantic coast it is intersected by a remarkable depres-
sion, which contains the valleys of the Hudson and the
Mohawk, and forms the most important natural highway
of commerce on the whole continent.

3. The Eastern Highland divides the lowlands into two
unequal plains, -the Atlantic Plain on the east, and the
Great Central or Mississippi Plain on the west.
4. The Great Central Plain lies between the two
It extends from the Gulf of Mexico, where it joins the Atlantic
Plain, to the Great Lakes, where it unites with a narrow belt of
lowland in the St. Lawrence valley.
The valley of the Mississippi includes not only most of the Great
Central Plain, but all of the land between the crests of the Rocky
Mountains on one side and those of the Alleghanies on the other.
It therefore embraces a large part of both highlands. It has been
likened to a broad trough, the Mississippi lying in the lowest part.

5. The Mississippi and its branches together con-
stitute the most extensive system of navigated rivers in
the world.
The Amazon system, in South America, is larger, but is as yet but
little navigated.

The Missouri is by far the most important of the trib-
utaries, being longer than the entire course of the Missis-
sippi itself, and, like it, navigable almost to its source.


6. The Atlantic Plain is a long belt of lowland be-
tween the Eastern Highland and the ocean.

It is widest at the south, but narrows rapidly towards the mouth of
the Hudson River, where it almost disappears. Farther east it
again widens to the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

The rivers of the Atlantic Plain cross it at right angles
to the line of the highland, in which they have their

Most of them are navigable till interrupted by falls or rapids at
some distance from the sea. These falls furnish valuable water
power, and have- determined the location of many important
The Atlantic Plain is drained by numerous short, separate, and
parallel rivers, and all the rest of the country by a few great river

7. The climate of the low eastern half of the United
States is in general much cooler than that of the Western
Highland in the same latitude.

L J?

21 01

I' I I r T E I i
F Fr
s .ill E

Frequent rains are brought at all seasons by the moist winds from
the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic, and the Great Lakes. The
rainfall on the Atlantic coast increases towards the south; on
the Pacific coast, towards the north; Lower California in Mexico
is almost rainless. The winters of the eastern half are long and
severe in the north, but mild in the south; the summers are gen-
erally hot.

8. The fertile soil, warm summers, abundant rains, and
great range of latitude, make the eastern half of the United
States, in the quantity, variety, and value of its agricultu-
ral productions, the richest large section of the globe in-
habited by a single nation.
The value of these advantages is greatly increased by the other
physical conditions already considered. The average fall of the
Mississippi, the Missouri, and their chief branches in the Central
Plain, is only about four inches to the mile; that of the St. Law-
rence, including the Great Lakes, is even less: this opens the
whole region to steam navigation. The generally level face of the
country makes it easy to construct railroads, canals, and common
roads. Of railways there were in 1898 about 183,000 miles in
operation, or about one half as many as in all the rest of the
world. It will therefore be seen that-

9.' The physical geography of the eastern half of
the United States gives it agricultural and commercial

advantages unequalled by those of any other country on
the globe.

io. The eastern half of the United States may be
divided into two regions differing remarkably in vegeta-
tion, in consequence of difference in rainfall.
Dense forests cover the Atlantic Plain, the Eastern
Highland, and the neighboring parts of the Great Cen-
tral Plain, except where cleared for the purpose of cul-

If from Toledo on Lake Erie two lines be drawn, one to Galveston
on the Gulf of Mexico, and the other to the head waters of the
Red River of the North, nearly all the forests in the United States
east of the Cascade Mountains will be east of these lines.
The southern portions of both plains constitute the region of abun-
dant summer showers ; without these, cotton could not be cul-
tivated. Rice, sugar cane, Indian corn, and tobacco are also
characteristic agricultural productions. (See Rain Map.)

Vast prairies occupy the rest of the Great Central Plain.

'1- 1- 2
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,j L f


I' *f' ~ iI'D.
Lin 6'' 7.3,
k r C E-.1 110AE 1-1,


The prairie region is broad in the north, and narrow in the south.
It has long and frequent summer droughts. These do not pre-
vent the production of enormous quantities of wheat and other
grains. The prairies are rapidly being converted into farms
covered with hedgerows, orchards, and forest trees.
Three fourths of the population of the United States are in districts
which have a rainfall of from thirty to fifty inches. The Arid
West," which includes two fifths of the whole area, has less than
twenty inches, and only three per cent of the population.

ii. Large wild animals, such as wolves, wild cats, pan-
thers, bears, and deer, once abounded. Though still
found in some districts, they are greatly reduced in
numbers. The country now contains millions of domes-
ticated animals, among which are cattle, sheep, swine, and

Questions (I.) I. What is the character of the eastern half of the United
States? What subdivisions does it contain? 2. How does the Eastern Highland
compare with the Western? In what is it remarkably rich ? By what is it inter-
sected? What valleys in this depression? What does it form ? -3. How does
this highland divide the lowlands? What name is given to each?-4. Where
is the Great Central Plain?- 5. What is said of the Mississippi River? Of the Mis-
souri River?-6. What and where is the Atlantic Plain ? How do its rivers cross
it?- 7. What is said of the climate of the eastern half of the United States?--

[For the remaining questions on this section, see p. 29.)

0 .7, -
r. ll


c~ 'i 0
c C,


Ix 95.

LQuestions on Section XXXVI.-Continued from p. 27.]
8. What four things make it one of the richest portions of the world?
S -9. What is said of its agricultural and commercial advantages?-
ro. How may it be divided in regard to vegetation? Where are the
forest regions? The prairie regions?--I. What is said of wild
animals? .Of domesticated animals?
(II.) -2. Of what does the Eastern Highland consist? What is its
extent ? What. is said of its peaks ? What does it contain ? 4. What

is the extent of the Great Central Plain ? In what valley does it mostly
lie? What else does the Mississippi Valley.include? To what has it
been likened ? 5. What is said of the Amazon system ?- 6. Where is
the Atlantic Plain widest ? Where narrowest? What is said of the
navigation of its rivers ? Of what use are these falls ? In what respect
does the drainage of this plain differ from that of other portions of the
country? 7. What cause the frequent rains in the low eastern half of
the United States ? In what direction does the rainfall increase on the
Atlantic coast ? On the Pacific coast ? What part is almost rainless ?

What is said of the winters ? Of the summers ? 8 ,What is said of the
average fall of the Mississippi and its branches ? Of the St. Lawrence ?
What is the effect of this ? What advantage results from the level face
of the country ? How many miles of railways in 1896 ?- o1. What two
lines separate the treeless regions of the West from the forest regions
of the East ? What important production particularly depends upon
frequent showers ? What are the other agricultural productions ? What
is the form of the prairie region ? What is said of its climate? What
are the staple productions? What change are the prairies undergoing?




I. For convenience of study, the United
States may be divided into sections and groups.
2, This division is based. upon certain facts
of the physical geography of the country :--

First, One half of the country is low, the
other half high.
Second, The lines of the coasts, mountains,
plateaus, and of the Mississippi River, lie in a
general north and south direction. These lines
divide the country into seven nearly parallel
physical belts; two of these belts are east of the
Mississippi River, and five of them are west of it.

, Third, The Ohio River; the Pofomac River,
and the Chesapeake Bay form a.iell-marked
line that divides the two eastern -belts into
groups of states which have widely different
climatic, industrial, and social peculiarities.
Fourth, The northern part of the most east-
ern belt is again divided by the line of the
Hudson River and Lake Champlain.

I_______________ STA ____________ ________ ____________ __________ __________________________ _____CENTR _____ST.EATE

I. Maine.
2. New Hampshire.
3. Vermont.
4. Massachusetts.
5. Rhode Island.
6. Connecticut.

I. New York.
2. New Jersey.
3. Pennsylvania.
4. Delaware.
5. Maryland.
(Dist. of Columbia.)

I. Virginia.
2. North Carolina.
3. South Carolina.
4. Georgia.
5. Florida.

I. Ohio.
2. Intiana.
3. Illinois.
4. Wisconsin.
5. Michigan.

I. West Virginia.
2. Kentucky.
3. Tennessee.
4. Alabama.
5. Mississippi..

I. Minnesota.
2. Iowa. 7
3. Missouri.
4. Arkansas.
5. Louisiana.

1. No. Dakota.
2. So. Dakota.
,3, Nebraska.
4. Kansas.
5." Indian T.
6. Oklahoma T.
7. Texas.

I. Montana.
2. Wyoming.
3. Colorado.
4. New Mexico T.

i. Idaho.
2. Nevada.
3. Utah.
4. Anszona 7:

Alaska T.

NorE.--The North Atlantic States are often called the Eastern States, or New England; the Middle Atlantic States, the Middle States; the five South Atlantic States and the five South Central States,
together with Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, the Southern States; and the rest, the Western States. Many other terms in frequent use require no explanation; as, the Gulf States, Lake States, Mississippi
States, Alleghany States, Cotton States, etc. In 1898, the Hawaiian Islands, in the North Pacific, were annexed to the United States. (See pp. iri, 113.)
For the sake of convenience, the territories are grouped with the states in this table.

3. There are forty-five states, five territories,
and one -federal district, called the District of
All but thirteen of the states are in the low
half. All the territories are in the high half.

S-Nor. -The District of Columbia covers only 70 square
S piles, and is not represented on the map.

Questions. How may the United States be divided ?-2.
On what is this division based ? What is the first fact ? The second ?
How do these lines divide the country ? How many of these belts
are east of the Mississippi? How many west of it? What is the
third fact ? What further division of the most eastern belt? Which
half of the country contains the greater number of states ? Into what
two parts may the low half be divided? Which contains one more
state than the other? Into how many and what groups may the At-
lantic States be divided? How many states in each? Into how
many .and what groups may the Central States be divided? How

many states in each? Into how many and what groups may the
Western States be divided? ITow many states in each ? Name the
North Atlantic States. The Middle Atlantic. The South Atlantic.
The North Central States. The South Central. The West Central.
The States of the Plains. The Rocky Mountain States. The Basin
States. The Pacific States. 3. How many states are there ? How
many territories? How many federal districts ? What is it called ?
How many of the states are in the low half? In which half are the
territories? What is a territory ? See p. 35.) What large territory
is not shown upon this map? (Alaska.)




., L

A M id L

What group of states lies farthest east ? What is
the capital of each? Where situated? Name one
other city in each. Where situated ? Which of
these states has two capitals? Name the capital and
one or two other cities in each of the Middle Atlan-
tic States. In the South Atlantic States. In the
North Central States. In the South Central. In the

West Central. In the States of the Plains. In the
Rocky Mountain States. In the Basin States. In the
Pacific States. Which of these cities are on or near
the Atlantic Ocean ? The Gulf of Mexico ? On the
Great Lakes? On Lake Champlain? On the Ohio
River ? On the Mississippi River? On the Missouri
River ? In or near the Rocky Mountains ? Between
the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada and Cas-
cade Mountains? West qf4-these last chains?

'In what direction from Indianapolis is Louisville ?
Cincinnati? Pittsburg? Cleveland? Detroit? Ch,-
cago ? Milwaukee? In what direction from Chicago
is Milwaukee? Davenport? St. Paul? Omaha?
Buffalo? In what direction from St. Louis is Omaha?
Evansville? Memphis? Louisville? Denver? In
what direction from New Orleans is Galveston ? Mo-
bile? Vicksburg? Montgomery?
Which is the largest state in the Union? The

I Li~~1..4



t o "-

:*- ."" ---;,- o'
'; '1 '.- ',. -"*.A ,.
"-'- -' 1 .' ', .* .-c. .- : ,
,, C.r i *-. --' _
j..-' i-- ^ 3

.' ,, :L --_ -- '-
,. t _, .'




1000 Square Miles.

Scale of Miles.
o 25 S 1- 2 00




is Wat rS m asauu ,Washix AO
smallest? The most northeasterly? Southeasterly?
Southerly? Southwesterly? Northwesterly? Which
state has the longest seacoast ? Lake coast ? What
states are separated by the Mississippi River ? By the
Ohio River? Missouri River?
What parallel bounds the United States on the
north? (49.) On the south? (25.) In what longi-
tude front Greenwich is its eastern point ? Its west-
ern point ? What states are crossed by the meridian

e '

.-:~j '

of Washington? What is the longitude of Washing-
ton? Of Boston? New York? Philadelphia?
Charleston? Cincinnati? Chicago? St. Louis?
New Orleans ? What cities on or near the parallel
40' N. ? In what zone is the United States ?
What is the general direction of the rivers east of
the Appalachian Mountains ? Name one Atlantic
river of the North Atlantic States. Name three in the
Use longitude from Greenwich.

Middle Atlantic States. Seven in the South Atlantic.
Three flowing into the Gulf of Mexico east of Missis-
sippi River. Five west of it. Name four eastern
branches of Mississippi River. Five western branches.
Four southern branches of the Ohio. Three northern
branches. Three western branches of the Missouri.
Two branches of the Columbia. The chief branch of
the Colorado. Two rivers in California. What river
forms part of the western boundary of Minnesota?


8oo 400

,1IIlI ----=i .




Bound the state. Name the capital. The largest city.



i. Main .
2. New Hampshire
Northern 3. Vermont .
Division. 4. Massachusetts.
5. Rhode Island.

6. Connecticut .
i. New York. ..

Middeivisio 3Pennsylvania .
4. Delaware .
5. Maryland .
I. Virginia .
2.-North Carolina
Southern 3-South Carolina
4. Georgia .
5.-Florida .

S.Augusta .
. .Concord .
S.Boston .
{ Providence
S.Hartford .
S.Albany .
.Trenton .
.Harrisburg .
.Dover ..
.Annapolis .
.Raleigh .
Columbia .
S.Atlanta .
S.Tallahassee .


2 2
Northern 2
Division. 3
Division. 3'
Division. 4.

Ohio . .
Indiana .
Illinois .
Wisconsin ...
Michigan .
West Virginia.
Kentucky .
Tennessee .
Alabama .
Mississippi. ..
Minnesota .
Iowa . .
Missouri .
Arkansas .
Louisiana .

. Columbus ..
.Indianapolis .
.Madison .
.Lansing ..
. Charleston
.Frankfort .
.Nashville .
.Jackson .
.St. Paul .
.Des Moines .
.Jefferson City
.Little Rock .
.Baton Rouge

Largest City.


S.New Haven.
S.New York.

..Des Moines.
.St. Louis.
.Little Rock.
.New Orleans.


I. North Dakota
2. South Dakota
3. Nebraska .
States of 4. o~ans.
the Plains 4..Kansas.
5. Indian T. .
6--Oklahoma T.
7. Texas .

Rocky 1. Montana. .
Mountain 2. Wyoming
States. 3--Colorado
4. New Mexico 7
i. Idaho .
Basin -- -Nevada .
States. 3. Utah .
4.,-Arizona T.
i. Alaska T..
Pacific 2. Washington
States. 3. Oregon .
4. California .

.Bismarck .
.Pierre. ..
.Lincoln .
.Topeka .

.Austin .
.Helena .
.Denver .

Largest City.
.Sioux Falls.
.Kansas City.

. Santa F .Santa F6.

.Boise . .
.Carson City..
.Salt Lake City
.Phoenix .
.Sitka . .
.Olympia .
.Salem .
.Sacramento ..

.Virginia City.
.Salt Lake City.
.San Francisco.

Mountains. Where situated
Appalachian? White? Adirondack? Catskill? Alleghany? Blue
Ridge? Rocky? Wasatch? Sierra Nevada ? Cascade? Coast Range?
Rivers. Where does it rise ? In what direction does itflow? Through
what states ? Into what body of water ?
ATLANTIC SYSTEM. St. Lawrence ? Connecticut ? Hudson ? Del-
aware? Susquehanna? Potomac? James ? Roanoke? Cape Fear?
Santee? Savannah? Altamaha ?
GULF SYSTEM. -Apalachicola? Mobile? Pearl? Mississippi?
Sabine ? Trinity ? Brazos ? Colorado ? Rio Grande ?
MississIPPI SYSTEM. Yazoo ? Ohio ? Illinois ? Wisconsin ? Min-
nesota ? Des Moines ? Missouri ? Arkansas ? Red ?
OHIO SYSTEM. Tennessee? Cumberland? Kentucky? Monon-
gahela? Alleghany? Scioto? Wabash?
MISSOURI SYSTEM. Yellowstone? Platte? Kansas?
PACIFIC SYSTEM. Columbia? Willamette? Snake? Sacramento?
San Joaquin? Colorado? Gila?
Lakes. Where situated ?
ST. LAWRENCE SYSTEM. -Champlain? Ontario? Erie? Huron?
Michigan ? Superior? *

Albany, N. Y...
Allegheny, Pa. .
Atlanta, Ga .
Baltimore, Md. .
Boston, Mass. .
Bridgeport, Conn.
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Buffalo, N. Y. .
Cambridge, Mass.
Camden, N. J. .
Charleston, S. C. .
Chicago, Ill. .
Cincinnati, O..
Cleveland, .
Columbus, .
Dayton, ....
Denver, Col ..
Des Moines, Ia.
Detroit, Mich. .


Erie, Pa . .
Evansville, Ind. .
Fall River, Mass. ..
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Harrisburg, Pa. .
Hartford, Conn..
Hoboken, N. J.
Indianapolis, Ind.
Jersey City, N. J.
Kansas City, Kan.
Kansas City, Mo..
Lawrence, Mass. .
Lincoln, Neb. .
Los Angeles, Cal. .
Louisville, Ky....
Lowell, Mass.
Lynn, Mass .....
Manchester, N. H..
Memphis, Tenn. ..



Milwaukee, Wis. 204,468
Minneapolis, Minn. 164,738
Nashville, Tenn. 76,168
Newark, N. J 181,830
New Bedford, Mass. 40,733
New Haven, Conn.. 81,298
New Orleans, La. 242,039
New York, N. Y. ,515,301
Oakland, Cal .... 48,682
Omaha, Neb ..... 140,452
Patersour N. J. 78,347
Peoria, Ill. ...... 41,024
Philadelphia, Pa.. .. 1,046,964
Pittsburg, Pa.... 238,617
Portland, Ore 46,385
Providence, R. I.. 132,'46
Reading, Pa ..... 58,661
Richmond, Va 81,388
Rochester, N. Y. 133,896

Saginaw, Mich. .
Salt Lake City, Utah.
San Francisco, Cal. .
Savannah, Ga .
Scranton, Pa ..
Seattle, Wash ...
Somerville, Mass. .
Springfield, Mass. .
St. Joseph, Mo.
St. Louis, Mo. .
St. Paul, Minn....
Syracuse, N. Y.
Toledo, . .
Trenton, N. J .
Troy, N. Y. ....
Utica, N. Y .....
Washington, D. C..
Wilmington, Del ..
Worcester, Mass. .



I l i, X%




I. The United States consists of forty-five states, five
territories, and a federal district.*
2. The population in 1890 was about 63,000,000.
About 59,000oo,ooo were in the low and fertile eastern half
of the country; and, of the remainder, about 3,000,000
were west of the Rocky Mountains.
3 3. The white race numbered about 55,000,000.
They are chiefly.the descendants of emigrants from England, Ire-
land, and Germany. Negroes and mulattoes, the descendants
of slaves brought from Africa, numbered nearly 7,50,0,00. Of
Indians there were about 250,000;. they are nearly all in the
Western Highland. The Chinese numbered about 107,000.

4. Agriculture is the leading industry. Its chief.seats
are the Central and Atlantic plains and the California
Basin. Among the principal agricultural products are the
grains, which, in the order of their latitude, are rice, corn,
wheat, rye, oats, and barley; corn and wheat are the
-most abundant. The other chief products in the shme
order are sugar,, cotton, tobacco, hemp, hay, and potatoes;
of these, cotton is commercially the most important.

S5. Grazing is an important occupation.
The prairie and the corn districts of the Central Plains furnish

-* The. Hawaiian Islands also belong to the United States.
: 5


live stock, beef, pork, and wool. The chief supplies of butter
and cheese are from the northern half of the Eastern Highland.
6. Mining is another industry of great importance.
The United States produces more gold, silver, iron, lead, and cop -
per than any other country in the world. ... '
The principal mines of coal are in the Eastern Highland; those of '
iron, in the Eastern Highland and the Lake Superior region; those
of gold and silver, in the mountains of the Western Highland;
those of lead, in Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Mis-
souri, and Kansas; and those of copper, in Montana and Ari-
zona and on the shores of Lake Superior. Agriculture, grazing,,:.
and mining supply most of the raw materials for manufactures.

7. Manufacturing industry has its chief seats in the
states north of the Potomac and the Ohio. This is
because of their abundant water power, fuel, and labor.
The principal manufactures are cotton and woolen
goods, leather, tools and machinery, flour, lumber, and
Fishing is a leading interest in some of the states.
8. Commerce is of two kinds, domestic and foreign.
The domestic commerce of the United States is the
distribution, within its own limits, of imported articles and
domestic manufactures in exchange for agricultural, graz-
ing, mining, and forest products.
9. Three great water routes to the sea, and many lines
of railway, are the principal channels of this commerce.
The first water route is by the Great Lakes and the
St. Lawrence to the ocean.
33 '" "


The second water route is by the Great Lakes, the Erie
Canal, and the Hudson River, to New York. This is the
principal commercial route of the continent.
The port of New York is remarkable for the peculiar advantage
of its position and for its excellent harbor. It is the chief natu-
.i ral doorway to the populous eastern half of the United States.
It lies at The outlet of a narrow valley which is the only deep
cleft and water way entirely crossing the Appalachian Highland.
By the broad and deep Hudson and the canal through the Mo-
hawk valley it has easy access to the group of inland seas
known as the Great Lakes. By the Champlain and Hudson
Canal it connects with the Lower St. Lawrence.
Through this valley the tide of emigration from Europe and the
Atlantic States flowed during the middle third of the nineteenth
century, spreading out over the fertile plains south of the Great
Lakes and beyond the Mississippi, and changing a wilderness
into the home of industrious millions. As one of the results
of their industry, the commerce of this region already greatly
exceeds in value the entire foreign commerce of the nation.
The third water, route is by the Mississippi and its
branches to New Orleans. By this route the grain, flour,
pork, beef, coal, and machinery of the North find a market
in the Cotton States, the West Indies, and Europe.
All these water routes radiate from or converge towards the low
plains of the Upper Mississippi and its branches, so rich in
grains and live stock.


10. The railway routes are much more numerous and
The principal lake ports, seaports, and other cities are connected
by railroads. These railroads and their branches cover the low
half of the country, and especially its northern part, like a net-
work of iron. The navigation of the Great Lakes and the -St.
Lawrence is prevented for several months of each year by ice:
this gives still greater importance to the railway system. Several
great railroads across the Western Highland unite the commer-
cial system of the East with that of the Pacific coast, and others
are in process of construction.
Thousands of vessels ply between the principal ports, and thus
complete the means for the transportation of goods, passengers,
and mails. This coasting trade is much greater than the entire
foreign commerce.


At the entrance of harbors, on capes, and at dangerous shoals of
the ocean and the lakes, the General Government maintains
lighthouses to guide and warn vessels at night.
Hundreds of thousands of miles of telegraph and telephone wires con-
vey the information by which this great commercial system is
regulated, and the newspapers promptly.report the state of distant
Domestic commerce is the chief means by which the different parts
of the United States are firmly and peaceably united through
mutual interests and mutual dependence. It is itself dependent
upon the physical geography of the country.

1 i. Foreign commerce is the exchange of commodi-
ties between different countries. The foreign commerce
of the United States is chiefly with England, Germany,
and France in Europe; with Brazil, the West Indies, and
Canada in America; and with Japan and China in Asia.
12. The principal exports are cotton, breadstuffs,
provisions, petroleum, gold, and tobacco. The greater part,
especially of the cotton, goes to England. South America
and the West Indies take large amounts of provisions,
flour, lumber, and other manufactures.
13. The leading imports, and the principal countries
from which they come, are dry goods from England anj
France, sugar from the West Indies, coffee fronM BrazW
and Central America, hides from South America, tek from
China, Japan, and Ceylon, and iron and tin from Eng-
The greater part of the foreign commerce centers in the seaports
of the northern half of the Atlantic coast; these have the best
harbors. At least two thirds of all the imports and nearly one
half of all the exports of the United States pass through the port
of New York.
Other leading seaports are Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New
Orleans, and San Francisco.
This foreign commerce is chiefly carried on by means of large
steam vessels. It is in large part directed and controlled by
means of several submarine telegraph lines, the' cables lying
upon the bed of the ocean. One line is to England by way of
Newfoundland and Ireland; another' is to France by way of
Massachusetts and the island of St. Pierre, near Newfoundland.
Questions (I.)-- Of what does the United States consist?-2. What was the
population in 89o ? How distributed ?- 3. How many belonged to the white race?
-4. What is the leading industry? .Where are its chief seats? Name the grains in the
order of their latitude. Which are the most abundant? Name the other chief prod-


ucts in the same order. Which is the most important? 5. What is said of graz-
ing ? -6. What of mining ? -7. Where are the chief seats of manufacturing industry ?
Why? Name the principal manufactures. A leading interest in some of the states.
-8. How many kinds of commerce ? What is domestic commerce ? -9. What are its
principal channels? Which is the first water route ? The second ? What is said of
MI? The third ? What is said of it ? o. What is said of the railway routes? II.
What is foreign commerce? With what countries in Europe is the greater part of the
foreign commerce? With what countries in America? In Asia? 12. Name the
principal exports. What share is taken by England? By South America and the
West Indies ? 13. What are the chief imports? From what countries?
(II.) 3. From whom are the white inhabitants of the United States descended ?
How many negroes? From whom descended? How many Indians? Where are
they ? How many Chinese ? 5. Where are the chief supplies of animal food and of
wool obtained ? Of butter and cheese? 6. Where are the principal coal and iron
mines? Of gold and silver ? Of lead? Of copper? What industries supply the
raw materials for manufactures ? 9. What is said of New York ? Of the valleys of
the Hudson and Mohawk ? Of the Champlain and Hudson Canal ? Of emigration ?
What is one of the results ? From what part of the country do the great water routes
radiate ? Io. What is said of the railroads ? Why is the railroad system important ?
What is said of the railroads to the Pacific ? Of the coasting trade ? How does it
compare with the foreign commerce? What is said of lighthouses? Of telegraphs
and newspapers? What is said of domestic commerce? Upon what is it dependent?
- 13. Where does the greater part of the foreign commerce center ? Why ? What
part of the imports are received at New York? Of the exports? Name other lead-
ing ports. How is the foreign commerce chiefly carried on? How is it directed and
controlled ? Where are the ocean cables ?




I The General Government of the. United States and
the several state governments are all republican, or repre-
sentative, in form.
The United States is the most extensive and powerful
republic in the world.

A republican government is one under which those who make the
laws and those who execute them are elected for limited periods
by the people.
A state is a division of the United States, controlling its own in-
ternal affairs, but united with the other states under the General
A territory is a portion of the country not yet admitted as a state,
because it has not sufficient population.

2. The General Government has three distinct depart-
ments, --the Legislative, the Executive, and the Judicial.

3. The Legislative Department, or Congress, consists
of two distinct bodies, -the Senate and the House of

A law is made by the consent of both Houses and the approval of
the President of the United States. If the President returns- a
bill without his approval, he is said to veto it; it may afterwards
become a law if two thirds of each House again approve it.

4. The Senate consists of two members from each state.
The senators are chosen by the State Legislatures, and hold office
for six years. Their present number is 90. The Vice-President
of the United States is the presiding officer.

5. The House of Representatives consists of mem-
bers chosen directly by the people of the several states.
They are the only officers of the General Government so chosen.
They hold office for two years. There are at the present time
357 members, each state being entitled to one for every 173,901
of its inhabitants. The representatives elect one of their own
number as presiding officer or Speaker. Each organized terri-
tory has a delegate in this House; he may take part in the dis-
cussion of all matters relating to his territory, but has no vote.

6. The President of the United States is the chief
executive officer.
The President and the Vice-President are chosen by electors. The
people of each state choose as many of these electors as there
are members of Congress from that state. The President and
the Vice-President hold office for four years. The President is
commander in chief of the Army and the Navy. By and with
the advice and consent of the Senate, he appoints the judges of
the Supreme Court and certain other civil and military officers,
concludes peace, and makes treaties with other nations.

7. The Supreme Court, or Judicial Department, con-
sists of a chief justice and eight associate judges.
8. The complete statement of the plan or arrangement
of the government is called the Constitution.
9. Each state has a complete political organization or
constitution, similar in most respects to that of the United
States. It has a governor elected directly by the people,
a legislature in two departments, and a supreme court.
Neither the General Government nor any state government can make
a law which is contrary to the Constitution of the United States.
An organized territory has a government similar to that of a state,
except that the governor and the judges are appointed by the
President of the United States.

Questions (I.) I. What is the form of the government of the United States ?
Of the several state governments? How does the United States compare with other
republics ? 2. How many and what departments has it? 3. Of what does the Leg-
islative Department consist ? What are they called ? 4. Of what does the Senate I
consist ? 5. How are the members of the House of Representatives chosen ?- 6.
Who is the chief executive officer ? 7. .Of what does the Supreme Court consist ? -
8. What is the Constitution of the United States ? 9. What is said of the state gov-
ernments ?
(II.)- I. What is a republican government ? What is a state ? What is a terri-
tory ? 3. How are laws made? When is a bill said to be vetoed? How may it af-
terwards become a law ? 4. How are the senators chosen ? For how long a time ?
What is their present number ? Who is President of the Senate ? 5. In what par-
ticular is the election of members of the House peculiar ? How long do they hold
office ? How many members are there at the present time ? What is the basis of
representation ? Who is the Speaker ? What is said of territorial delegates ? 6.
By whom are the President and the Vice-President of the United States chosen ? By
whom are the electors chosen ? How many are there ? How long do the President
and the Vice-President hold office ? Who is the head of the Army and Navy?
What other powers and duties has he ? 9. What laws cannot be made ? What
can you say of territorial governments ?

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General. Name the North Atlantic States. Which is the largest?
Which is the smallest ? Which has no seacoast ? Which has the most
broken coast ? What mountain system covers a large part of New Eng-
land? (See Physical Map of U. S., p. 25.) Which state has no moun-
tains ? In what general direction do the rivers flow? Which is the
largest river? What states does it separate ? What states does it cross?
Which state has the greatest number of lakes ?
Maine. What river forms part of the northern boundary of Maine r
Of the eastern? Of what lakes is it the outlet? Name four other
principal rivers. From what lake does the Kennebec flow ? What bays
on the southern coast? What cape? What island? What city on
Casco Bay ? On the Saco River ? On the Androscoggin ? On the
Kennebec? On the Penobscot? What city near Lewiston? Which
is the capital ?
New Hampshire. What mountains in the northern part of New
Hampshire? What celebrated peak? What lake near the center of
the state ? Which is the principal river in the state? In what state is
the mouth of the Merrimac? What three cities in New Hampshire are
on the Merrimac? Which is the capital ? What seaport in the south-
east ? At the mouth of what river ? What city near the Piscataqua ?
Vermont. What parallel forms the northern boundary of Vermont ?
What lakes does it cross? Which of these forms part of the western
boundary ? In what direction do its waters flow? Through what
branch of the St. Lawrence ? What mountains in this state ? Into
what other states do they extend ? Name the two highest peaks in
Vermont. What town is the capital? What city on Lake Champlain ?
What town southwest of Montpelier ?
Massachusetts. What two large islands belong to the state ? What
bay east? What two bays southeast? What three capes on the coast ?
What peak in the southwest? In the northwest? What two near Con-
necticut River? What river enters the state from New Hampshire ?
What large city on the Merrimac? What city is the capital? What
large city northwest of Boston ? Northeast? What town on Cape Cod
Bay ? What city in the south on the border of Rhode Island ? What
city midway between Boston and the Connecticut?
Rhode Island. Name the two capitals of Rhode Island. On what
island is Newport? (Rhode.) On what bay? What two towns north
Sof Providence ? What cape on the coast?
Connecticut. What water south of Connecticut ? What three rivers
enter it from this state? What city is the capital? What two cities on




I. Position and area.--The North Atlantic States
extend from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Champlain and
the valley of the Hudson. Their area is about two fifths
of that of California.
Maine is nearly as large as the five other states taken together.

2. Surface.--The surface is generally rough, being

or near Long Island Sound? What city northwest of New Haven?
What two cities near the center of the state, west of the Connecticut?
Voyages and Travels. -What cities, capes, rivers, and islands would
you pass in a coasting voyage from Bridgeport to Providence? From
Providence to Boston? Boston to the St. Croix River ? Through what
cities by railroad from Bridgeport to Boston by way of Springfield ? By
way of Providence? Boston to Bangor ? Boston to St. Albans by way
of Nashua ?

States. How bounded? What is the capital? The largest city 7

states. Area in Population ttes. Area in Population
S Sq. Miles. in 1890. Sq. Miles. in 189o.
Maine......... 33,040 66i,o86 Massachusetts.. 8,315 2,238,943
New Hampshire. 9,305 376,530 Rhode Island.. 1,250 345,506
Vermont........ 9,565 332,422 Connecticut ... 4,990 746,258

Cities and Towns. In what part of the state 7 How situated?
AUGUSTA? Portland ? Lewiston? Bangor? Biddeford? Auburn?
CONCORD? Manchester? Nashua ? Dover? Portsmouth ?
MONTPELIER? Burlington? Rutland?
BOSTON? Worcester? Lowell? Fall River ? Cambridge ? Lynn?
Plymouth ?
PROV4DENCE? NEWPORT? Pawtucket? Woonsocket?
HARTFORD? New Haven? Bridgeport? Waterbury? Meriden?
New Britain?
Islands. Where situated?
Nantucket? Marthas Vineyard? Mount Desert?
Capes. From what coast does itproject 7
Elizabeth? Ann ? Cod? Monomoy? Judith?
Mountains. Where are they ?
Green ? White ? Mount Washington ? Mount Mansfield ? Mount
Everett? Mount Tom ? Mount Holyoke?
Bays, etc. Where is it?
Passamaquoddy? Massachusetts? Cape Cod? Buzzards ? Narra-
gansett? Long Island Sound? Penobscot? Casco?
Rivers. Where does it rise ? In what direction does it flow 7
Through- what states? Into what body of water
St. John? St. Croix? Penobscot? Kennebec? Androscoggin?
Merrimac? Connecticut? Thames? Housatonic?
Lakes. Where situated What outlet?
Moosehead? Winnepesaukee? Champlain? Grand ?


broken by the mountains and numerous hills of this part
of the Eastern Highland.
There are two principal ridges forming the sides of the long val-
ley of the Connecticut River. The Green Mountains, near the
western border, are the only continuous range. The irregular
eastern ridge contains the White Mountains, the highest in New
The Atlantic shores are oFw;, in the south, and bold and rugged in
the east. They furnish many good harbors.

3. Lakes and rivers. --The lakes and rivers are very
numerous. Some of the lakes are celebrated for their 4,

.. ." .*" 7. .'


beauty. The frequent rapids and falls render the rivers
unnavigable beyond a short distance, but furnish the ex-
tensive water power which has made New England one
of the greatest manufacturing districts in the United
4. Climate and soil. -The winters are long and se-
vere ; the summers are short, but hot.
The soil is stony, and not very fertile, except in the
5. Agriculture. -The agricultural products are not
sufficient to supply the wants of the population.
The greater part of the breadstuffs and provisions used by the peo-
ple of this section is brought from the Great Central Plain.
Large quantities of live stock and wool are produced.

6. Occupations. Manufactures and commerce are the
leading pursuits.
The manufactures comprise fabrics of cotton, wool, leather, metal,
and wood,4'6gether with machinery, tools, and other articles in
great variety. Steam is now the principal motive power.
The firearms, cutlery, sewing machines, and boots and shoes of
New England find a market in a large part of the civilized world.
The forests of hemlock and pine, especially in the southeast of
Maine, furnish valuable lumber.

7. Commerce.- The many excellent harbors, the com-
parative nearness to Europe, and the abundance of ship
timber have contributed to establish an extensive foreign
The domestic commerce consists in the exchange of
lumber, marble, granite, ice, and manufactured articles
for coal, breadstuffs, provisions, and cotton, iron, wool,
and other raw materials. For this purpose Southern
New England possesses more coasting vessels and more
miles of railroad than any other equal area in the United
8. People. The people of New England are chiefly of


English descent. They are distinguished for industry and
intelligence, and for the general diffusion of education.
The numerous colleges, high schools, normal and common schools
are unsurpassed in excellence by any in the Union.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island are the most densely populated
states of the Union.

It has more good harbors
Bay to the Rio Grande.

than all the coast from the Chesapeake

Portland, the largest city, is at the termination of the
Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, and is noted for its ex-
cellent harbor and its extensive commerce. It is the
principal eastern gateway to the St. Lawrence valley in
the winter. Lewiston is largely engaged in manufactur-
ing. Bargor is a great lumber depot. Augusta is the
io. New Hampshire. New Hampshire, the "Gran-
ite State," is remarkable for the beauty of its lakes and
for the grand scenery of its mountains.
'These mountains and lakes are much visited by tourists in sum-
mer. Mount Washington, the highest peak of the White Moun-
tains, is 6,288 feet high; the view from its summit is more
extensive than any other east of the Mississippi. Of the lakes,
Winnepesaukee, near the center of the state, is the most beautiful.

Concord, the capital, is famous for its manufacture of
coaches and wagons. Manchester, the largest city, ansd
Nashua are noted for the manufacture of cotton and
woolen goods.
The Merrimac River is said to be more extensively used for manu-
facturing purposes than any other river in the world.


I I. Vermont. Vermont, the Green Mountain State,"
is chiefly a grazing country. It is also noted for its rich
quarries of marble, soapstone, and slate.
Burlington, on Lake Champlain, is a great lumber market.
Rutland has marble quarries. Montpelier is the capital.

.12. Massachusetts. Massachusetts, the Bay State,"
is one of the first in the Union in the value of its manu-
factures ; it is also noted for its extensive fisheries.
Its area is less than one thirtieth of that of Texas. The population
of the two states is nearly equal.
Boston, the capital, situated at the head of Massachu-
setts Bay, is the largest city in New England. In foreign
commerce it ranks next after New York. It is the cen-
ter of a railway system which includes the Boston and
Albany Railroad and many other important lines.
In the suburbs are many beautiful towns, large and small, connected
with the city by railroads: such towns may be called residential
towns, as they contain the homes of many thousands of the mer-
cantile population of the city.
It has sometimes been called the "American Athens," on account
of the excellence of its literary institutions.

Lowell, Lawrence, and Fall River, famous for cotton
manufactures; Worcester, a great railroad and manufac-
turing center; Cambridge, the seat of Harvard University,
the oldest and richest in America; Lynn, famous for its
manufacture of boots and shoes; New Bedford, noted for
cotton goods,. and as the first seaport in the world in the
extent of its whale fisheries; and Springfield, containing
a United States arsenal, are among its chief cities.


Plymouth is celebrated as the landing place of the Pilgrims, who
formed a settlement there in 1620.
Lexington and Concord are famous for the opening engagements
of the War of the Revolution, April 19, 1775.

13. Rhode Island.- Rhode Island, the smallest state
in the Union, is extensively engaged in the manufacture
of cotton, wool, iron, and jewelry.
This state contains a limited supply of anthracite coal.


Providence, the second, city in New England, is one of
the capitals. Newport, the other capital, is famous as a
summer resort. Pawtucket and Woonsocket are impor-
tant manufacturing towns.

14. Connecticut.- Connecticut is noted for a greater
variety of manufactures than any other state, and for its
extensive coasting trade. New Haven, the seat of Yale
College, is the largest city. Hartford, at the head of navi-
gation on the Connecticut, is the capital. Bridgeport,
Waterbury, Meriden, and New Britain, are large cities.

Questions (I.)- I. What is the position of the North Atlantic States ? How do
New England and California compare in size ?-2. What is the character of the sur-
face ? Why ? 3. What is said of the number of the lakes and rivers ? For what are
some of the lakes celebrated ? What is the effect of the falls and rapids of the rivers ?
Why are they valuable ?-4. What is the character of the climate? Of the soil? -
5. What is said of the amount of agricultural products ? 6. What are the leading
pursuits ? 7. What is said of the foreign commerce ? Of domestic commerce ? Of
the number of coasting vessels ? Of railroads?--8. Of what descent are the people
of New England? For what are they distinguished ?-9. For what is Maine noted ?
Portland ? Of what is it the principal gateway ? What is said of Lewiston ? Bangor ?
Augusta? zo. New Hampshire ? Concord? Manchester and Nashua?- Ii. Ver-
mont? Burlington? Rutland? Montpelier? --12. Massachusetts? Which is the
largest city in New England ? WHat is its rank in foreign commerce ? Of what is it
the center ? Name one of the most important lines of railroad. Name some of the
other chief cities. For what is Lowell noted ? Lawrence ? Fall River ? Worcester ?
Cambridge ? Lynn ? New Bedford ? Springfield? 13. Rhode Island ? Providence ?
Newport ? Pawtucket and Woonsocket ? 14. Connecticut ? New Haven ? Hartford ?
(II.) I. What is the relative size of Maine ? 2. What form the sides of the Con-
necticut valley ? Which is the only continuous range ? What is said of the eastern
ridge? What is the character of the surface near the Atlantic ? 5. Where are the
breadstuffs and provisions obtained ? Name the chief grazing products. -6. Name
some of the principal manufactures of New England. The forest product. 8. What
is said of the colleges and schools? What is said of the population of Massachusetts
and Rhode Island ? 9. What is said of the harbors of Maine ? Io. What is said
of the mountains,and lakes? Of Mount Washington? Of Lake Winnepesaukee? Of
the Merrimac Rlver ? i2. How does Massachusetts compare with Texas in area and
population? What is said of the suburbs of Boston? What may these be called?
What is Boston sometimes called? For what is Plymouth noted? Lexington and
Concord ? .3. What mineral in Rhode Island ?



%I ca.

Scale of BMila
U IA' 03 0U *0 10






General. Name the states of this group. Which two are the
largest ? Which is the smallest ? What mountain system covers a large
part of the group? Which state has the most mountains? Which has
none? Which state has many lakes?
New York. -What two large islands belong to this state? What
strait between them? What mountains in the north? The southeast?
The east? What river flows into New York Bay? Its most important
branch? What two rivers partly separate New York from Canada?
What two lakes? Which way does Niagara River flow? What falls in
that river? What lake in the southwestern part of the state? Name
four lakes in the central part. What river drains them? What river
west of the Oswego? What river flows into Delaware Bay? Chesapeake
Bay ? Ohio River? What lake forms a part of the northeastern bound-
ary? What lake south of Lake Champlain? What city at the mouth of
the Hudson? What islands inclose part of New York Bay ? Name the
chief cities on the Hudson. Which is the capital? What city at the
mouth of the Oswego? The Mohawk? On the Genesee? Lake Erie?
Near the Pennsylvania line? East of Elmira? What two cities between
Elmira and Oswego? What city east of Syracuse? What canal ex-
-tends from Albany to Buffalo ?
New Jersey. What cape at the southern point of New Jersey ? At
the northeast point? What mountains in the northwest? What city is
the capital? On what river? What city on the Delaware opposite
Philadelphia? Wtt five cities in the northeast ?
Pennsylvania. What parallel on the north ? What river forms the
eastern boundary? Name its principal branches. Name the chief
mountain ranges of the state. What river crosses the state? Name
its chief branches. What river in the western part? What two rivers
form the Ohio ? What city on the Delaware? On the Schuylkill? On
the Lehigh? What two on the Susquehanna? What one on its west
branch ? Which is the capital? What city near Wilkesbarre? Between
Harrisburg and Philadelphia ? What two cities at the head of the Ohio ?
What one on Lake Erie ? Between Pittsburg and Harrisburg?
Delaware. -What river flows into Delaware Bay? What cape op-
posite Cape May? What two cities in the northern part of the state?
What city is the capital?
Maryland. -What river separates Maryland from Virginia? What
federal district on that river? What mountains in the state? In what
part? What great bay divides the state into two parts? What two cities
on or near the bay? Which is the capital? What city northwest of
Baltimore? Near the western border?
District of Columbia. What large city in the District.of Columbia?
On what river is Washington?

Voyages and Travels. -In sailing from Troy to New York, what
towns would you pass? What cities, capes, bays, etc., from Jersey City
to Philadelphia? Philadelphia to Baltimore? What by railroad from
New York to Washington by way of Trenton ? Philadelphia to Erie?
Philadelphia to Pittsburg? Pittsburg to Annapolis?



States. How bounded? What is the capital? The largest city ?

Area in Population States Area in Population
states. Sq. Miles. in 18go. Sq. Miles. in x89o.
NewYork....... 49,170 5,997,853 Delaware ....... 2,050 168,493
New Jersey .... 7,815 1,444,933 Maryland ....... 12,210 1,042,390
Pennsylvania... 45,215 5,258,or4 Dist. of Columbia. 70 230,392

Cities and Towns. In whatpart of the state ? How situated? .,
ALBANY? New York? Buffalo? Rochester? Syracuse? Troy?
Utica? Binghamton? Yonkers? Elmira? Auburn? Newburgh ?
Cohoes? Poughkeepsie? Oswego? Kingston? Schenectady?
Jamestown? Amsterdam?
TRENTON? Newark? Jersey City? Paterson ? Camden? Hobo-
ken ? Elizabeth?
HARRISBURG? Philadelphia? Pittsburg? Allegheny? Scranton?
Reading? Erie? Wilkesbarre? Lancaster? Altoona? Williams-
port? Allentown?
DOVER? Wilmington? New Castle?
ANNAPOLIS? Baltimore? Cumberland? Hagerstown?
Islands.- Where situated?
Long ? Staten ? Gardiners ? Fishers ?
Capes. From what coast does it project 7
Sandy Hook ? May? Henlopen ?
Mountains. Where are they ?
Adirondack? Catskill? Highlands? Blue? Alleghany? Tusca-
rora? South?
Bays. Where is it ?
New York? Delaware? Chesapeake? Long Island Sound?
Rivers. WHtere does it rise 7 In what direction does it flow ?
Through what states ? Into what body of water ?
Hudson? Mohawk? Delaware? Schuylkill? Susquehanna? Al-
leghany? Potomac? Genesee? Monongahela? Oswego?
Lakes. Where situated What outlet?
George? Oneida? Cayuga? Seneca? Canandaigua? Chautauqua?




I. Area. -The area of the Middle Atlantic States is
more than twice that of New England.

2. Surface.-The greater part of this group, being
situated within the mountain region of the Eastern
Highland, has a rough surface. The principal mountain
ranges are the Adirondack and the Catskill in New York,
and the Blue and the Alleghany in Pennsylvania.

The mountains lie in the great forest belt; they are covered with
pine, spruce, hemlock, and other evergreens in the north, and
with deciduous trees in the south. The only lowlands are a nar-
row belt on the Great Lakes, and another on the Atlantic, con-
nected by the valleys of the Hudson and the Mohawk.
3. Climate. -The winters are long and severe in the
Adirondack region, but milder in the south ; the summers
are hot.
4. Agriculture. Potatoes and all the gains except
rice are produced in large quantities, but the population
is so. large, and so many ,re engaged in mining, manu-j

..~- .,

1' .

.- I


facturing, and commerce, that all of these states except
Maryland buy a large part of their breadstuffs.
5. Minerals.- Iron is abundant in all the states of
this group except Delaware, coal in Pennsylvania and
Maryland, zinc in New Jersey, salt in New York, and
petroleum and natural gas in Pennsylvania.
6. Manufactures.- In the value of its manufactured
articles this group of states ranks first in the Union.
The falls of the numerous rivers which drain the high-
land, and the abundant coal, give unusual advantages to
this form of industry.
7. Commerce. The Middle Atlantic States are the
principal commercial section of the Union.

the United States, excluding Texas. The common-school system.
is one of the best in the United States.
The cataract of Niagara, in the Niagara River, is the grandest water-
fall in the world. The water from the broad basin of four of the
Great Lakes here falls over a precipice about 165 feet high, pro-
ducing a scene of wonderful sublimity.

The city of New York, sometimes called the Metro-
politan City, is the richest and most populous city in
America. In population, commerce, and manufactures it
ranks as the second city in the world.
It is noted for its commodious harbor, the number of its magnifi-
cent hotels, banks, churches, schools, and private dwellings, and
for its parks. The city comprises the boroughs of Manhattan,
Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond.


The chief routes of the vast domestic commerce of this
group of states are Hudson River, the Erie Canal, the
Champlain and Hudson Canal, the Erie, the West Shore,
and the New York Central and Hudson River railroads,
in New York; Chesapeake and Delaware bays, and the
Pennsylvania Railroad in Pennsylvania; the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad in Maryland; and the New Jersey
Central Railroad in New Jersey.
Into these few channels are gathered the extensive
coasting trade and the immense system of railway and
river lines of the West and South.

The three great bays and the excellent harbors of the Atlantic coast,
the navigable rivers, and the easy access to Europe and to the
rich valley of the Mississippi and the Great Lakes, give remark-
able advantages both for foreign and domestic commerce. The
Hudson is navigable to Troy, the Delaware to Trenton, and the
Potomac to Georgetown.

8. New York. New York, the Empire State," is
the first in the Union in population, wealth, and com-

Its population in 1890 was more than a million greater than that
of New England, and equal to that of the whole western half of

The borough of Brooklyn. is closely connected with that
of Manhattan by a majestic suspension bridge, and by
many short ferries. It contains a United States Navy Yard
and an excellent system of warehouses, docks, and piers.
There are many manufacturing and residential sections within the
confines of the city, all of which are connected by rivers and rail-
ways. The city of New York has an area of 360 square miles
and contains about 3,250,000 inhabitants. Within the city limits
there are many places which locally retain their former names.
Among other important places are Buffalo, on Lake
Erie, the second city of the state, and Albany, the capital,
both important depots of grains and other produce; Buf-
falo also supplies a large lake trade with anthracite coal
from Pennsylvania. Rochester, the third city, has fine
water power. Syracuse is noted for its salt works ; Troy,
Utica, Auburn, Cohoes, and Oswego, for water power
and manufactures. The village of West Point, beautifully
situated on the Hudson, is the seat of the United States
Military Academy.
9. New Jersey. New Jersey, lying between the great
cities of New York and Philadelphia, is largely engaged
in market gardening and fruit raising.
Newark, on the Passaic River; Jersey City, a suburb of


New York; Paterson, at the Passaic Falls; and Trenton,
the capital, are extensively engaged in manufacturing.
So. Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania, the "K e y ston e
State," is remarkable as the chief mining state in the
Union. It produces more than half of the petroleum,
more than half of the coal, and a large part of the iron,
mined in the United States. Natural gas is abundant in
the vicinity of Pittsburg.
The coal of this state, with that of Maryland, supplies domestic
fuel and the steam power of vessels, locomotives, and factories,
for a large part of the United States. The abundance of fuel
and iron shapes the industries of its leading cities.
Philadelphia is one of the first cities of the United
States in manufactures, population, foreign commerce,
and iron shipbuilding.
It also has an extensive domestic commerce, and is the greatest
coal depot in America. It is noted for its Fairmount Park, its
well-supplied markets, and its abundance of cheap and comforta-
ble dwellings: it is sometimes called the City of Homes."
Its most famous public building is the State House, where the
Declaration of Independence was adopted, July 4, 1776.

Pittsburg, the second
city of the state, is the
chief center of the iron
interest, and is one of the greatest petroleum markets in
the world. It has a large trade with the Mississippi Val-
ley in bituminous coal, glass, iron, and machinery. Alle-
gheny is the third city in the state.
Scranton, Pottsville, and Wilkesbarre are large coal "
towns in the anthracite region, which has numerous rail-
ways and canals for the transportation of this product.
Erie is a great lake port. Harrisburg is the capital.
i1. Delaware. Delaware is the smallest state in the
Union except Rhode Island, and is noted for its fruit
Wilmington is the chief city. The construction of

iron ships, and the manufacture of gunpowder, are among
the leading industries. Dover is the capital.
I2. Maryland.- Maryland is noted for its mild cli-
mate, and for its production of tobacco, coal, and iron.
The peninsula between Chesapeake Bay and the Atlan-
tic is the great peach-growing district of the United States.
Baltimore is one of the leading cities of the United
States in foreign commerce, and in population.
It has an extensive trade in tobacco, canned fruit, fish, and oysters.
It is the terminus of a trunk railway, the Baltimore and Ohio,
which connects it with St. Louis, and with Chicago and other
lake ports.
Annapolis, the capital, is the seat of the Naval School
of the United States.
13. District of Columbia. The District of Columbia,
situated on the Potomac, has an area of seventy square
miles. It contains Washington, the capital of the United
Questions (I.)- I. What is the area of this group ?- 2. What is the character
of its surface ? Why? Name the principal mountain ranges. 3. What is the
character of its climate ? 4. What are the agricultural products ? What is said of
the breadstuffs ? 5. What and where are the chief minerals? 6. What is said of
the manufactures? Of the natural advantages for manufacturing?- 7. What is
said of the commerce? Name the principal routes. What is said of them?-8.
For what is the state of New York remarkable? The city of Ney York? What is said
of its suspension bridge and other connections? For.what is.;-lffalo noted? Albany?
Rochester ? West Point? What cities are noted for watero'wer and manufactures?
-9. What are the chief occupations in New Jersey? ,WR~at cities are engaged in
manufacturing? Which is the largest city? The capital ?- o. For what is Penn-
sylvania noted ? What is said of its mineral products ? For what is Philadelphia
noted? For what is Pittsburg noted? Which is the third city in the state
Which are the coal towns 7 What city is the capital ?- in. What is the compara-
tive size of Delaware ? For what is it noted? Wilmington ? What city is the capi-
tal ? 12. For what is Maryland noted? What is said of the peninsula? Balti-
more? Annapolis ? 13. What is the area of the District of Columbia? What
city does it contain ?
(II.)-2. In what belt do the mountains lie? With what are they covered?
Where are the lowlands? 7. "'.hat are the commercial advantages of this section ?
How far is the Hudson navigable? The Delaware? The Potomac ? 8. What is
said of the population ? Of the common-school system ? Of the falls of Niagara ?
For what is New York City noted ? What is said of its area? Population ? Of the
manufacturing and residential sections ?-Io. Of the coal of Pennsylvania? What
determines the industries of the leading cities ? What is said of Philadelphia ? For
what is it noted ? What is it sometimes called ? What is its most famous public
buildings ?-II. What is said of the trade of Baltimore? Of what great railway is
it the terminus?



General. How .many states are represented upon this
map? Into what two groups may they be divided? (See
p. 29.) Into what do the rivers of the South Atlantic
States flow? What is their general direction ? Into what
do the rivers of the South Central States flow ? What is
,their general direction in the north ? In the west? In the
south ? In what part of the South Atlantic States are the
mountains ? Of the South Central States ? What states are
partly separated by the Alleghany range? By the Cumber-
land range? By the Unaka or Smoky Mountains? Through
what states does the Blue Ridge extend ? Which of these
states have no mountains ? What states are bounded by
the Ohio River? The Mississippi? The Gulf of Mexico?
Virginia. -What great bay partly within the state of Vir-
ginia ? What two capes at its mouth? What four rivers
flow into that bay? What branch has the James? What
river on the north ? What is the capital ? What city on
the Appomattox ? What city near the mouth of the James ?
What city west of the Blue Ridge ?. Just east of the Blue
Ridge? What river between the Blue Ridge and the Al-
leghany Mountains? In what direction does it flow? Of
what river is it a branch? What swamp in the southeast-
epn part of the state ?
North Carolina. What cross range connects the Iron
Mountains with the Blue Ridge? What peak in the Black
Mountains ? For what is it remarkable ? (It is the highest
point in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains.)
What two sounds on the coast of North Carolina? How
are they separated from the ocean ? (By narrow sand bars
and islands.) What capes on these islands? Near what
city in Virginia do these sand bars and islands begin ? Near
what city in North Carolina do they end ? Of what use
are these sand bars and islands ? (They protect the naviga-
tion of the entire coast of North Carolina.) What rivers flow
into these sounds ? What river enters the ocean at Cape
Fear? What city on Yadkin River? On Cape Fear
River ? What two cities in the southwest ? What city is
the capital? Near what river?
S South Carolina.- Which is the principal river of South
Carolina? What two branches form it? On which of these
is the capital? What two rivers form the Congaree ? What
river north of the Santee? What river south? What city
sa e coast? What town northwest of Columbia ?
Georgia.--What river forms the eastern boundary of
Georgia? What.two cities on the Savannah? What large
river south of the Savannah ? What rivers form the Alta-
maha? What city on the Ocmulgee? What river forms.

a part of the western boundary ? What river east of the
Chattahoochee ? What city on the Chattahoochee ? What
is the capital ?
Florida. What small islands south of Florida ? What
town on one of them ? What capes on the coast of Florida?
What bays? What great swamp in the southern part of
the state ? What lake north of it ? What broad river in
the east? In what direction does it flow? What town
near its mouth ? What town southeast of Jacksonville ?
What river in the northwest? What branches form it?
What is the capital ? What town in the northwest ? On
what bay?
West Virginia. Which is the principal river of West
Virginia ? What river forms a part of the western boundary
of this state ? What city in the narrow northern part of
the state ? On what river ? What is this narrow district
sometimes called ? (The Pan-handle.) What other cities
on the Ohio? What city is the capital?
Kentucky. Name the five chief branches of the Ohio
River in Kentucky. Which has its mouth opposite Cin-
cinnati ? What two towns at the mouth of the Licking ?
What city is the capital? What city southeast of it?
What large city on the Ohio ?
Tennessee.- Which are the two chief rivers in Tennes-
see? Through what states does the Tennessee flow?
The Cumberland? What city is the capital? What two
cities in East Tennessee ? On what rivers ? What city on
the Mississippi ? Northeast of Memphis ?
Alabama.--Name the two chief rivers of Alabama.
Into what does the Mobile flow ? Name its two branches.
What city on Mobile Bay? What branch has the Tom-
bigbee ? What city in the north central part of the state ?
Name the capital.
Mississippi. Name the chief rivers of Mississippi.
Of what river is the Yazoo a branch? The Tombigbee?
What other branch of the Mississippi in this state ? Into
what does the Pearl River flow? What two cities on the
Mississippi ? What city is the capital ? What city east of
Jackson ?
Voyages and Travels.- What rivers, capes, and sea-
ports would you pass near in a voyage from Washington to
Fernandina? From Fernandina to Mobile? From Mo-
bile by steamer to Memphis ? From Memphis to Wheeling ?
What cities would you pass through in a journey by rail
from Washington to Atlanta by way of Wilmington ? From
Atlanta to Vicksburg ? From Vicksburg to Lynchburg by
way of Chattanooga? From. Cincinnati to Birmingham?
From Savannah to Knoxville by way of Charleston ? From
Washington to Pensacola by way of Chattanooga? From
Savannah to Chattanooga? From Petersburg to Nashville?



States. How bounded 7
largest city ?

What is the capital? The

States. Area in Population States. Area in Population
states. q. Miles. in 1890. Sq. Miles. in 189o.
Virginia.... 42,450 1,655,980 W. Virginia. 24,780 762,794
N.Carolina. 52,250 1,617,947 Kentucky.. 40,400 1,858,635
S. Carolina. 30,570 1,151,149 Tennessee.. 42,050 1,767,518
Georgia.... 59,475 ,837,353 Alabama... 52,250 1,513,017
Florida .... 58,680 391,422 Mississippi.. 46,810 I,289,6oo

Cities and Towns. --In what part of the state ? How
situated ?
RICHMOND ? Norfolk ? Petersburg ? Lynchburg ?
Roanoke ?
RALEIGH ? Wilmington ? Charlotte ? Asheville ?
Winston ?
COLUMBIA? Charleston? Greenville ?
ATLANTA? Savannah? Augusta? Macon? Columbus?
TALLAHASSEE? Key West? Jacksonville? Pensacola?
St. Augustine?
CHARLESTON? Wheeling? Huntington? Parkersburg?
FRANKFORT ? Louisville ? Covington ? Newport ?
Lexington ?
NASHVILLE? Memphis? Chattanooga? Knoxville?
Jackson ?
MONTGOMERY? Mobile? Birmingham?
JACKSON? Vicksburg? Meridian? Natchez?
Capes. From what coast does it project ?
Charles ? Henry? Hatteras ? Lookout ? Fear ?
Canaveral? Sable ?
Mountains. Where are they ?
Blue Ridge? Alleghany? Cumberland? Unaka?
Black? Mount Mitchell? Peaks of Otter?
Bays, etc. Where is it ?
Chesapeake? Albemarle Sound? Pamlico Sound ?
Tampa? Apalachee? Mobile? Mississippi Sound?
Rivers. Where does it rise ? In what direction does it
flow ? Through what states ? Into what body of water
Potomac? Rappahannock? York? James? Appo-
mattox? Roanoke? Neuse? Cape Fear? Santee ? Sa-
vannah? Altamaha? St. Johns? Apalachicola? Flint?
Chattahoochee ? Great Kanawha? Licking? Kentucky?
Cumberland? Tennessee? Yazoo? Pearl? Mobile?
Tombigbee? Alabama? Shenandoah?




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I. Area. The area of the four northern states of this
group is about equal to that of the eleven Atlantic States
north of the Potomac. Georgia is the largest state east
of the Mississippi.
2. Surface. -The surface consists of several belts of
country parallel to the coast.
First, The most western belt contains the Blue Ridge
and the Unaka or Smoky Mountains, with the high val-
leys between.
This elevated district is mostly covered with forests of deciduous
trees, oak, hickory, chestnut, maple, etc. It has an abun-
dance of water power, coal, and iron, as yet but little used.

Second, East of the mountain belt lies a broad strip of
fertile country. It produces tobacco in the north, and
cotton in the south.
Third, Farther to the east is a low sandy belt, called
the "Pine Barrens," covered with forests. It supplies
lumber, turpentine, and rosin.

It extends nearly to the Mississippi on the west, and may be traced
towards the north through New Jersey and Long Island.

Fourth, The low, unhealthy coast region contains a
chain of great swamps, extending from the Dismal Swamp
of Virginia to the Everglades of Florida, and along the
shores of the Gulf of Mexico to Texas. In some parts

of this belt rice is extensively cultivated. It also contains
forests of live oak, which is valuable for shipbuilding.
3. Climate. -The summers are long and hot. The
winters are mild in the mountains and in the north; in the
southern part there can hardly be said to be any winter.
The moist winds of the Atlantic and of the Gulf of
Mexico give to Georgia and the Gulf States the largest
rainfall known in any part of the United States excepting
Puget Sound and Alaska.
The production of cotton, the great staple of the South,
and one of the chief exports of the United States, is de-
pendent upon the frequent summer showers.
4. Occupations and Productions. Agriculture is the
leading occupation. The principal products are wheat,
corn, early vegetables, and tobacco in the north; rice and
cotton in the south. Lumber is a large manufacturing
5. Virginia. Virginia, the Old Dominion," is the
second state in the production of tobacco, and has a large
trade in garden vegetables, Southern agricultural staples,
and in fish and oysters from the Chesapeake Bay.
The country between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany Mountains
is called the Great Valley of Virginia," and is one of the most
fertile districts in the United States.
Richmond, at the falls of the James, is the capital and
chief manufacturing and railroad center. It is the largest
city in this group of states, and has an extensive trade in
iron manufactures, flour, and tobacco.
Norfolk, the second city of the state, is a leading cotton
port. It is a naval station,
Sand has the best harbor in
Sthe United States south of
the Potomac.
6. North Carolina. -
North Carolina, the "Old
North State," produces a
large amount of tobacco,
cotton, and lumber.
Wilmington, the largest
city, exports turpentine, tar,
pitch, rosin, lumber, rice,
garden vegetables, and cot-
ton. Raleigh is the capital.
7. South Carolina. South Carolina, the Palmetto
State," produces much rice.
Charleston, the largest city, is an important port. Cot-
ton, fertilizers, and early vegetables are largely exported.
Columbia is the capital.


8. Georgia. -Georgia has a larger population and
more extensive manufactures than any other seaboard
state between Virginia and Texas. The manufactures
are chiefly of iron and cotton, and are rapidly increasing.
Atlanta, the capital and largest city, is an important
railroad center. Savannah, the second city and chief port,
has a large trade in naval stores and cotton. Columbus,
on the Chattahoochee, has abundant water power, and
manufactures a large amount of cotton goods.
9. Florida. Florida is noted for its mild climate and
for its orange groves and other tropical vegetation.
The population is densest in the northeast, and within ioo miles
of the northern boundary. The southern half of the state is a
low morass.

St. Augustine is the oldest town in the United States.
Jacksonville, the largest city, is a winter resort. Key
West is a wrecking station, and is largely engaged in
sponge fishing and in the manufacture of cigars. Talla-
hassee is the capital.

SQuestions (I.) I. What is the area of the four northern states of the South At-
lantic group ? Of Georgia ?- 2. Of what divisions does the surface consist? What
constitutes the western belt ? The second belt ? What does it produce ? What is the
third belt? What does it supply? What is the fourth belt? What are the produc-
tions of this belt ?- 3. What is the character of the climate? What is said of the
rainfall ? Of the production of cotton ?- 4. What is the leading occupation ? Name
the chief productions. 5. For what is Virginia noted? Richmond? Norfolk? -
6. North Carolina? Wilmington? Raleigh? 7. South Carolina? Charleston ?
Columbia?- 8. Georgia? Atlanta? Savannah? Columbus ?-9. Florida? De-
scribe St. Augustine. Jacksonville. Key West. Pensacola. Tallahassee.
(II.) 2. What is said of the forests of the mountain belt ? Of its water power
and minerals ? What is the extent of the third belt ? -5. Where and what is the
Great Valley? -9. Where is most of the population of Florida? What is the char-
acter of the southern half of the state ?



i. Surface. This group of states has a diversified
surface, but the greater part is in the Low Central Plain.
West Virginia lies in the Eastern Highland, and Mississippi in the
Great Plain. Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama have large
highland districts.
2. Climate. The climate of the highlands is mild and
delightful; the lowlands have long and hot summers.
3. Soil. The greater part of the plain is very fertile.
4. Occupations. Agriculture is the chief occupa-
tion. The leading staples are cotton, corn, tobacco, hemp,
and lumber.
All but West Virginia produce cotton. The mountains and numer-
ous rivers of the Eastern Highland give West Virginia, Kentucky,
and Tennessee abundant water power and transportation for their
coal, petroleum, and iron industries. The mountains are covered
with heavy forests of valuable timber.
5. Commerce. The Cumberland, Tennessee, Ala-

bama, and other large navigable rivers radiate from the
highland, and fall into the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the
Gulf. These rivers and the numerous railways furnish
excellent commercial facilities.
Louisville, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Nashville, Mem-
phis, Birmingham, and Mobile are the leading railroad
6. West Virginia. -West Virginia has a mountain-
ous surface. Bituminous coal, iron, salt, and petroleum
are abundant. Lumber and coal are the chief products.
Wheeling is the largest city. Huntington and Park-
ersburg are important cities. Charleston is the capital.
7. Kentucky. Kentucky is one of the most populous
states south of the line of the Ohio and Potomac rivers.
It surpasses every other state in the production of tobacco, and
produces nearly all of the hemp raised in the United States.


Louisville, on the Ohio, is, after New Orleans, the largest
city south of the Ohio and the Potomac ; it has a large
trade in flour, pork, hemp, and tobacco. Covington and
Newport are opposite Cincinnati. Frankfort is the capital.
8. Tennessee. Tennessee has three physical divis-
ions, known as East, Middle, and West Tennessee.
East Tennessee is a mountainous country, and is re-
markably rich in coal, iron, marble, timber, and water
power. Knoxville, on the Holston, and Chattanooga,
beautifully situated on the Tennessee, are the chief depots
of this important region. Iron and lumber are the chief
Middle Tennessee, the most populous division, is famous
for its production of corn, tobacco, and live stock. Nash-
ville, its depot, is the capital and largest city in the state.
West Tennessee is the lowest and warmest part of the
state. Cotton is the chief staple. Memphis is the largest
city on the lower Mississippi River except New Orleans.
It is the principal interior cotton market, and has an im-
mense river trade.


9. Alabama. -The valleys of 72 /
the Alabama, the Tombigbee,
and the Tennessee, include most of the state. Cotton
and iron are the chief products.

General. -Name the states of this group. Which border on the
Ohio River? On the Mississippi? On Lake Superior? On Lake
Michigan? On Lake Erie? What water connects Lake Superior with
Lake Huron? Lake Huron with Lake Michigan? What lake between
Lake Huron and Lake Erie? What rivers connect these lakes? Which
of these states has no river belonging to the Mississippi system?
Ohio. -Name the three chief branches of the Ohio River in this
state ? What river in the northwest ? What city on the Maumee? What
large city on.Lake Erie? On the Ohio? On the Miami? What city
on the Muskingum? West of Columbus? What three southeast of
Cleveland? What two southwest of Toledo? What city is the capital?
Indiana. -Which is the chief river of Indiana? What is the chief
branch of the Wabash? What large city on the Wabash? What two
on the Ohio? What city on the Maumee? On the St. Joseph? What
is the capital?
Illinois. -Name the three chief branches of the Mississippi in this
state. What is the capital? What city on Lake Michigan? What two
cities southwest? What city on Mississippi River? On Rock River?
On Illinois River? Southeast of Peoria?
S Wisconsin. -Which is the chief branch of the Mississippi in this
state ? What lake in the east? What river is its outlet? Into what
S bay does it flow? What two cities on Lake Winnebago? Three on
Lake Michigan? What cities in the west? What city is the capital?
Michigan. -Of what does Michigan chiefly consist? (Of two great
peninsulas.) What large island in Lake Superior belongs to this state ?
Which is the chief river of South Michigan? What river north of
Grand River? What three cities on Grand River? Which of these
is the capital? What. city on Muskegon River? What bay on the
eastern shore ? What river flows into it ? What two cities on Saginaw
SRiver? What city on Detroit River ?
: Voyages and Travels.-Through what waters would you pass, and

Montgomery, the capital, is an important depot for
cotton. Mobile, a cotton port, is the largest city. Bir-
mingham and Anniston are centers of the iron region.
o0. Mississippi. Mississippi is noted as a leading
state in the production of cotton.
Vicksburg is the most important city. Jackson is the
Although. one of the richest in cotton, the most important export
of the United States, this is the only Gulf State with no seaport
of its own. It has no large city.
Questions (I.) i. What is the character of the surface of this division ? Where
does the greater part lie ? -2. What is the character of the climate ? 3. Of the soil?
-4. What is the chief occupation? Name the leading staples. -5. What is said
of the chief rivers of this group ? What commercial facilities has this section ? Name
the leading railroad centers. -6. What kind of a surface has West Virginia? In
what minerals is it rich? What are the chief products ? What is the largest city?
The capital ? 7. For what is Kentucky noted ? Louisville ? Covington? Frank-
fort ?-8. How many physical divisions has Tennessee? Name them. For what is
East Tennessee noted? Knoxville and Chattanooga? Middle Tennessee? Nash-
ville ? West Tennessee ? What is the principal staple ? What is said of Memphis ?
-9. What river valleys include most of the state of Alabama? What are the chief
products? What is the. capital? For what is Mobile noted? Birmingham anc/
Anniston ? o. For what is Mississippi noted ? Name the most important citr.
The capital.
(II.) I. Which of these states has no lowland ? Which no highland ? Which
have large highland districts?--4. Which of these states does not produce cotton?
Which are rich in water power, coal, and iron ? With what are the mountains cov-
ered ? -7. How does Kentucky rank in the production of tobacco ? Of hemp ? -
Io. What is said of Mississippi?

near what cities, in a coasting voyage from Chicago to the head of Lake
Superior? Chicago to Cleveland? What cities would you pass between
Cincinnati and the mouth of the Ohio? By rail from Chicago to Osh-
kosh? Chicago to St. Louis? Chicago to Evansville? Chicago to
Louisville by way of Logansport? Chicago to Cleveland ? Cleveland
to Cincinnati ? Cleveland to Grand Rapids by.way of Detroit ?

States. How bounded ? What is the capital The largest city 7

states Area in Popul States Area in Population
Sq. Miles. in 189o. States. Sq. Miles. i i 89o.

Ohio........... 41,060 3,672,316 Wisconsin ...... 56,40 1,686,88o
Indiana......... 36,350 2,592,404 Michigan ....... 58915 2,093,889'
Illinois ......... 56,650 3,826,35I

Cities and Towns. In what part of the state 7 How situated
COLUMBUS ? Cincinnati? Cleveland? Toledo? Dayton? Youngs-
town? Springfield ? Akron? Canton? Zanesville?
INDIANAPOLIS?7 Evansville? Fort Wayne? Terre Haute? South
Bend? New Albany?
SPRINGFIELD? Chicago ? Peoria? Quincy ? Rockfolbrd ?J.oliet ?
Bloomington? Aurora?
MADISON?' Milwaukee? LaCrosse? Oshkosh? Racine?. Eau
Claire? Sheboygan? Fond du Lac ? Superior ? /
LANSING? Detroit? Grand Rapids? Saginaw? Bay City? Mus-
kegon ? Jackson ?
Bays. Where is it Green? Saginaw? "
Rivers. Where does it rise 7 In what direction does it flow 7
Through what states ? Into what body of water 7
Scioto? Wabash? White? Illinois? Wisconsin? St. Marys ? Fox ?
Grand? St. Clair? Detroit? Maumee? Saginaw?"
Lakes. -Where situated.? What outlet Winnebago? St. Clair?





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Longitude 87 West from 85 Greenwiah 83 81




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\ % Longitude 10

West Ino 8 1 Washlington,




i. This group lies wholly in the Great Central Plain.
2. Surface. There are no mountains.
There is a hilly region in the southeast, towards the Ohio, and an-
other and more rugged one towards Lake Superior.

The greater part of Illinois and the adjacent parts of
Wisconsin and Indiana are level or rolling prairies. The
rest of the vast plain, and the hilly regions, are covered
with forests except where cleared for cultivation.
3. Climate. The winters are severe, especially in the
north; the summers are hot.
4. Minerals. -The hilly, region near Lake Superior
contains an abundance of iron ore and the greatest deposit


of pure or native copper in the world; that near the Ohio
is rich in iron, and extensive deposits of coal. An impor-
tant lead region covers the adjacent parts of Wisconsin and
Illinois near the Mississippi. Michigan produces more
iron ore, salt, and gypsum than any other state.
5. Occupations. Agriculture and grazing are the
leading pursuits. Of wheat, corn, wool, and live stock, the
quantity produced is unsurpassed by that of any equal area
on the globe. Manufacturing and mining are important,
and are rapidly increasing in the coal and iron districts.

6. Commerce. -The commercial advantages of this
group are remarkable. Three of the principal water
ways of the continent the Mississippi, the Ohio, and the
Great Lakes form an almost complete boundary.
On or near this margin lie most of the largest cities in
the United States west of Atlantic tidewater. Milwau-
kee, Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, and Cincinnati
are on the inner margin of the district; and Duluth, Min-
neapolis, St. Paul, St. Louis, Louisville, Pittsburg, and
Buffalo are just outside of it.
The chief business of the large and important inland
city Indianapolis, and of all these lake and river ports ex-
cept Pittsburg, and of the systems of railways of which
they are the centers, is the collection and transportation
of the agricultural and grazing products of this vast gran-'
ary and those of the equally productive neighboring states
west of the Mississippi River.
Canals connect rivers flowing into the Great Lakes with navi-
gable branches of the Mississippi and the Ohio, the Wisconsin
with the Fox, the Illinois with the Chicago, and the Wabash with
the Maumee. The falls in the St.- Marys River, at the entrance
of Lake Superior, are passed by a ship canal in Michigan.
Most of the rivers of the Mississippi system have high banks called
bluffs. The depth of water in these rivers varies greatly during
the year, the Ohio sometimes having a rise of seventy feet.

7. Inhabitants. The inhabitants are chiefly descend-
ants of immigrants from the North Atlantic and Middle
Atlantic States; most of the remainder are European
No part of the world possesses a larger proportion of intelligent,
industrious, self-reliant citizens; and no equal area surpasses
this group of states in the excellence of the common schools
and the general interest in public education.
The Germans constitute the greater part of the foreign-born popu-
lation; the Irish are next in numerical importance; there the
also many thousands of Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes.

8. Ohio. Ohio ranks among the first states in the
Union in the production of wool, coal, and tobacco, and
is the fourth in population. In the amount and variety
of its manufactures, it exceeds every other state west of
the Appalachian Mountains.
Cincinnati, the largest city, and the metropolis of the
Ohio valley, has an extensive trade in provisions and
grain, and is one of the principal manufacturing cities in
the United States.
Cleveland, the second city, is one of the five Great Lake
ports, and builds many steel steamers. Toledo, also a
lake port, Dayton, and Columbus, the capital, are among
the numerous large cities.


9. Indiana. Indiana has a level surface, fertile soil,
and valuable mines of block coal. It is among the first
states in the production of wheat and other grains, and
live stock. It is the eighth state in population.
Indianapolis, the capital and largest city, is a great rail-
road center, and one of the most important cities of the
Central States. Evansville and Fort Wayne are next in
io. Illinois. Illinois is one of the first states in the
Union in the production of corn, wheat, and zinc, the sec-
ond in that of coal, and the third in population. It
possesses one of the most extensive coal fields in the
This state is mostly prairie, with low hills on the Ohio, and bluffs
on the Mississippi.
Chicago, the second city in the Union, and the com-
mercial metropolis of the St. Lawrence basin, is the chief
lumber and provision market in America, and, next to
London, the greatest grain market in the world.
A vast network of railways radiate from it as a center. The city
extends along the lake front for about 24 miles. The Chicago
River divides the city into three parts, and the harbor is pro-
vided with immense piers. Originally built on low ground, Chi-
cago has become, in its grading, drainage, and water supply, a
monument to the energy, sagacity, and public spirit of its citizens.
In October, 1871, a fire, one of the most destructive in modern
times, swept away three and a quarter square miles of its most
valuable storehouses and residences. The direct loss was esti-
mated at nearly $200,000,000, and the loss of business at
$90,000,000 more. Notwithstanding this sudden calamity, the
most extensive and disastrous that ever befell an American com-
munity, it was promptly rebuilt as a far grander city, and now
ranks as second in the Western Hemisphere.
Among other important cities are Peoria, Joliet, and
Quincy. Springfield is the capital.
I1. Wisconsin. Wisconsin resembles Illinois in the
.abundant production of wheat, and Michigan in that of
lumber. This state has a large number of beautiful lakes;
it also has an abundance of water power, that of the Fox
River, between Winnebago Lake and Green Bay, being
among the most valuable in the United States.
The population is mostly in the south.
Milwaukee, the largest city, is one of the five Great Lake
ports, and has a large commerce in breadstuffs, provisions,
and lumber. La Crosse, Oshkosh, Superior, Racine, and
Eau Claire are important places. Madison is the capital.
12. Michigan. Michigan consists of two peninsulas.
It is bordered by four of the five Great Lakes, and has
more coast than any other state excepting Florida.
The population is mostly in the south, which is fertile. The north-
ern part of the southern peninsula is sandy, and covered with
valuable forests. The North Central States' furnish a ready
market for the salt of Saginaw, and for the lumber of Saginaw
and of the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Other important

productions are whitefish from the Great Lakes, gypsum from
Grand Rapids, and copper and iron from the shores of Lake Su-
The country along the western coast of the southern
peninsula is known as the Fruit Belt.
The relatively warm water of Lake Michigan causes southerly
winds to prevail on this coast in winter, which give to these
shores so mild a winter climate that fruit trees are seldom
injured by extreme cold.
Detroit, the eastern entrance to Michigan and the upper
lakes, is the largest city. Grand Rapids and Saginaw are
important manufacturing cities. Lansing is the capital. At
Port Huron is a great railway tunnel under St. Clair River.
Questions (I.) I. Where is this group situated ?- 2. What peculiarity has its
surface ? Where are the prairie regions ? The forest regions ? 3. What is the char-
acterof the climate ? -4. What minerals in the hilly region near Lake Superior? In
that near the Ohio? Where is the lead region? Which of these states produces
salt?-5. Name the two leading pursuits. What is said of the products? Of
manufacturing and mining?-6. What is said of the commercial advantages?
Name the three great water ways. What do they form ? What is said of this bound-
ary? What cities are on the inner margin of this district? What cities are just out-
side of it? What is the chief business of these cities?-7. Who are the inhabit-
ants? 8. For what is Ohio noted ? Cincinnati? Cleveland ? What cities are next
in size? Which of these is the capital?-9. For what.is Indiana noted? Indian-
apolis? What other important cities ?- Io. For what is Illinois noted? What is
said of its coal fields ? For what is Chicago noted? What other important cities ?
What city is the capital?- i- What are the principal productions of Wisconsin ?
What is said of its lakes and water power? For what is Milwaukee noted ? What
other important places? What city is the capital? 12. For what is Michigan
remarkable? Where is its fruit belt? For what is Detroit noted? Grand Rapids
and Saginaw? What city is the capital? What feature of interest at Port Huron ?
(II.) -2. Where are the hilly regions'?-6. What is said of the canals ? Of the
ship canal ? Of the banks of the rivers of the Mississippi system ? Of the depth of
water? How high is the rise of the Ohio ?-- 7. What is the character of the peo-
ple of this group ? Of the common schools ? Name the chief elements of the for-
eign-born population. Io. What is the character of the surface of Illinois? Of
what is Chicago the center? What is said of its growth ? Qf its grading, drainage,
and water supply ? With what calamity was it visited in 1871 ? What was the esti-
mated loss ? What is said of its present condition ? -, Where is most of the popu-
lation of Wisconsin ? 12. Where is most of the population of Michigan? Where are
the forests? For what products do the North Central States furnish a niarket ? What
others are important? What part of the state is favorable to the production of fruit?



i -, :.i.'i- *-.




General.- How many states on this map? Which three belong to
the West Central States? (See p. 29.) To what do the others
belong? Which is the smallest of the seven ? The largest? Which
are crossed by the Missouri? Which are partly bounded by it ?
Minnesota.-What chain of lakes forms the northeast boundary
of Minnesota? What ridge in the northern part of the state? What
great river rises in this state? In what lake? What branch crosses
the southwestern part of this state ? What river has its source very near
that of the Minnesota ? Into what lake does it flow ? What city is the
capital? What'city west of it? North? What city in the southeast
on the Mississippi? What one on Lake Superior ? In what part of the
state are most of the towns ?
Iowa. -Between what rivers is Iowa? What river crosses it ? What
city is the capital? What city on the Missouri ? What three cities on
the Mississippi? What city opposite Omaha?
Missouri. -What mountains in the southwestern part of Missouri?
What two mountains in the southeastern part ? What river crosses the
state ? What city is the capital ? What two other cities on the Mis-
souri ? What two on the Mississippi? What city west of the capital ?
What city in the southwest ?
North Dakota.-What plateau occupies the central part of North
Dakota? What great river west of the plateau? Name its chief
branches in the state. What river on the eastern boundary ? Its chief
branches ? What two other rivers east of the plateau ? What is the
capital ? What city on the James? On the Red River of the North?
North of Fargo ?
South Dakota. -What two rivers cross the state? What rivers form
parts of the boundary? Name the chief branches of the Missouri.
What three highlands in the state ? Where situated ? What city is the
capital ? Name the chief cities of each river valley.
Nebraska. What boundary river has Nebraska ? What branch in
the northern part of the state? What river crosses the state ? In what
part of the state are most of the towns? What city is the capital ? What
city southwest of Lincoln ? South? What cities on the Missouri ?

Kansas.-What river crosses the southwestern part of Kansas?
Which is the chief city on it? What river north of the Arkansas? Of
what river is it a branch? What two large cities on the Kansas?
Which is the capital? What two cities on the Missouri ? What city in
the southeast ?
.Travels. -What cities would you pass in a steamboat voyage from
St. Louis to St. Paul? From St. Louis to Yankton? By rail from
St. Louis to Topeka?

States. How bounded? What is the capital? The largest city?
states. Area in Ppulation Area in Population
tates Sq. Miles. in 89o.tates Sq. Miles. in 89go.
Minnesota ...... 83,365 1,301,826 North Dakota ... 70,795 182,719
South Dakota ... 77,650 328,808
Iowa........... 56,025 1,91,896 Nebraska .......77,510 1,058,910
Missouri........ 69,415 2,679,184 Kansas ......... 82,080 1,427,096
Cities and Towns. -In what part of the state How situated?
ST. PAUL? Minneapolis? Duluth? Winona? Stillwater?
DES MOINES? Sioux City? Dubuque? Davenport? Burlington?
Council Bluffs ?
JEFFERSON CITY? St. Louis? KansasCity? St. Joseph? Spring-
field? Sedalia? Hannibal?
BISMARCK ? Fargo ? Grand Forks ? Jamestown ?
PIERRE ? Sioux Falls? Yankton? Aberdeen? Huron ?
LINCOLN? Omaha? Beatrice? Hastings? Nebraska City?
TOPEKA? Kansas City ? Wichita? Leavenworth? Atchison?
Fort Scott?
Mountains. Where are they?
Height of Land? Ozark? Pilot Knob? Iron? Black Hills?
Rivers. Where does it rise ? In what direction does it flow I
Through what states ? Into what body of water
Mississippi? Missouri? Minnesota? Red River of -the North?
James? Des Moines? Platte? Kansas?
(For Sections LVI. and LVII., see p. 54.]





1. The five states of this group form a belt of nearly
equal width from the Gulf of Mexico to the northern
boundary of the United States. (See map on p. 28.)
2. Surface. The West Central States resemble each
other in the fertility of their soil and in the general level
of their surface.
They are mostly low prairies, with timber in the "bottom lands."
The only elevations are the short,, low ranges of the Boston and
Ozark mountains, and the clay and sand hills of Minnesota.
Each state has the Mississippi as' its eastern boundary,
and is divided almost diagonally by a great navigable
branch flowing towards the southeast.
3. Climate.- The chief difference is in climate, which
ranges from the short summers and long, cold winters

of Minnesota to the almost tropical seasons of Loui-
4. Productions. -The difference in climate causes a
corresponding difference in the products. Agriculture
is the leading interest throughout this group of states.
The great staples, in the order of latitude, are rice, sugar,
cotton, corn, hemp, and wheat. There are also immense
quantities of live stock.
Each of these states strongly resembles its eastern neighbor in cli-
mate, soil, and productions.

5. Population. -The population of the northern half
of this group is mostly derived from the same sources, and
is of the same general character, as that of the North Cen-.
tral States. Public education is provided for with equal
liberality, and the common schools are among the first in
excellence. The population of the southern half of the"i

General. How many states and territories on this map ?
To what group do Arkansas and Louisiana belong? (See
p. 29.) Texas, Oklahoma, and Indian Territory?
Arkansas. What mountains in the northwest ? What
river crosses the state? What is the capital? What other
towns on the Arkansas? What town southwest of the capi-
Louisiana. What river crosses the center of Louisiana ?
What two lakes in the southeast ? What cities on the Mis-
sissippi River? Which is the capital? What city on Red
Indian Territory. What rivers cross the territory ?
Oklahoma. -What rivers cross the territory? What
part is mountainous? Which are the chief towns?

Texas.- Name the six chief rivers of Texas. What
bays on the coast? What is the capital? What city on
the coast? Locate two other cities in the south. Three
north of the capital.

States.-How bounded? What is the capital ? Largest city
States. Area in Population Area in Population
States. q S n States. S P
Sq. Miles. in 8go. States. Sq. Miles. in x9go.
Arkansas... 53,850 1,128,179 Indian T... 31,400 179,321
Oklahoma T. 39,030 61,834
Louisiana.. 48,720 Irr8,587 Texas...... 265,780 2,235,523

Cities and Towns. Where 7 How situated?
LITTLE ROCK? Fort Smith? Pine Bluff? Hot Springs?
BATON ROUGE? New Orleans? Shreveport?
GUTHRIE ? Oklahoma ?
Tahlequah? Tuskahoma ? Vinita?
AUSTIN? Dallas? San Antonio? Galveston? Hous-
ton? Fort Worth? Waco?
Mountains. Where are they 9
Pea Ridge? Boston?
Lakes. Where is it ?
Borgne ? Pontchartrain ?
Rivers. Where does it rise ? In what direction does
it flow ? Through what states ? Into what body of
water ?
Arkansas? Red? Sabine? Trinity? Brazos? Colo-
rado ? Rio Grande?

group is similar to that of the South Central
6. Commerce. The numerous railways and
the many navigable rivers present remarkable
commercial advantages.
The chief commercial centers are
St. Louis and Kansas City in Mis-
souri; Minneapolis and St. Paul in
Minnesota; and New Orleans in
S Louisiana.
7. Minnesota. Minnesota con-
tains the crest of the Great Low Plain
of North America.
The waters from this crest, which is called
the Height of Land,- flow by Red River
of the North into Hudson Bay, by the
St. Lawrence into the Atlantic, and by
i /the Mississippi into the Gulf of Mexico.
SIn the north are numerous lakes.

/It has many rapid rivers with inex-
iaustible water power.
\ St. Paul, at the head of navigation
-~-t-on the Mississippi, is the capital. Min-
neapolis, at the Falls of St. Anthony,
is the largest city. It employs its
immense water power chiefly in the
manufacture of lumber and flour.

8. Iowa. -The greater part of the surface of
Iowa consists of fertile rolling prairies. It is
one of the first states in the Union in the pro-
duction of Indian corn, live stock, and butter.
It is rich in coal and lead.


Sioux City, on the Missouri, and Dubuque,
Davenport, and Burlington, on the Mississippi,
are important cities. Des Moines is the capital.
9. Missouri. Missouri is noted for its ad-
vantageous central position, and for the variety
and extent of its agricultural and min-
eral wealth.
It is the fifth state in population. Coal
and iron, the two most important min-
erals of civilization, are abundant and
excellent. Coal is the leading mineral
Missouri ranks first among the states in
the production of zinc, and second in
lead; extensive deposits of these ores
being among the most valuable re-
sources of the state.
St. Louis, the metropolis of the
Mississippi Valley, is the fifth city of
the United States in population, and
is the central depot of exchange and
supply for a large part of the Union.
Its chief manufactures are iron, flour, and
machinery. As a depot for agricultural
and grazing products it has a very ex-
tensive and rapidly increasing busi-
ness. Four great water ways, the Mis-
souri, Ohio, and Upper and Lower Mis-
sissippi, with their numerous branches,

AND rce F rr B(r

x ,, .s 0i Z I;'0 F of 0
-PlRinc (1-O

lo00S pnarren er a No rande
Scale ofMlecs. Cam ar"
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make it the center of many thousands of miles of river naviga-
tion, about i,ooo miles being within the limits of the state or
on its boundaries. Many trunk railways center at St. Louis,
and connect it with all parts of the country, from Galveston and
Mobile to New York and Boston, and with San Francisco and
other ports of the Pacific coast. Railway bridges connect it
directly with the railway systems east of the Mississippi.

Other important places are Kansas City and St. Joseph.
The capital! is Jefferson City.

10. Arkansas.-The natural resources of Arkansas are
very great. The staples are cotton, corn, and lumber.
Arkansas is rich in water power, timber, and coal, and in valuable
ores of iron, zinc, lead, and silver. The development of these
great resources is steadily increasing.

Little Rock is the capital and largest city.

I I. Louisiana. Louisiana was settled by the French.
Their descendants, called creoles, still constitute a consider-
able part of the population, and speak the French language.
The state leads the Union in the production of rice.

This state is in the lowest part of the Great Plain. The surface
of the Lower Mississippi during the annual floods is several feet
higher than the country through which it passes, especially in
Louisiana; and broad walls of earth, called levees, have been
constructed to confine it and its tributaries within their banks.
Sometimes the water breaks through the levees, and hundreds
of square miles of valuable sugar, rice, and cotton plantations
are ruined. Such a breach is called a crevasse.
The state has no great mineral wealth except a mass of pure rock
salt, singularly situated in a low island in the southern marshes.

mouth of Mississippi River.
Trunk railways connect Newd .
Orleans, on the one hand, with
the whole system of roads east
of the Mississippi, and on the
other with the great transcon-
tinental lines which extend
into Mexico and to the ports of the Pacific Ocean. It is also con-
nected with the Gulf through Lakes Pontchartrain and Borgne by
canals for vessels of light draught.
Questions (I.) I. What do the five states of this group form ? 2. In what re-
spects do they resemble each other ? What river forms their eastern boundary By
what is each divided ? 3. In what do they chiefly differ ? 4. What other differences
arise from difference in climate What is the leading interest?? Name the great
staples in the order of their latitude. What other important products ? 5. What is
said of the population of the northern half of this group ? Of public education ? Of
the common schools ? Of the population of the southern half ? 6. What commer-
cial advantages has this group ? What are the chief commercial centers ? 7. What
elevation does Minnesota contain? For what is Minnesota noted St. Paul? Min-s
neapolis 8. What kind of a surface has Iowa? What are its products Which
is the largest city? What other important towns ? What is the capital ? 9. For
what is Missouri noted? For what is St.Louis distinguished ? What other impor-
tant places? What is the capital ?- o. What are the staples of Arkansas? What
city is the capital ? i. d By whom was Louisiana settled? Who are the creolesf
For what is New Orleans noted? What other trade has it? What is the capital?
(II.) --2. What is the general character of the surface of the West Central States?
What elevations have they ?-- 4. What does each of these states resemble? 7. How
is the Height of Land drained? Where are the lakes ? -- 9. How does Missouri
rank in population? What is said of its coal and iron ? Which is the leading min-
eral interest? What is said of its zinc and lead mines ? What manufactures has
St. Louis? What other business has it? Of what is it the center? What is said of its
railway connections ? Io. What is said of the resources of Arkansas? ir. 'Where is
Louisiana situated ? How does the height of its surface compare with that of the
Mississippi ? What are levees ? What is their use ? What is a crevasse? What
mineral has this state ? Where is New Orleans situated ? What is said of its rail-
ways? In what other way is it connected with the Gulf ?



i. Situation. This group of five states and two ter-
ritories lies chiefly in the eastern division of the Great
Western Highland.
2. Surface. It consists principally of rolling prairies,
and is part of the high plains that extend west to the
Rocky Mountains.


In Texas these plains are called the Llano Estacado, or "Staked
Plain," from the stakelike stems of a plant that grows there in

3. Inhabitants.- The inhabitants are mostly in the
eastern part, near the great rivers, the country here being
lower, better watered, and more fertile.
4. North Dakota. -North Dakota is noted for the
abundance and excellence of its wheat, its leading staple.
The most populous section is in the broad valley of the
Red River and parts adjacent. The surface is mostly a
rolling prairie, broken by low and broad plateaus, and,
especially in the west, by many flat-topped hills, called
buttes. Most of the population is east of the Missouri.
Bismarck is the capital, and Fargo the largest city.
The highest part of the state is west of the Little Missouri, along
the southwestern boundary, and is over 3,000 feet above the sea;
the lowest part is at the northeast corner, in the Red River val-
ley, 790 feet above the sea. This river is the only one in the
United States whose waters flow finally into Hudson Bay. The
Missouri and the. Red are both navigable. North Dakota is
crossed from east to west by several great trunk lines of railway.
The eastern part of the state is covered with a network of rail-

5. South Dakota. -As in North Dakota, the general
prairie surface of South Dakota is broken by low plateaus
and hills. The chief products are wheat, Indian corn,
flax, beef, pork, and wool. The principal farming region
is east of Missouri River, and includes an extensive dairy
country. The southwestern counties are covered by the
Black Hills, which are noted as a stock region, and are
rich in mines of gold, silver, and other metals. The Black
Hills country is one of the two most populous regions of
the state. The other is a group of the eastern and south-
eastern, counties. Pierre is the capital of the state. Sioux
Falls is the largest city.
The Black Hills country, the highest part of the state, reaches' an
elevation of 7,000 feet above the sea; the lowest point, the south-
eastern corner, is about 1,000 feet. The country between the
Black Hills and the Missouri is dotted with buttes and other
low hills, and drained by a great number of rivers whose beds
lie far below the general surface of the prairie. The most
remarkable district of this extensive region is known as the
Bad Lands." Notwithstanding this name, these lands furnish
protection and excellent pasture during the winter to immense
herds of cattle.

6. Nebraska. Nebraska exceeds in area New Eng-
land and New Jersey taken together. The principal
products are wheat and corn, cattle and. other live stock.
Lincoln is the capital. Omaha is the largest city.
The state is a vast diversified plain, more than half of it being a
rolling prairie. Except in a few districts, the soil is highly fer-
tile; the eastern part is the most productive region, on account
of its greater rainfall. Among many railroads is the Union
Pacific, which passes through the entire length of the state,
and is a part of a great transcontinental trunk line.

7. Kansas. Kansas, the Central State," is about
twice the size of Ohio. In soil, climate, and productions
it greatly resembles Nebraska. It is rich in coal, lead,
zinc, salt, and other valuable minerals. It is noted for its
abundant crops of Indian corn. Topeka is the capital.
Kansas City is the largest city.
Kansas is well supplied with railroads, some of which are parts
of transcontinental lines. Near the western border of the
state the waters of Arkansas River are extensively used for

8. Indian Territory. Indian Territory, more cor-
rectly the Indian country, is a country set apart by Con-
gress as the home of certain Indian tribes, or nations, who
have at different periods been transferred from other parts
of the United States. Each is organized as a tribe or
nation independent of all others, and has its own internal
government. The chief tribes are the Cherokees, Chick-
asaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles.
9. Oklahoma. The climate is rather dry, but suitable
for stock raising. The broad and well-watered river val-
leys are well adapted for farming. Guthrie, the capital,
Oklahoma, and Kingfisher are the chief towns.
Oklahoma was organized as a territory in 1890 out of the west-
ern part of Indian Territory and some public land between
Texas, Colorado, and Kansas.

o1. Texas. -Texas is the largest state in the Union,
and is noted for its great extent of fertile soil. As an
agricultural state, its resources are immense. Cotton, corn,
cattle, and wool are the chief staples. Dallas and San
Antonio are the largest cities. Galveston is the chief
port. Houston, Fort Worth, and Waco are railway cen-
ters. Austin is the capital.
The area of Texas is more than five times that of New York, or
more than thirty times that of Massachusetts. It has a state uni-
versity and a most efficient system of public schools, supported
by a permanent fund.
Texas has at least 25,000 square miles suitable for the cultivation
of cotton, and is the leading state in this product. It has an
equal area adapted to the cultivation of wheat. It has a large
trade in cattle and hides. The northern part of the state has
abundance of coal, and of the ores of iron and copper.

Questions (I.) I. Where is this group situated?-2. Of what does it princi-
pally consist?- 3. Where are most of the inhabitants located ? Why ? 4. Describe
North Dakota. What is the chief staple? What town is the capital? What is the
largest city ?- 5. Describe South Dakota. Name its principal products. The capi-
tal. The largest city. 6. Describe Nebraska. Name the principal products.
Which is the largest city ? The capital? 7. Describe Kansas. Which is the largest
city? The capital? 8. What is the Indian Territory ? 9. Describe Oklahoma.
- o1. For what is Texas remarkable ? What is said of its resources? What are its
chief staples ? Its largest' cities ? Its important railway centers? Its capital?
(II.) -2. What name is given to these plains in Texas? Why ? -4. What is
said of the rivers and railways of North Dakota ? 5. What is said of the Black Hills
country? What is said of the "Bad Lands" ? -6. What is said of the soil and.rain.
fall of Nebraska? Of the railroads ? 7. Of the railroads of Kansas?- 9. When
was Oklahoma organized ? o. What is the comparative size of Texas ? What is
said of its educational institutions? Of the production of cotton' Of wbh't ? 'Of
the trade in cattle and hides ? In what part of the state are the minerals ?

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General. How many groups of states and territories on this map ?
(See p. 29.) How many states and how many territories in each
group? What territory on the Pacific is not on this map? (Alaska.)
In what direction do the Rocky Mountains extend in Wyoming and
Montana? In Colorado and New Mexico? Which is the principal
mountain range in Washington and Oregon ? What is it called in Cal-
ifornia? What mountain ranges along the coast? In what states?
What great river breaks through the Cascade Mountains? Which are its
two chief branches? Through what state and territory does the Colo-
rado flow? What two rivers form it? What branch near its mouth?
Montana. Name the two principal rivers of Montana. Name the
chief branches of the Missouri and the Yellowstone. What city is the
capital? What city south of Helena? North? Northwest? West of
Butte? In what part of the state are most of the cities and towns ?
Wyoming. What mountain range in the western part of Wyoming ?
What- peak in the Wind River Mountains ? What great rivers have their
sources in this range? What park is mostly in Wyoming? In what part?
What lake in the park? What river rises in Yellowstone Lake? What
city is the capital? What city nearly west of Cheyenne? What town
in the southwest?
Colorado. What four natural parks are in Colorado? What moun-
tain peaks in this state ? What great rivers flow from Colorado? What
city is the capital? What city southwest of Denver? What two cities
south of Denver? On which side of the Rocky Mountains are most of
the towns?
New Mexico. What river passes through central New Mexico ?
What rivers in the east? What city is the capital? What town south-
west of Santa F6? What city southeast?
Idaho. Which is the chief river of Idaho ? What city is the capital?
What town in the southeast ?
Nevada. In what part of Nevada are most of the towns? What is
the capital? What city north of Carson City?
Utah. -What chain of mountains in the northeast of Utah? What
chain southwest of the Uinta Mountains? What lakes in this state?
What city is the capital? What city north of Salt Lake City? What
city south of Salt Lake City ? .North of Ogden ? In what part of the
state are most of the towns ?
Arizona. What two rivers cross Arizona ? What cautions in the Col-
orado River? Name a tributary to the Colorado. What city is the
capital? What city southeast?
Alaska. Which iB the principal river of Alaska? (See Map of
North America.) What are the chief towns? On what islands?
Washington. What cape in the northwestern part of Washington ?
At the entrance of what strait is this cape? Into what sound does this
strait lead ? In what part of the state are most of the towns ? What is
the capital ? What two cities north of the capital ? What city east of
Columbia River ?




I. Surface. -This group contains the great watershed
of North America.
The Rocky.Mountains, one of the highest systems in North America,
under various names, cover the greater part of this division.

Oregon. What two boundary rivers has Oregon ? In what part of
the state are most of the towns ? What city is the capital ? What city
in the northwest? What mountains in the northeast? In what river
valleys are most of the railways?
California. -Which is the chief mountain range in California?
What peak at the northern end of the Sierra Nevada? What two
peaks near their southern extremity ? Which is the largest lake in the
state ? Which are the two chief rivers ? Through what famous valley
does a branch of the San Joaquin flow? What river in the northern
part of the state separates the Cascade Mountains from the Sierra
Nevada? What strait at the entrance of the Bay of San Francisco?
What river forms the southeastern boundary of the state ? What city is
the capital? What city nearly south of Sacramento ? West of Stockton?
West of Oakland? South of Oakland? What two cities in the southern
part of the state?

States and Territories. How bounded What is the capital?
The largest city ?
States or Area in Pop. in States or Area in Pop. in States or Area in Pop. in
Territories. Sq. Miles. x89o. Territories. Sq. Miles. x890. Territories. Sq.Miles. x18o.
Montana........... x46,08o i32,59 Idaho........ 84,800 84,385 Alaska T.... 577,390 30,os
Wyoming .......... 97.890 60,705 Nevada ..... zo,700 45,761 Washington.. 69,I8o 349,390
Colorado........... 103,925 412,.98 Utah ........ .84,90 07,90o Oregon ...... 96,03o 33,767
Nea Mexico T..... 0. ,58o 0 53,593 Ariona T.. xx3.w0o 59,62o Caliibmia ... 158,360 x,.o8,3o
Cities and Towns. -In what part of the state 7 How situated?
HELENA? Butte? Great Falls? Anaconda? Missoula?
CHEYENNE ? Laramie? Rock Springs?
DENVER? Pueblo? Colorado Springs? Leadville.?
SANTA F ? Albuquerque? Las Vegas?
BOISE? Montpelier ?
CARSON CITY? Virginia City?
SALT LAKE CITY? Ogden? Provo City? Logan?
PHOENIX? Tucsun?
SITKA? Juneau? St. Paul?
OLYMPIA? Seattle? Tacoma? Spokane?
SALEM? Portland ? Astoria?
SACRAMENTO? San Francisco? Los Angeles ? Oakland? San
Jos6? San Diego? Stockton?
Mountains. Where are they ?
Rocky? Wind River? Uinta? Wasatch? Cascade? Sierra
Nevada? Coast ranges? Fremonts Peak? Pikes Peak? Mount
Shasta? Mount Tyndall? Mount Whitney? Mount Lincoln?
Rivers. Where does it rise 7 In what direction does it flow P
Through what states ? Into what body of water ?
Missouri? Yellowstone? Colorado? Gila? Green? Grand? Sacra-
mento? San Joaquin? Klamath? Columbia? Snake? Clark Fork?
Lakes. Where is it ?
Yellowstone? Great Salt? Tulare? Utah ?


The Great Plains constitute the eastern part of the group, and ex-
tend to the base of the mountains.
2. The most important valleys inclosed by the Rocky
Mountains are the four parks of Colorado.
Some of these are as large as Connecticut or New Jersey. If'.
the front range or eastern wall of the parks are several peiA
over 14,000 feet high. The great central chain of the Roi..,
*, -. -



Mountains, known as the Sierra Madre or National range,
reaches a great elevation on the west side of the parks. From
the top of Mount Lincoln the eye sweeps over a wilderness of
high peaks, at least two hundred of which are nearly 13,ooo
feet, and not less than twenty-five over 14,000 feet high.

3. Rivers. The only navigable rivers are the Missouri
and the Yellowstone in Montana.
The snow on the sides and summits of the lofty mountain ranges,
melting under the summer sun, is an unfailing supply to the
rivers during the months of drought. These rivers are invalua-
ble as means of irrigation.

4. Climate. The mildness of the winter climate on
the east side of the Rocky Mountains, especially in the
North and far into British America, is a remarkable fact
in the physical geography of this group. It is of exceed-
ing importance in relation to the settlement of these re-
gions. In the higher regions the summers are cold.
Notwithstanding the latitude and the elevation, the climate grows
milder and the snow disappears from the plains as we approach
the great range. This is rapidly becoming the great grazing
region of the continent. Cattle unhoused can live all winter
upon the rich grass that covers these plains. For ages they were
the feeding ground of millions of buffaloes. These valuable wild
animals are now exterminated, excepting a small herd in the
Yellowstone Park.
Timber is scarce except on the slopes and in the inclosed valleys
of the ranges north of Central Colorado. Towards the south the
country grows more and more arid, till in New Mexico the land-
scape is generally one of desolation.

5. Population. The total population of this group
in 1890 was about the same as that of Connecticut,
which has about one one-hundredth of the area.
6. Occupations. Mining and stock raising are the
chief occupations, although agriculture by irrigation is
rapidly developing in some, regions. This group is very
rich in metals and other valuable minerals.

7. Montana. Montana has a fine climate, immense

areas of rich soil and of timber, and great mineral wealth.
The state leads the Union in the production of copper.
It produces a large amount of gold, silver, and live stock.
Helena, the capital, is on the Northern Pacific Railroad.
8. Wyoming. The greater part of the population
of Wyoming is in the towns on the line of the Union
Pacific Railroad and its branches. Wool and immense
quantities of live stock, chiefly cattle and sheep, are shipped
to eastern markets.
This state includes the greater part of the Yellowstone National
Park, which surrounds Yellowstone Lake, and has an area of
about 3,600 square miles. Its deep cautions, lofty falls, and nu-
merous bathing pools, geysers, and lakes, make it in many re-
spects the most wonderful portion of the continent, and even of
the world. It has been set aside by Congress as a perpetual
reservation for the benefit and instruction of mankind."
Cheyenne is the capital and largest city.
9. Colorado. Colorado contains the Great Parks and
the loftiest ranges of the Rocky Mountains.
It is a leading state in the production of lead, silver, and gold, and
has extensive deposits of coal, iron, and salt. The mountain
pineries furnish a large amount of lumber. Grazing and coal
mining are other leading industries. Irrigation is required 'in
Denver, the capital and largest city, is about 5,000 feet
above the sea. Denver and Colorado Springs are noted
health resorts.
10. New Mexico. -New Mexico was settled about
three centuries ago by the Spaniards.
Many of the inhabitants are of a mixed race, descended from civil-
ized Indians and the Spanish settlers, and speak the Spanish lan-



guage; they are mostly in the fertile valley of the Rio Grande, a
narrow, swift, and shallow stream. In dry seasons, nearly all its
waters are consumed in irrigation. Two transcontinental and
other important railways traverse New Mexico. The larger cities
and towns contain finely equipped common schools. Extensive
beds of bituminous coal are found in the Puerco River valley.
Santa Fe, about 7,000 feet above the sea, is the capital.
Albuquerque, the largest city, and Las Vegas are impor-
tant distributing points with ample railway facilities.
Questions (I.)-- I. What does this group contain ? 2. Which are the most im-
portant valleys ?-3. Which are the only navigable rivers? 4. What remark-
able fact in regard to climate? Why important?--5. What is
said of the population ? 6. What are the principal occupa-
tions ? What partial exceptions ? In what i\this group
rich? 7. What is said of Montana ? Name its chief
resources. What is the capital ? 8. What is said
of the population of Wyoming? What are its
chief products ? What is the capital? 9. For
what is Colorado noted ? What is its capital
and largest city? 10. When and by whom
was New Mexico settled? What is its capi-
tal? What is said of it?
(II.) I. What mountains in this divi-
sion ? What is the character of the east-
ern part ? 2. What is the size of these
parks? hat peaks east of them? What
mountain chain west of the parks ? What
is said of the view from Mount Lincoln ?
-3. What are the effects and uses of the
snow? 4. What is the character of this
part of the plains? To what is it best
adapted? Why? What is said of the
buffaloes? Where is timber found ? What
is the character of the country towards the
south? 7. What does Montana pro-
duce ? 8. What is said of the National
Park? -9. What minerals has Colorado ?
What other industries ? o. What is said
of some of the inhabitants of New Mexico ?
What is the character of the Rio Grande?
Where are the coal beds? What is said
of the railways? Of the schools of New



I. Situation. Nevada,
Idaho, Utah, and Arizona
occupy the central and larger GRAND CAON OI
part of' the Great Basin,
which is nearly inclosed by the Sierra Nevada, Cascade,
and Rocky mountains.

2. Surface. The surface is very rugged and un-

Numerous short parallel chains cover nearly the whole region.
The lofty Wasatch chain divides the high plateau of the
Colorado, the waters of which flow to the Gulf of California,
from the lower plateau of the Great Basin, where the swift
streams are lost in salt lakes near the foot of its mountain

3. Climate. The climate is exceedingly dry. This is
particularly the case in the south, where the summers are
very hot; in the extreme north the winter is cold, with
deep snows. The temperature is very variable.

In consequence of the great extent of dry soil and naked rock, and
the generally-cloudless sky, an intensely warm day is followed,
even in midsummer, by a cold night.

4. Vegetation. Timber is found only on the highest
mountains. The brown sagebrush in the north, and
the cactus in the south, are the characteristic
S5. Population. More than half
the population of this group of
states is in Utah.

6. Occupations. The chief
occupation in Utah is agri-
culture; in the remaining re-
gions, mining.

7. Idaho.--Idaho is one
of the leading states in the
production of gold, silver,
and lead. Stock raising is an
important industry. Boise
is the capital.
8. Nevada.-Nevada is
chiefly remarkable for its
mineral wealth.
The chief towns are at the silver
mines, on the eastern slope
of the Sierra Nevada. Vir-
ginia City, Carson City, and
Reno are the largest places.
Carson City is the capital.
9. Utah. Immense quan-
tities of silver, lead, and salt
are produced. An extensive
agriculture is carried on by
means of irrigation. Stock-
raising is a leading industry.
Utah was admitted into the
Union as the forty-fifth state
THE COLORADO. in 1896.
in 1896.
Salt Lake City is the capital and largest city.
o0. Arizona. Arizona and Southern California have
a drier climate than any other part of the United States.
The annual. rainfall near the mouth of the Colorado is only about
three inches; that of Southern Alabama is sixty-three inches.
The cafioils of the Colorado are the greatest and deepest river
gorges in the world. The river is navigable to Callville, but be-
yond this for some 218 miles the river and its tributaries flow much
of the way with a current too swift for navigation, in cautions from
3,oo000 to 6,ooo feet deep, with sides often so steep that there are
but few places where one can get down to the river.



Arizona abounds in mineral treasures. The mining of gold, silver, and
copper is the leading industry. Coal, salt, and lead are found. It
contains extensive pine forests. The valley lands when irrigated
are very productive. Two transcontinental railways cross Arizona.
Phoenix is the capital. Tucson is the largest city.
Questions (I.)-I. What region does this group occupy?- 2. What is the char-
acter of the surface?-3. Of the climate? What is the climate in the south? In
the north? What is said of the temperature?-4. What is the vegetation?--5.
Where is most of the population?- 6. The chief occupation in Utah? In the re-
maining regions ? 7. What metals does Idaho produce? What is the capital ? -
8. For what is the state of Nevada remarkable? For what are Virginia City and
Carson City noted ? What is the capital ?- 9. What is said of Utah ? What city is
the capital?-- 1. For what is Arizona remarkable? What is the capital ?
(II.) -2. What is said of the mountain chains? How does the Wasatch chain
divide this section ?-3. By what is the temperature affected ?-9. What is said
of Utah as a state?-1o. How does the rainfall of Arizona compare with that of
Southern Alabama? What is said of the cautions of the Colorado? What is said
of the minerals of Arizona ? Of the forests ? Of the valley lands ? Of the railways ?



I. Suface.- The lofty range known in California as
the Sierra Nevada, and in Oregon and Washington as the
Cascade, passes through this entire group of states.
It is nearly as high as the Rocky Mountains, but has fewer passes.
East of these mountains is a portion of the great interior plateau ;
in Washington it is called the Great Plain of the Columbia, and
is about 2,000 feet above the ocean.
Near the coast is a series of short, low chains, called
the Coast ranges. They are parallel to the great interior
The coast is very bold, and without islands, excepting a small
group near the southern extremity.

merce, over the trunk railways and their numerous con-
nections is very extensive. There are few navigable rivers.
The Columbia is navigable to where it breaks through the
Cascade Mountains, and again beyond them to Priest
Rapids; its great branch the Snake, to Lewiston, Idaho;
the Sacramento and San Joaquin are navigable for a large
part of their course; the Colorado, more than 300 miles,
to the mouth of the Grand Cafion; and the Yukon in
Alaska, with its great branch the Pelly, nearly 3,000 miles.
5. Alaska.- The great territory of Alaska, including
the Aleutian Islands, was purchased of Russia in 1867.
Mountain chains with many volcanoes extend along the coast and
through the islands. The area of Alaska is over 500,000 square
miles. The greater part has a severe arctic climate. The west
coasts have a mild, rainy climate. The rainfall at Sitka is about
ninety inches a year; there are but few clear days. In the south
are heavy forests. It has extensive gold fields.
A governor, collector of customs, and a few other of-
ficials, reside at Sitka, and are appointed by the President
of the United States. It has no legislature. The inhab-
itants are mostly Indians, Esquimaux, and half-breeds.
They live on the coasts and islands, being almost exclusively de-
pendent upon the fisheries, which are among the most valuable in
the world. The skins of the fur seal are the chief article of export.
6. Washington. Washington has the most extensive
and valuable lumber forests in the United States.
In the number and excellence of its bays and harbors it is unsurpassed.
The eastern half is noted for wheat and live stock; owing to the mild
and moist climate, the western half is densely covered with valuable
forests of red fir, pine, and cedar. The short streams falling into
Puget Sound furnish exhaustless water power. Coal is abundant.
The principal exports are lumber, hops, and wheat.

Between the high chains and
the Coast ranges are three impor-
tant lowlands : the valley of Puget
Sound, in Washington; the valley
of the Willamette, in Oregon; and
the California Basin, in California.
Each of these is the most fertile
and important part of the state in
which it is situated.
2. Climate. -The climate west
of the great mountain range is mild
and equable in temperature, but
has great extremes of moisture.

Puget Sound has a greater rainfall
than any other part of the United
States except Alaska.

3. Occupations. Agriculture,
Fruit growing, mining, and lumber-
ing are the leading pursuits.
4. Commerce. Internal com-


Olympia is the capital. Seattle,
Tacoma, and Spokane are the chief
7. Oregon. The greater part
of the population of Oregon is in
the fertile valley of the Willamette.
Wool growing and stock raising are
the principal occupations.
The salmon fisheries of the Co-
lumbia are of great importance.
Wheat, wool, hops, lumber, and
canned salmon are the chief exports.
Though in the latitude of New England,
cattle spend the winter in green fields.
Several great railways connect Ore-
gon, Washington, and British Colum-
bia with California, the Great Lakes,
and the Mississippi Valley.
The coast is deficient in harbors.

Portland, on the Willamette, is the
largest city. Salem is the capital.


8. California..- California produces more wine and
fruit than any other state in the Union. It is also the
first state in the production of gold. It contains the great
double valley of the Sacramento and the San Joaquin,
which is connected with the Pacific Ocean by the Golden
Gate at San Francisco, and with the Mississippi Valley by
several trunk lines of railway.

The variety and value of the mineral and agricultural riches of this
state are beyond brief description, and have made it renowned
throughout the world.
Besides the gold of the Sierra, its mountains yield silver,
lead, copper, tin, quicksilver, and other valuable
The fertile soil, the equable temperature of its
climate, the succession of rainy and dry
seasons which form its year, and the
extensive use of irrigation with
the water of Artesian wells and
mountain streams, make its ag-
ricultural interests of even
greater importance than the
mineral, and furnish the
chief exports of the state.
With the increase in the
number of irrigation canals,
the agricultural possibilities
of California are unlimited.
The principal articles of ex-
port, besides the metals,
are wheat, wine, brandy,
beeswax and honey, or-
anges, grapes, raisins, and
figs, and a great variety
and quantity of other fruits,
fresh, dried, and canned.
The greater part of the
fruit products are from the
southern part of the state.

The area of the state is
nearly equal to those of
New England, New York,
and Pennsylvania taken to-

Its population in 1890, in-
cluding more than 72,000 YOSEMITE
Chinese, was a little more
than one fifth of that of the state of New York, though greater
than that of any other state west of the plains.

The Big Trees and the Yosemite Valley are two of the
chief wonders of nature.

These trees are cone-bearing evergreens, found only on the Western
slope of the Sierra Nevada. Some of them are over ioo feet in
circumference, 325 feet tall, and nearly 2,000 years old.
The Yosemite Valley is a chasm in the Sierra, six miles long, from
half a mile to a mile wide, with nearly vertical walls of granite,
3,000 to 5,000 feet high, over which the Merced River and its
tributaries leap down in cataracts from 400 to 1,600 feet in height.

These groves and the valley are public parks under the
protection of the state.
San Francisco, famous for its magnificent harbor and
its export of gold and wheat, is the largest city of the Pa-
cific coast from Cape Horn to Japan, and is the fourth city
of the United States in foreign commerce. Los Angeles
is the second city of the state. Sacramento is the capital.

San Francisco is at the western end of the Central Pacific and
Southern Pacific railroads, and has an extensive commerce with
Europe, the Mississippi Valley, and the Atlantic States, and with
the countries and islands of the Pacific Ocean. A large part of
the.trade with the Atlantic States is carried on by means
of ocean steamers and the Panama Railroad. Tea
and silk from Japan and China are imported in
exchange for grain.
Questions (I.)- I. What lofty mountain range
a passes through this group of states? What
ranges near the coast? To what are they
\ parallel? What three important valleys
between the high chains and the Coast
ranges? What is said of these valleys?
-2. What characteristics has the cli-
mate west of the great range ?- 3. What
are the leading pursuits?-4. What is
said of internal commerce? Of the
railroads and rivers? Htow far is the
Columbia navigable? The Sacramento
and San Joaquin? The Colorado? The
Yukon ?- 5. How was Alaska obtained ?
When ? Describe the political organiza-
tion of Alaska. Who are the inhabit-
ants?-6. What is said of the forests
of Washington ? What are the principal
exports ? What town is the capital?
Name the chief cities.-7. Where is
most of the population of Oregon ?
What are the principal occupations?
What is said of the salmon fisheries of
the Columbia? Of its exports? Which
is the largest city ? The capital ? 8.
For what is California noted ? What im-
portant valley has it ? By what is it con-
nected commercially with the Pacific?
With the Mississippi Valley? What is
the comparative area of this state? What
natural wonders does it possess? For
what is San Francisco famous? What
city is the capital ? What is the second
city in size ?
(II.) I. How does the Sierra Nevada
compare in height with the Rocky Mouni-
tains ? What is there east of these moun-
tains? By what name is it known in
VALLEY. Washington ? How high is ii above the
sea? What is the character of the coast?
2. What is said of the rainfall of Puget Sound ? 5. What is the character of the
coast and islands of Alaska? What is its area? What is the climate of the
greater part? Of the west coasts? What is the amount of rainfall at Sitka?
Where are the forests ? Where do the inhabitants live? 'Upon what are they de-
pendent ? What is the chief article of export ? 6. What is said of the bays and har-
bors of Washington ? For what is the eastern half noted ? What is said of the west-
ern half? What is said of the rivers ? What mineral is abundant? -7. How does
the climate of Oregon compare with that of New England ? What is said of its
railroad connections ? Of its coast ? 8. What is said of the agricultural and min-
eral riches of California ? Name the chief mineral productions. What causes favor-
ably affect the agriculture ? Name the principal exports. How does the popula-
tion of California compare with that of the state of New York ? What of the Chi-
nese ? Describe the Big Trees. The Yosemite Valley. What is said of the com-
merce of San Francisco? What other trade route between San Francisco and the
Atlantic States ? In what does the trade with Japan and China consist ?

><'V.* Jf
f' w dt



I. I. Agriculture, the chief source of food, and the basis of all other
industries, is by far the most important occupation of the people of the
United States. The following are the leading products. The quantities
vary greatly from year to year.
2. Indian corn or maize is the principal grain. Comparatively a small
part is exported; the greater part is used in fattening cattle, swine, etc.
3. Wheat, the chief bread grain, is the second in quantity and in
total value. The annual export is greater than that of all other grains,
and sometimes exceeds one fourth of the product. Great Britain is the
chief foreign purchaser. A much greater part is distributed to the
manufacturing, mining, and cotton districts of the United States.
4. Oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, and rice are the other grains. Barley
is used chiefly in the manufacture of beer; a considerable part of the
wheat, rye, and corn is converted into whisky, starch, and glucose.
5. Hay and potatoes are of great total value, but are too bulky to
pay for long transportation.
6. Tobacco is a very important product, and is one of the chief articles
of export. Nearly one half of it is produced in Kentucky.
7. Cotton is the largest and most valuable export of the United States.
Great Britain buys much the greater part, but large quantities are sent
to nearly every country of Europe.
8. Sugar is a limited crop. Nearly all of it is produced in Louisiana.
NOTE. Average Products and Leading States. Indian corn, about 2,000
millions of bushels; Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri. Wheat, 550
millions; Minnesota, California, Indiana, the Dakotas, Ohio. Oats, 875 millions ;
Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota. Barley, 70 millions; California, Wisconsin,
Iowa. -Rye, 30 millions; Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois. -Buck-
wheat, New York, Pennsylvania.- Rice, Louisiana, South Carolina, Georgia. Po-
latoes, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois. Tobacco, 448 millions of pounds;
Kentucky, Virginia, Ohio, North Carolina, Tennessee. Cotton, about 7 millions of
bales of 475 pounds each; Texas, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina.
Cane sugar, Louisiana, Texas, Florida.
II. i. Grazing is a department of agriculture.
2. Butter and cheese are produced in great quantities in the hay dis-
tricts of the Middle Atlantic and North Central, and adjacent West Cen-
tral state and are among the leading articles of export.
3. Cattle are also raised for beef, hides, and tallow in many parts of the
country, but chiefly between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Moun-
tains, and in the Pacific and NorthCentral states.
4. Sheep are raised for mutton, wool, skins, and tallow. Ohio, Cali-
fornia, and Texas are leading states in wool growing.
'5. Swine are raised for ork and lard. The chief supply is from the
-corn country. Chicago, St. Louis, Omaha, Kansas City, Mo., Cincin-
nati, Boston, New York, and other cit*esare extensively engaged in the
packing of fork, lard, and beef. The greater part is sent to the cotton
states and to the mining and manufacturing districts, and there is a large
export trade to Europe, the West Indies, and South America.
III. Forest products. --Lumber, turpentine, and bark are the chief
forest products. Maine, North Carolina, and Canada furnish the chief
supply of lumber for the Atlantic States; Michigan, Wisconsin, Minne-
sota, and Arkansas, for the Mississippi Valley; and Oregon and Washing-
ton, for the Pacific States. Turpentine is chiefly obtained from the
Carolina pine forests. The bark of the oak and the hemlock is of great
value for tanning.
IV. Fishing. The North Atlantic States furnish the chief supply
of fish, including cod, mackerel, herring, shad, salmon, and lobsters.
Other varieties are oysters from the Chesapeake, whitefish from the
Great Lakes, and salmon from the Pacific coast.
V. i. Minerals. Coal and iron are the most important of min-
erals. In these two substances, and in lead, copper, gold, and silver,
the United States is the richest country in the world. The chief depos-


its of coal are found in a broad belt extending from Maryland and East-
ern Pennsylvania to Kansas and Nebraska. There are also valuable
deposits in the Rocky Mountains. The principal iron mines are in the
Appalachian Mountains and on the borders of Lake Superior. Pennsyl-
vania exceeds all other states in the production of coal; Michigan, in that
of iron ore. The production and the manufacture of iron are among the
most important industries of the United States, especially in the Ohio
valley and in Missouri.
2. The chief supply of gold and silver is obtained from the Western
Highland. California produces the greatest amount of gold; and Col-
orado and Montana, of silver.
3. Petroleum is supplied chiefly by Western Pennsylvania. The re-
fined oil known as kerosene is one of the leading exports, and is sent to
nearly every civilized country.
4. Copper is mostly from Montana, Northern Michigan, and Arizona;
lead, from Colorado, Missouri, and Utah; and salt, from New York,
Michigan, West Virginia, and Kansas.
5. The value of the annual production of iron is about equal to that
of all the other metals together; and the value of the coal, to that of all
the other nonmetallic minerals.
VI. Manufactures. -The principal manufacturing district of the
United States lies east of the Appalachians, and between Portland and
Baltimore. The second district is in the North Central States. The
leading manufactures of the several states have already been described.
Questions. I. I. What is said of agriculture ?- 2. Which is the principal grain ?
What is said of it ? -3. Which grain is second in importance ? What is said of the
export? What country is the chief purchaser? How is the rest distributed?-4.
Name the other grains in the order of their importance. What is the chief use of
barley? What grains are in part converted into whisky? -5. What is said of hay
and potatoes ? 6. Of tobacco ? 7. Of cotton? 8. Of sugar ?
II. I. What is said of grazing ? 2. Of butter and cheese ? 3. For what other
purposes are cattle raised ? Where ? 4. Which are the sheep products? The princi-
pal wool states? 5. The chief swine products? What is said of the packing trade ?
III. -Name the leading forest products. Name the chief sources of the supply
of lumber. Of turpentine. What barks are used in tanning?
IV. Where are the chief supplies of fish obtained ?
V. I. Which are the most important of minerals? What is said of the coal and
iron of the United States ? Where are the chief coal deposits ? The principal iron
mines ? Which is the leading state in coal? In iron? What else is said of the iron
industry ? 2. What is said of gold and silver ? 3. Of petroleum ? Of kerosene ?
-4. Of other mineral products ?- Of the value of the iron ? Of the coal?
VI. Where is the principal manufacturing district ? The second district ?

RAILROADS. I. The principal or trunk-line railroads of the United
States may be divided into Eastern, Central, Southern, and Western.
II. Eastern Trunk Lines. The principal eastern trunk lines lie
chiefly in the Middle Atlantic States. They are six in number, and are
of leading importance in the general railway system of the United States.
The greater part of the surplus products of the northern half of the Mis-
sissippi Valley finds its way to a market over these lines.
1. Grand Trunk from Portland, through Montreal and Toronto, to De-
troit (861 m.). It lies mostly in Canada.
2. New York Central and Hudson River from New York, through
Poughkeepsie, Albany, and Rochester, to Buffalo (440 m.). The
.Boston and Albany extends it to Boston (201 m.).
3. West Shore from New York to Buffalo (426 m.), parallel to Hud-
son River and New York Central.
4. Erie from New York, through Elmira and Hornellsville, to Buf-
falo (424 m.), with a branch to Dunkirk (128 m.).
5. Pennsylvania from Philadelphia, through Harrisburg and Al-
toona, to Pittsburg (354 m.). The New Jersey Railroad, from
Philadelphia to New York (90 m.), is its eastern extension.


6. Baltimore and Ohio -from Baltimore, through Cumberland, to Par-
kersburg, with a branch through Wheeling to Chicago (852 m.).
Has extensions to Philadelphia and New York.
III. Central Trunk Lines. -These lines lie in the North Central
States. Among many important lines the following are prominent:-
1. Michigan Central -from Detroit, through Jackson and Kalamazoo,
.to Chicago (284 m.). Extension of the principal Canada roads.
2. Lake Shore and Michigan Southern from Buffalo, through Erie,
Cleveland, and Toledo, to Chicago (539 m.). Extension of New
York Central and Hudson River, and other New York trunk lines.
3. Wabash- from Toledo, through Fort Wayne, Logansport, and De-
catur, to St. Louis (436 m.), with branches to Keokuk, Quincy, and
Hannibal, and direct connections to Kansas City and Omaha.
4. New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio--from Salamanca, through
Meadville, Mansfield, and Dayton, to Cincinnati (448 m.). Ex-
tension of Erie.
5. Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago- from Pittsburg, through
Mansfield and Fort Wayne, to Chicago (468 m.). Extension of the
6. Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, or "Pan-Handle Route" -
from Pittsburg, through Columbus to Cincinnati, and through Rich-
mond to Indianapolis. Continued in the St. Louis, Vandalia, and
Terre Haute, through Terre Haute, to St. Louis (619 m.). Exten-
sion of the Pennsylvania.
7. Baltimore, Ohio, and Southwestern, and Ohio and Mississippi -
from Parkersburg, through Cincinnati, to St. Louis (536 m.). Ex-
tension of Baltimore and Ohio.
8. Illinois Central from Chicago, through Cairo to New Orleans (915
m.), and through Dubuque to Sioux City (661 m.).
9. Chicago and Alton- from Chicago, through Springfield and Alton,
to St. Louis (282 m.), thence to Kansas City (323 m.).
IV. Southern Trunk Lines. -The following groups include most
of the chief lines of the South Atlantic and South Central states :-
I. A line from Washington, through Knoxville, to Chattanooga; a line
from Washington and Richmond, through Atlanta, to Mobile and New
Orleans; and a series of railways which, under many names, connect
all the Atlantic and river ports from Jacksonville, Fla., to Portland, Me.
2. In the second group are lines extending westward from Charleston,
Savannah, and other Southern Atlantic ports, and crossing the Mis-
sissippi at New Orleans, Vicksburg, and Memphis.
3. The third group includes lines extending north and south from Louis-
ville to Mobile, Memphis, and New Orleans, from St. Louis and
Columbus, Ky., to New Orleans and Mobile; and from Evansville,
through Nashville and Montgomery to Mobile, and through Chatta-
nooga and Atlanta to the Southern Atlantic ports.
The chief business of these lines is the exchange of the cotton and
other products of the South for the manufactures and imports of the
Northern and Central Atlantic states, and the breadstuffs, provisions,
and manufactures of the country north of the Ohio and the Missouri.
V. Western Trunk Lines. These lines lie mostly west of the Mis-
sissippi. The Northern Pacific extends from Duluth and St. Paul to
various ports on Puget Sound and the Columbia. It unites the railway
and water-way systems of -the Upper Mississippi and the Lakes with
those of the Pacific region. The Central Pacific extends from San Fran-
cisco to Ogden, and is continued thence by the Union Pacific to Omaha
(1,914 m.). The Kansas Pacific, from Cheyenne through Denver, ter-
minates at Kansas City. The Southern Pacfic extends from San Fran-
cisco to El Paso, then by the Galveston, Harrisburg, and San Antonio,
to New Orleans (2,49a m.) ; the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe, from
Chicago to San Francisco (2,347 m.), via Kansas City (458 m.) and
El Paso (1,680 m.); the Texas Pacific, from El Paso to New Orleans
(1,163 m.). From Omaha, Kansas City, and St. Paul, several impor-

tant roads extend these great transcontinental routes to the Mississippi
and the Great Lakes. Among these are the Chicago, Burlington, and
Quincy, the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific, and the Chicago and
The Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul, and the Great Northern, are
systems of important lines which connect the chief ports on Lake Michi-
gan and Superior with the great wheat region lying between those lakes
and the Upper Missouri, and with the Canadian Pacific and the princi-
pal roads of Oregon and Washington.
WATER WAYS. VI. The principal interior water ways of the
United States are the Atlantic System, the Mississippi System, the St.
Lawrence and the Great Lakes, and the Canals.
I. Atlantic System. The rivers of the Atlantic System are connected
with the extensive coasting trade. They are navigated by thousands
of sailing vessels and steamers. A fall or a rapid at the head of
navigation is usually the seat of a manufacturing city or town.
NOTE. The entrances of the rivers of the Atlantic System are more or less
obstructed by broad banks or shoals of mud and sand, brought down by the
rivers and deposited in the sea just at their mouths. These shoals are called
bars. They frequently make it dangerous, and sometimes impossible, for ves-
sels to enter even at high tide. Most of the rivers between Chesapeake Bay
and the Rio Grande can be entered only by vessels of very light draught.
The Mississippi admits the largest ocean steamers.
2. Mississippi System. -The Mississippi has fifty-five great tribu-
taries, nearly all of which have navigable branches. Numerous steam-
boats and barges furnish cheap transportation for bulky products. .
NOTE. -The Mississippi System furnishes about 17,ooo miles of navigable
waters. The river and its branches are subject to great changes of level in
consequence of the annual floods and droughts. Below the mouth of the
Ohio the Mississippi sometimes rises more than fifty feet. At low water
some of the branches can be navigated by steamers of light draught only,
and some not at all for several months.
3. The St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. -The Great Lakes are
fresh-water seas, and are traversed by a great number of sailing vessels
as well as numerous large steamers. They are closed for several
months by ice, but are not affected by tides, floods, or droughts.
4. Canals. The Great Lakes are connected with the Mississippi and
Atlantic systems by canals. The Erie Canal in New York, and the
Sault Ste. Marie Ship Canal in Michigan, are the most important. The
latter enables vessels to pass the falls at the entrance of Lake Superior.
Its annual tonnage greatly exceeds that of the famous Suez Canal.
The falls of Niagara and the rapids in the St. Lawrence are passed
by means of ship canals in Canada.
Questions. I. What are trunk lines? How may the trunk lines of the United
States be divided ?
II. Where are the principal eastern trunk lines? How many are there ? Name
them. Why important ? Describe the following roads. I. Grand Trunk. 2.
New York Central and Hudson Aiver.- 3. West Shore.- 4. Erie. 5. Pennsyl-
vania. New Jersey. 6. Baltimore and Ohio.
III. -Wehere are the central trunk lines? Name the most important of these
lines. Describe them.*- I. Michigan Central. -2. Lake Shore and Michigan
Southern. 3. Wabash. -4. New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. 5. Pittsburg,
Fort Wayne, and Chicago. -6. Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and St. Louis. -7. Balti-
more, Ohio, and Southwestern. Ohio and Mississippi.--8. Illinois Central.--9.
Chicago and Alton.
IV. How many groups of southern trunk lines ? I. Describe the first group.
- 2. The second. 3. The third. What is the chief business of these lines ?
V. -Where do the western trunk lines mostly lie? Describe the transcontinen.
tal routes. The Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul, and the Great Northern.
VI. How are the interior water ways of the United States divided ?- I. With
what trade are the Atlantic rivers connected ? By what navigated ? Of what is a fall
or rapid at the head of navigation usually the seat ?-2. What is said of the branches
of the Mississippi ? Of the extent of navigable waters ? Of their changes of level ?
- 3. Of the Great Lakes ? What effect has winter upon all the northern water ways ?
- 4. How are the first three systems connected ? Which are the most important of
these canals ? Where are there other ship canals ?
Ask the following questions about each of these roads : In what state or states? Between and
through what cities ? With what other trunk lines connected ?


M X. L-XA 1LT A1I Oq.
CljtfrTrbnh R R L --- -

r,.. .J ....- -. --- ---.......
Pr,.,,ied ( -----------..

40 S 0 25 Longitle West

What great railroad terminates at Portland, Me. ?
Through what foreign country does it pass? What
S lake port of Michigan is at its western end ? What
railroads in the central part of the state of New York ?
Between what two cities are they? Which of these
is a lake port? What road connects Albany with
Boston? With New York? What road in the
southern part of New York? What seaport at its
eastern end? What lake port at its western end?
What road between Philadelphia and Pittsburg?
Baltimore and Wheeling? What is the. general
direction of these six great roads ?

What lake port is the chief railroad center of Illi-
nois? What road connects Chicago with Detroit?
Of what great eastern roads is the Michigan Central
an extension? What road connects Chicago with
Buffalo? Through what other lake ports does the
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern pass ? With what
great railways does it connect in New York? What
road from Chicago to Pittsburg passes through
Fort Wayne? Of what Pennsylvania road is it a con-
tinuation ? What road from Chicago passes through
Wheeling to Baltimore ? What road from Pittsburg
runs through Columbus and Indianapolis to St.
Louis? To what other port on the Ohio has it a
branch from Columbus? What road from Toledo

passes through Springfield, Ill. ? To what two cities
on the Mississippi?. What road runs north from
Cairo? Where doesit fork? In what city does the
eastern branch terminate? The western branch?
What road connects St. Louis with Chicago? With
Indianapolis and Pittsburg ? With Cincinnati?
What road connects Chicago with Omaha ? With
what more western road does it connect? What road
continues the Union Pacific from Ogden to San Fran-
cisco? What road extends east from Denver? At
what city does a branch from Denver join the Union
Pacific? What city on the Missouri at the eastern
end of the Kansas Pacific? What road connects
Kansas City with Deming? Deming with San Fran-




cisco ? What large city on the Mississippi is con-
nected by railroad with Kansas City? What road
runs southwest from St. Louis? To what gulf port
..does it form part of a line ? What other road forms
part of a line from St. Louis and Cairo to Galves-
ton? Through what states does this line run?
What road runs south from Richmond? To what
Sport? Between Richmond and Atlanta? Norfolk
and Chattanooga? Louisville and Memphis? Louis-
ville and Mobile? Cairo and New Orleans? Mo-
bile and Cairo ? Memphis and Charleston ?
What color on this map shows how far a river is
navigable ? In which half of the United States are
nearly all the navigable rivers? Most of the rail-

roads? Why can most of the rivers of the Atlantic
coast be ascended only a short distance ? In what
part of the United States are the longest navigable
rivers ? Name the chief navigable rivers of the North
Atlantic States. Of the Middle Atlantic. The South
Atlantic. The South Central. The North Central.
The West Central. What rivers of the western half
of the United States are partly navigable ? Which is
the most important navigable river of Canada?
What three states contain nearly all the canals?
(New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio.) Whichis the
principal canal? (The Erie.) What waters does it
connect? What other canals are connected with the
Hudson River ? (The Champlain and Hudson and

the Delaware and Hudson.) What ship and canal
at the outlet of Lake Superior ? What one in Can-
ada unites Lakes Erie and Ontario ?
NOTE I.-It is proposed to construct two canals large enough
to admit vessels of war, -one to connect the Upper Mississippi
with Lake Michigan ; and the other, through the State of New
York, from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It is also proposed to
construct an interstate ship canal to form aproatected water way
behind the bay and islands, from Massachusetts Bay, across
Florida to the Gulf of Mexico.
NOTE 2.-It is further proposed to unite the following waters
by ship canals: A. (see map) Lake Champlain and the St.
Lawrence. B. Ottawa River and Georgian Bay. C. Lake
Ontario and Georgian Bay. D. James River and the Kana-
wha. E. The Tennessee River and the Ocmulgee. F. The
Tennessee and the Alabama. G. The Wisconsin and the Fox.
H. The Minnesota and the Red River of the North. I. Chesa-
peake and Delaware bays.

I _




General. What province of the Dominion of Canada is a peninsula ?
What one north of Nova Scotia is an island ? What one is west of
Prince Edward Island? Northwest of New Brunswick? West of
Quebec ? West of Ontario ? On the Pacific? What divisions border
on Manitoba? On British Columbia? What is the capital of the
Dominion? (Ottawa.) Where situated? What large island east of
the Dominion? (Newfoundland.) What provinces and other divisions
are crossed by the Canadian Pacific Railway?
Nova Scotia. -What island in the eastern part of Nova Scotia?
What four capes on the coast? What bay west? What city is the
capital? What town on the southeastern coast?
Prince Edward Island. What waters surround Prince Edward Isl-
and? What town is the capital?
New Brunswick. What three boundary rivers has New Brunswick?
Which is the principal river? What cities on it? What bay on the
north? On the south? What city is the capital?
Quebec. What river and valley are in the Province of Quebec?
What river separates Quebec from Ontario ? What branch of the St.
Lawrence is the outlet of Lake Champlain ? Name the two chief cities
on the St. Lawrence. Which is the capital?
Ontario. What lakes border on this province ? In what part is the
peninsula? What bay north of the peninsula? What cities on or near
Lake Ontario? Which is the capital? What city southwest of Hamilton?
Manitoba.- What river enters the Province of Manitoba from the
south? What large lakes in this division? What is the capital?
British Columbia. What mountains form part of the eastern bound-
ary? Name the capital of this province. The principal river. What
islands on the coast? What waters surround Vancouver Island? What
city at end of Canadian Pacific Railway? (Vancouver.)
Northwest Territories. Name the divisions which form the North-
west Territories. Where is the district of Keewatin ? Name the pro-
visional districts. (Athabasca, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Assiniboia, Yukon,
Mackenzie, and Ungava.) What is the capital of these divisions? (Re-
gina.) What comprises the provisional district of Franklin? (The
Arctic Archipelago.)

Newfoundland. -What waters surround Newfoundland? What city
is the capital? What capes on the coast? What small islands south?



Countries.- Where is it How bounded? What is the capital?


Nova Scotia ......
Prince Edward Isl.
New Brunswick...
Manitoba .........
British Columbia..

Area in Population
Sq. Miles. in i891.



Northwest Ter's. S MAr^ei. Pop1uln on
Sq. Miles. in 891.

Keewatin .......... 282,000
Athabasca, Al-
berta, Saskat-
chewan, and 689240
Yukon, Ungava, etc. 1,642,350
Col. Newfoundl'd.. 162,740



Cities and Towns. In what part of theprovince ? How situated?-
OTTAWA ? HALIFAX ? Yarmouth ? Pictou ? FREDERICTON ? St. John ?
London? Kingston? WINNIPEG? New Westminster? VICTORIA?
ST. JOHNS? Battleford? REGINA? Vancouver?
Islands. -Where situated?-Newfoundland? St. Pierre? Mique-
Ion? Prince Edward? Cape Breton? Vancouver? Queen Charlotte?
Capes. From what coast does it project?- Race? Bauld? Ray?
North? Canso? Sable? Breton?
Gulfs and Bays. Where is it ? St. Lawrence ? Fundy ? Cha-
leur? Georgian? Georgia?
Straits. -Between what lands ? What waters does it connect ?-Belle
Isle? Northumberland ? Juan de Fuca ? Queen Charlotte Sound ?
Rivers. Where does it rise? In what direction does it flow Into
what body of water? St. John ? St. Lawrence? Richelieu? Ottawa?
Saskatchewan? Fraser? St. Croix? Restigouche? Red River of
the North? Nelson? Churchill? Albany?
Lakes. Where situated What outlet ?- Winnepegosis ? Winni-
peg? Manitoba? Simcoe?




i. Divisions.- British America comprises about one
third of the continent of North America, together with
many adjacent islands. Its chief divisions are the Do-
minion of Canada and the Colony of Newfoundland.

Besides these, there are the Bermudas, the Bahamas, Jamaica, and
many other colonies in the West Indies.

2. The Dominion of Canada has an area of about
three millions and a half of square miles, or nearly the
same as that of the United States. Its population is
more than five millions. Ottawa is the capital.

It is a confederation, consisting of the provinces of Quebec,
Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island,

British Columbia, Manitoba, the district of Keewatin, seven pro-
visional districts forming the Northwest Territories, and the pro-
visional district of Franklin embracing the Arctic Archipelago.
Newfoundland is not included in the confederation.

3. Government. -The chief executive officer is the
Governor General, appointed by the British sovereign.
The Legislature has two branches, the members of the
lower branch being elected by the people, those of the other
appointed by the Governor General. Each province has
a similar government under a Lieutenant Governor.

4. Climate. -The winter climate is severe, except in
the southern parts of British Columbia and of Ontario.

5. Surface. British Columbia and the provinces east
of Manitoba are great forest regions. Between the Rocky
Mountains and Manitoba are extensive prairies.

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135 130 125 120 115 Longitude 110 West from 105 Greenwich 100 95 90 85 80 75
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6. Commercial routes. -The chief commercial water
route is the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes.

The rapids of the St. Lawrence above Montreal, and the falls of
the Niagara and St. Marys rivers, are passed by means of canals.
There are about 16,500 miles of railway. The great trunk lines
are: The Intercolonial, from Halifax to Quebec; the Grand
Trunk, from Portland, Me., to the St. Clair River; and the
Canadian Pacific, from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean. In
winter the communication of the interior provinces with the
ocean is largely through the United States.

7. Trade. The principal trade of the provinces is with
the United States and Great Britain. The chief. exports
are lumber, grain, animal products, live stock; and fish.
8. Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia has many good har-
bors and valuable fisheries, and exports sheep, coal, and
gypsum, or plaster of Paris. Halifax, the capital and
largest city, is an important British naval station.
9. Prince Edward Island. -Prince Edward Island
has a fertile soil, and agriculture is the leading occupa-
tion. Charlottetown is the capital.
io. New Brunswick. New Brunswick has extensive
timber forests. Its chief exports are lumber and fish.
St. John is tne principal city. Fredericton is the capital.
i1. Quebec. -Quebec, occupying both banks of the
river St. Lawrence, is noted for its picturesque scenery and
severe climate. The people are mostly of French origin.
Montreal, the chief city of the province, and, after
Chicago, Cleveland, and Buffalo, the largest in the St.
Lawrence basin, has an extensive commerce, and exports
a large amount.of grain to Europe. Quebec, the capital,
is the second city, and the great seaport of Canada.
12. Ontario.-Ontario produces a great amount of grain,
lumber, nickel, petroleum, and salt. Toronto, the capital
and largest city, has a fine harbor and a large lake trade.

13. Manitoba. Manitoba, in the north-
ern prairie region, is noted for wheat. Win-
nipeg, on Red River of the North, is the
capital and largest city. Branches of the
Canadian Pacific connect it with the rail-
way system of the United States.
Saskatchewan River, and the large lakes and riv-
ers with which it is connected, furnish more
than 2,000 miles of inland navigation.

14. British Columbia. British Colum-
bia abounds in salmon, timber, gold, and
coal. Victoria, the capital, Vancouver, and
New Westminster are progressive cities.
Esquimault is a fortified naval station.
British Columbia is connected with the eastern
provinces of the Dominion by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, a transcontinental line about
three thousand miles long, from Montreal to
15. Northwest Territories. -The provisional districts of Athabasca,
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Assiniboia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Ungava, and
Franklin form the Northwest Territories. In Yukon is the famous Klon-
dike gold-bearing region. The district of Keewatin is an adjunct of Mani-
toba. The population of these divisions is small, but increasing. In the
north are cold, barren regions inhabited mostly by Indians and Esquimaux.

16. Newfoundland. Newfoundland is a rocky island,
with bold, broken coasts. The fisheries are the chief source
of support to the inhabitants. Hardy vegetables, as pota-
toes, cabbages, and turnips, grow to perfection. The chief
exports are codfish, seal skins, oils, lobsters, and copper ore.
The fish are caught near the coasts, and in broad, shallow regions
in the sea, called The Banks." The Banks are almost con-
stantly covered with dense fogs.

St. Johns, the capital and largest place, is situated on a
fine harbor. The city contains about 29,000 people.
Labrador is a name applied to the peninsula between Hudson Bay
and the Atlantic. The eastern shore belongs to Newfoundland.
Its fisheries find employment for about 1,o00 small vessels and
30,000 men.
Questions (I.) I. What does British America comprise? What are its chief
divisions ? 2. What is the area of the Dominion of Canada ? Its population ? Its
capital ?- 3. Describe the government. -4. The climate. 5. The surface. 6.
What is the chief commercial water route? 7. With what countries is the principal
trade of the provinces? What are the chief exports ?-8. What is said of Nova
Scotia? Halifax ?- 9. Of Prince Edward Island ? What is the capital ? Io. For
what is New Brunswick noted ? What are its chief exports ? What is the principal
city ? The capital ? I For what is the Province of Quebec noted ? Montreal ?
The city of Quebec ? 12. What are the productions of Ontario ? For what is To-
ronto noted ?- 13. What is said of Manitoba ? What is the capital ? 14. In what
does British Columbia abound? Which is the capital? Name other important
places. 15. What is said of the Northwest Territories? Of the population?-16.
What is Newfoundland ? What is the character of the coast? What is the principal
business? The chief exports? The capital?
(II.)--. What other colonies has British America? 2. What is the Dominion
of Canada? Of what does it consist? What large island is not included in the con-
federation? 6. What is said of the rapids and falls in the rivers of this'route? De-
scribe the principal trunk lines of railway. What is the channel of trade in the win-
ter?-13. What is said of the Saskatchewan River?-r4. How is British Columbia
connected with the eastern provinces ?-16. Where are the fishing grounds of New-
foundland ? What is said of the fogs? To what colony does the east coast of Lab-.
rador belong? What is said of its fisheries ?


[For Sections LXX. and LXXI., see p. 73.]



i. Area and Population. -
The area of Mexico is about one
eighth less than that of all the
United States east of the Mis-
sissippi. The population is about
2. Surface. The great pla-
teau of North America covers
most of the country, the highest
part.being near the Isthmus of

The plateau is here crossed by a
line of thirteen volcanoes, which
are among the loftiest in the
world. Among these are Ori-
zaba, over I8,ooo feet, and Po-
pocatepetl, over 17,000 feet, in
elevation. Their tops are cov-
ered with perpetual snow.

3. Climate.- Mexico has the
greatest possible variety of cli- POPOCATEP
mate: cold on the high mountains, temperate on the pla-
teaus, and hot and moist on the coast.
The plateaus north of the Tropic of Cancer are dry and barren,
like those of the United States. Those south of the tropic have
four months of tropical rains.

4. Inhabitants. The people of Mexico consist of In-
dians, mixed races, and Spanish creoles. Nearly all speak
the Spanish language. About four fifths of them reside
in the southern half of the country.
The creoles are the white descendants of the early Spanish settlers,
and form about one fifth of the population. Nearly two fifths
are of pure Indian blood.

5. Commerce. About one half of the foreign com-
merce is with the United States, and most of the remain-
der with England, France, and Germany.
There are no large navigable rivers. The best harbors are on the
coast of the Pacific. Mexico has about 7,500 miles of railroad.
The natural resources, mineral and vegetable, though of extraor-
dinary variety and value, are as yet but little developed.

6. .Government. Mexico, like the United States, is a
federal republic. It consists of twenty-seven states, two
territories, and a small federal district which contains the
capital. It was for three centuries the most important
colony of Spain.
7. Mexico, the capital' and chief city, is beautifully


-situated in a fertile plain, 7,500
feet above the sea, and surround-
ed by lofty mountains.
A railway to Vera Cruz gives the
city direct access to the Atlantic,
and others through El Paso,
Eagle Pass, and Laredo connect
it with the railway system of the

eral intercourse between the two
countries are rapidly increasing.

8. Guadalajara, Puebla, San
Luis Potosi, and Zacatecas are
large cities on the table-land;
Vera Cruz, Tampico, and Aca-
pulco are the principal ports.
The chief exports are silver,
Sisal hemp, dyewoods, coffee,
hides, and vanilla.
The mines of Mexico were the
chief source of the world's supply
of silver for nearly three hun-
dred years.

'L, MEXICO. Questions (I.) I. What is the area of
Mexico ? The population ? --2. What is said
of the surface 3. Of the climate ? -4. Where are most of the inhabitants ? Of
what do they consist ? -5. What is said of the foreign commerce ?-6. Describe
the government. Of what country was Mexico once a colony?-7. What is the
capital and chief city? How situated?--8. What other important cities? What
are the principal ports ? What are the chief exports ?
(II.) 2. By what is the southern part of the plateau crossed ?- 3. What is the
climate of the plateaus north of the Tropic of Cancer ? South of it ? 4. Who are
the creoles ?-- 5. What is said of the rivers, harbors, and railways? -7. What is
said of certain railways?- 8. Of the silver mines?

1. Central America, as a natural division, is a long
isthmus. It includes the smaller isthmuses of Panama in
South America, and Tehuantepec in Mexico.
It is chiefly important because it contains the principal overland
routes connecting the commerce of the two great oceans.
2. As a political division it is of less extent. Itincludes
five independent republics, which are really military des-
potisms : viz., Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua,
and Costa Rica, together with Belize, or British Hondu-
ras, which is a colony of Great Britain.
3. These republics are similar to Southern Mexico in
surface, climate, productions, population, and social condi-.
tion. Like. Mexico, they were once Spanish possessions.
The Andes Mountains extend the entire length of the isthmus,
and connect the mountains of South America and the Sierra
Madre. They abound in volcanoes.



,il"" Ij-r.ir'i

o L F

E -V


1000 Square nfes.
Scale ofMiles.
0 o100 200 300 400

, pt


4. There are several navigable rivers.
San Juan River, and Lake Nicaragua, of which it is the outlet, are
the chief parts of a proposed ship canal between the oceans.
The necessary surveys have been made, and the work of actual
construction has been begun.
5. The commerce is limited, and is mostly with the Unit-
ed States and England. Coffee, rubber, indigo, bananas,
cabinet woods, dyewoods, and hides.are the chief exports.
6. The capitals of the several republics are New Gua-
temala, the largest and finest city of Central America, San
Salvador, Tegucigalpa, Managua, and San Josd.
Questions (I.)-I. What is Central America? What does it include?-2. What
does it include as a political division ? Name the republics. 3. In what are they
similar to Mexico? -4. What is said of the rivers ?- 5. Of the foreign commerce?
Which are the most important exports?--6. Name the capitals of the five republics.
(II.)-I. Why is Central America important?--3.. What are its principal
mountains? What is said of them? 4. Why is the San Juan River important ?

I. Situation. The West Indian Archipelago extends
from Florida to South America.
The islands are the sunimits of mountain ranges which are partly
under the sea, and parallel to the great chains of the western
2. Area. -The land surface of the archipelago is about
equal to that of New York and Pennsylvania.
3. Divisions. -The Bahamas, the. Greater Antilles,
and the Lesser Antilles are the three principal divisions.
The Bahamas are low coral islands. One of them, Watling Island,
is said to be the first land discovered by Columbus in 1492.

The Greater Antilles have forest-clad mountains and a fertile soil.
The Lesser Antilles include all the islands between Puerto Rico
and South America; several of them contain lofty volcanoes.
4. Climate. All these islands, except a portion of the
Bahamas, are in the Torrid Zone. The heat of the trop-
ical climate is modified by the ocean and the Trade Winds.
5. Productions. The principal exports are sugar,
coffee, cotton, tobacco, sponges, Sisal hemp, and tropical
fruits. Cuba produces more cane sugar than any other
country. The export trade is chiefly to the United States.
6. Ownership.-Cuba and Puerto Rico are controlled
by the United States ; Jamaica, the Bahamas, and
most of the Lesser Antilles belong to Great Britain ; the
rest, to France and other European countries. Haiti
was once divided between France and Spain ; it now con-
sists of two independent negro republics,-Haiti and
Santo Domingo.
7. Population. -The total population of the West
Indies is about equal to that of the state of New York,
the greater part being negroes.
8. The three largest cities, Havana, Matanzas, and San-
tiago de Cuba, are all in Cuba. Havana, the capital of
Cuba, is larger than any other city in the West Indies.
Questions (I.) i. Where is the West Indian Archipelago ? 2. What is its
area ?- 3. Name its principal divisions. -4. In what zone are they? What is said
of the climate ? 5. What are the principal exports? For what is Cuba noted ? -.6.
To what countries do the West Indies belong? To what two countries did Haiti
once belong ? Of what does it now consist? 7. What is said of the population of
the West Indies? 8. Where are the three largest cities? Name them. What is
said of Havana?
(II.)-- r. What are the islands of the West Indian Archipelago ? 3. What is
said of the Bahamas ? Of Watling Island? Of the Greater Antilles ? Of the Lesser


Mexico. What country north of Mexico ? What country southeast ?
What gulf in the northwest? What peninsula? What gulf east? What
bay ? What peninsula in the southeast ? What isthmus in the southern
part of Mexico? What gulf? What mountain chain extends through
Mexico? What river forms part of the northeast boundary? What
city is the capital? Name the seaports of the eastern coast. Of the
Pacific coast. What city near the mouth of the Rio Grande ? What
city'southeast of Mexico? What three northwest? What two in the
northern part of Mexico ?
Central America. Name the divisions of Central America. Which
is farthest south ? Farthest north ? What British colony northeast of
Guatemala? What is the capital? What bay north of Honduras?
What name is given to the eastern coast of Nicaragua? What two
lakes in Nicaragua ? What is the outlet of Lake Nicaragua? Name
the capital of each state.
West Indies. What are the three principal divisions of the West In-
dies? (Greater Antiles, LesserAntilles, andthe Bahamas.) Name the
four Greater Antilles.. Which is the largest group of the Lesser Antilles ?
What group near the coast of South America? What small group east
f Puerto Rico? What islands north of Cuba? What town is their cap-
al ? On what island? What city is the capital of Cuba? What city
east of Havana? On the southern coast? -What strait between Cuba
'and Florida? Between. Cuba and Yucatan ? Cuba and Haiti ? What
two countries in Haiti?. Nane their capitals. What strait separates

Haiti from Puerto Rico ? What is the capital of Puerto Rico? What
island nearly west of Haiti? Itscapital? What other city in Jamaica?

Countries. Area in Area in
countries. Miles. Population. Countries. S les. Population.
Mexico ......... 751,584 11,395,712 Nicaragua....... 47,859 312,845
Guatemala...... 48,303 1,460,017 Costa Rica..... 20,877 214,264
Salvador ........ 8,135 663,613 Belize (Colony)... 8,292 27,668
Honduras....... 46,264 331,917 The West Indies. 94,398 5,488,400
Countries. -Where is it? .How bounded? What is the capital? -
Mexico? Belize, or British Honduras? Guatemala? Honduras ?
Salvador? Nicaragua? Costa Rica? Santo Domingo? Haiti?
Islands. Where situated? -The Greater Antilles ? Cuba? Haiti?
Puerto Rico? Jamaica? The.Bahamas? The Lesser Antilles'? Virgin
Islands? Caribbee Islands? Venezuelan, Islands?
Gulfs and Bays. Where is it? California? Mexico? Cam-
peachy ? Honduras? Tehuantepec ?
Straits. Between what lands ? What waters does it connect --
Yucatan? Florida? Windward? Mona?
Cities and Towns.- In what part of the state ? How situated?-
MEXICO? Leon? Guadalajara? Puebla? Guanajuato? Vera Cruz?
Tampico? Matamoros ? Guaymas? Acapulco? NEW GUATEMALA? ?
Santiago de Cuba? Matanzas? PORT AU PRINCE? SANTO DOMIN-'

S .ra$t %

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Through what part of South America does the Equator pass? In
what zone is the greater part of the continent ? What tropic crosses
it ? What cape at its northern extremity ? Its eastern extremity ?
Southern ? Western ?
Along which coast is the belt of highest mountains and narrow pla-
teaus ? What name is given to the broadest part of the plateau of the
Andes ? What lakes in it ? What broad plateau in the eastern part of
the continent ? What mountain ranges in this plateau ? What smaller
plateau.in the north ? What mountains are in the plateau of Guiana ?
In what part of South America are the volcanoes ?
What name is. given to the northern part of the Great Central Plain ?
With what are they covered ? What river drains the lanos ? What
name is given to the central part of the Great Plain? With what are
they covered? What river drains the selvas ? What island at its
mouth? What river east of Joannes Island ? What name is given to
the southern part of the Great Plain ? What river drains a large part of
the pampas ?
What branch of the Amazon is connected with the Orinoco ? What
branches drain the plateau of Brazil ? What branch of the Para ? What
river drains the eastern part ? What two rivers drain the southern part?
Which of these is the main river? What name is given to the forest

Andes Mountains
.dt fas V. jii 8 ?0 t '4 16ft

.. .. .. .. .. .. .


1MTTO og0oSS

region between the Paraguay and the Madeira? To the plain between
the Matto Grosso and the pampas ? Where is the rainless coast? How
long is it ?
What metals are obtained from the Andes? What valuable woods
are obtained from the forests of the Amazon and its branches ? What
gum ? What vegetable productions from the northern coast ? From
the eastern coast? What grain from the southwestern coast? What
animal products from the pampas and Southern Brazil ? What valu-
able mineral fertilizer from the rainless coast? (Cubic niter.) From
what desert is it obtained ? What other fertilizer from the same region ?

NOTE.--It will assist to memorize the physical maps of both the American con-
tinents to note the following points of similarity: -
Shape of continents. Position of the three coast lines. Volcanoes on the west.
Rocky and Nevada mountains. Appalachian Mountains. Western Plateau Belt.
Andes chains. Brazilian Mountains. Andes Plateau Belt.
Great Basin. Great Salt Lake. Labrador.
Plateau of Bolivia. Lake Titicaca. Plateau of Guiana.
Eastern Highland. Central Plain. Arctic Plain. Great Lakes. Southern Plain.
Plateau of Brazil. Central Plain. Llanos.* Selvas.t Pampas.t
Mackenzie River. Nelson. St. Lawrence. Mississippi.
Magdalena. Orinoco. Amazon. La Plata.

A Spanish word meaning "plains." t From a Spanish word meaning "forest."
t An Indian word meaning plains." El Gran Ch/aco means the great hunting ground."

6. ooof o oo



low' '-





i. Outline. South America is nearly a right-angled
triangle, of which the Pacific coast is the longest side. It
is nearly twice the size of the United States, and has a
population of about 33,500,000.

Its coasts are unbroken by great gulfs or by inclosed seas.

2. Surface. The surface of South America is natural-
ly divided into four parts,-the Andean plateau on the
west, the plateaus of Brazil and Guiana on the east, and
the Great Central Plain. The Andes Mountains stretch
along the entire western coast, generally in parallel chains.
Between them is a belt of plateaus, the broadest and
loftiest being that of Bolivia.

These gigantic border walls of the plateaus are the loftiest ranges
in America, and are exceeded in height only by the great chains
of Central Asia. They are highest in the northern portion of
the table-land of Boiivia, where the loftiest peaks reach an eleva-
tion of more than 22,000 feet. They are unbroken, except at
the Isthmus of Panama, where the western chain subsides into low
hills, and towards the southern extremity of the continent, where
the mountainous coast becomes a line of rocky islands. The
Andes contain several groups of lofty volcanoes.

3. The Great Central Plain extends along the whole
eastern base of the Andes.

This plain extends eastwardly to the shores of the Atlantic, except
where interrupted by the low mountains and plateaus of Guiana
and Brazil.

Three great rivers, the Orinoco, the Amazon, and the
La Plata, with their inimerous branches, drain this plain
and the mountain slopes which surround it.

The remarkable rainfall of this region is due to the tropical rain
belt and the Trade Winds which sweep westwardly from the At-
lantic and across the continent.

4. The northern part of the Great Central Plain, the
Ilanos of the Orinoco, is treeless and very flat. It is
about four times the size of Ohio.

S At the close of the tropical rainy season it is a vast meadow, and is
called by the inhabitants the Sea of Grass."
It supports millions of cattle and horses. Before the end of the
dry season it has become a scorched and arid desert, swept by
-hot winds that whirl the dry soil into the air in dense clouds of
dust. During the extreme drought the horses and cattle are
driven to the foot of the mountains, and the great reptiles with
which the plain abounds bury themselves in the mud of the dry-
inig pools, and await in a torpid state the return of the tropical
S rains.

5. The central part, the selvas o4 the Amazon, is by
far the largest.
It is nearly covered with a dense forest of flowering trees, inter-
woven with gigantic vines, and alive with birds and insects of
brilliant colors, and with millions of monkeys and other animals
of the Torrid Zone; it is almost unoccupied by civilized man,
and can be traversed only by means of the rivers. This great
forest, the largest in the world, also spreads far up the sides of
the mountains by which the plains are surrounded.


6. The southern part, the pampas of the La Plata, is
more than three times as large as the llanos.
It is similar to the llanos in many respects, but is far colder to-
wards the south. It supports vast herds of cattle,' and millions
of sheep and horses. These animals constitute the chief wealth
of the inhabitants of the llanos and the pampas, and determine
their principal occupations and exports.
7. Climate. The greater part of South America lips
within the tropics, where its broad 'plains have .a hot a
moist, and therefore sickly climate.
The great moisture is caused not only by the Trade Winds and



' I --


tropical rains, but by
the evaporation from the
large amount of river sur-
face and from the im-
mense area covered by
S The high and cool
S table-lands of the An-
- des are noted for their
healthful climate.

Partly for this reason, they
contain a large part of the
civilized inhabitants of
the continent, and a re-
markable line of elevated
capital cities, which are
from one to two miles
above the level of the
The extreme southern
part of the continent,
west of the Andes, is
shrouded in clouds and
drenched with rains.
These rains are caused by
the Counter Trade Winds
of the South Pacific. The
arid plains east of the
Patagonian Andes are
swept by violent cold
winds from the icy sum-
kv mits of the mountains.
Farther to the north
these plains are warmer,'
but their streams dry up
or end in salt lakes instead
of reaching the ocean.

About one half of the western coast is a dry desert.

The Trade Winds from the east, in crossing the Andes south of the
Equator, become extremely dry, and, passing down to the Pacific,
cause a rainless coast nearly two thousand miles long. A large
district of the high plateau of Bolivia is called "The Despo-
blado," or "The Uninhabited," from the dryness and severity
of its climate.

8. Vegetation. -The richness and variety of the trop-
ical vegetation are indescribable. The dense forests of
the plains and mountains abound in India rubber and palm
trees, and in rosewood, mahogany, and dyewoods. Other
products, such as coffee, cocoa, indigo, tapioca, cotton, and
sugar, are limited only by the amount of labor and cultiva-
tion bestowed upon them.

9. Animals.- Among the remarkable animals are the
llama, a beast of burden, and the alpaca of the Andes;
they are something like small camels. Besides these,
are the puma, the jaguar, and the monkey, the boa, the
condor, the nandu or American ostrich, the penguin, and d
the humming bird. Insects are more numerous and
brilliant than in any other continent. Horses, cattle,
and sheep were introduced from Europe.

Questions (I.) I. What is the shape of South America ? Its area? Population ?
2. Into how many parts is its surface divided ? What are they ? hat is said of
the Andes Mountains ? What is between them ? 3. What is sai' of the Great Cen-
tral Plain ? How is this plan drained ? 4. What is the character of the northern
part of the Great Central Plain ? Vhat is it called ? What is the meaning of llanos ?
What is its area ? 5. Which is the largest part ? What is the central part called ?
What is the meaning of selvas ? -6. What is the area of the southern part ? What is
it called ? What is the meaning of pampas?-- 7. What is the climate of the greater
part of South America ? Of the table-lands of the Andes ? Of the southern part of
the continent ? Of the western coast ? 8. What is said of the vegetation ? In what.:
do the forests abound ? What is said of other products?-9. Which are the most .
remarkable animals ? What is said of the insects? Of the horses, cattle, and sheep ?
(II.) i. What is the character of the coasts of South America?--2.. What is
said of the Andes Mountains ? Where are they highest ? How high are the highest
peaks ? Where are they broken? What do they contain? 3. How far does the
Great Central Plain extend towards the east ? 'To what causes is the rainfall due? -
4. What is the condition of the northern part of the plain at the close of the rainy sea-
son ? What does it support ? What is its condition before the end of the dry sea-
son? What is done with the horses and cattle during the drought ?-5. Describe
the central part of the plain. What is the extent of the great forest ? 6. To what is
the southern part of the plain similar? What does it support? What is said of the
animals of the Ilanos and the pampas. 7. What is the cause of the moist climate of '
the plains ? What do the table-lands of the Andes contain? Why? What is the
cause of the rains west of the Patagonian Andes ? Of the dryness east of'these moun- -
tains ? What is the condition of these plains farther to the north ? What is the caus.-,. "
of the extreme dryness of so large a part of the Pacific coast of South America ? .
What name has been given to a part of the plateau of Bolivia? Why? *'





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General. What countries of South America border on the Carib-
bean Sea ? On the Atlantic Ocean ? On the Pacific ? Through vhat
countries do the Andes extend ? What countries are drained by the
Orinoco and its branches? By the Amazon? By the La Plata? What
countries are crossed by the Equator ? By the Tropic of Capricorn ?
Brazil. What countries border on Brazil ? Which country of South
America does not border on it ? What river drains the northern part
of Brazil ? Which is its chief northern branch ? Its chief southern
branch ? What island just south of the Equator? Between what two
rivers ? What mountains near the northern boundary ? What mountain
chains near the eastern coast? What river breaks through the Serro
Espinhaco Mountains? What branches of the La'Plata rise-in Brazil?
What city is the capital? What cape is near it? What city south of
Cape St. Roque ? Southwest of Rio ? On the Para? Between Para
and Pernambuco ? Between Pernambuco and Rio Janeiro ? On what
Guiana. -How many divisions in Guiana? To whom do they be-
long? What is the capital of each ?
Venezuela. What countries border on Venezuela ? What sea on the
north? What lake and what gulf in Venezuela? What large river?
What island near its mouth? What city is the capital? What town is
its port ? What other port on the coast ? What town on the Orinoco?
Colombia. What countries border on Colombia ? What cape at its
northern extremity? What waters ? Which is its chief river? -What
city near its mouth ? What city is the capital ? What city in the
southwest ? What isthmus in Colombia ? What two ports oa it ? By
what railroad are they connected? (See small map.)
Ecuador. -What countries border on Ecuador? What gulf on its
shores ? What volcanoes are in Ecuador? What city is the capital ?
How situated ? What city is its port ?
Peru. What countries border on Peru? What lake partly in it?
What cape in the northwest ? What islands near Cape Blanco ? What
city is the capital ? What city is the port of Lima ? What-city northeast
of Lima? What city in the southwest? What city-north of Arequipa?
Bolivia. What countries border on Bolivia? What mountain near,
Lake Titicaca ? What city is the capital? What other cities in Bolivia ?
Chile. What countries border on Chile ? What country is partly
included in the southern portion of Chile? (Patagonia.) To what
country does the rest of Patagonia belong ? What large island belongs
to-Chile? What small islands west ? For what is one of these islands
famous? (For having been the solitary residence of Alexander Selkirk,
whose story was afterwards written as Robinson Crusoe.) What desert
west of the Andes ? In what part of Chile is'the desert of Atacama ?

What group of islands south of Patagonia ? What group east? What
cape south of Tierra del Fuego? What city is the capital of Chile?
What large city is its port ? What port on the desert coast ? What
other ports in Chile ?
Argentine Republic. What countries border on the Argentine Re-
public? What rivers form parts of its boundary? What city is the
capital? What city near the center? North of Cordova? Southeast
of Cordova ? Near the Andes ?
Uruguay. What countries border on it? What rivers? What
city is the capital ?
Paraguay. -What countries border on it ? What rivers form parts
of its boundary ? What city is the capital ?


Countries. Where is it ? How bounded? What is the capial?-
Area in Area I Population.N
Names. Sq. Miles. Population. Names Sq. Miles.opulation.
Brazil .......... 3,228,452 14,600,000 Peru............... 439,014 2,980,000
British Guiana.. 88,652 282,066 Bolivia ............. 5I5,156 1,434,800
Dutch Guiana... 49,848 66,037 Chile............... 299,626 3,165,300
French Guiana.. 30,465 25,797 Argentine Republic. 1,077,032 3,203,700
Venezuela...... 403,067 2,238,900 Uruguay........... 68,999 711,700
Colombia....... 464,537 3,321,052 Paraguay........... 97,726 330,000
Ecuador........ 115,680 1,204,400

Cities and Towns. -In whatpart of the country ? How situated ?
- CARACAS? La Guayra? Maracaybo ? Angosura? BOGOTA? Po-
payan ? Cartagena ? Panama ? Colon ? QUITO ? Guayaquil ?
LIMA ? Callao ? Pasco ? Cuzco ? Arequipa ? LA Pyz ? Sucre?
Cochabamba? Potosi? SANTIAGO? Valparaiso? Coquimbo? Iquique?
BUENOSAYRES? Rosario? Mendoza? Cordova? Tucuman? MON-
TEVIDEO? ASUNCION? Rio JANEIRO? -Bahia? Pernambuco? Ma-
Islands. Where situated -Trinidad? Josnnes? Tierra del
Fuego? Falkland? Chiloe? Juan Fernandez ? Lobos?
Capes. From what coast does itproject Galli nas ? St. Roque ?.
Frio? Horn? Blanco?
Mountains. Where are they Andes ? Pacaraima? Serro Es-
pinhaco? Cotopaxi (v.)? Chimborazo (v.)? Sorata?
Seas, Gulfs, and Bays.- Where is it?- Caribbean'?,/ Darien ?
Venezuela? All Saints ? Guayaquil? Panama?,
Rivers. Where does it rise ? In. what direction does it flow ?
Through what countries? Into what body of water Magdalena?
Orinoco? Amazon? Negro? Para? Madeira? San Francisco? La
Plata? Uruguay? Parana? Paraguay?
Lakes.- Where situated? What outlet -Maracaybo? Titicaca?




I. South America, like the northern continent, was set-
tled and occupied by emigrants from Europe.

Almost all of the civilized people are found in a broad band which
S surrounds the continent, and crosses its narrow southern part
S from Santiago to Buenos Ayres. The large cities of the northern
and western countries are in'the high and cool table-lands;
those of the eastern are seaports of .the Atlantic.

There are millions of Indians, the greater .part of whom are half-
Scivilized, the rest of them being savages.

2. South America has had a comparatively limited com-
merce. It is now rapidly increasing, especially in Brazil,
the Argentine Republic, and Chile.
The tropical climate and frequent civil wars have tended to repress
commercial enterprise, and the grandest system of navigable
rivers on the globe is yet but little used. There-are .about
28,000 miles of railway; about 26,000 are in Brazil, the Argetic
tine Republic, Chile, and Peru. There are no good common roads.\

. -.. ..------ ....

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,ord I ,.

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00",er T3D 20 90 4 0 _0 1000


The Panama Railroad crosses the isthmus. It is the
most important railway in South America, being the
.shortest trade route between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
3. The countries of South America may be considered
under three divisions: Ist, Portuguese South America, or
the Republic of Brazil; 2d, the Guianas, or European
colonies; and, 3d, the nine Spanish Republics.
4. Portuguese South America. Brazil is the largest
and most important country of South America.
It comprises more than two fifths of the continent, and is about the
size of the United States. It was once a colony of Portugal,
and Portuguese is the language of the civilized inhabitants.
The population is mostly on or near the southeastern coast. The
people are of three races, whites, Indians, and negroes, a
large majority being of mixed races. Nearly all the negroes of
South America are in Brazil and the Guianas.
Brazil has about io,ooo miles of railroad. The Amazon and its
tributaries furnish about 50,000 miles of navigable waters.
Steamships ascend the Amazon to Iquitos, traversing nearly 3,000
miles between that point and Para.

**' -g T. --


Brazil furnishes the greater part of the coffee used in
the world, besides cotton, sugar, hides, dyewoods, and In-
dia rubber. More than half of the coffee, the leading
:article of export, goes to the United States. The greater
part of the entire South American trade of the United
States is with Brazil. Rio Janeiro, sometimes called
Rio, is the capital and the largest city and seaport of Bra-
zil. It is one of the finest harbors in the Southern Hemi-
Ssphere. Other important ports of Brazil are Pernambuco,
the second city, Bahia, Maranhao, Santos, and Para.

5. The Guianas are colonies of Great Britain, France,
and the Netherlands. The chief exports are indigo, co-
coa, sugar, coffee, and other tropical productions. The
ports of Georgetown, Cayenne, and Paramaribo are the
capitals, and the chief centers of commerce.
6. Spanish South America comprises nine inde-
pendent republics; viz., Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentine Republic, Uruguay, and
Paraguay. Each republic consists of a number of states
under a general government, as in Mexico.

The Andean portion is so rugged, that the back of an Indian or of
a sure-footed mule is almost the only means of travel and traffic
over the rude and dangerous mountain roads. The Argentine
Republic has about 9,000 miles ofrailway; Chile, 2,500; Uruguay,
1,300; Peru, 950; the others, from less than 100oo to 400 each.
These republics were once colonies of Spain. The language spoken
by the civilized inhabitants is Spanish.

In all the republics of Spanish America, from Mexico
to Chile, the Spanish creoles are
greatly outnumbered by the In-
dians and mixed races. This fact
Shas an important influence upon
S: the enterprise, commerce, and
S social and political condition, of

7. Venezuela.-Venezuela ex-
ports coffee, cocoa, and other trop-
ical products from La Guayra and
Maracaybo on the Caribbean Sea,
and the cattle products of the lla-
nos from Angostura on the Orino-
co. Caracas, the capital and largest
city, is 3,000 feet above the sea.
8. Colombia. Colombia is
the most important of the five
northern republics.

This is due to its geographical posi-
tion. It includes the Isthmus of
Panama, which is the most, direct
-- route for the rapidly increasing
commerce between the countries
bordering the two great oceans.
A short railroad from Panama to Colon is now the route of this
commerce. In 1881, a great canal for the largest sea-going ves-
sels was projected, to cross the isthmus between these cities. The
work of excavation was carried on for some years under French
direction. In 1889, however, all work was suspended, owing to
lack of funds. A new company is now carrying on the work.
Magdalena River is the chief artery of internal commerce.

The chief exports are gold, silver ore, hides, rubber,
coffee, and tobacco. Bogota, the capital and largest city,
is nearly 9,ooo feet above the sea; Popayan is the second


city. Cartagena, Barranquilla, Panama, and Colon are
the chief ports.
9. Ecuador. The exports of Ecuador are cocoa, India
rubber, coffee, hides, and vegetable ivory .nuts. Guaya-
quil is the chief port. Quito is the capital and largest city.
o1. Peru. -The chief exports are sugar, cotton, wool,


and silver. Lima, the capital, is the largest city.
port is Callao.

Its sea-

Pasco, about 13,000 feet above the sea, the most elevated city in the
world, is surrounded with silver mines. Cuzco and Arequipa
are large cities. Lake Titicaca, on the borders of Bolivia, 13,000
feet above the sea, is the highest large mountain lake in the
world. Its waters flow into Lake Aullagas in Bolivia.
One of the Peruvian railways reaches an elevation of nearly 16,ooo
feet. This is now the highest point in the world where a piston
11. Bolivia. -Bolivia, having no seacoast and few rail-
ways, has but little commerce. Peruvian bark and silver
ore are exported through Buenos Ayres. Sucre, the con-
stitutional capital, Potosi, Cochabamba, and La Paz, the
virtual capital, are all large cities on the plateau.
12. Chile. Chile is one of the most enterprising coun-
tries of South America, and has a large proportion of
European inhabitants. It has a coast line of about 2,500
miles. The principal export is cubic niter. Others are
copper ore, silver, guano, and wheat.
Cubic niter, or nitrate of soda, is a valuable mineral largely used in
the arts and as a fertilizer. It is obtained from Atacama Desert.
The value of the annual export is at least $40,ooo,ooo.

Santiago, the capital, is the largest city. Valparaiso,
the second city, is the largest seaport on the Pacific coast
of America, excepting San Francisco. Iquique is the
chief port for exports.

Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego form the southern part of South
America. The western portion of this extensive region belongs
to Chile; the eastern, to the Argentine Republic. The native
inhabitants are savage tribes.

13. The Argentine Republic.--The Argentine Re-
public is a rival of Chile in enterprise.
Emigration from Southern Europe, and commerce, are
increasing. Education is advancing more rapidly than in
any other country in South America. The chief exports
are wool, sheepskins, hides, tallow, and other cattle prod-
ucts. The'greater part of the hides is sent to the United
States. The capital, Buenos Ayres, is the largest city in
South America, and a great seaport. Other important
cities, Rosario, Mendoza, Cordova, Tucuman, and Cor-
rientes, are on the great trade routes to Chile, Bolivia,
and Paraguay.
14. Uruguay. Uruguay is similar in its leading ex-
ports to the Argentine Republic. Montevideo, the capi-
tal, has a large trade in cattle products.
15. Paraguay. Paraguay is the weakest of the nine
republics, and like Bolivia, having no seacoast, has but
little commerce. Asuncion is the capital.

Questions (I.) I. By whom was South America settled ? 2. What is said of
its commerce? Of the Panama Railroad ? 3. How may the countries of South
America be considered ? What are the divisions ? -4. Which is the largest ? What are
the principal productions of Brazil ? What is the extent of its trade with the United
States ? What city is the capital? For what is it noted ? What other important
ports ? 5. To what countries do the Guianas belong ? What are the chief exports ?
What cities are the capitals and centers of commerce ? 6. What does Spanish South
America comprise ? Name them. Of what does each republic consist ? What is
said of the inhabitants of the republics of Spanish America ? Why is this an important
fact ? 7. What are the exports of Venezuela ? What city is the capital? What is
said of it? 8. Of Colombia ? What are the chief exports ? What city is the capi-
tal ? What is said of it ? Of Popayan ? Which are the chief ports ? 9. What are
the exports of Ecuador ? The chief port ? What city is the capital ? Io. What
are the chief exports of Peru ? What city is the capital ? What city is its seaport ?
- II. What is said of the commerce of Bolivia? What are the exports ? Which
are the large cities ? Where are they? 12. For what is Chile noted ? What are
the chief exports ? Which is the capital and largest city? For what is Valparaiso
noted ? Iquique ? 13. What is said.of the Argentine Republic ? Of emigration
and commerce ? Of education ? What are the chief exports ? Where are most of
the hides sent? What city is the capital? What is said of it? Which are the
other important cities? Where are they? 14. What are the exports of Uruguay ?
What is the capital? What is said of it? 15. Of Paraguay? What city is the
capital ?
(II.) 1. In what part of South America are most of the civilized inhabitants?
Where are the large cities ? What is said of the Indians ? 2. Why has South America
so little commerce ? What is said of the roads ? 4. What is said of Brazil? Where
is most of the population ? Of what does it consist ? Where are most of the negroes?
What is said of the railroads of Brazil? Of the Amazon? Of the telegraphs?-6.
What is said of the Andean portion of the Spanish Republics? Of what country
were these republis once colonies ? What is said of the railways? What language
is spoken ?- 8. Why is Colombia the most important of the five northern republics?
What commercial route does it include ? What is the present route of this commerce ?
What other route was projected and begun? What is said of it? Of the Magda-
lena?- io. For what is Pasco noted? Cuzco and Arequipa? Lake Titicaca ? Where
do its waters flow? What is said of one of the railways?- 12. What is cubic niter?
Whence obtained ? What country and group of islands form the southern part of South
America ? To what countries do they belong? What are the native inhabitants ?

"h9 ~~' F.

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From what other continent does Europe project ? In what
direction ? What continent south of Europe ? What sea sep-
arates them? What strait at its entrance? What ocean
west of Europe ? What ocean north ? What is the south-
Swestern part of Europe called ? Nearly all the rest of the
continent ? In what zone is the greater part of Europe ?

High Europe.--What three peninsulas project from
High Europe ? What is the peninsula of Spain sometimes
called? (The Iberian.) What plateau in it? In what
part of High Europe is it? What peninsula nearest to
Asia? Between Spain and Turkey? What mountains
in the northern part of the peninsula of Spain? What
mountains in Turkey? What mountains connect the
Pyrenees with theBalkan ? What mountains in Southern
Spain ? In the Italian peninsula ? On the northeastern bor-
der of High Europe ? What smaller peninsula in the south-
western part of the peninsula of Turkey ? What archipelago
east of Greece? What sea between Turkey and Italy?
What small sea between
Asia and the Turkish
peninsula ? T A L Y

Low Europe. What
plain constitutes the
greater part of Low Eu-
rope? Which part of the
Great Plain is cold and
treeless? Which part is
covered with forests ?
Where are the prairie re-
gions ? The salt steppes ?
Where is the lake region?


aa ilera neaM I

What mountains form the eastern border or Lne Great Plain
of Europe? The southeastern border? The southwestern?
The northwestern? In what peninsula are the Scandina-
vian Mountains ? What hills near the center of the Great
Plain? What sea borders the Great Plaii in the gap be-
tween the Ural and Caucasus mountains ? Between the
Caucasus and the Carpathian? Between the British Islands
and the Scandinavian Mountains ? What sea in the west-
ern part of the Great Plain? In the northern part ? Name
the northern arm of the Baltic Sea. The eastern arms.
What two lakes are connected with the Gulf of Finland?
What straits connect the Baltic and North seas? What
peninsula between them ? What river flows into the White
Sea? What two rivers into the Caspian Sea? What two
into the Black Sea? What sea north of the Black Sea?
What peninsula between them ? What river flows into the
Sea of Azof? Into the Gulf of Riga? What two rivers
flow into the Baltic Sea? What two into the North Sea?
What name is given to the western continuation of the
Great Plain ? At what mountains do these plains terminate
on the southwest? In what island on the west? Through
what two plains does the Danube flow ? Which of these is
not a part of the Great Plain ? What plain in Italy?

.Alps .e-4-n 15,810 f.
2o/I O2,76fi. d G1BomerwaI&Ln
AIN OF THE P0 BnIIII///o ea.a,,R.
.-`,/. //(// / ,7` .

What three large islands west of Europe? What waters
between Great Britain and the continent,? Between Great
Britain and Ireland ? North of the peninsula of Spain?
What three groups of islands between Great Britain and
Iceland ? What cape is the most northern point of Europe ?
The most western? The most southern? What islands
southwest of Cape North? What island near the south
point of Italy divides the Mediterranean into two basins ?
What large islands in the western basin ? What two gulfs
in the northern part? What river flows into the Gulf of the
Lion ? Which are the two principal islands of the eastern
basin? What small island south of Sicily? What strait
between Sicily and Italy ? At the entrance to the Adriatic
Sea? Between the Grecian Archipelago and the Sea of
Marmora? Between the Sea of Marmora and the Black
Sea ? What volcano in Sicily ? In Italy ? In Iceland ?
What minerals are produced in Great Britain? In the
Scandinavian peninsula? In the Ural Mountains? In
Spain? West of the Rhine? What are the products
of the southern part of the Great Plain? Of the cen-

tral part? Of the northern
navia? Near the Vistula?
Of Turkey? Of Greece?




I 7a7tie
1 $/.






part? Of southern Scandi-
Of the plain of Hungary?
Of Sicily? Of Western
Italy? Of the plain
of the Po? On the
Rhine ? Between the
Rhone and the Bay of
Biscay? Of the Span-
ish peninsula? Of Ice-
land ? What industry
near the shores of the
North Sea and the Eng-
lish Channel ? What fish-
ery near Iceland ? On
the northern shores of
Scandinavia ? In the
SCaspian Sea?



'i. Outline. -The Continent of Europe is a
very large peninsula, and is made up of a group
of peninsulas. It projects from Asia, and lies
. between the Mediterranean Sea and the Arctic
Ocean. Its western half is divided into two
^ *


great peninsulas, the Scandinavian in the
northwest, and Western Europe in the south-

2. Western Europe is the larger and more

It is itself bordered by smaller peninsulas and islands,
and broken by inland seas. Jutland and Brittany
are on the north opposite these are Turkey, Greece,

and Italy; the Spanish or Iberian Peninsula forms
the southwestern extremity. The peninsular char-
acter of Europe opens a very large part of the con-
tinent to the waters of the ocean, and gives un-
equalled facilities for maritime commerce.

3. Islands. In the Mediterranean Sea are
the large islands Candia, Sicily, Sardinia, and
Corsica; in the Atlantic Ocean are Great Brit-
ain. Ireland, and Iceland.

S s.Nevada S.Xorena Mns.orTLeo 124Wu.s
bJd I za. | a U*lQ/fed
"U / L ,a 660f e- 2,450fdA /A.
Gi'^ Tm A ......... ....








- -- ---- I, U-

*ai ftu *


Bia m ,mm,,,n, m mi,,,,......... .r / /..


4. Surface. Eastern Europe is a plain, and includes
the greater part of Low Europe.
This plain extends from the Arctic Ocean to the Black and Caspian
seas, where it unites with the Great Northern Plain of Asia. It
is also continued into Great Britain and to the Bay of Biscay in
the west, and to the Balkan Mountains in the south.
5. Four important mountain systems partly inclose this
great plain,- the Scandinavian, the Ural, the Caucasus, and
the Carpathian. Four inland seas viz., the White, the
Caspian, the Black, and the North break into the borders
of the plain between the ends of these mountains. Be-
sides these, is the Baltic, which is entirely within the plain.
These five seas receive large and sluggish rivers, the most
important of which diverge from a small central district
which contains the Valdai Hills.
Among these rivers are the Dwina, the Ural, the Volga, the Don,
the Dnieper, the Elbe, the Vistula, and the Duna.
The northwestern part of the plain contains many lakes;
among these are Ladoga and Onega, the largest lakes in
6. These rivers and lakes, and the canals by which they
are connected, are the commercial routes of Eastern
Europe. The Volga is the chief line of the domestic
and the Asiatic trade of the eighty millions of people
that inhabit the eastern plain. A great canal connects it
with the Baltic.
7. Western Europe includes High Europe, which is a
network of mountain chains with inclosed valleys and
plains. The largest plateau is in Spain.


_8. The Alps, the loftiest mountains in Europe, the Bal-
g,. kan, and the Pyrenees, are the principal systems.
'Many of the summits of the Alps are covered with perpetual snow,
and the valleys between are filled with glaciers.
9. Four navigable rivers- the Po, the Rhone,. he Rhine,
and the Danube-flow from the heart of High Europe,
and pass through the plains to four seas. The Po is the

chief interior water way of Italy, and the Rhone of France.
The Rhine and the Danube are the chief commercial rivers
of Western Europe, the latter being the more- important.
Europe had about 155,000 miles of railway in 1898.
io. Climate. -Western Europe, especially near the
Atlantic Ocean, has a milder climate than other parts of
the world in the same latitude.
Ever-green Ireland" is in the same latitude as cold and barren
Labrador; St. Petersburg and Stockholm are on the parallel of
Cape Farewell; and the never-frozen port of Hammerfest is as
far north as the ice-covered regions of the Arctic Archipelago.
The principal cause of this remarkable climate is the warm south-
west or return Trade Winds, which bring with them a part of the
heat they have acquired in the Torrid Zone. The warm waters
of the Gulf Stream are also supposed to reach these coasts, and
to assist in modifying their climate.
The winter climate of the interior parts of Western Europe also
presents remarkable peculiarities. It becomes more severe to-
wards the south; this is in consequence of the great elevation.
Some cities in High Europe have much colder winters than other
places far north of them near the shores of the ocean.
A similar change takes place towards the east with increasing dis-
tance from the ocean. The average number of days during
which the Rhine is frozen over during the year is twenty-six;
the Weser, which is east of the Rhine, is frozen for thirty days;
the Elbe, still farther east, for sixty-two; the Oder, for seventy;
and the Vistula, for about eighty days.
S1. The climate of the Mediterranean countries is al-
most tropical. In the south the long summers are almost
This is the effect of the general southward slope of the country, the
warm and dry winds from the Sahara, the mild waters of the Med-
iterranean, and the high mountain walls that shut out the cold
polar winds. Figs, oranges, sugar cane, and rice grow in the.
latitude of New York and Boston. The Spanish plateau has a
cold winter and a hot and dry summer.
12. The Great Plain has a varied climate. The winters
are intensely cold; in the south the summers are hot and
This winter climate is caused by distance from the warm western
ocean, and by the prevalence of the polar winds, that sweep
unchecked to the Black Sea and the Caspian.
13. Vegetation and Animals.- The Great Plain has
three belts of vegetable and animal life.
The arctic regions are mossy, treeless swamps, inhab-
ited by reindeer and other arctic animals..
Most of these animals seek the forest regions during the long
winters. The rivers are frozen nine months in the year. There
are few human inhabitants.
Another wide treeless region stretches across the south-
ern part of the plain. Barren salt plains, called steppes,"
occupy its eastern portion. In the west are broad prairies
which sustain large numbers of sheep, horses, and cattle,
and produce maize and great quantities of wheat.
A vast forest occupies a great part of the middle
belt. In its colder regions the hardy grains-rye, oats,


o1rY OWL.


and barley are cultivated; farther south, flax, hemp,

and wheat.

14. The warm countries of the Mediterranean produce
the olive, the almond, the orange, besides rice, maize, and

other grains.

Grains, fruits, and vines are cultivated in the lowlands

of the Atlantic coasts and the valleys of High Europe.

As we ascend the mountains of High Europe, the chestnut gives
place to the oak, then follow pine forests and high pastures,
then glaciers and perpetual snow.

15. The northwestern coasts of Europe have extensive
and valuable fisheries.

16. Minerals. The mountains of Europe furnish an

abundance of the most useful minerals; among these are

coal, iron, lead, quicksilver, zinc, and copper.

Questions (I.) I. What is Europe as a physical division ? Of what is it made
up ? From what does it project? Between what waters ? How is its western half
divided? What peninsula in the northwest? What one in the southwest ?- 2.
Which is the larger and more important? 3. What large islands in the
Mediterranean Sea ? In the Atlantic Ocean ? -4. What is the character of Eastern
Europe ? What does it include ? -5. How many and what mountain systems partly
inclose the plain ? How many and what seas break its borders? Between what are
they situated ? What sea lies entirely in the plain ? What do these seas receive from
the plain ? Where is the lake region ? Which are the two largest lakes ? -6. What
use is made of these rivers and lakes ? What river forms the principal commercial
route of Eastern Europe ? What connects it with the Baltic ? 7. What does West-
ern Europe include ? Of what' does High Europe consist ? Which is the largest
plateau? 8. Name the chief mountain systems of High Europe. Which are the,
highest mountains in Europe ? 9. What four rivers flow from High Europe ? To
what ? Through what ? Of what countries are they the chief water routes ? Which
are the chief commercial rivers of Western Europe? Which is the more important ?
What is said of the railways? Io. What is the character of the climate of Western
Europe ? I. What is the general climate of the Mediterranean countries? -12.
What is the climate of the Great Plain? 13. How many belts of vegetable and ani-
mal life in the Great Plain? Describe the arctic belt. By what animals inhabited ?
Describe the southern belt. Where are the salt steppes? The prairies? What do
they sustain? What are the vegetable products ? Describe the middle belt. What



are its products ? 14. What are the
vegetable products of the Mediterra-
nean region ? Of the Atlantic coasts ?
- 5. Where are the great European
fisheries ? 16. What are the prin-
cipal minerals of Europe ?
(II.) 2. By what is Western Eu-
rope bordered ? By what are' its
shores broken? What two penin- /
sulas on the northern border? What
peninsulas opposite them ? What
peninsula forms the southwestern ex-
tremity of Europe ? Of what advan-
tage is the peninsular character of Eu-
rope ? --4. What is the northern limit
of the Great Plain? The southern
limit? With what other plain is it
connected ? What western extension
has it ? What southern extension ?
- 5. Name some of the rivers of East-
ern Europe. 8. What is said of the
Alps ? o. With what is Ireland con-
trasted? St. Petersburg and Stock-
holm? Hammerfest? What are the
causes of the mild climate of Western
Europe ? Describe the peculiarities in
the climate of the interior of Western
Europe. Ii. What are the causes of
the tropical climate of the Mediterra-
nean ? What contrast with New York
and Boston? What is the climate
of the Spanish plateau ? I2. What
are the causes of the varied climate of
the Great Plain ?'- 13. What is said -
of the animals of the arctic regions ?
Of the rivers ? Of the inhabitants ? -
14. Of the mountains of High Europe?


Norway .............................
Sweden........ ............ ....
Russia in Europe (inc. Caucasia north of
mountains, and Nova Zembla)........
Russia in Asia (inc. Arctic Islands).......
British Empire (about).................
England and Wales ..................
Scotland and islands .................
Ireland and smaller islands .............
Dependencies (inc. African claims).....
Spain (without Canaries) .............
Sp. Col. (inc. Canaries and African claims).
Portugal (exc. Madeira and Azores) ......
Portuguese Colonies (inc. Azores and Ma-
deira)............... ........ ......

qArea i Population.
Square Miles








France (inc. Corsica, Monaco, Andorra)
Algeria and other Dependencies.......
Italy (inc. San Marino) ..............
Italian claims in Africa ............
Switzerland (inc. Lake Constance and
Geneva) .......................
Austria-Hungary (inc. Bosnia, Herze-
govina, and Lichtenstein).........
Roumania ............. ...........
Servia .................................
M ontenegro ............ ............. .
Turkey in Europe (with Crete and Novi
Bazar) ............................ .
Bulgaria and East Roumelia..........
Greece............... ............

Aquarea is Population.
Square Miles









-- -- -- r -
Denmark ................... ........
Colonies (inc. South Greenland) .....
German Empire ......................
Prussia .... ..... .......
Saxony ................ ..........
Wurtemberg .........................
Baden .............................
H esse............ .. ............. .
Alsace-Lorraine ....................
.Colonies (inc. African claims)........
Thb.Nethcrlands (without Zuyder Zee).
Dutch colonies ......................
Belgium .......... .... ............ ....

Fl K.




'1 f 2//If'

Area in
Square Miles

I ,374







Countries. What country forms the eastern half of Eu-
rope ? What countries northwest of Russia? What coun-
tries on the Mediterranean Sea? On the Atlantic Ocean ?
..On the Black Sea? On the Adriatic? On the Baltic?
'On the North Sea ? What two countries have no seacoast?
," did^n and Norway. What mountains between Swe-
.and Norway ? In the southern part of Norway ? What
S.' port on the Arctic'Ocean? What city on the western
coast ? On the southwestern coast ? What city is the cap-'
.;" -ital of Norway ? What lakes in Sweden ? What city is the
-. .capital of Sweden ? What city on the Cattegat? South of
- '.. ot.e lmo ? North of Stockholm? Northwest of Upsal ?i
"* ~' a. What countries border Russia on the north-
e fi ?': the southwest? What sea between Russia and
Sweden ? What four lakes flow into the Gulf of Finland ?
Which is the most western province of Russia ? What city


in Poland ? What city is the capital of Russia? On what
river is it? (The Neva.) From what lake does the Neva
flow? What city at its mouth? At the mouth of the
Dwina? Of the Duna? Of the Volga ? Near the center
of Russia? What cities on the Volga? What city south
of Moscow? Between Warsaw and St. Petersburg? On
the Black Sea? West of Odessa? On the Dnieper?


Countries. here is it How bounded? What is the
capital? Norway ? Sweden ? Russia? Greece? Turkey?
Roumqnia? Servia?.. Montenegro? Austria? Germany?
Fra Denmark? Iceland? The Netherlands? Bel-
giuum "Switzerland ? Italy ? Spain ? Portugal ? England?
Scotland? Ireland?
Cities and Towns. -In whatpart ofthe country ? How

STOCKHOLM? Gottenburg ? Norrkoping ? Fahlun ?
CHRISTIANIA ? Bergen ? Drontheim? Hammerfest ?
ST. PETERSBURG? MOscow? Warsaw? Odessa? Kish-
enev ? Riga? Saratov ? Wilna? Kasan ? Kiev ?
Astrakhan ? Archangel ? Rybinsk ?
Peninsulas. From whatfart of Europe does itproject?
-Scandinavia? Crimea? Turkey? Greece? Italy?
Iberia? Jutland ?
Mountains. Where are they ? Ural ? Caucasus ?,
Scandinavian? Kiolen? Dovrefield?
Seas and Gulfs. Where is it?- White? Caspian?
Baltic? Black? Finland? Riga? Bothnia? Azof?
Rivers. Where does it rise ? In what direction doei it
flow ? Through what countries ? Into what boa) f /water ?
-Dwina? Ural? Volga? Don? Dnieper?
Lakes. Where situated? What outlet?- Onega?
Ladoga? Peipus? Ilmen ? Wener? Wetter?

t 's;


i .-

* 'I-




'A .


A I -

POIT' -- --- -

VI 98.
Scale of Miles
I oo od soo 5 9o st

'29 longitude 77 East


,!- -" ?





i. Governments. Europe contains four empires,
* Russia, Turkey, Germany, and Austria;' two republics,
France and Switzerland; twelve independent kingdoms,
Norway, Sweden, Great Britain and Ireland, Spain, Por-
tugal, Italy, Greece, Roumania, Servia, Denmark, Bel-
gium, and the Netherlands; one independent principality,
Montenegro; and one independent grand duchy, Luxem-
burg. Russia and Turkey are absolute, Germany, Austria,
and the twelve kingdoms are limited, monarchies.

Besides these, there are in the German Empire the kingdoms of
Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, and Wiirtemberg; in the Austrian Em-
pire, Bohemia, Galicia, Hungary, and Croatia and Slavonia; and
in the Turkish Empire, the principality of Bulgaria. Andorra in
the Pyrenees, and San Marino in Italy, are small but old republics.

2. Population.--The total population of Europe is
estimated at about 360 millions, three fourths of it being
in Western Europe. It is nearly all Caucasian.

The three chief branches of the Caucasian race in Europe are the
Celts in the west, the Teutons from the Alps to Scotland and
Northern Norway, and the Sclaves in the Great Plain.
The people of the eastern half of Europe belong mostly to the
Greek Church; those of the northwestern regions are principally
Protestants; nearly all the rest, including more than half the
population, are Roman Catholics. Near the Black Sea are sev-
eral millions of Mohammedans.

3. Sweden and Norway. Sweden and Norway oc-
cupy the Scandinavian Peninsula. Norway is the smaller
and more mountainous, and has less than one half as
many inhabitants as Sweden. The kingdoms are sepa-
rate, but the same king rules over both.
4. In Sweden, railways and a system of canals from
the Baltic to the Cattegat unite the internal with the mar-
itime commerce. The exports are lumber, iron, grain, and
5. The maritime commerce of Norway is very extensive.
It ranks third in the world in tonnage, and is chiefly em-
ployed in the "carrying trade" of other nations.
Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is situated on sev-
eral small islands. Gottenburg is an important port and
manufacturing city. Norrkoping is a grain port.
6. Christiania, the capital of Norway, and Bergen, its
largest Atlantic port, have a large trade in lumber and
fish. Hammerfest, the most northern town in the world,
is dependent upon the cod fisheries.. The Norwegian cod
fisheries are the greatest in the world.
7. Russia. The Russian Empire, next to that of Great
Britain, is the most extensive dominion in the world. It
includes about one half of Europe and more than one
third of Asia. In 1897 the population of the empire was
129,21 1,1 13. The monarch is called the Czar, or Emperor.
The inhabitants are-mostly Sclaves.
[For remainder of Section LXXXIV., see p. 90.]



-England and Wales. -What three countries on the island of Great
Britain? What waters between Great Britain and Ireland? England
and France? What island in the Irish Sea? What hills between
England and Scotland ? What mountains in Wales? What bay west
of Wales ? What two rivers flow into the North Sea? For what is the
Thames remarkable ? (For the largest maritime commerce in the world.)
What river flows into the Bristol Channel? Into the Irish Sea ? What
city on the Thames? What port on the Humber? What city northwest
of Hull ? Southwest of York? West of Leeds? Near the mouth of the
Mersey? South of Leeds? In the northern part of England? Near
the center? Near the Severn? What two cities -east of Liverpool?
, v On the south coast ? In the southern part of Wales ?
Scotland. -What islands northwest of Scotland ? What groups north
of Scotland ? What hills in Scotland ? What peak of the Grampians is
the highest in Great Britain? (Ben Nevis, 4,370 feet.) What name is
given to the bays of the .coast of Scotland? (Firths.) Name the five
chief firths of Scotland. What firth, hills, and river form the boundary
between Scotland and England? What river flows into the Firth of
Clyde? What caral in the northern part of Scotland? What three
cities on or near the east coast ? On or near the Clyde ?
Ireland. What bays.on the western coast of Ireland ? Which is the
largest river ? What port in the northern part? In the northeastern ?

In the eastern? What city in the southern part? What seaport near
it? What port on Galway Bay? On the Shannon ?
Travels. Through what cities would you pass in traveling by rail-
way from Edinburgh to London by way of Newcastle ? Plymouth to Hull
by way of Birmingham? Newcastle to Liverpool by way of Leeds?



Cities and Towns. In what art ofthe country ? How situated ?-
LONDON? Liverpool? Manchester? Birmingham? Leeds? Sheffield?
Bristol? Bradford? Newcastle? Salford? Hull? Portsmouth? York?
Plymouth? Merthyr Tydvil? Swansea? EDINBURGH? Glasgow?
Dundee? Aberdeen? Paisley? Greenock? DUBLIN? Belfast? Cork?
Londonderry? Galway? Limerick ? Queenstown ?
Islands. Where situated?- Man? Hebrides? Orkney? Shetland?
Mountains. Where are they Grampian Hills? Cheviot Hills?
Cambrian? Ben Nevis?
Seas, Gulfs, and Bays. Where is it f North Sea? Irish Sea ? St.
Georges Channel? English Channel? North Channel? Strait of
Dover? Bristol Channel? FirthofClyde? Firth of Forth? Solway
Firth ? Moray? Pentland? Cardigan Bay? Galway? Donegal ?
Rivers. Where does it rise 9 In what direction does it flow ? Into
what body of water ? Thames? Severn? Mersey? Clyde ? Shannon?




Sc2al of Miles.
25 50 75 100 15

Sam scat aM w ma.
Tn.r I $

iLt i "
o ir M P, hi |



8. The exports, in the order of_ ------ ,.
their importance, are grains, flax, ....._
lumber, flaxseed, hemp, and wool. ..
The chief foreign trade is with __... j
Great Britain and Germany.

9. The principal cities are St. -
oPetersburg, the capital and lar- '- I--I-'-
gest city and greatest commercial
depot; Moscow, the ancient cap-
ital of Russia; and Warsaw, the
chief city of Poland. All of these
are manufacturing cities.
St. Petersburg and Riga, on the
Baltic, export grain, hemp, flax,
and lumber; Odessa, on the
Black Sea, is a great grain port;
Rybinsk, on the Volga, the Rus-
sian Chicago, is the center of the '
internal grain trade. Astrakhan, -----
on the Caspian, is noted for its RUSSIAN FAIR AT NG D
fisheries and its caravan trade is the interior commerce of Sweden connected with the
with Asia; Archangel, on the maritime ? What are the exports ? 5. What is said
White Sea, exports oats, rye, flax, of the commerce of Norway ? What is said of Stock-
holm ? Gottenburg ? Norrkoping ? 6. Of Christiania?
and forest products. Bergen ? Hammerfest ? Of the fisheries of Norway?
--7. What is said of the extent of the Russian Em-
4 pire ? What does it include ? What is the title of the
Questions (I.) I. How many and what monarch? Of what race are most of the inhabitants?
empires in Europe? How many and what re- -8. What are the leading exports? With what
publics ? How many and what kingdoms? Which are absolute monarchies ? Which countries is most of the foreign trade ? -9. For what is St. Petersburg noted ? Mos-
are limited? What independent principality? What independent grand duchy? cow? Warsaw? Riga? Odessa ? Rybinsk? Astrakhan? Archangel?
2. What is the population of Europe ? In what part is most of it? Of what race ? (II.) I. What kingdoms in the German Empire ? In the Austrian ? What small
3. Where are Sweden and Norway? How does Norway compare with Sweden in republic in the Pyrenees ? What one in Italy ? What is said of them ?-2. What
size ? In surface ? In population? What political connection have they ? 4. How branches of the Caucasian race in Europe ? What religions ?




I. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
includes these two great islands and many neighboring
small ones; it has also extensive colonial possessions in
other parts of the world. The kingdom with its depend-
encies is generally called the British Empire.
The most important colonies are British America, Australia, Tas-
mania, New Zealand, British India, and. Ceylon. Among its other
possessions are Gibraltar, Malta, and Cyprus, in the Mediterra-
nean Sea ; South Africa ; parts of the east and west coasts of Afri-
ca, with St. Helena, Mauritius, and other African islands; many
of the West India Islands; and parts of Central and South America.

2. Occupations,- The chief wealth of Great Britain
is in its manufactures, mines, and extensive maritime

commerce. Agriculture is carried to a high degree of
perfection; in Ireland it is the leading occupation.
3. Minerals. The mines of Great Britain supply about
one fourth of the coal and iron used in the world, and a
large part of the salt, tin, lead, and copper.
4. Manufactures.- It surpasses every other country
of Europe in the amount and variety of manufactures. The
most important are of cotton, wool, and iron.
5. Commerce.- It has also a greater maritime com-
merce than any other nation.

It has at least 16,ooo merchant vessels, and more than 242,000.
seamen. They carry its manufactured products to every country
on the globe, and bring in return Iood and raw materials. A
large part of the food and two thirds of the raw cotton are ob-
tained from the United States, which takes in exchange a greater
quantity of manufactures than any other country. This commerce


is protected by the largest navy that has ever existed. Fortified
naval depots for coal and provisions have been established on
all the great routes of maritime trade. Among these are Gibraltar
at the entrance, Malta in the middle, and Cyprus in the eastern
part, of the Mediterranean Sea; St. Helena, Cape Town, and
Mauritius on the South African route, and Aden at the mouth of
the Red Sea; Singapore at one end of the China Sea, and Hong-
kong at the other; Port Kennedy on Torres Strait; Jamaica and
St. Vincent in the West Indies; Esquimault, Halifax, the Ber-
mudas, and the Bahamas near the coasts of the United States ;
with others in India and Australia, besides home depots.

Prime Minister is practically the real ruler of the empire ; if op-
posed by a majority of the House of Commons, he resigns, and
the sovereign appoints his successor.

7. London, the capital of the kingdom and of the em-
pire, is the most populous and wealthy city in the world;
it is also first in commercial importance; it covers 688
square miles. Liverpool has a very large foreign coin-
merce, especially with the United States; Manchester,
at the head of one of the largest ship canals in the world,

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i' ..,. -.,. .,- --

I It

i t __


'~' '

'~'~'' "'

The several countries of Europe, and in many instances parts of
the same country, differ widely in race, language, and religion.
There are also intense commercial and political rivalries. As
a result, mutual distrust and jealousy exist among the several
governments, and Europe has become one great camp. In a
time of professed peace, between three and four millions of sol-
diers stand ready for war, and the military service is so arranged
that this vast number of armed men can be more than doubled
at the outbreak of hostilities. Besides all this, great navies, that
of Great Britain being the most powerful, are ready to extend
upon the sea the destruction which may at any time begin upon
the land.
These enormous armaments axe maintained by a grinding taxation,
and, in many countries, by a merciless conscription that with-
draws millions of young men for years -from all productive in-
dustry. In consequence of this, in every part of Europe thou-
sands of women are obliged to work in the fields, and to engage
in other forms of the hardest and rudest labor. In contrast with
this state of affairs, the United States, though nearly equal in area
to all Europe, has but a comparatively small navy and an army
of moderate size, occupying various military departments.
6. Government. Great Britain is a constitutional
The Legislature, or Parliament, has two branches, the House of
Lords and the House of Commons. The members of the House
of Commons are elected by the people. The executive power
and the entire responsibility of the government are in the hands
of a small body of men called the Ministry ; they are appointed
by the sovereign, through the influence of the Commons. The

manufactures more cotton goods than any other city;
Leeds and Bradford are noted for woolen manufactures,
Shcffield for cutlery, Birmingham for general hardware,
Newcastle for coal. In Wales, Cardiff, Swansea, and
Merthyr Tydvil are the largest citie~s.
In Scotland, Glasgow is the latgcst city ; it is also the
leading manufacturing city and the chief seat of com-
merce and of iron shipbuilding. Edinburgh, the capital;
Dundee, which manufactures sailcloth and other coarse
fabrics; and Aberdeen, are important cities.
In Ireland, Dublin is the capital. Belfast, the largest
city, manufactures more linen goods than any other city in
the world. Cork and Limerick are also important: cities.
Questions (L.) i. What does the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
include ? What other possessions has it? What is meant by the British Empire?
- 2. In what does the chief wealth of Great Britain consist ? What is said of agri-
culture ? 3. Of the mines of Great Britain ? 4. Of the manufactures ? Name the
most important. 5. What is said. of the commerce ?.-- 6. Of the government 7.
What is said ofLondon? Liverpool? Manchester ? Leeds and Bradford ? Shef-
field ? Birmingham ? Newcastle ? Cardiff ? Swansea, Merthyr, Tydvil ? Glas-
gow? Edinburgh? Dundee? Aberdeen? Dublin? Belfast? Cork and Limerick?
(II.)-i Name the most important British colonies. What other possessions has
the United King~dom? 5. How many merchant vessels has Great Britain? H-ow
many seamen? Inwhat are they engaged? With what country is the chief trade?
How is the foreign commerce protected? HI-ow is the navy made effective Name
the depots. In what do the several countries of Europe differ ? What rivalries exist ?
What is the result ? What is said of the standing armies ? Of the navies ? What
country of Europe has the most powerful navy ?~ By what means are these armies and
navies maintained? W~lhat is the consequences What is said of the rmy and navy
of the United States ? 6. Describe the government of Great Britain,

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