Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Activities of the division
 Publications and documents
 Annex: Field project tables
 Back Cover

Group Title: Report on activities in ... (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Human Resources Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division.)
Title: Report on activities in 1990, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085096/00003
 Material Information
Title: Report on activities in 1990, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Series Title: Report on activities in ...
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Human Resources Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division.
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publication Date: 1990
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Bibliographic ID: UF00085096
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Activities of the division
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Publications and documents
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Annex: Field project tables
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Back Cover
        Page 50
Full Text


IN 1990


w/U 3399



IN 1990


ROME, 1991





of the Division.................................

Office of the Director (ESHD)...................
Field Projects..................................
World Food Day..................................

2. Rural Development Analysis and Organization
Service (ESHA)...................................

3. Agricultural Education and Extension Service

4. Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement Service
(ESHL) ..........................................

5. Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service (ESHW)......................

Publications and Documents.................................

ANNEX: Tables..............................................





In 1990 the Division had a total budget of US$ 9.67 million.

In addition to the posts of Director and four Service Chiefs,
ESH had staff positions for 49 professionals and 46 general service
staff, funded by the Regular Programme, Trust Funds and WFP support.
The actual staff situation at the end of December 1990 is given for
each unit in the text. A total of 124 field experts and consultants
were working for ESH in the field.

Dr. W.D. Maalouf continued to act as Officer-in-Charge of the
Division (official appointment effective from 1 February (DG Bulletin

Sixteen new staff members joined ESH during the year -
Mr. M. Lins took up the duties of Chief, ESHL, D-1; Mr. M. Bonnal,
Rural Development Officer P-5, Mr. B. Harms, Cooperatives/Rural
Organizations Officer, P-4, Mr. M. Nadir, Rural Development
Organizations Officer, P-4 and Ms. J. Dixon, Stenographer, G-3, joined
ESHA; in ESHW new staff members were: Ms. C.L. Koenradt, Home
Economics Officer, P-4, Ms. P. Howard-Borjas, Women's Programme
Officer, P-4, Ms. C.J. Drake, Women in Development APO, P-2,
Ms. C. Lucchiari-Disegna, Clerk-Stenographer, G-4, and Ms. S. Jones,
Stenographer, G-3; Mr. E.T. Valenzuela, Secretary, World Food Day,
P-4, Ms. M. Cioffi-Massimi, Clerk, G-2 and Mr. S. Anibaldi, Registry
Clerk G-2, joined ESHD; while in ESHE Mr. J.F. Cook, Project Officer,
P-3 (UNFPA Project INT/88/P98), Ms. I. Hennecken, APO (Rural Youth),
P-2, and Ms. E. Visser, Training/Extension APO, P-I joined the

Mr. O.A. Sabry retired from the post of Chief, ESHA, D-1,
Mr. H.K. Hoffmann, Senior Officer (Agricultural Education), P-5, ESHE,
also retired. The following staff members resigned: Ms. B. Madsen,
Women in Food Systems Officer, P-4 and Ms. M. Vink, Women, Population
and Development APO, P-2, both from ESHW. Ms. M. Sanguineti,
Bilingual Typist, left ESHL, and Mr. R. Adam, Rural Development
Organization APO, P-2, resigned from ESHA. Mr. R. Clark, Senior
Officer (Rural Development) P-5, ESHA, left for medical reasons and
the subsequent sad news of his death was learned with deep regret by
his friends and colleagues.

Mr. H. Meliczek was promoted to Chief, ESHA, D-l,
Ms. J. Dey-Abbas to Agrarian Reform and Rural Development Officer,
P-5, ESHD and Mr. G. Thareparambil to G-3, Clerk-Typist, ESHD.

Ms. M. Calisse, Bilingual Typist, G-3, transferred from ESHL
to ESHA; Ms. L. Colella-larussi, Clerk, G-4, from ESHD to ESHL and
Ms. L. lurilli-Pavoncello, Clerk-Typist, G-4, returned from leave
without pay, to a position in ESHD.



1. Office of the Director (ESHD)


W.D. Maalouf Officer-in-Charge
S. Serani Senior Officer (Programme and Planning)
D. Beloglavec Senior Liaison Officer (WFP)
J. Dey-Abbas Agrarian Reform and Rural Development Officer
L.W. Jacobson Human Resources Officer (Disability Matters)
E.T. Valenzuela Secretary, Advisory Committee on World Food Day
L. Ganci Executive Officer

Summary of Activities

As in previous years the Office of the Director undertook the
overall supervision and coordination of the work of the Division. It
coordinated cooperation with other Divisions of FAO and supported the
four Services in planning, programming, implementing and monitoring
programme activities. The Office also coordinated assistance to the
field programme.

A major activity of the Director's Office concerned the
preparation of the Third WCARRD Progress Report which will be
completed by June 1991 for submission to the FAO Conference in
November 1991. The report draws on data and analyses contained in
some 65 national WCARRD progress reports and a series of issues papers
on special topics as well as data bases available in FAO, the World
Bank and UNICEF. The main theme concerns trends and issues in rural
poverty in developing countries.

The Director's Office was also responsible for the Review of
FAO's and UN Agencies' Experiences in Implementing the WCARRD
Programme of Action which will be submitted to the 1991 FAO Conference
together with the Third WCARRD Progress Report. The review is being
undertaken by three consultants, in cooperation with the member
agencies of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development. It is based on
information received from FAO and the agencies, collected through a
questionnaire and supplemented during visits by the consultants to FAO
Headquarters and, accompanied by ESH staff, to 16 agencies, two FAO
regional offices and seven countries, five of which had received
inter-agency WCARRD policy missions. The review report will be
discussed at the nineteenth meeting of the ACC Task Force on Rural
Development in May 1991 before being finalized for submission to the
FAO Conference.

- 5 -

Since the ESH Director serves as Secretary of the ACC Task
Force on Rural Development, most of the preparations for the
eighteenth meeting of the Task Force (held in FAO HQ in May 1990) and
the advance preparations for the nineteenth meeting (to be held at
Habitat HQ, Nairobi, in May 1991) were coordinated through his Office.

The Office of the Director participated in a technical
meeting on the Evaluation of Rural Development Experiences in Africa
which took place in Addis Ababa from 9-12 January 1990. The
participants from eleven countries reviewed the proposed research
methodology and discussed the implementation of their respective
country studies.

The Office of the Director also participated in the 10th
Session of the FAO/ECE Working Party on Agrarian Structure and Farm
Rationalization which discussed "legislation and measures for solving
the environmental problems resulting from agricultural practices". It
was held in Wageningen in February.

Another main activity of the Director's Office was the
preparation and organization of the TCP Project "International
Colloquium on Agrarian Reform" which was held in Manila from 26-30
March 1990.

The Office was represented at the Meeting of Experts on
Alternative Ways to Mark the End of the United Nations Decade of
Disabled Persons, in JArvenpga, Finland, 7-11 May, the Fifth European
Regional Conference of Rehabilitation International "Into the
Nineties" in Dublin, 20-25 May, and the Eighth Inter-Agency Meeting on
the UN Decade of Disabled Persons in Vienna in early December.

The Officer-in-Charge of the Division is Chairman of the
Inter-Divisional Working Group on Education and Training and has also
chaired the last two meetings of the Inter-Departmental Working Group
on Women in Development. The Office of the Director was represented
in the Inter-Departmental Committee on SOFA, the Inter-Departmental
Working Groups on Environment and Sustainable Development,
Agroforestry, and Small Animals, the Inter-Divisional Working Group on
Dry Land Development, the ad hoc Working Groups on Climate Change, and
Energy, the Task Force on Biotechnology, the Remote Sensing and
Meteorological Data Users Committee, and the Working Group on Rome
Post-Adjustment. ESHD was also actively involved in preparatory work
for the FAO/Netherlands Conference on Agriculture and the Environment
to be held in the Netherlands in April 1991.

The Divisional Reference Unit continued to collect and
disseminate information on topics of relevance to the work of ESH.
The Reference Unit keeps documents prepared by ESH staff members and
supplies them to interested parties. The Unit also maintains a
collection of non-FAO documents on rural development and related
subjects. Access to them is made easy through the computerized ESH
Data Base and ESH Accession Lists.


Field Projects

During 1990 the Division provided field programme assistance
to rural development and related subjects through 591 projects. They
were funded by UNDP, TF, TCP or WFP.

In the course of the year, ESH made 199 assessments and
evaluations of curricula vitae for 85 experts and 114 consultants.
This led to the recruitment of 28 experts and 96 consultants. During
the reporting period the Division backstopped 121 experts and 152
consultants and it undertook 44 missions to field projects.

Of the total of 591 projects which have been backstopped by
the Division, 353 or 60 percent were funded by UNDP or TF (see Annex,
Table 1); 127 or 21 percent by TCP (see Annex, Table 2) and 111 or 19
percent by WFP (see Annex, Table 3).

The regional distribution was in favour of Africa with 291 or
49 percent of all projects backstopped, followed by Asia, with 23
percent, while the Near East and Latin America had a share of 13
percent and 14 percent respectively. About one percent of projects
were interregional.

About 11 percent of all projects were backstopped by more
than one Service. ESHE backstopped over 42 percent; ESHA 25.5
percent; ESHL about 9 percent and ESHW nearly 12 percent (see Annex,
Table 4).

World Food Day

World Food Day is observed every year on 16 October, the date
of the anniversary of the founding of FAO. The 1990 WFD observances
marked the 45th anniversary of FAO. The primary objectives of WFD are
to increase public awareness about world hunger and food issues and to
stimulate action at the local, national, regional and international
level in a global campaign with the goal that food for all should
become a human right for present and future generations.

In 1990, the Director-General selected "Food for the Future"
as the global WFD theme in order to continue the focus on the
importance of sustainability in global food production systems to the
survival of planet Earth.

In April, the Director-General's Advisory Committee on World
Food Day was reconstituted and for 1990, 13 meetings were held.
Further, six Task Forces were created, as follows:

Task Force on Headquarters Observance
Task Force on the Issues Paper
Task Force on Industrialized Countries Participation in WFD
Task Force on Developing Countries Participation in WFD
Task Force on NGO Participation in WFD
Task Force on Host Country Participation in WFD


The first two are ad hoc and the subsequent four are standing

The materials produced for WFD 1990 include the following:

the annual report of WFD activities for 1989;
the report of the Second Global Meeting on WFD, held in Rome
in November 1989;
an issues paper entitled "Food for the Future";
one issue of the WFD newsletter "Fighting Hunger" No. 5;
WFD poster, both in the official and non-official languages;
an informative brochure;
logo production kit;
correspondence stickers.

The Director-General's message to countries was prepared.
Inputs were also prepared to the statements delivered at the WFD
ceremony at the United Nations, New York.

WFD observances at country level were initiated in more than
140 member countries. Representatives of governments, NGOs, the UN
system, farmers' groups and the general public including schools and
colleges, participated in a wide range of activities such as seminars,
symposia, meetings, round-table discussions on the theme, study tours,
farm tours, field days at agricultural research stations or
agricultural schools, agricultural and food exhibitions and fairs,
contests for student essays and artwork, contests for agricultural
producers, publication of development information and educational
materials and fund-raising campaigns to support development projects.
In Italy, for example, a WFD football exhibition match was organized
which highlighted FAO's role in the fight against poverty,
malnutrition and hunger in the world. Other highly visible activities
in Italy included the Commune di Roma art exhibition "L'ottobrata
romana" and the book exhibit "L'uomo e l'acqua".

A major regional observance was organized by RLAC in Lima,
Peru, and a regional symposium was held in Bangkok, Thailand, by RAPA.
The first-ever regional observance in the Near East was organized by
RNEA in Ankara, Turkey, together with the adoption of the "Ankara
Declaration on Forestry and Environment".

International WFD observances were held at the FAO
Headquarters in Rome and the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
In Rome, the guest speakers included His Excellency Enrique Bar6n
Crespo, President of the European Parliament; His Excellency Senator
Giovanni Spadolini, President of the Italian Senate; and the Hon.
Tina Anselmi, on behalf of the Italian Governmental Committee on World
Food Day. In New York, the keynote speaker was Mr. E. de la Garza,
Chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on
Agriculture, who was joined at the podium by the U.N. Secretary
General, the President of ECOSOC and the representative of the
President of the General Assembly.

8 -

Increased staff involvement and participation was mobilized
in 1990 with particular reference to CASA, the Staff Cultural and
Social Association, with a special publication of the CASA Gazette,
and a sports morning for children of FAO staff.


2. The Rural Development Analysis and Organization Service



0. Monteza
J. Bonnal
B. Harms
M. Nadir
W.J. Polman
G. Giannini

Service Chief
Senior Officer (Employment and Manpower Planning)
Senior Officer (Rural Development Organization)
Senior Officer (Cooperatives and Rural
Agricultural Cooperatives Officer
Rural Development Analysis Officer
Cooperatives/Rural Organizations Officer
Rural Development Organizations Officer
Institutional Cooperation Officer
Employment and Manpower Planning Officer

Summary of Service Activities

The Service deals with issues of rural development,
cooperatives and other rural organizations, with the organization of
services for rural development, with delivery systems for small
farmers and with issues of rural employment. One main activity of
ESHA is the analysis of the causes and incidence of rural poverty.

In 1990 the Service was heavily engaged in the preparation of
the Third Progress Report on WCARRD Follow-up and the Review of the
Activities of FAO and other UN Agencies related to the WCARRD
Programme of Action. Both reports will be presented to the 1991 FAO
Conference. In addition ESHA has given special attention to the
social aspects of environment and prepared an issues paper on "The
Social and Institutional Prerequisites of Sustainable Agricultural and
Rural Development". This was discussed at the Preparatory Meeting for
the FAO/Netherlands International Conference on Agriculture and the
Environment held in Rome from 8-12 October. A revised version will be
presented by the Service at the conference, to be held in 1991, in the

The Service promotes people's participation in rural
development, assists governments and NGOs in establishing informal
organizations of the rural poor and collaborates with Non-Governmental
Organizations and International Trade Unions in rural development.
ESHA also serves as the focal point in FAO for supporting the Joint
Committee for the Promotion and Advancement of Cooperatives (COPAC)
which has its Secretariat at FAO Headquarters.

ESHA provides support to the ACC Task Force
Development which coordinates under the leadership of FAO the
activities of the UN system in rural development. The

on Rural

- 10 -

prepared and organized the Eighteenth Meeting of the Task Force which
took place in Rome 2-4 May, and participated in the meetings of its
subsidiaries, i.e. the Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation held in
Geneva, 9-10 April and the Panel on People's Participation held in
Geneva, 11-12 April. ESHA prepared the ACC Newsletter on Rural
Development no. 12.

The Service is composed of four Groups.
during 1990 can be summarized as follows:

Rural Development Analysis Group

Their activities

- The Group continued to provide assistance to member
governments in the planning, implementation, and evaluation
of rural development strategies and provided technical
supervision of rural development field projects.

- The Group provided secretariat services for the ACC Task
Force on Rural Development and organized its Eighteenth
Meeting which ,took place in Rome in May, including
preparation of session papers.

- The Group also prepared issue no. 12 of "Rural Development",
the Newsletter of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development.

- A major task of the group was the coordination of the work
for the preparation of the Third Progress Report on WCARRD
Follow-up, which will be presented to the FAO Conference in

- In its efforts to monitor and evaluate rural development
experiences, the Group participated in a joint FAO/JAFR
activity entitled Evaluation of Rural Development Experiences
in Africa (ERDEA) during which ten country case studies were

Cooperatives and Other Rural Organizations Group

- The Group emphasizes new perceptions concerning agricultural
cooperatives. These should be voluntary, self-managed and
self-financed people's organizations and focus on servicing
their members' needs. Activities have been oriented to
support agricultural cooperatives whose membership is wholly
or mainly composed of small farmers and to increase
involvement of rural women and youth in rural cooperatives.

- Due to a staff shortage in 1990, attention was centred mainly
on Latin America and the Carribean. Activities in this
region included: (a) assisting the Government of Honduras in
preparing a national plan for the development of
cooperatives; (b) assistance to ESHW on their women in
cooperatives programme in Honduras; and (c) collaboration
with ESHE on rural youth training in El Salvador, Guatemala,
Colombia, Brazil and Chile.

- 11 -

- Given the dearth of reliable, recent data on rural
cooperatives, the Group started to develop indicators to
measure the performance of cooperatives (in Asia) and the
role of cooperatives as facilitators of people's
participation (in Latin America). Letters of Agreement with
two NGOs (the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA) and
Organizaci6n de las Cooperativas de Am6rica (OCA)) have been
prepared, which should lead to improved data in 1991 on
agricultural cooperatives in 15-17 countries in Latin

The Group was engaged in preparing regional strategies for
FAO's work in the area of agricultural cooperatives. While
the process is presently more advanced in Latin America,
increased attention will be given to Africa and Asia in 1991.

The Group attended and participated in the Central Committee
Meeting of the International Cooperative Alliance held in
Madrid from 16 to 22 September.

It participated in the International Meeting on Cooperative
Education and Training, organized jointly by COPAC and the
Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs, which was held in
Manila, from 23 to 26 October.

The Group promoted People's Participation Projects through
technical backstopping missions to eight PPP countries
(Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, Swaziland, Lesotho, Sri Lanka,
Pakistan and Thailand).

- It published five PPP technical manuals and reviews including
an illustrated manual "Participation in practice" which was
given wide international distribution (over 2,500 copies
already distributed to FAO technical officers, FAO
Representatives, member governments, other UN agencies,
donors, etc.).

- The Group continued to publish a Newsletter entitled
"People's Participation News" which is distributed to all
project staff to keep them abreast of programme developments,
and prepared a special insert in the 1990 issue of the ACC
Task Force "Rural Development" Newsletter, entitled
"Participation in practice".

- A major activity of the Group was the preparation of a
detailed outline for an FAO-wide Plan of Action on People's
Participation in agricultural and rural development for
presentation at the FAO Conference in 1991.

- The Group continued its cooperation with the International
Trade Unions including IFPAAW, ICFTU, WCL, WFAFW, WFTU,
TUIAFPW, PAFATU and QATUU, and, in collaboration with FODP
and FAO Regional Offices, support to ITU/rural workers'
organizations in agriculture and agro-forestry.

- 12 -

As a follow-up to WCARRD, collaboration was maintained with
ANGOC, a regional NGO representing national NGO networks
active in agriculture, agrarian reform and rural development
in seven Asian countries.

Rural Development Organization Group

The Group is engaged in supporting national policies,
programmes and projects, in order to improve the organization
and management of institutions in support of rural
development. The Group's activities are integrated in a
larger programme articulated into the following two main
programme elements: (a) support to countries in institution
building and organization for rural development at different
levels; and (b) support to mechanisms for the delivery of
services and input supplies as a whole, particularly at the
grassroots level.

In this context the Group carried out six case studies on the
organization and management of agricultural services to small
farmers in Asia (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri
Lanka and Viet Nam). This series of case studies was realized
in collaboration with the Centre on Integrated Rural
Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) through its
network of national centres. In addition, in collaboration
with the University of the West Indies, the Group undertook
three case studies on the same subject in Grenada, Jamaica
and Trinidad and Tobago.

As follow-up activities to a previous series of similar case
studies undertaken in six Francophone and five Anglophone
African countries, the Group provided support for the
organization of two national workshops: (a) Organization and
Management of Agricultural Services for Small Farmers in
non-NALERP (National Agriculture and Livestock Extension
Rehabilitation Project) Regions, in Morogoro, Tanzania, in
May-June 1990, and (b) Organization and Management of
Agricultural Services for Groups of Small Farmers, in Lab6,
Guinea, May 1990.

The Group, through its regular programme activities and
technical support to field projects and programmes at
country/regional level, provided technical assistance to
member governments in promoting local capabilities to improve
the performance and administration of rural institutions and
services, through studies, workshops and training sessions.

The Group also provided advice on specific strategies and
policies to improve rural development organizations,
especially at grassroots level, through the introduction of
appropriate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and
participatory methodologies so as to assess the needs and
solve the recipients' problems.

- 13 -

- In addition, the Group provided technical support for
on-going field projects in the following countries: Algeria,
Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African
Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, C6te d'Ivoire,
Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea Bissau,
Lebanon, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Sao
Tom6 & Principe, Senegal, and Sudan.

The Group was engaged in structural adjustment programmes,
which stress the need for better institutional organization
to improve the performance of the rural sector and reduce
operating costs. Within this framewok, the Group fielded
missions to advise various governments on how to improve
rural institutions at different levels (Benin, Cape Verde,
C6te d'Ivoire, Guinea, Lebanon, and Mozambique). Based on the
results of this work, close collaboration was established
with the World Bank, which appreciated the Group's approach
and methodology for institutional restructuring and
reorganization, originally developed in Benin under projects
TCP/BEN/6755 and BEN/87/024.

With the collaboration of AGO and DDF Divisions, the Group
was technically responsible for the execution of World Bank-
funded project UTF/BEN/050/BEN "Study on the Reorganization/
Restructuring of the Central Services of Minagri". The
conclusions of the study were endorsed by the Government of
Benin and the World Bank and led to the formulation of a
large-scale project "Support to the Agricultural Services" in
Benin. The first phase of this project is foreseen for a
period of three years with a budget amounting to
US$ 20 million.

- Based on the above mentioned experience, and in collaboration
with DDF and the Agriculture, Occidental and Central African
Department of the World Bank, closer collaboration was
established between the two Organizations for the preparation
and implementation of a specific programme to be undertaken
at national level in West and Central Africa. The Benin model
is scheduled to be applied to the Central African Republic,
Guinea, Togo and other countries.

- Based on previous experiences in the implementation of
integrated rural development projects at district/regional
level in Benin and Niger, the Group participated in the
formulation of similar projects in Burkina Faso and Burundi.
The inputs to these projects constituted investment and
equipment, provided by UNCDF, and technical assistance
provided by FAD under UNDP funds.

- A network of specific rural development projects is being
operated by the Group in collaboration with DDF (at the
project formulation stage) and AGO (for project
implementation) in Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Madagascar
and Niger. These projects are oriented toward the

- 14 -

introduction of a new approach to rural development, based on
a "holistic and participatory rural development methodology".

In order to maximize the impact of the above mentioned
activities and contributions and better integrate them in the
general FAO delivery, the Group has increased its
collaboration with other divisions and units of FAO. It is
proposed to promote an internal common technical
understanding of the issues involved and hence to develop,
within FAO, an innovative rural development approach based on
this new methodology. The Group has tried to promote
horizontal coordination of interventions of all elements
involved in the rural development process.

Employment and Manpower Planning Group

The main objective of the work of this small Group is the
promotion of projects and programmes for the creation of
gainful employment and income redistribution in favour of the
most marginalized rural groups, which are identified as rural
migrants, nomadic pastoralists and landless workers.

The Group deals with the assessment of manpower needs for
agricultural and rural development and provides technical
advice in this field. Technical advice and assistance is
provided in carrying out surveys on trained manpower
resources in the agricultural/rural sector.

Methodological work on manpower planning for rural
development led to the completion of a study on manpower
planning for the fisheries sector.

A series of studies has been initiated on the socio-economic
aspects of the traditional "Hema" system of arid land
management with emphasis on land tenure, access to resources,
migration and employment by different social groups in the
pastoral community in selected countries. The employment
situation of pastoralists was discussed at an International
Workshop which was organized by the Group and held in
Mongolia in September.

The Group is conducting a study on technological change in
agro-processing and its impact on women's employment with a
view to developing a viable strategy and guidelines for
future FAO action in this area.

- 15 -

3. Agricultural Education and Extension Service (ESHE)


W.D. Maalouf

H.K.F. Hoffmann

T.E. Contado

A.M. El Zoobi
W. Lindley

R. Adhikarya

N. Doron
P. Gence
J. Jallade
R. Poudevigne
E. Baier

J.F. Cook
I. Hennecken
E. Visser

Service Chief (served as Officer-in-Charge of
ESH Division throughout 1990)
Senior Officer (Agricultural Education)
(Acting for the Service Chief until
retirement in August 1990)
Senior Officer (Agricultural Training and
Extension) (Acting for the Service Chief
since September 1990)
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
(Rural Youth)
Agricultural Extension Education and Training
Methodology Specialist
Agricultural Education Officer
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Education Officer
Population Education Officer, UNFPA Project
INT/88/P28 (posted at HQ)
Project Officer, UNFPA Project, INT/88/P98
Associate Professional Officer (Rural Youth)
Associate Professional Officer (Extension)

Summary of Service Activities

Within the framework of FAO's active technical support to
member countries' agricultural and rural development programmes, the
service activities were carried out under two basic programme areas -
one dealing with formal agricultural education (at the certificate,
diploma, degree and post-graduate level) and the other addressing
issues related to non-formal agricultural education and training of
farming populations through agricultural extension. The extension
emphasis was placed on providing advisory services, technical
assistance and training to improve the coverage and effectiveness of
agricultural extension services for human resources development and
enhance appropriate technology transfer in farming, particularly among
the large number of small-scale men, women and young farmers.

Specifically, ESHE activities included a number of items
which focused on better agricultural extension services for rural
women, an increased emphasis on population factors in agricultural and
rural development, and a more comprehensive approach to strengthening
programmes for rural youth and young farmers. ESHE's field programme
in 1990 assisted in at least 105 countries where activities either
concentrated directly upon agricultural extension or included training
and educational components which addressed technical issues ranging
from food production to animal husbandry to sericulture. ESHE
officers provided technical backstopping in the areas related to

- 16 -

extension and training in at least 211 field projects and regular
programme activities and technically supervised more than 105 field
experts, 82 consultants, and 32 contracts. This technical assistance
activity was complemented and reinforced through training workshops,
seminars, project formulation and design, development and field
testing of agricultural education and extension instructional
materials and teaching aids. Africa and the problems related to food
self-sufficiency in the least developed countries continued to be a
high priority in all service activities.

At the request of member countries, ESHE was involved in the
identification and development of at least 26 new or reformulated
projects, either entirely devoted to agricultural education, extension
and/or training, or with significant components in these fields.
These projects had a value of approximately US$ 23 million.


1. Strengthening Agricultural Education in Developing Countries

In line with FAO's main agricultural education objectives
to assist member countries in building efficient institutions, capable
of undertaking the important task of preparing national personnel to
plan and implement agricultural and rural development, various studies
and assessment activities were conducted during 1990.

(a) Case Studies on Higher Agricultural Education

In order to examine current and contemplated approaches of
institutional variations (such as organization, enrolment, resource
base, finance, curriculum, planning, research, extension, and external
linkages) case studies of 21 agricultural institutions were
commissioned in late 1989 and early 1990. These studies were carried
out in Africa (4), Asia (4), Latin and North America (5), the Near
East (2) and Europe (5). This detailed and comparable information, as
well as the rich data base on current and likely future options,
together with material from other sources, are being used in the
preparation of the working paper to be presented at the Expert
Consultation on "Strategy Options for Higher Agricultural Education"
scheduled for 1991.

(b) Round Tables on Strategies for Agricultural Education and

Under ESHE's Regular Programme Plan of Work and within the
context of FAO's leadership role in the elaboration and implementation
of strategies for strengthening agricultural education and training in
developing countries, a programme of four regional round table
discussions is being implemented. Two round tables were held in 1990.
The first one, organized for Asia and the Pacific, was attended by 36
resource persons from 13 countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Guam,
India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (Republic of), Malaysia, Myanmar,
Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand) and two regional organizations (the

- 17 -

Asian Association of Agricultural Colleges and Universities (AAACU)
and the Southeast Asian Regional Centre for Graduate Studies and
Research in Agriculture (SEARCA)). A second round table for
French-speaking West and Central Africa was held in Ouagadougou
(Burkina Faso) with the participation of 26 resource persons from 8
countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger,
Senegal, Togo). Also attending were participants from three regional
institutions (Ecole Inter-Etats d'Ingenieurs de l'Equipement Rural,
West African Economic Community, Pan African Institute for

Preparatory work for the round tables included the
development of comprehensive documents examining the status and
prospects of agricultural education development in selected countries
as well as papers on specific relevant subject matter areas in each
region. Discussion for both meetings highlighted the necessity of
designing and implementing policies and programmes aimed at the
rational utilization of trained agricultural manpower. Participants
felt that full utilization of the development potential of educational
institutions should be pursued. Formal teaching programmes and also
direct participation in rural development field activities, should
take into consideration factors which stimulate regional/sub-regional

2. Implementation of Policies for Agricultural Education and

Activities related to the implementation of policies which
stress the relevancy of instructional development programmes and
institutional sustainability have progressed well. Enhancing the
quality of training through improved curricula, the adoption of
up-to-date educational methodologies and better preparation of
agricultural teachers, has been given high priority.

In 1990, ESHE staff and agricultural education consultants
assisted with planning and developing training curricula in
Afghanistan, Argentina, Central African Republic, Colombia, Niger,
Mongolia and China. Educational administration, teaching methodology
and instructional technology were included in project activity in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines, Cape Verde, Angola, India and Sudan.

ESHE also supported four national workshops on curriculum
design and strengthening the technical competence of training
personnel in Benin, Chad, Sudan and Syria.

In addition, ESHE organized a training workshop in Angola,
with participants from Lusophone countries in Africa (Angola, Cape
Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe) The workshop
was designed for teachers, trainers and directors of agricultural and
rural education and training institutions on curriculum design and

- 18 -

3. Integration of Population Education into Agricultural
Education and Training Programmes

Since 1989 ESHE has been providing technical inputs and
leadership in matters related to curriculum development, on-the-job
training of staff and training materials production for a UNFPA-funded
project on the "Integration of Population/Family Life Education into
Agricultural Education and Training Programmes" in Ethiopia. A first
course on Population Education conducted at Ambo College of
Agriculture was attended by 93 students. The course, developed
through the project, was aimed at equipping students with knowledge,
understanding and skills that will enable them to assist in population
education programmes and decide on effective courses of action to help
address issues related to rapid population growth. It is foreseen
that the course will be repeated at other Colleges of Agriculture.
Alemaya University of Agriculture is planning to introduce Population
Education within its four-year agricultural degree programme. In
addition to this project, ESHE is planning to provide technical
assistance in an interregional project which will integrate population
education into various disciplines at the university level.


Emphasis has been placed on activities aimed at strengthening
the institutional capacity of Agricultural Extension Services in
meeting the needs of small-scale farmers in the least developed
countries. Projects related to improving extension approaches and
management, more effective in-service training, developing better
extension methods of communication, research/extension/farm linkages
and the production of appropriate extension publications have been
given high priority. Training and project formulation activities
continue to stress the importance of participatory extension services
that meet the needs of farmers in an efficient, cost effective and
sustainable manner.

1. Promoting Low-Cost and Participatory Extension Campaigns

In 1990, ESHE continued in providing assistance to many
member countries in the development and application of the Strategic
Extension Campaign (SEC) methodology and the training of extension
staff in SEC, especially in African countries. In Africa, SEC
activities have been carried out in different countries (Burundi,
Rwanda, Liberia, etc.) with extension campaign topics as varied as
treatment of seeds, protection of cattle, seeding in line.

During this period, action was oriented on two major

a) The preparation of a translated and adapted version of the
SEC training materials for African francophone countries
interested in the adoption of SEC or Campagne Intensive de
Vulgarisation pour l'Introduction d'un Theme (CIVIT) in

- 19 -

b) The training of a group of resource persons cum trainers in
countries which plan to use the SEC or CIVIT methodology in
order to initiate a horizontal cooperation programme among
them. In this regard, a regional workshop on CIVIT
methodology was conducted in Morocco.

This workshop was funded by the FAO regular programme with
the participation of UNDP, World, Bank, FED, CCCE, and
different Governments. It assembled extension experts from
ten countries where FAO is involved at national level in
extension projects (Algeria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Guinea,
Madagascar, Mauritania, Morocco, Rwanda, Togo and Zaire).
As a result of the workshop, most participating countries
decided to initiate CIVIT activities. For instance Guinea
will start with three campaigns in early 1991. Several
technicians from other countries will participate as

SEC is based on a participatory problem identification and
solution process, regarding the non-adoption, by farmers, of a
recommended technology or innovation. The key components of the SEC
activities include (i) a farmer's Knowledge, Attitude and Practice
(KAP) survey, whose results are used as strategic extension campaign
planning inputs and as bench-mark/baseline for summative/impact
evaluation purposes; and (ii) a series of practical, hands-on
workshops to train cadres of extension/training personnel, including
subject matter design/positioning, low-cost, multi-media materials
development, packaging, protesting and production, (iii) campaign
management planning, (iv) multi-media and multi-channel extension
campaign management and (v) monitoring and evaluation.

Various skill-development workshops on the SEC process,
methodology and evaluation have been conducted by ESHE staff and/or
consultants for participants in those countries implementing SEC
activities. Empirical evaluation studies (using information recall
and impact surveys and focus group interviews) of SEC activities have
been conducted in many countries and they have shown significant
positive changes in farmers' knowledge, attitude and practice
vis-a-vis the recommended technologies.

To facilitate more rapid and cost-effective replication of
SEC activities in many countries with a high degree of
quality-control, ESHE has initiated activities in developing and
packaging standardized SEC instructional/training modules for use by
ESHE staff/consultants in training of trainers activities on SEC
methodology techniques.

A training module (30 instructional hours for a six day
workshop) on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) Survey Planning
and Implementation is being developed by ESHE and will be available in
August 1991.

- 20 -

2. Training Curriculum Development and Instructional Modules

In the area of training methodology, ESHE made significant
contributions, especially in assisting member countries and/or field
projects, with curriculum design and instructional module development
for training of field extension workers. In 1990, ESHE staff and
expert/consultants assisted various field activities (in China
(CPR/88/067), Solomon Islands (TCP/SOI/8852), Indonesia
(UTF/INS/067/INS), Cook Islands (TCP/CKI/8953), Ethiopia (ETH/85/016))
in conducting training needs assessment, developing extension training
curricula, and instructional modules with a variety of

The first draft of the Trainer's Guide to Curriculum
Development was completed, and the prototype version (for protesting)
will be finalized by April 1991. The Guide provides step-by-step
guidelines and suggestions for planning a --aeveloping a non-formal
education training course. The prototype version of the Guide will be
pretested in the summer of 1991, and the revised and final version
will be ready for printing at the end of 1991.

3. Integration of Population Education into Agricultural
Extension Services

Since 1986, ESHE has been operating a UNFPA-funded project on
"Strategic Integration of Population Education into the Agricultural
Extension Services". Significant progress has been made in
implementing the pilot activities in eight countries during 1990.
Baseline surveys have been conducted in these participating countries
to determine population education needs and relevant messages which
need to be incorporated into agricultural extension activities.
Specific follow-up activities will include a series of workshops on
strategy development, message design, materials development and
training for trainers and agricultural extension workers. So far,
workshops on strategy development, message design and materials
development have been conducted in all the participating countries,
except Rwanda (due to political/security problems). PEDAEX extension
and training materials are being produced in seven countries
(Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Morocco, Tunisia and Thailand).

In addition to this interregional project, ESHE has continued
to provide, since 1988, technical assistance to various national
projects which integrate population education into agricultural
extension services, such as those in Uganda, the Philippines and

4. Inter-Departmental Working Group on Training (IDWGT)

ESHE continues to act as the Secretariat of the IDWGT. Its
25th meeting was held in June 1990, and discussed, among others, the
report of the FAO's Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension held
in December 1989, and the proposal for preparing an FAO Perspective
and Policy Paper on Agricultural Extension. ESHE also produced in

- 21 -

1990 a practical booklet entitled Make Learning Easier: A Guide for
Developing Educational/Traiing Materials, based on the results of the
Review of FAO's Educational and Training Publications, which was part
of IDWGT activities.

Another ESHE publication Improving Training Quality: A
Trainer's Guide to Evaluation, also part of the IDWGT activities, was
completed in 1990. This publication was based on the protesting
results of its original version A Trainer's Guide to Evaluation. The
Guide was systematically pretested during 1990 for its relevance,
format, presentation, appropriateness and readibility, by field
trainers in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, China, Bangladesh and the
Philippines. The revised version, Improving Training Quality, will be
printed in early 1991, and a French version will be made available by
mid/late 1991.

Within the framework of IDWGT, ESHE undertook the collection
and analysis of data on FAO training activities in 1989. This
activity showed that in 1989 FAO was instrumental in training 105,157
persons in 1910 training activities in 480 projects. 29 percent of
the participants were women. This is a 9 percent increase over 1987.

5. Micro-Computer Applications for Agricultural Extension,
Education and Training

A new ESHE programme on micro-computer applications (MCA) to
support agricultural extension, education and training activities was
started in 1990. The first part of the programme consisted of
preparatory studies: (a) the Potential of MCA for Agricultural
Extension, Education, and Training, and (b) an Inventory-Analysis of
MCA in Agricultural Extension, Education, and Training. In addition,
process documentation (both in the form of written reports and video
briefs) of actual FAO projects which have utilized micro-computers to
support their agricultural extension, education, and training
activities are also being prepared.

As a result of the above mentioned studies and process
documentation, the MCA know-how will be "mapped-out", to identify "who
has done what with what results; what are the lessons learned from
such experiences and what are the priority areas for future actions".
Based on such information, a Sourcebook on Micro-Computer
Technologies: Practical Applications for Agricultural Extension,
Education and Training will be prepared. In addition, through ESHE
supported field projects, practical demonstration activities and/or
workshops on micro-computer applications for specific extension,
education or training activities have been undertaken, such as for
desk-top publishing in Zimbabwe (ZIM/88/009), for computer-based
planning for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Training in the
Philippines (GCP/RAS/101/NET), and for extension materials development
and training monitoring/management in Indonesia (UTF/INS/067/INS).

- 22 -


It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be over one
billion youth between the ages of 15 and 24. Nearly 85 percent of
them will be from low income countries where there are already food
shortages, massive rural-to-urban migrations; inadequate housing,
health care and education; and high rates of unemployment. It is
estimated that the youth populations of Africa, Asia and Latin America
will almost double between 1985 and the end of this century. The two
global issues which stand out most significantly are the increasing
numbers of youth and lack of educational and employment opportunities
open to rural young men and women. High drop-out rates, low standards
of instruction, and increasing numbers place rural youth and young
farmers at a distinct disadvantage when compared to their urban

Emphasis is being placed on working with governments and
non-government organizations to support training programmes, promote
leadership development and establish income generating activities that
promote self-reliance and entrepreneurial activities in the rural
areas. A pattern of response to government requests regarding youth
has evolved in which the situation and needs of rural youth and young
farmers are clearly defined. A workshop is then held to discuss the
situation and a plan of action is adopted. Technical assistance may
subsequently be provided through projects aimed specifically at youth
or through more comprehensive projects which may have a youth

At present, ESHE activities include assistance in project
formulation and advice on rural youth programmes in Burkina Faso,
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Comores, Congo, C8te d'Ivoire, Guatemala,
Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Panama, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone,
Sri Lanka, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. They also include regular
programme field projects with rural youth and young farmer components.
Agricultural extension services are also encouraged to emphasize
programmes for rural youth and young farmers. Extension services with
their network of field workers have enormous potential for working
with youth who are far from industrial centres and capital cities.

1. Integration of Population Education into Programmes for Rural
Youth and Young Farmers

The negative effect of rapid population growth on sustainable
agricultural production, the environment, the conservation of natural
resources, educational and employment opportunities and nutrition is
increasingly recognized both internationally and nationally. For this
concern to have an effect at the village level, population education
becomes a necessary part of rural development activities especially
for young people who are about to enter their childbearing years.
Many countries have recently begun to introduce population education
into school programmes. However, in many developing countries, the
majority of rural youth drop out of the educational system before they
have a chance to study population issues.

- 23 -

A UNFPA sponsored project (INT/88/P98) designed to integrate
population education into programmes for rural youth and young farmers
is an attempt to deal with the problem by introducing population
education into activities of existing youth groups in low income
countries. Through the project, a set of leaders' guide booklets have
been prepared for the leaders of youth groups. The English language
version of the eleven booklets and accompanying materials has been
field tested in East Africa and the Spanish versions in Latin America
with very positive results. French versions adapted for West Africa
are currently being field tested in Senegal and Burkina Faso.

During this year, the field test results from Sierra Leone
and Zimbabwe were also evaluated and the comments incorporated into a
revised set of leaders' guides. The number and quality of the
illustrations has also been increased following requests from the
field. These revised guides are to be printed shortly and will then
be made available for widespread use. The Sierra Leone government has
since made a request for a follow-up project to introduce the
materials nationally and many other countries throughout Africa have
expressed an interest in the project approach and materials. Project
activities will begin in the Asia-Pacific region in January 1991.

2. International Seminar on the Promotion of Rural Youth Work

The 15th International Seminar on the promotion of Rural
Youth Work was held in July in Herrsching, Germany. FAO has
participated in this unique seminar for many years and invitations are
distributed to member governments through the FAO representation in
each country.


Agricultural Education and Extension Missions

During 1990, ESHE missions related to direct advisory service, field
programme monitoring, and technical backstopping took staff to 34
countries. In addition, eight other missions were undertaken, devoted
to monitoring round tables, conducting training workshops and
attending technical meetings. ESHE staff provided technical support
and advisory service to 187 experts and consultants in 1990. Nineteen
publications/reports were prepared. The publications are useful in
direct advisory activities and in technical backstopping support to
projects (see list of publications at the end of this report).


The Inter-Secretariat Working Group (ISWG) on Agricultural
Education is made up of FAO, ILO and UNESCO with other organizations
such as the World Bank participating on a regular basis. Issues such
as the collaborative roles which can be played by organizations in
addressing formal and non-formal agricultural training programmes were
discussed in the 1990 meeting in Paris.

- 24 -

The Inter-Secretariat Working Group (ISWG) on Youth includes
all United Nations Specialized Agencies which have programmes or
activities directed toward young men and women from 15-24 years of
age. FAO with its emphasis on issues related to agriculture plays an
active role in drawing attention to the situation and needs of young
farmers and other youth in the rural areas. During the past year, FAO
prepared a report of activities related to rural youth and young
farmers carried out by specialized agencies.

During 1990, ESHE's collaboration with the World Bank on
agricultural extension took the form of joint missions to Zaire,
Congo, Chad and Guinea, joint advisory activities in Tunisia and
Uganda, project formulation in China and Sri Lanka and training World
Bank field staff from Burundi and Zaire on Strategic Extension
Campaigns. As in 1989, ESHE continued its joint activities on the
extension and training aspects of insect vector control with WHO and
UNEP. For the first time, the Service has had some collaboration with
Unesco, UNEP and UNCED in the area of Environmental Education and
Information for Development. In the field of Agricultural Education,
the Service worked closely with the Southeast Asia Regional Centre for
Graduate Studies and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) and the Asian
Association of Agricultural Colleges and Universities (AAACU) in the
organization of a Regional Round Table on Strategies for Agricultural
Education and Training in Asia and the Pacific.

- 25 -

List of Countries Assisted by ESHE in 1990





























Sub-total 20












- 26 -

4. The Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement Service (ESHL)


M. Lins Service Chief
T.C. Varghese Senior Officer (Land Tenure and Settlement)
J.C. Riddell Senior Officer (Land Tenure and Settlement)
M. Dravi Senior Officer (Land Tenure and Settlement)
A. Herrera Garibay Land Tenure and Settlement Officer

Summary of Service Activities

1. Inter-Agency Missions

Two Inter-Agency Missions took place during 1990 in the Latin
America and Caribbean region, one to Suriname, and another to
Paraguay, both led by Mr. R. Moreno, ADG, RLAC. They were carried out
during March and April 1990 respectively. Their main objectives were
to review, analyse and propose changes to strengthen the agrarian
reform and rural development policies and strategies now being
implemented by the Governments within the overall context of rural
development and existing development plans; as well as, in agreement
with the Government priorities, identify areas for possible technical
and financial aid from the United Nations system.

Another Inter-Agency Mission which took place in 1990 was to
Madagascar. The mission, which was led by Mr. R.T. N'Daw, ADG, RAFR,
consisted of 20 officials representing ILO, IFAD, UNFPA, WFP, UNDP,
UNEP, UNICEF and FAO. It worked in close collaboration with a locally
constituted interministerial committee and provided policy guidelines
following detailed discussions with Malagasy Ministers and their
advisers, representatives of technical cooperation agencies as well as
local NGOs.

2. Technical Missions

Other technical missions were fielded to Burundi, Mauritius
and Seychelles to brief local authorities on the future programme
activities of the Service, to plan and to negotiate details as well as
to involve local institutions in programme implementation.

Participation in an Investment Centre mission to Guinea
Bissau was requested, to assess the land tenure situation and land

At the request of the Government a mission was sent to
Namibia to discuss the land question. The mission formulated
technical proposals on the planned National Land Conference to be held
in June 1991. A Letter of Agreement was signed between FAO and the
Ministry of Lands, Resettlement and Rehabilitation.

- 27 -

3. Studies

During 1990, ESHL elaborated, as a follow-up of the
recommendations of the fifth Government Consultation held in Guatemala
in August 1989, three studies on the role of NGOs in rural development
and agrarian reform, in three different countries: Costa Rica,
Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica. The objective of the studies was to
know which are the NGOs working in rural development and agrarian
reform, analyze their experience and methodologies, and recommend
possible ways of NGO-Government joint activities.

For the preparation of an International Forum on Agrarian
Reform requested by the Government of Brazil, ESHL prepared four
studies on different issues of agrarian reform that could be applied
to the case of Brazil. The studies referred to: Land Policies in an
Agrarian Reform Process; Agricultural Modernization in Agrarian
Reform, the Organization and Participation of Small Farmers in
Agrarian Reform; Cooperatives in Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement
Processes in Brazil.

ESHL is undertaking research on land tenure and production
organization of agriculture in the centrally planned countries of
Asia. Research contracts have been made with China and Vietnam; with
the completion of studies in both these countries and also in Laos and
Cambodia a workshop will be organized to discuss the salient features
of the structural changes.

ESHL is undertaking follow-up action with developing
countries in monitoring and evaluation of agrarian reform and rural
development. Joint work has been undertaken with the Centre on
Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) for
institutionalizing the monitoring and evaluation mechanism of the
countries of Asia and the Pacific.

ESHL carried out promotional activities in TCDC in the field
of institutional development. A lot of scope exists in these
activities relating to rural development.

A closely related phenomenon in land tenure change,
associated with policy support for a move to a market economy, is the
nature of land transfers. There is room for considerable policy
involvement in land markets to ensure fairness of access and
achievement of agrarian reform goals. The empirical nature of
existing land markets (both formal and informal) to be supported and
protected by a national cadastre and land registry is, unfortunately,
less well studied. The Service completed three field studies to date
in Mauritania, Sudan and Tunisia, the results of which will also be
shared with colleagues during an Expert Consultation with the support
of RNEA to be held in the last quarter of 1991. It is foreseen that
studies on the working of land exchanges will include other regions,
leading to a technical monograph.

- 28 -

In Africa, ESHL identified two main programme priorities and
initiated preparatory operations. The first programme concerns
"Communal Property Resources: Policies and Prospects" with special
reference to land. A series of country studies has been started in
association with national research institutions in Ghana, Nigeria,
Swaziland and Zambia as core case studies. Under ESHL supervision, a
Regional workshop on this subject is being organized by an African
institution in order to give the opportunity to both government policy
makers and scholars from various countries in Africa to compare and
exchange their respective professional experiences and scientific
findings in this complex area. Seven English speaking and eight
French speaking countries have been invited to attend this workshop.

The second programme element addresses "Agrarian Policies in
Land Deficient Countries". Pilot study countries are: Burundi,
Gambia, Mauritius and Seychelles. Once again, ESHL has entrusted the
responsibility to organize and convene a workshop on this subject to
CIRDAFRICA, the African Regional Centre for Integrated Rural

The Service activity has continued in land tenure issues
associated with arid land development. In April a Workshop on Post
Drought Adjustments in the Horn of Africa was held at the National
Somali University in Mogadishu. The results of this workshop and some
of the key research papers presented are in press. The lessons that
are being learned and the conclusions drawn all point in the same
direction: maximization of production combined with minimum
environmental degradation is associated with strong support for local
level land tenure institutions controlling access and use of fragile
resources. Therefore, the Service has continued its active
participation in the Division's support for research on Hema, a
traditional set of land tenure institutions found in the Near East.
The Division is planning a Hema workshop mid-1991.

With other members of the Division, the Service has helped
colleagues in the Soviet Union learn more about the capabilities of
FAO to advise on land tenure matters. This Divisional participation
will continue in 1991 in concert with LEG during a proposed Land Law
Seminar to be organized in Moscow.

4. Workshops and Round Tables

ESHL has started preparatory work together with the FAO
Representation in Jamaica and UNDP Jamaica for a Round Table on the
Role of NGOs in Rural Development and Agrarian Reform in Jamaica. The
Round Table will be held in Kingston in April 1991. Its objective is
to promote a tripartite dialogue between Government, NGOs and
FAO/UNDP, in order to identify concrete ways and means for
Government-NGO joint activities in the area of rural development.

A successful Divisional training workshop was held in
Mongolia in September where experts from Africa, the Near East and
Asia were able to examine in situ Mongolia's innovative use of
cooperatives as local level land tenure institutions. One conclusion

- 29 -

of the Mongolia workshop was that a similar exercise should be
organized in Africa in 1992. The Service has been cooperating with
the Division in achieving this goal.

The Service plans to hold an Expert Consultation with the
support of RNEA on Computer Applications to Land Registration and the
Cadastre with land registry and cadastre experts from Near Eastern
countries in the last quarter of 1991. In addition to papers
commissioned from international experts outside the region, studies by
leading national specialists on country experience with land
registration and the cadastre as a tool in rural development and
agrarian reform have been initiated in Egypt, Syria and Tunisia.
These studies will be presented at the above expert consultation.

5. Projects

COL/88/012 "Cooperation to the Agrarian Reform Process, Rural
Development and Agricultural Marketing"

A backstopping mission was carried out by ESHL to the project
in May 1990. At that time, the proposal for a follow-up project was
discussed. Presently, UNDP has agreed to extend the project in 1991,
until the follow-up one can be initiated in 1992.

ECU/89/007 "Rural Development with Emphasis on the Small

The main backstopping of this project during 1990 was
concentrated in the selection of the project experts.

BRA/87/022 "Cooperation in the Implementation of the Agrarian
Reform Plan"

Within the framework of this project, the Government of
Brazil requested FAO to organize an International Forum on Agrarian
Reform. ESHL undertook two missions for the organization of the
event; carried out four studies that would serve as discussion
papers; and invited people from countries with relevant experiences
in Agrarian Reform to prepare a contribution to the Forum.

TCP/TRI/0051 "Land Use Development"

The Service has been assisting Trinidad and Tobago reorganize
every aspect of its management of land tenure on state lands. This
will probably be a continuing effort in collaboration with a major
development bank that will involve the entire land base of the

Other projects which were supervised by the Service are the

GHA/85/001 "Settlement of the Onchofreed Zones in Northern
Ghana"; ZIM/88/002 "Support to Communal Lands ReorganiZation and

- 30 -

Resettlement Programme"; NIR/87/030 "Livestock Development in Grazing
Reserves"; TCP/TOG/8852 "Assistance A la reforme agro-fonciere et &
1' installation des jeunes agriculteurs"; MLI/89/003 "Elaboration d'un
sch6ma directeur et d'un programme d'investissement pour le secteur
rural"; LES/87/001 "Integrated rural development in Thabana Morena".

Assistance was provided to the land settlement programmes in
Sri Lanka and agrarian reform measures in the Philippines. In
addition to the TCP and UNDP financed projects FAO is executing a
large scale Italian financed project entitled "Technical Support to
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development"(GCP/PHI/040/ITA).

The Service participated in appraising land tenure and
settlement issues in the WFP funded project IND 2600 "Indira Ghandi
Canal Irrigation Settlement Project".

6. Assistance to WCARRD Follow-up Activities

The Service continued to involve itself in WCARRD follow-up.
The main activity was assisting in the preparation of the Third
Progress Report on WCARRD Follow-up. Staff prepared documents for use
by the Review Team consultants and accompanied them in their trips to
countries and other UN Agencies.

- 31 -

5. Women in Agricultural Production and
Rural Development Service (ESHW)


A. Spring Service Chief
S. Erozer Senior Officer (Women in Food Systems)
M.J. Mermillod Senior Officer (Home Economics)
M. Randriamamonjy Senior Officer (Women in Development)
C.L. Koenradt Home Economics Officer
P. Howard-Borjas Women in Development Officer
C. Drake Women in'Development Officer (APO)

Summary of Service Activities

Priority 1 Gender Analysis Training

At FAO Headquarters, 17 Gender Analysis Workshops were held,
including two pilot workshops. In addition four workshops were held
at the FAO Regional Offices, two in Santiago, Chile (in Spanish) and
two in Bangkok. Of the 17 workshops held at Headquarters, fifteen
were held in English and two in Spanish.

Staff participation at FAO Headquarters numbered 231
Professionals, i.e., 29% of the regular FAO Professional staff.
An additional 17 Headquarters Professionals, who are not currently
included in the PERSYS list for diverse reasons (mainly due to
termination of contracts), also participated. Furthermore, 36
Professional staff from RAPA and 48 from RLAC attended workshops
in 1990. The grand total of participants being 332.
- The Gender Analysis Workshops focused on projects, and were
tailored to the specific needs of FAO Professional staff.
Workshop materials and case studies were developed using FAO
projects from the various regions, and covering diverse technical
areas, i.e., livestock, plant protection, credit and marketing,
forestry, and fisheries.

- A video on the workshops was developed for the purpose of
explanation and promotion.
- Each of the workshops were evaluated by the participants and these
evaluations have been taken into account in developing the
workshop materials.

Priority No.2 Policy Advise to Member Governments

ESHW responded to requests from five governments to create or
strengthen WID units in mainline ministries.

- 32 -

A mission was fielded in October 1990 to the Ministry of
Agriculture to design a national Programme for Rural Women. A
national seminar to define a national Plan of Action for the
Integration of Women will be held to create a WID unit within the
newly-created National Agency for Agricultural Extension and

Preliminary contacts were established with the Ministry of
Agriculture through the FAO office in Cairo to organize a mission
to design a national WID programme and to strengthen its WID unit.

A mission was sent to Sudan to provide technical advice for the
strengthening of the WID unit in the Ministry of Agriculture. In
addition, a review of pipeline rural development projects to
include WID components was initiated.

Meetings were held in September 1990 in Santiago, to discuss with
various officers of SERNAM (Servicio Nacional de la Mujer -
National Service for Women) the newly constituted unit on women
in Chile and with representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture
(MOA), two projects on training senior officers on gender issues
and on strengthening women in agriculture unites within the MOA.

In conjunction with assistance to the Directorate for National
Extension Programme and Adaptive Research of the Ministry of Youth
and Rural Development, informative contacts were made with the
newly-created Directorate for the Integration of Women in
Development of the Ministry of Planning. The 'Rural Promotion'
Service will be the focal point for developing a national
programme for rural women.

ESHW provided technical consultation for the paper prepared
for the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) and prepared the paper
for COAG to be held in April 1991. Other papers on WID were prepared
by Forestry and Fisheries for COFO and COFI.

Priority No.3 Projects Development and Monitoring

In order to improve and monitor the inclusion of women and
WID issues in FAO projects, a proposed design for coding of all FAO's
Regular Programme Activities and Field Projects and Programmes has
been developed.

The coding system has been discussed with the IDWG/WID as
well as with DDF and PBE.

- 33 -

New Projects Development:

In order to carry out comprehensive projects within the
format of the Plan of Action, the following strategies were outlined
and agreed upon for 1991, with the Regional Office, the Ministry of
Agriculture and SERNAM (National Service for Women):

1. A baseline study on women in agriculture and rural
development will be carried out and will include such
topics as women-headed households, different types of
farming systems and agro-business ventures for women, as
input to item 2 below;

2. TCP/CHI/0051(A) was reformulated to incorporate women in
development issues fully into this Project, which is to
formulate a "Development Policy for the Peasant Sector in

Dominican Republic (GCP/DOM/008/BEL)
Under GCP assistance, the Belgian Government financed a
project formulation mission with a Dominican NGO, MUDE, to develop a
project, "Programme for the Integration of Rural Women in Food
Production and Income-Generating Activities" which will assist rural
women in areas of social organization, management training and
income-producing activities.

El Salvador (ELS/89/004)
A project formulation mission was carried out to develop a
project, "Promotion of Women's Access to Rural Extension Services"
which will support the Salvadorean Government in its attempts to
increase agricultural extension for women.

Ethiopia (TCP/ETH/8964)
Under TCP assistance, a project formulation exercise was
undertaken, through contractual agreement with the Royal Tropical
Institute in The Netherlands, to develop a national project which will
focus on the training of extension staff in gender analysis in
extension planning and implementation.

Honduras (GCP/HON/013/NET)
A project formulation mission was carried out to prepare a
second phase for project HON/82/007, "Programme for Promotion and
Training for the Incorporation of Women in Rural Development" which
will consolidate and document achievements in various areas,
especially training, to improve methodology and content of rural
extension for women. The project is currently in execution.

- Indonesia
An institutional support project preparatory phase was
designed, which will lead to the development of a national project,
aimed at mainstreaming gender based project design and execution in
all programming and projects of the Ministry of Agriculture in

- 34 -

- Nicaragua (GCP/NIC/020/NOR)
A project document formulated in 1988, "Training and
Participation of Peasant Women in Agricultural Development Activities"
was reviewed and revised by the new Government of Nicaragua and FAO in
order to submit it to the Norwegian Government for financing. The
project will support rural women's integration in agricultural
cooperatives through training and outreach and is currently in the

A project document was developed, for possible funding from
UNDP for Refugee Women in Zambia, through contractual agreement with
the Refugee Studies Programme, Oxford University.

Technical Support to ongoing projects for which ESHW is the lead
Technical Unit:

The following projects were technically backstopped by the
Service in 1990:

Burundi (GCP/BDI/021/NET)
Appui aux centres de demonstration en faveur des femmes et des
menages ruraux. As a result of the Final Tripartite Review,
additional funding was provided by UNDP in order to consolidate
extension activities and further development of credit system
already introduced for the installation of grinding mills and
other food processing equipment.

- Congo
National Programme on Agricultural Extension and Adaptive
Research, a joint World Bank/UNDP funded project.
FAO has been requested by the World Bank to design a specific
programme for women and youth including training. Upon the
recommendation made, a new service called Rural Promotion was
created and equipped with the appropriate personnel and logistics.
- Egypt (GCP/EGY/017/NET)
Project activities are performed along the new orientation given
by the tripartite review mission: more emphasis on agricultural
productive activiteis, intensive training for social workers and
women producers, reorganization of rural credit for women.

- Egypt (TCP/EGY/0054/T)
Training of female extension workers for the Department of
Training, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation.
- Ethiopia (TCP/ETH/8964)
Formulation Mission to prepare a project to train extension staff
on WID. A comprehensive main phase project document was produced,
which will focus on training of the entire extension staff on
gender analysis in agriculture development activities.

- 35 -

Honduras (GCP/HON/82/007) and (TCP/HON/0051)
Backstopping was provided to the GCP project and a TCP project was
prepared and backstopped to provide a bridge between the GCP
project and the new second phase which was in preparation. The
projects provided training, extension and credit for rural women
especially oriented toward increasing food security.

- Kenya (GCP/KEN/86/022)
Disadvantaged Rural Women in Dry Land Areas.
project document was finalized and it was agreed
support to expand the project activities, based
experience gained.

The third phase
on UNDP funding
on the previous

- Lesotho (GCP/LES/031/NET)
Women's Integrated Agricultural Project. The
implementation and its economic activities were reviewed.
workplan was prepared and put into implementation.

A new

Madagasgar (MAG/86/005)
Programme d'actions integr6es pour le d6veloppement rural de la
region du lac Itasy. Assistance was provided for the
re-orientation of activities to reach rural women. A national
expert will be recruited to provide technical assistance to group

Malawi (MLW/87/006)
Income generation for Women Farmers. CTA was fielded and project
activities and documentation reviewed to emphasize agricultural
productivity issues.

Morocco (MOR/90/P04)
Population Education for Rural Women (Phase II).
new version of the project document.

Review of

Nepal (GCP/NEP/044/NOR)
Support to Women's Development Division. The project undertook
socio-economic surveys in three project districts, in order to
assess rural women's development needs and potentials. On the
basis of this information, a detailed project document and
workplan were developed.

Niger (GCP/NER/028/ITA)
D6veloppement rural int6gr6 de Keita. Integration of women as
beneficiaries in this large rural development project was assessed
and recommendations made to reinforce the training component to
reach female members of agricultural production groups. A
component of functional literacy has been developed by the project
to train female members of the "management committees" for the 52
village mills which have been introduced by the project.

- Sierra Leone (GCP/SIL/015/NOR)
Integrated Agricultural Project.
consolidated its activities. The
a commercial bank and the project

The project expanded and
credit system was finalized with
TPR recommended for second phase

- 36 -

Tanzania (GCP/URT/092/NET)
Women in Irrigated Agriculture. Phase I came to a close but
project activities were extended under TCP funding to enable the
revision of the Phase II document and the analysis of project
findings to be completed.

Consultants were recruited for the following projects:

Burundi (GCP/BDI/021/NET)
Appui aux centres de demonstration en faveur des femmes et des
menages ruraux au Burundi.
Nigeria (NIR/87/014)
Strengthening Agricultural Extension in Nigeria. An
international expert on women in agriculture is assigned full time
to the project.
Niger (TCP/NER/0052)
Identification d'un programme d'action en faveur des femmes
Rawanda (RWA/88/007)
Appui & la gestion du Ministere de l'Agriculture, de l'Elevage et
des Forets.
Sudan (GCP/SUD/030/FIN)
Training Agricultural Technicians for Rural Development.
Zaire (TCP/ZAI/8952)
Introduction de moulins & mais et A manioc dans le Nord Shaba et
promotion des groupements feminins villageois.

Priority No.4 Re-orientation of Home Economics Curricula

A "National Workshop on Re-orientation of Home Science Programmes
to Meet the Needs of Rural Families" was held in Hyderabad in
December 1990 at Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University.
Twenty-seven participants from 11 Colleges of Home Science
attached to Agricultural Universities attended the workshop.
Follow-up activities have been proposed to develop a curriculum
for a degree programme related to Women in Agriculture to be
offered and for the orientation of college staff and training of
students on collection and analysis of data on women's role in

- A paper on "Agricultural education for women in Asia and the
Pacific: present status, future policies and programmes" was
presented at the Regional Round Table on "Strategies for
Agricultural Education and Training in Asia and the Pacific" in
August at RAPA.

- A concept paper on "Re-orientation of home economics for rural
development: a technology transfer training approach" has been
developed with the assistance of a consultant.

- 37 -

The FAO Plan of Action for the Integration of Women and the
priority for its implementation was presented to the Council
Meeting of the International Federation of Home Economics.

In order to obtain more detailed information on the present Home
Economics Curricula and its linkages to agriculture in institutes
and universities of various countries, a questionnaire sent to 61
agricultural colleges and universities in the Asia and Pacific

Priority No. 5 Preparation and Promotion of Women in Development
Guidelines and Manuals
Inter-Regional (GCP/INT/463/NOR) Follow-up activities:
Inter-regional support for activities of the Inter-divisional
Working Group on Women in Development. Among other activities a
field guide for project design and implementation was developed
for forestry project formulators and implementors to include women
in project design and implementation.

A project document was submitted to Norway for additional funding.
It focuses on the preparation of WID guidelines by technical
divisions, participation of WID specialists in project
formulation, and the organization of WID national workshops on
checklists and guidelines, and studies on women and technology.

Inter-agency Mechanism

ESHW also participated in a variety of inter-agency meetings with
the Division for the Advancement of Women, UNFPA and UNDP. It
also participated in the European Commission on the Agricultural
Working Party on Women, the World Farmer Congress and the
Government of Norway's Consultation on WID.

Additionally, papers were prepared for various expert
consultations on migration, vulnerable women, commission on the
status of women, and structural adjustment in Africa, and numerous
documents reporting on the integration of WID. Specifically the
Service was in charge of preparing the report on the
implementation of the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies (NFLS)
for the Administrative Committee on Coordination's (ACC) Task
Force on Rural Development.

Priority No.6 Data collection, Research Studies, Publications

- A case study (to be published in 1991) has been prepared on the
strategy for the involvement of women adopted by the project
RWI/87/001 "Promotion et intensification de la production vivriere
et conservation des sols dans six communes de la prefecture de
- A case study has been prepared on the methodology adopted by the
project SEN/82/002 "Promotion rurale dans la vallge du Fleuve

- 38 -

Se'ngal", to reach better women and youth groups. The final
version of the study has still to be revised.

A paper is being prepared under an author's contract on "Women
farmers in India". It will be available in February 1991.

A concept paper was prepared on a Gender-Disaggregated Data-Base
on Human Resources in Agriculture and will be finalized for
official publication after the Inter-Agency Consultation on Women,
Statistics and Data Bases in Agriculture and Rural Development, to
be held in FAO Headquarters in March 1991.

With the cooperation of ESS, preparatory activities for the
organization of the above-mentioned Inter-Agency Consultation were
carried out. Background documents were prepared, subject
specialists identified for preparation of technical papers and
invitations despatched, in close consultation with INSTRAW and

An illustrated version of the Plan of Action for the Integration
of Women and Development was prepared in English, French and

A study was commissioned on women's roles and constraints in a
broad range of Latin American farming systems. The report will be
published in book form in 1991.

Studies were commissioned on rural women's legal status in nine
Latin American countries, an overview paper was developed and a
Round Table on Juridical Mechanisms that Facilitate Rural Women's
Participation in Development, held in Santiago, Chile in
September, 1990, with participants from 17 Latin American
countries to discuss results and formulate recommendations on
future activities. The overview study is being translated into
English and will be published in 1991 in both languages.

Priority No. 7 Population Activities

A global project on Interregional Advisory and Technical
Backstopping Services on Population, Women and Agricultural
Development (INT/90/P03) was initiated by ESHW with the funding
support of UNFPA to strengthen development assistance at field level
and increase participation of rural women in agricultural development.
FAO has commissioned studies to be undertaken in Indonesia, Malaysia,
Nepal, Philippines and Thailand. The objective of these studies is to
contribute to the improvement of the quality of the physical and
socio-economical conditions of rural women through detailed
pre-project case studies and the development and implementation of
action-oriented agricultural/rural development projects that include
population and gender policy instruments. It is further expected that
the case studies will lead to a better understanding of the linkages
between women's socio-economic/agricultural roles, intra-household
dynamics, household food security, women's reproductive behaviour, and
related perceptions and attitudes towards child spacing.

- 39 -

The results will have particular reference to the development
of survey and research techniques to understand the role and
aspirations of women farmers in agriculture and rural development for
reformulation of policies and action programmes and development of
programmes and projects to support women farmers, based on analysis of
various socio-economic factors with institutional linkages taking
place at household, community and district level.

The country surveys were completed and a Regional Experts
Consultation is scheduled to take place in Penang, Malaysia in
February 1991. The objectives of the Consultation are to: a) review
the findings of the country studies; b) develop guidelines on project
formulation at country and regional levels, with particular attention
to ASEAN regional activities; c) strengthen the inter-country exchange
of experiences and resources on population, agricultural development
and women; and d) identify areas of collaboration and particularly
potential FAO inputs.

ESHW analysed the findings of the country case studies, which
were undertaken on Women, Agricultural Development, and Population, in
several African countries, and a combined report was prepared entitled
'Women, Population and Agriculture/Rural Development in Sub-Saharan

The following country projects on women and population were
backstopped by ESHW in 1990:

- China (CPR/89/P03)
Improving the Status of Rural Women through Income-Generating
Activities and MCH-Family Planning. This project focused on
providing agro-industries production and gainful employment
opportunities to women. A socio-economic survey was undertaken to
channel project inputs more effectively.

- Ghana (GHA/89/P03)
Promoting Population Education and Income Generating Capacity in
the 31st December Women's Movement. The role of the NGO in
reaching rural women was emphasised. The project organized six
training workshops for provincial officials and provided
development support services to rural women.

- Uganda (UGA/809/FPA)
Pre-project policies and programmes on women. The project
undertook a socio-economic survey to determine priorities and
goals of the main phase project operations, which will start in

- Viet Nam (VIE/88/P20)
Income Generation/Family Planning for Women. Preparatory phase
outputs were reviewed, particularly a needs assessment exercise
which was undertaken by View Nam Women's Association. A main
phase project document was developed, which will provide
institutional credit to rural woman.

- 40 -



Informe: Misi6n Interagencial sobre Politicas y Estrategias de Reforma
Agraria y Desarrollo Rural. Seguimiento de la Conferencia Mundial
sobre Reforma Agraria y Desarrollo Rural, Asunci6n, Paraguay,
17-27 de abril de 1990, 139 p.

Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives, 1990, no. 1/2.


Implications of the agricultural land tenure system for
environmental debate: three scenarios, by W.C. Thiesenhusen


La agrosilvicultura como contribuci6n al desarrollo rural
sostenible en los ecosistemas frigiles en America Latina y el
Caribe: adecuaci6n del marco, by B.B. Galin

The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Programme: status of
implementation and major issues (Philippines 1987-1989), by
R. Carpano

Post drought adjustments among Horn of Africa pastoralists: policy
and institution building dimensions, by J.W. Harbeson.

Report of the Inter-Agency Mission on WCARRD Follow-up to
Paramaribo, Suriname, 19-30 March 1990, 49 p.


Rural development in Europe. Report of the Special Session of the
FAO/ECE Working Party on Agrarian Structure and Farm Rationalization
to Commemorate the 10th Anniversary of WCARRD, Varna, Bulgaria,
12-15 September 1989, 177 p.

Document de base: Mission de suivi de la Conf6rence mondiale sur la
reforme agraire et le d6veloppement rural (CMRADR) A Madagascar,
4-14 octobre 1990, 61 p.

- 41 -


Agricultural extension nexus: linkages between agricultural technical
training, extension and research in Tanzania, by A.M. El-Zoobi. Paper
presented at the Workhop on Extension Linkages in Tanzania, Morogoro,
14-18 May 1990, 25 p.

Compte-rendu de l'Atelier de travail sur l'elaboration d'une strat6gie
multi-media, la conception de messages et la production de prototypes
en vue de l'int6gration de l'education en matiere de population dans
la vulgarisation au Maroc, Meknes, 12-24 March 1990, 2 v.

Environmental education and information: FAO's perspective and
activities, by T.E. Contado. Paper presented at the Consultation of UN
Agencies and Relevant Inter-Governmental and Non-Governmental
Organizations Concerned with Environmental Education and Information,
Unesco, Paris, 6-8 November 1990, 16 p.

Final Report: Round Table on the Adaptation of Extension Services to
Rural Development Needs in Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago,
Chile, 20-24 August 1990, 36 p. (En/Sp)

Paper presented:

Agricultural extension: challenges and future direction, by
W.D. Maalouf, 28 p.

Improving training quality: a trainer's guide to evaluation, 157 p.

International directory of agricultural extension organizations,
compiled by B.E. Swanson; B.J. Farmer; R. Bahal, 496 p.

International Seminar on Agricultural Extension Policies,
International Agricultural Centre, Wageningen, Netherlands, July 1990

Papers presented:

La Consultation mondiale sur la vulgarisation agricole et le d6fi
des annees 1990 by P. Gence, based on a text by T. Contado, 17 p.

La gestion des services de vulgarisation, by P. Gence, 30 p.

Make learning easier: a guide for improving educational/training
materials, 26 p.

Report of the Expert Consultation on Management and Supervision of
Agricultural Extension Programmes, Bangkok, Thailand, 31 July -
3 August 1990. (in preparation)

42 -
Report of the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension, Rome,
Italy, 4-8 December 1989, 217 p.

Report of the Round Table on Strategies for Agricultural Education and
Training in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 6-10 August 1990
(in preparation)

Report of a Training Workshop on Study Plans for Agricultural
Education at the Intermediate Level, Angola, 17-29 September 1990 (in

Suivi et evaluation appliques aux programmes de vulgarisation
agricoles, by J. Jallade, 52 p.

Workshop Report (Provisional): Strategies for Implementing National
Policies in Extension and Food Security for Rural Women, Zambia,
8-10 December 1988, 87 p.

Workshop Report on Extension Strategy Planning, Message Design,
Materials Development and Pre-testing for Population Education through
Agricultural Extension in Thailand, Nakorn Pathom, 26 March -
5 April 1990, 2 v.

Youthworks: information bulletin on rural youth and young farmers
(Two issues E/F/S)


FAD People's Participation Programme the first ten years: lessons
learned and future directions, by C.E. McKone, 62 p.

FAD's approach to management training for cooperative development, by
H. Meliczek. Paper presented at the COPAC International Meeting on
Cooperative Education and Training, Manila, Philippines, 23-26 October
1990, 18 p.

Generaci6n de empleo e integraci6n campesina al desarrollo forestal y
agro-forestal en Honduras, by G. Molina Chocano; L. Diaz Pineda;
M. Guillen. Paper prepared for the Taller Regional FAO/Sindicatos
Internacionales sobre Generaci6n de Empleo y Participaci6n Campesina
en el Desarrollo Forestal y Agroforestal en America Central y el
Caribe, Siguatepeque, Honduras, 14-18 May 1990, 70 p.

Group enterprise management: a field training guide, by P. Norton and
N. Uphoff, 81 p.

Participation in practice: lessons from the FAO People's Particiption
programme, 44 p.

- 43 -

Participatory development: guidelines for beneficiary participation in
agricultural and rural development, by B. Van Heck, 127 p.

Participatory self-evaluation of PPP group and inter-group association
performance: a field methodology, by N. Uphoff, 47 p.

Report of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development on its Eighteenth
Meeting, Rome, 2-4 May 1990.


Progress in rural development, 179 p.

Report by agencies on future activities during the 1990-91
biennium, 42 p.

Report by FAO on arrangements for the preparation of the Third
Progress Report on WCARRD Follow-up including an evaluation of
follow-up to WCARRD's Programme of Action, 27 p.

Review of programme of work of Task Force members on
implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies toward
the Year 2000 for rural women, 22 p.

Report by FAO on the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension
held in Rome, 4-8 December 1989, 8 p.

Rural Development Newsletter No. 12, 24 p. Special feature:
Participation in practice lessons from an FAO programme, p. 9-16.

Social and institutional prerequisites of sustainable agricultural and
rural development, by F. Rosario-Braid and H. Meliczek. Paper
presented at the Preparatory Meeting for the FAO/Netherlands
Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, Rome, 8-12 October
1990, 43 p.


Gender issues in rural food security in developing countries. Paper
presented at the Fifteenth Session of the Committee on World Food
Security, Rome, 26-30 March 1990 and republished in Women in
Agricultural Development series, 22 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

Rural women and the changing socio-economic conditions in the Near
East. Paper presented at the Government Consultation for the Near
East on the Follow-up to WCARRD, Rabat, 3-7 July 1989 and republished
in Women in Agricultural Development Series, 85 p.

- 44 -

Women in agricultural development: FAD's Plan of Action. Illustrated
version, 41 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

Women, food systems and agriculture. FAO contribution to the United
Nations 1989 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development,
Chapter 3, p. 75-128 and republished in Women in Agricultural
Development Series, 54 p. (En/Fr/Sp)


1989 World Food Day Report, 89 p. (Trilingual: En/Fr/Sp)

FAD action (informative brochure), 4 p. (En/Fr/Sp)

Fighting Hunger. WFD Newsletter, No. 5, 16 p. (En/Fr/Sp/Ar)

Food for the future, 26 p. (En/Fr/Sp/Ar/It)

Report of the Second Global Meeting on World Food Day, Rome, 27-29
November 1989, 38 p. (En/Fr)

45 -


Field Project Tables

(as at 31 December 1990)


ESHE 85 46 31 11 1 174 49.3

ESHA 46 16 5 7 74 21.0

ESHL 6 1 3 7 17 4.8

ESHW 19 6 8 2 35 9.9

Combination* 31 14 3 5 53 15.0

TOTAL 187 83 50 30 3 353 100.0

* More than 1 service involved.


(as at 31 December 1990)


ESHE 23 14 2 12 1 52 40.9

ESHA 19 8 2 7 36 28.3

ESHL 10 1 6 17 13.4

ESHW 12 2 1 3 18 14.2

ESHD 1 3 4 3.2

TOTAL 64 25 6 31 1 127 100.0


(as at 31 December 1990)


ESHE 16 6 1 23 20.7

ESHA 14 9 7 11 41 36.9

ESHL 2 9 4 4 19 17.1

ESHW 4 4 4 5 17 15.3

Combination* 4 6 1 11 10.0

TOTAL 40 28 21 22 111 100.0

* More than 1 service involved.


(as at 31 December 1990)


























1 1/












GRAND TOTAL 291 136 77 83 4 591 100.00

I/ Europe.

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