FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
HUMAN RESOURCES, INSTITUTIONS
AND AGRARIAN REFORM DIVISION
REPORT ON ACTIVITIES
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Activities of the Division ................................6
1. Office of the Director (ESHD) .................6
World Food Day ................................ 8
2. Rural Development Analysis and Organization
Service (ESHA) ............................... 10
3. Agricultural Education and Extension Service
(ESHE) ....................................... 20
4. Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement Service
(ESHL) ....................................... 29
5. Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service (ESHW) ................... 32
Field Projects ...........................................44
Publications ............................................. 49
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During 1989 FAO commemorated the 10th anniversary of the
World Conference of Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD)
which was held in Rome in 1979. The Conference had adopted a
Declaration of Principles and a Programme of Action which have become
the main guidelines for the work of FAO in rural development. Two
Services of the Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform
Division (ESH), i.e. the Rural Development Analysis and Organization
Service and the Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement Service made
detailed preparations for a series of Round Tables and Regional
Government Consultations as follow-up to WCARRD. The following
meetings were organized by the Division:
A Round Table for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand,
A Round Table for the Near East, Amman, Jordan, May;
The 6th Government Consultation for Asia and Pacific,
Bangkok, Thailand, June;
A Round Table for Africa, Arusha, Tanzania, June;
The 2nd Government Consultation for the Near East, Rabat,
The 5th Government Consultation for Latin America and the
Caribbean, Antigua, Guatemala, August;
The 1st WCARRD Consultation for Europe, Varna, Bulgaria,
The 3rd Government Consultation for Africa, Addis Ababa,
Another significant event in the activity of the Division
during 1989 was the adoption by the FAO Conference of a Plan of Action
on Women in Development. This plan has been drafted by the Women in
Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service. It is designed
to ensure that rural women are accorded equal rights and opportunies
to enable them to fully realize their potential contribution in
agricultural production and rural development.
Throughout 1989 the Agricultural Education and Extension
Service made preparations for holding a Global Consultation on
Agricultural Extension which took place in Rome from 4 to 8 December.
In addition to these major events the Division continued to
assist Member Governments in the field of human resources, develop-
ment, institution .building and land tenure improvement. Its
activities comprised advice on the formulation of policies, strategies
and programmes for rural development including the strengthening of
institutions through better organization and management.
The Division provided assistance to advance knowledge and
skills needed for improving the living standard of the rural popula-
tion and for increasing agricultural production. This was achieved
through projects and programmes in the field of education and train-
ing, through fostering the participation of rural people in the
development process and ensuring equitable access to resources and
services. In its programmes for rural development the Division gave
particular attention to the target groups of the rural poor, the small
farmers and the landless, rural women and youth and other
ESH provided technical assistance to Member Governments to
improve institutions and services which are capable of promoting eco-
nomic growth with equity and the participation of the beneficiaries.
In order to involve more than in the past representatives of farmers'
organizations and NGOs in development activities the Division has held
consultations on the most suitable operational arrangements to streng-
then its cooperation with NGOs.
In 1989, the Division had a total budget of US$ 7,27 million
at its disposal.
In addition to the Director and four Service Chiefs, the
Division had staff positions for 50 professionals and 48 General
Service staff, funded by the Regular Programme, by Trust Funds and by
WFP support. The actual staff situation at the end of December 1989 is
given for each unit in the text. A total of 81 field experts and
consultants were working for ESH in the field.
There has been a considerable transfer of staff in the
Division during 1989. Mr. R. Moreno, Director of the Division was
promoted on 1 February to ADG and Regional Representative for Latin
America and left for Santiago, Chile in December. Ms. E. Seki, APO
(Women in Food Systems), P-2, joined the Fisheries Department.
Dr. N. Newiger, Senior Officer (Cooperatives/Rural Organi-
zations), P-5 and Ms. M. Clamagirand-Schiarini, Secretary G-5 retired
from the Organization while Ms. M. Ghea-Rovatti, Adm. Clerk G-4, left
the Division for personal reasons.
Four new staff members joined the Division: Mr. P. Gence,
Agricultural Training/Extension Officer, P-4 (ESHE); Ms. L. Aquilar,
Clerk Stenographer, G-4 (ESHA) who returned from a field assignment;
Ms. S. Perillo, Bilingual Typist, G-3 (WFD) and Ms. P. Sefior-
Cembellin, Bilingual Stenographer, G-4 (ESHW). Within the Division Ms.
L. Panzera-Yturrioz, Bilingual Typist, G-3, was transferred from WFD
to ESHL and Ms. F. Vervial, Bilingual Stenographer, G-4 from ESHA to
The following persons were promoted: Mr. D. Beloglavec,
Senior Liaison Officer (WFP), P-5 (ESHD); Mr. R. Adhikarya, Agricul-
tural Extension, Education and Training Methodology Specialist, P-5
(ESHE); Mr. L. Montesi, Senior Officer (Rural Development Organiza-
tions), P-5 (ESHA); Mr. M. Dravi, Senior Officer (Production Struc-
ture), P-5 (ESHL); Ms. M.P. Cavazzi-Cantarini, Secretary, G-5 (ESHL);
Ms. M.A. Polla, Administrative Clerk, G-4 (ESHD); Ms. M. Sanguineti,
Bilingual Stenographer, G-4 (ESHL) .
ACTIVITIES OF THE DIVISION
1. Office of the Director (ESHD)
W.D. Maalouf Officer-in-Charge
S. Serani Senior Officer (Programme and Planning)
D.M. Beloglavec Senior Field Liaison Officer
H. Meliczek Agrarian Reform and Rural Development Officer
L. Ganci Executive Officer
G. Rojas Secretary, Advisory Committee on World Food Day
L.W. Jacobson Human Resources Officer (Disability Matters)
The leadership of the Division laid for eleven months in the
hands of Mr. R. Moreno, who acted as Director a.i.. He performed this
task in addition to his duties as Assistant Director-General of the
Economic and Social Department a.i. during the month of January and
from 1 February to 10 December as Assistant Director General and
Regional Representative for Latin America and the Caribbean.
With the departure of Mr. R. Moreno to Santiago, Dr. W.D.
Maalouf was designated as Officer-in-Charge of the Division as of 11
December 1989, pending the appointment of the Director of the
The Director attended the 1st Session of the Governing
Council of the Regional Centre on Agrarian Reform and Rural
Development for the Near East (CARDNE) which took place in Amman,
Jordan from 28 February to 2 March.
He attended and chaired the 17th meeting of the ACC Task
Force on Rural Development which was held in Vienna from 31 May to 2
June. The Task force is composed of 30 organizations and bodies of
the UN system and coordinates, under FAO's leadership, inter-agency
action in rural development. The 17th meeting discussed inter-agency
cooperation in the field of agrarian reform and rural development,
joint action at country and regional levels for the promotion of
people's participation, women in development and issues of monitoring
and evaluating rural development programmes.
The Director also participated in the Regional Government
Consultation of WCARRD follow-up for the Near East held in Rabat
(Morocco) and in the Regional Consultation for Africa held in Addis
Ababa. In September/October the Director was leader of the Interagency
WCARRD mission to Ecuador.
As in the previous years the Office of the Director undertook
the overall supervision and coordination of the work of the Division.
It coordinated cooperation with other Divisions of FAO and supported
the four Services in planning, programming, implementing and monitor-
ing programme activities. The Office also coordinated assistance to
the field programme.
The Office organized and attended a special session of the
FAO/ECE Working Party on Agrarian Structure and Farm Rationalization
with the objective to exchange experiences in rural development in
Europe and to commemorate the tenth anniversary of WCARRD. It took
place in Varna, Bulgaria in September.
The Office of the Director participated in the 1989 in All
India Sociological Conference held in Hisar, Haryana and presented a
paper on the experience of FAO in rural development. It also attended
the International Conference "40 Years of Agricultural Cooperative
Farms and Food Health" in Slusovice, Czecoslovakia.
The Office of the Director organized and participated in a
mission to Mexico, as a follow-up to the Plan of Action derived from
the Study on Potentials for Agricultural and Rural Development in
Latin America and the Caribbean. The mission prepared a TCP project
to provide assistance to the new government in the formulation of
rural development strategies and policies for the coming six years.
The Office of the Director was actively involved in the
reformulation and adjustment of the Italian funded Trust Fund project
GCP/PHI/040(ITA) "Technical Support to the Comprehensive Agrarian
Reform Programme" in the Philippines, as well as in the initial phase
of implementation which started effectively by mid 1989. ESH provided
technical support for the selection of project personnel and in the
identification of studies to be undertaken by the project.
The Office of the Director also assisted the Government of
the Philippines in the preparation of a TCP project for convening in
1990 a Colloquium on Agrarian Reform which aims at providing a forum
for the exchange of experience in the formulation and implementation
of agrarian reform programmes.
The Office of the Director was represented in the
Inter-Departmental Committee on SOFA, the Inter-Departmental Working
Groups on Environment and Energy and on Small Animals, the
Inter-Divisional Working Group on Dry Land Development, the ad hoc
Group on Climatic Change, the Working Group on Sustainable
Development, the Task Force on Biotechnology, the Remote Sensing and
Meteorological Data Users Committee, and the Working Group on Rome
The focal point on disability matters established in the
Office of the Director assisted in promoting rural development
projects aimed at improving the working conditions of disabled people
through rehabilitation programmes. The Office participated in the
seventh Inter-Agency Meeting on the UN Decade of Disabled Persons,
held in Vienna in December. Several requests for assistance to
disabled persons have been reviewed and processed.
The first phase of project TCP/TUN/8953 "Rehabilitation and
Reintegration of the Disabled in the Rural Environment" was success-
fully completed. Three consultants, a horticulturist, a small animals
expert and a sociologist identified several areas of work for small
remunerative projects for disabled persons. The "Integrated Fish-
cum-Duck Production Project at the Tholana Lerato Village, Lesotho"
which was financed by the Money and Medals Programme served as a model
for a training and demonstration farm and can be used for increasing
food production and income generation for handicapped people.
The Office of the Director prepared another issue of the
Bulletin "Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives" containing
six articles as well as chapters on legislation and recent
The Divisional Reference Unit continued to collect and
disseminate information on topics of relevance to the work of ESH.
The Reference Unit keeps documents prepared by ESH staff members and
supplies them to interested parties. The Unit also maintains a
collection of non-FAO documents on rural development and related
subjects. Access to them is made easy through the computerized ESH
Data Base and ESH Accession Lists.
World Food Day
World Food Day was established at the 1979 FAO Conference by
an unanimous resolution of member nations. It is observed every 16
October, the anniversary of the foundation of FAO in 1945. Its
primary objectives are to increase public awareness about the
incidence of hunger and to stimulate local, national, regional and
international action in a global campaign to assure that every human
being has access to a healthy diet at all times.
In 1989, the Director-General chose "Food and the
Environment" as the global WFD theme in order to focus international
attention on environmental problems which threaten to diminish our
potential for continuing to feed the human population in the future.
Early in the year, an issues paper on "Food and the Environment" was
prepared by the WFD Secretariat under the guidance of a task force
made up of representatives of various technical divisions.
Activities to observe WFD were carried out in more than 140
FAO member nations. Representatives of governments, non-governmental
organizations, the UN system and the general public participated in a
wide range of activities such as seminars and round-table discussions
on environmental issues; farm tours and field days at agricultural
research stations; demonstrations of solar cookers and other eco-
logical innovations; agricultural exhibitions and fairs; contests
for student essays and artworks; the publication of educational mate-
rials; and fund-raising campaigns in support of development projects
in the Third World. In Italy, for example, 163 artists donated 199
paintings, sculptures and graphics for an art exhibition and auction
to benefit FAO projects promoting ecologically sound development.
A second Global Meeting on WFD took place in Rome in November
1989, organized by the Global Confederation of World Food Day
Non-Governmental Organizations, in collaboration with the WFD
Secretariat. The objectives of the meeting were: (a) to assess the
results of WFD since the First Global Meeting held in 1987; (b) to
review the constitution of the Global Confederation of WFD NGOs; and
(c) to plan the next phase of WFD. The meeting was attended by 20
representatives of national WFD Committees, national-level NGOs and
international NGOs from 18 developing and developed countries.
International WFD observances were held at the FAO
headquarters in Rome and at the UN General Assembly in New York. In
Rome, the guest speakers included Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers of the
Netherlands; Mr. Giulio Andreotti, President of the Council of
Ministers of the Republic of Italy; Mr. Henri Nallet, the French
Minister of Agriculture on behalf of the Euroepan Economic Community;
and the Honorable Tina Anselmi on behalf of the Italian Committee for
World Food Day. In New York, the guest speaker, Mr. Clayton Yeutter,
Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, was joined on the
podium by the United Nations' Secretary General, the President of the
General Assembly and the President of ECOSOC.
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2. The Rural Develpment Analysis and Organization Service
Senior Officer (Rural Development)
Senior Officer (Employment and Manpower
Senior Officer (Rural Development Organization)
Agricultural Cooperatives Officer
Small Farmers and Rural Organizations Officer
Rural Development Analysis Officer
Institutional Cooperation Officer
Employment and Manpower Planning Officer
Associate Professional Officer (Rural Develop-
Sumary of Service Activities
The Service deals with issues of rural development, cooperatives
and other rural. organizations, with the organization of services for
development,, with delivery systems for small farmers and with problems
of rural employment. One main activity of ESHA is the analysis of the
causes and incidence of rural poverty.
ESHA provides support to the ACC Task Force on Rural Development
which coordinates under the leadership of FAO the various activities
of the UN system in rural development. The Service prepared and
organized the Seventeenth Meeting of the Task Force which took place
in Vienna in May, and participated in the meetings of its
subsidiaries, i.e. the Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation, held in
Rome in March, and the Panel on People's Participation held in Vienna
in May. ESHA prepared the ACC Newsletter on Rural Development No. 11.
The Service continued to promote people's participation in rural
development, to assist the rural poor in establishing informal
organizations and to strengthen collaboration with Non-Governmental
Organizations and International Trade Unions. The Service prepared
and organized the llth Biennial Consultation between International
Trade Union Organizations (ITUs) and FAO, which was held in Rome in
April. The Service provided assistance to countries in the development
of agricultural services to small farmers. ESHA also served as the
focal point in FAO for supporting the Joint Committee for the
Promotion of Aid to Cooperatives (COPAC) which has its Secretariat at
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The Service is composed of four groups. Their activities can be
summarized as follows:
Rural Development Analysis Group
- Provision of secretariat services for the ACC Task Force on Rural
Development, organization and holding of its Seventeenth Meeting
in Vienna in May-June, including preparation of session papers.
- Hosting of the Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation of the ACC Task
Force on Rural Development in March and the second meeting of the
Working Group on the Impact of Macro-Economic Policies on the
Rural Poor in April.
- Preparation of issue No. 11 of "Rural Development", the Newsletter
of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development.
- Preparatory mission for mounting an Inter-Agency WCARRD Policy
Review Mission in Laos, January.
Organization of the Round Table of Experts on Selected Issues in
Rural Development in the Near East in commemoration of the tenth
anniversary of WCARRD, including preparation of discussion papers,
Amman, Jordan, 14-18 May.
- Organization of the Government Consultation for the Near East on
the Follow-up to WCARRD, Rabat, Morocco, 3-7 July.
- Preparation and presentation of paper on "The Organization and
Management of Services for Small Farmers in the Near East" at the
Near East Regional Economic and Social Policy Commission, Cairo,
- Provision of technical staff for a project formulation mission
(UNFPA/FAO, MOR/85/P01) dealing with rural women, income-
generation and population education, February, and for the Laos
Agricultural Sector Policy Review Mission (TCP/LAO/8954F),
- Preparation of a paper on "Gender Issues in Irrigation Project
Design in Sub-Saharan Africa" for presentation at the Workshop on
Design for Sustainable Farmer-Managed Irrigation Schemes in Sub-
Saharan Africa, Wageningen Agricultural University, Netherlands,
Cooperatives and Other Rural Organizations Group
- Preparation of a case study on COTIA, a multipurpose,
multicommunity agricultural cooperative in Brazil which has 15 000
members, most of whom are small to medium size farmers. The
cooperative handles 250 products and has an annual gross business
of US$ 720 000 000.
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Participation with NGOS in project development and implementation
in Colombia where the government has accepted that three NGOs (all
cooperative-owned) participate in the implementation of a project
which promotes people's participation through the training of
In Salvador, assistance to an NGO in organizing rural youth groups
for production activities in collaboration with agricultural
Preparation of a Cooperative Development Plan in Honduras
involving the active participation of cooperative representatives.
The plan is expected to be discussed in February 1990 by high
level government and cooperative officers and thereafter be
incorporated into the National Development Plan 1990-93.
Training of cooperative trainers within agricultural institutes in
Assistance in developing a reliable data base on rural
cooperatives in Panama using a cooperative census initiated in
1988 and finished in 1989.
Preparation of written guidelines for the use of rural leaders, on
population issues in Chile, Guatemala and Colombia.
- Continued promotion of the programme for the development of
appropriate management systems for small farmers (AMSAC).
Training in management of cooperatives and rural groups in close
collaboration with the German Foundation for International
Development (DSE), in Burkina Faso, C8te d'Ivoire, Senegal and
Togo. Special courses for Women Managers in Cooperatives were
organized in CSte d'Ivoire and Senegal. A Round Table Seminar
dealing with financial aspects in cooperatives and rural groups
was held in Togo.
Participation in an International Conference on Evaluation and
Perspectives on Appropriate Management Systems for Small Farmers
Cooperatives for French speaking countries in Africa which was
organized by DSE in Feldafing, Federal Republic of Germany.
- Preparation of national guides on appropriate management systems
for cooperatives for Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal and
Togo. A Guide for Monitoring and Evaluation of Small Farmers
Cooperatives for Tanzania has been developed and is being tested.
Review in collaboration with the International Cooperative
Alliance (ICA), of projects prepared by participants of an
international training course on cooperative management in Asia,
funded by the Government of Japan.
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Organization of a National Training Workshop in the Philippines on
Livelihood Opportunities for Rural Workers. The Workshop was held
in collaboration with the World Federation of Agricultural and
Food Workers (WFAFW), Brotherhood of Asian Trade Unionists on
behalf of their affiliate organization, the Federation of Free
Workers (FFW). Government agencies and NGOs contributed to the
Organization, in collaboration with UNDP and the Asian NGO
Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ANGOC), of a
national workshop in the Philippines on strengthening people's
participation and practical involvement of national NGOs in
agricultural and rural development projects within the framework
of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) medium term
plan entitled "Policy Agenda for People-Powered Development".
Assistance in the form of a TCP project for fielding an
identification/formulation mission to the Philippines for
effective NGO participation in UNDP funded/FAO executed
agricultural and rural development pipeline and ongoing projects.
ANGOC has been designated by the Government as the implementing
agency of this TCP project.
- Organization of the llth Biennial Consultation between
International Trade Union Organizations (ITUs) and FAO, held at
FAO Headquarters, Rome.
Preparation of case studies on income and employment generating
activities in agriculture and rural development by rural workers
organizations in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean in
collaboration with the International Federation of Agricultural
and Allied Workers (IFPAAW), the Trade Union International of
Agricultural, Forestry and Plantation Workers (TUIAFPW) and the
World Federation of Agricultural and Food Workers (WFAFW).
Participation in two regular sessions of the Committee for the
Promotion of Aid to Cooperatives (COPAC) held in Brussels in April
and Paris in September.
Continued promotion of People's Participation Projects (PPP), by
providing assistance in the formation of small self-reliant groups
of the rural poor which encourage members to work together on
income generating activities, serve as receiving mechanisms for
credit and farm inputs and provide members with bargaining powers
vis-a-vis local authorities.
Technical support to six ongoing People's Participation Projects
in Africa and three in Asia serving a total of 10 294 small farmer
beneficiaries, 43 percent of whom are women, and reaching about
61 294 household members. The beneficiaries are organized into
805 informal self-help groups which in turn are federated into 114
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Organization of an international workshop on "The Strategy and
Methodology of People's Participation in Rural Development, held
in Arusha, Tanzania from 7-14 September 1989, attended by PPP
participants and government officials from 21 countries. The
purpose of the workshop was to develop preliminary draft guide-
lines for the promotion of increased beneficiary participation in
large scale rural development projects.
Preparation of a guidelines manual entitled "Participation in
Practice: Lessons from the FAO People's Participation Programme"
on how to introduce and promote beneficiary participation into
large scale rural development projects which is due for
publication during 1990.
- Preparation of 11 mini-case studies on group enterprise manage-
ment. Publication of a brochure on "The People's Participation
Programme in Africa". The preparation and publication of an
illustrated field training manual and a 20 minute slide tape show
both entitled "Working Together to Reach our Common Goals The
FAO People's Participation Programme in Africa" and preparation of
one new PPP project proposal for Burkina Faso, for submission to
and consideration by the Government of Burkina Faso.
Preparation of a 15 minute video cassette entitled "A Full Moon on
a Dark Night". Publication of the fourth issue of the PPP News-
letter called "People's Participation News", a semi-annual news-
letter designed to encourage enhanced communication and informa-
tion transfer between PPP projects in different countries. Field
guidelines for the design of large-scale participatory rural
development projects based on PPP experiences are being developed.
In May the tenth Session of the FAO Committee on Agriculture
(COAG) endorsed a paper prepared on People's Participation in
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development which was then presented to
the FAO Council in June. A most remarkable outcome has been a
request to FAO to prepare a Plan of Action on People's Participa-
tion to be presented to the FAO Council in 1990 and the Conference
One of the key issues of the COAG document was the recognition
that people's participation is only feasible through people's
organizations which are voluntary, democratic and self-sustained.
In this regard it was accepted that cooperatives in rural areas
are the most numerous and ubiquitous worldwide.
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Rural Development Organization Group
- As a follow-up to the Expert Consultation on the Organization and
Management of Agricultural Services for Snall Farmers in Francophone
Africa, held in Dakar, Senegal, in September 1986, several rural
development organization projects and programmes have been prepared
at government request, and are currently under implementation in the
following countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Madagascar and
Niger. All these projects are characterized by a participatory system
approach focussing on infrastructural micro-interventions and
agricultural production activities, resulting from the organization
of three specific elements: farming systems development, improved
receiving systems and reinforced delivery systems.
- As another follow-up activity to the expert consultation, the Group
identified, formulated and started implementing at the request of the
Government of Benin, a national programme for the reorganization of
institutions in support of rural development at the regional level
(CARDER). The diagnostic phase of the programme started with a TCP
project while the reorganization and restructuring phases were
covered by an FAO/UNDP project. A new phase will start in early 1990
with UNDP and World Bank funding and will assist the Government in a)
reorganizing the central services of the Ministry of Rural
Development and Cooperative Action according to the reorganization of
the CARDER, and b) coordinating and harmonizing the operational
implementation of the new institutional set-up at different national
- Preparation of various projects and programmes for agricultural and
rural development and provision of technical support to 40 field
- Preparation of a synthesis and discussion paper summarizing eleven
case studies (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Ghana, Malawi, Niger,
Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zambia) on the
organization and management of agricultural services for small
farmers in Africa. It was presented at the Round Table on Rural
Development Issues, held in Arusha, Tanzania, in June 1989, in
commemoration of the tenth anniversary of WCARRD. The country case
study reports were submitted to the respective governments.
- Preparation, in collaboration with the Rural Development Analysis
Group of five case studies in the Near East region (Egypt, Jordan,
Morocco, Syria and Tunisia). A synthesis document of these studies
was presented at the Round Table of Experts on Selected Issues in
Rural Development in the Near East, held in Amman, Jordan, from 14 to
18 May in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of WCARRD. The
synthesis report was also discussed at the Government Consultation
for the Near East on the Follow-up to WCARRD, Rabat, Morocco, 3-7
July and a discussion paper on the subject was presented at the third
Session of the Near East Regional Economic and Social Policy
Commission, Cairo, Egypt, 15-19 October.
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- At the request of the governments of Senegal and Tanzania, prepara-
tions were started for holding national workshops on the above topic
in April/May 1990. Preparatory activities for similar workshops to be
carried out in Guinea, Madagascar and Malawi were also initiated.
- Lauching case study projects on the same topic in the Caribbean
(Grenada, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago) and in Asia (Indonesia, Lao
PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam). Cooperating agencies
are the University of the West Indies and the Centre on Integrated
Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP).
Organizing, under Italian Trust Fund, a study on the efficiency of
various types of irrigation schemes and their impact on the socio-
economic conditions of the beneficiaries in the Senegal River Valley
(GCP/SEN/034/ITA). The study's objective was to identify which type
of irrigation schemes (large, medium or small scale) are most
suitable for self-management by small farmers.
Employment and Manpower Planning Group
- Promotion of projects and programmes for the creation of gainful
employment and income redistribution in favour of the most
marginalized rural groups, which were identified as the rural
migrants, the nomadic pastoralists and the landless workers.
- Conducting field investigation in Mauritania in collaboration
with national researchers on the socio-economic conditions of
nomadic pastoral groups affected by drought and alternative
- Initiating in cooperation with ESHL a series of studies on the
socio-economic aspects of the traditional "Hema" system of arid
land management with emphasis on land tenure, access to resources,
migration and employment by different social groups in the
pastoral community, in selected countries.
Conducting a field survey on rural landlessness in Peru through an
agreement with the Ministry of Agriculture aiming at identifying
landless households and assessing their income and employment
opportunities. It is expected that the survey results will lead to
identification of action programmes and policy measures specifi-
cally directed towards landless rural groups.
- Initiating a study on technological change in agro-processing and
its impact on women's employment with a view to developing a
viable strategy and guidelines for future FAO action in this area.
- Methodological work on manpower planning for rural development led
to the completion of a study on manpower planning for different
livestock systems. Technical advice and assistance was provided to
the Government of Benin in carrying out a comprehensive survey of
trained manpower resources in the agricultural/rural sector.
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Japan/ICA Cooperative Training Workshop, Tokyo, February.
First Governing Council of the Regional Centre on Agrarian Reform and
Rural Development, Amman, Jordan, February.
Eighth Session of the Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation (ACC Task
Force on Rural Development), Rome, March.
UNDP/FAO/ANGOC Workshop on NGO Promotion, Philippines, March.
Working Group on the Impact of Macro-Economic Policies on the Rural
Poor (ACC Task Force on Rural Development), Rome, April.
Eleventh Biennial Consultation between International Trade Union
Organizations (ITUs) and FAO, Rome, April.
Regular Session of COPAC, Brussels, April.
Rural Youth Workshop on Population Issues, INT/88/P98, Santiago,
Round Table of Experts on Selected Issues in Rural Development in the
Near East, Amman, May.
Seventeenth Meeting of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development,
Workshop on Rural Workers Participation in Livelihood Activities in
Rural Development, Philippines, June.
Round Table on Rural Development Issues in Africa in Commemoration of
the tenth Anniversary of WCARRD, Arusha, Tanzania, June.
Tripartite Reviews of Project BEN/87/024 "Restructuration et
reorganisation des CARDER", Cotonou, Benin, June and December.
Government Consultation for the Near East on WCARRD Follow-up, Rabat,
DSE International Conference "Evaluation and Perspectives of GACOPEA
in French-speaking African countries", Feldafing, F.R. Germany,
Workshop on Training in Farming Systems Fourth Meeting of the
Interim Coordinating Committee of the SIDA/FAO Cooperative Programme
on Farming Systems, Njoro, Kenya, August.
International Workshop on Strategy and Methology of Participatory
Rural Development, Arusha, September.
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International Workshop on Evaluation of Social Development Programmes
and Projects in the Third World, Swansea University, U.K., September.
Near East Regional Economic and Social Policy Commission, Cairo,
OATUU/ICFTU Conference, Nairobi, October, (included discussions
FAO/ICFTU on the role of rural workers organizations in
income/employment projects in Africa).
Regular Meeting of COPAC, Paris, October.
Third Government Consultation for Africa on WCARRD Follow-up, Addis
Regional Meeting, Representatives of Arab Agricultural Workers Peasant
Organizations, Damascus, Syria, December.
Preparatory. Mission for an Inter-Agency WCARRD Policy Review Mission
in Laos, January.
Project Formulation Mission for the second phase of UNFPA/FAO project
MOR/85/P01 "Education de la population et developpement des femmes en
zones rurales et urbaines peripheriques", February.
Participation in WFP Mission to the Philippines, involving the
appraisal of three projects: Expansion of PHI 2816 "Assistance for
Rehabilitation of Displaced Sugar Workers in Negros Occidental"; PHI
3691 "Agroforestry Support for Social Forestry Projects"; and PHI 3638
"Assistance for Construction and Rehabilitation of Communal Irrigation
Formulation Mission 2nd Phase GCP/HON/013 NET (Women's Project),
Project Formulation Mission .to Madagascar, (MAG/86/005 -
"Developpement rural integr6 de la region du Lac Itasy"),
Technical Backstopping Mission, (Project GCP/NER/028/ITA), Keita,
In-depth Evaluation Mission, ( Project BGD/81/012), Bangladesh,
Group Promoter Training Mission and Project Inception Mission,
(Project GCP/PAK/076/NET), Pakistan, April.
- 19 -
Visit to Agrotecnico Instituto, Bento Goncalves, and Research Centre,
University dos Sinos, Sao Leopold, Brazil, May.
Technical Backstopping Mission to Guinea (GUI/86/004 "Developpement
rural du Fouta Djallon"), June.
SIDA/FAO Cooperative Programme Mission on Farming Systems Education
and Training to Kenya, Botswana, Zambia and Tanzania, May.
Technical Backstopping Mission to Suriname, Paramaribo ( Project
Inter-disciplinary Mission to the Philippines to identify a
bilateral/multilateral Integrated Rural Development Project in support
of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Programme, June.
Discussions with TUIAFPW on planning of Rural Workers Organizations
project activities in rural development, Moscow, July.
Inception Mission, to Cali, Bogota and Zaragoza, Colombia (Project
Technical Backstopping Mission to Tegucigalpa, Honduras (Project
Discussions regarding letter of agreement with ISEAC, El Salvador,
Discussions with the Joint FAO/ECA Agriculture Division on the
Programme on Evaluation of Rural Development Experiences in Africa
(ERDEA), Addis Ababa, October.
Review/Formulation Mission to Swaziland (Project GCP/SWA/019/NET),
Tripartite Evaluation Mission to Zambia, (Project GCP/ZAM/025/NET),
Discussions with IFPAAW, Geneva, on planning of Rural Workers
Organizations project activities in rural development, December.
Agricultural Sector Policy Review Mission to Laos, December.
Technical Backstopping Mission to Mauritania related to the design and
implementation of a field survey on the socio-economic conditions of
pastoral groups affected by drought, December.
- 20 -
AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION AND EXTENSION SERVICE (ESHE)
A.M. El Zoobi
Senior Officer (Agricultural Education)
Senior Officer (Agricultural Training and
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Extension Education and Training
Training Methodology Specialist
Agricultural Education Officer
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Education Officer
Population Education Officer, UNFPA Project
INT/88/P28 (posted at HQ)
Summary of Service Activities
In 1989, the main focus of the Service's Regular Programme work
was on the preparations for and conduct of the Global Consultation on
Agricultural Extension which took place in Rome from 4 to 8 December. In
addition, ESHE's field programme assisted about 90 countries in
strengthening the capabilities of agricultural education, extension and
training personnel. This led to the improvement of skills and abilities
of the agricultural manpower in these countries. ESHE provided technical
backstopping in the areas of education, extension and training to at least
279 field projects and technically supervised at least 106 experts, 82
consultants and 36 contracts to help execute such projects. This technical
assistance work was complemented and reinforced by training workshops,
seminars, advisory/formulation missions and through the design, development
and protesting of training and extension support materials. The priority
emphasis of ESHE's field activities continued to be on Africa.
At the request of member countries, ESHE identified and developed
47 new projects, either entirely devoted to extension, education and/or
training, or with significant components in these fields, with a total
value of about US$ 36.5 million.
A few of the more significant ESHE activities, conducted during
1989, are briefly described below.
- 21 -
1. Institution Building in Agricultural Education
The year 1989 saw continued emphasis on the development of
institutional capacity for agricultural education at university and
intermediate levels. Various countries were assisted through policy
advice, project formulation and related activities. Projects, such as the
FAO/UNDP assisted programme for the development of 28 national advanced
centres for post-graduate agricultural education and research in India,
continued to receive technical monitoring and guidance.
The Regular Programme financed Global Case Study Programme on
strategies for higher agricultural education progressed significantly. By
the end of 1989, 15 case studies had been received and the analysis and
preparation of a summary report for subsequent discussion by an expert
consultation to be held in 1990 had been concluded with a North American
university. Likewise, preparations were underway for a series of regional
strategy meetings, the first two of which are foreseen for Asia/Pacific and
for French-speaking Africa in 1990. The results of these will be reflected
in the final version of the comprehensive draft paper entitled "Strategies
for Strengthening Agricultural Education and Training in Developing
Countries", which was prepared by ESHE in 1989.
2. Studies on Agricultural Extension
Two kinds of studies on agricultural extension were completed: a)
the Survey of National Agricultural Extension Organizations and b) the Case
Studies on Agricultural Extension Approaches.
The forms for the Extension Organizations Survey were sent to 154
countries. By the end of the year, 113 countries had returned the forms.
Eightysix of them were received by the end of July and were used as the
data base for the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension document,
entitled "The Current Status of Agricultural Extension Worldwide". The
information from all 113 countries is being used for the preparation of the
"Directory of Agricultural Extension Worldwide" and for the preparation of
a technical paper on "Agricultural Extension and Farm Women in the 1980s".
Twenty-six case studies of extension efforts known to be
"successful" were commissioned in late 1988; nine in Africa, seven in
Asia, six in Latin America and the Caribbean and four in the Near East.
The information from these case studies, plus one case study from a
European country and a case study on Strategic Extension Campaigns, were
used in the preparation of another document for the Global Consultation on
Agricultural Extension, entitled "Agricultural Extension Approaches: What
FAO's Case Studies Reveal". Much of the data from these case studies is
being used in the preparation of the ESHE technical paper on Agricultural
Extension and Women, mentioned above.
- 22 -
3. Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension
In recognition of the importance of knowledge as a major factor in
improving the productivity and living standards of farmers and farm people,
the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension was held at FAO
Headquarters in Rome, Italy, from 4 to 8 December 1989. The objectives of
the Consultation were to examine the world's experience with agricultural
extension, the resource commitments, the major approaches and methods, the
kinds and clientele served and women's participation, and to draw up some
guidelines for action to improve the support and cost-effectiveness of
extension. This was the first Consultation of its kind to address such
issues. Six documents were prepared for discussion by the Consultation:
(i) The Keynote Address, delivered by the Assistant Director-General, ES,
which provided the framework and defined the scope and major issues
of the Consultation.
(ii) The Current Status of Agricultural Extension Worldwide, (based on
national survey data from 86 countries).
(iii) Agricultural Extension Approaches: What FAO's Case Studies Reveal,
(based on 24 case studies).
(iv) Agricultural Extension: The World Bank's Experience and Approaches.
(v) External Assistance in Agricultural Extension: The USAID Experience.
(vi) FAO's Experiences in Agricultural Extension and Rural Development.
The Consultation was conducted in English, French and Spanish and
about 40 percent of the time was devoted to small group discussions and 60
percent to plenaries and other activities. A collection of extension and
training materials (involving some 200 publications) was displayed and
added to the educational and professional atmosphere of the Consultation.
The Consultation was attended by 36 high-level extension experts,
agricultural development planners and administrators from FAO member
countries, nine experts from other international agencies and two FAO
Regional Officers, as well as Headquarters staff.
Some of the major recommendations with implications for FAO's
The concept that agricultural extension is for both technology
transfer and improvement of farmers' knowledge was strongly supported. It
was therefore considered inevitable that agricultural extension services
for most farmers of the developing world should be government supported.
- 23 -
Explicit national policy for the public agricultural extension
system is required and should give greater attention to the vast majority
of poor and subsistence farmers, women and rural youth. FAO should assist
countries in: a) developing an agricultural extension policy; b) promoting
the sharing of information on innovative extension programmes for those
target groups; and c) developing overall extension strategy, selecting
suitable approaches and methods and improved financial, personnel and
Improvement of the effective coverage of agricultural extension
systems is required through participatory methods, increased use of mass
media, reduction of non-extension activities of staff and, in many
countries, increased number and training of extension staff at all levels.
Improvement of procedures for monitoring and evaluation was recommended.
FAO should assist by making available monitoring and evaluation materials
and through workshops, training and other forms of technical assistance.
.It is expected that the Consultation findings and report will be
used in the formulation of FAO's strategy and policy on agricultural
extension for the 1990s and the early part of the 21st century. Completion
of the final report in English, French and Spanish is expected by May 1990.
The Directory of Agricultural Extension Worldwide will be edited and
published in 1990.
4. Improving Agricultural Extension Work with Rural Women
Rural women take an active part in the production, harvesting,
processing, storage and marketing of food and fibre. African women
contribute two-thirds of all of the hours spent in traditional agricultural
production and three-fifths of the hours spent in marketing. Over 90 per-
cent of the agricultural extension workers in Africa are men while as much
as 90 percent of the food on the tables is produced by women.
Agricultural extension information networks often neglect or
bypass women producers. Many women are unable to attend farm demonstrations
because of work and family obligations and training and credit programmes
are rarely available to men and women on an equitable basis.
An FAO project supported by Norway, the Netherlands and Denmark is
currently addressing the issue of improving agricultural extension work
with women through a series of activities which started with case studies
examining the situation in Kenya, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Zambia and
Zimbabwe. Representatives from these countries and the donors then met to
discuss the case studies and to map out a strategy for activities in each
- 24 -
National workshops followed, as a result of which policies and
strategies for improving agricultural extension work with rural women have
been developed in the participating countries. The pre-service and
in-service curricula and courses of study for agricultural extension
students and staff are now being reviewed and revised to include specific
gender related issues and to train extension staff so that they will be
better prepared to include women as an integral part of the agricultural
5. Promoting Low Cost and Participatory Extension Campaigns
ESHE continues its activities in an increasing number of countries
which requested technical assistance in the area of Strategic Extension
Campaign (SEC) methdology. In 1989, with assistance from ESHE and through
the activities of several field projects in Asia and Africa, various SEC
activities have been planned, implemented and/or evaluated. These
countries included Zambia, Malawi, Burundi, Rwanda, Tunisia, Sri Lanka,
Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, etc. with extension campaign topics as
varied as maize production, weed control, population education, snail
control, pest surveillance, safe use of pesticides, tick-borne disease
SEC is based on a participatory problem identification and
solution process on the causes of farmers' non-adoption or inappropriate
practice of a recommended technology or innovation. The key components of
the SEC activities include i) a farmer's Knowledge, Attitude and Practice
(KAP) survey, whose results are used as strategic extension campaign
planning inputs and as bench-mark/baseline for impact evaluation purposes;
and ii) a series of practical workshops to train cadres of
extension/training personnel, including subject matter specialists and
communication support staff, as well as farmer leaders, on the skills of
campaign planning, strategy development, message design, low-cost,
multi-media materials development, packaging, protesting and production,
campaign management planning and evaluation.
Various skill-development workshops on the SEC process,
methodology and evaluation have been conducted by ESHE's staff and/or
consultants for participants in those countries implementing the SEC
activities. Empirical evaluation studies of SEC activities have been
conducted in many countries and have shown significant positive changes in
farmers' knowledge, attitude and practice vis-a-vis the recommended
To facilitate more rapid and cost-effective replication of SEC
activities in many countries with a high degree of quality-control, ESHE
has initiated activities in developing and packaging standardized SEC
instructional/training modules for use by ESHE staff/consultants in
training of trainers activities on SEC methodology/techniques.
- 25 -
6. Training Curriculm Design and Instructional Modules Development
Activities in the area of training methodology development have
progressed well, especially in curriculum design and prototype
instructional modules development for training of field extension workers.
In 1989, ESHE staff and experts/consultants assisted various field
projects, such as a regional project in Asia (GCP/RAS/101) and several
national projects i.e. Indonesia (UTF/INS/067/INS), China (CPR/88/067), and
Sri Lanka (SRL/84/037) in developing extension training curricula and
modules with a variety of subjects/topics.
ESHE has also made preparations for developing a Trainers' Guide
to Curriculum Development, which will provide step-by-step guidelines and
suggestions for planning, developing, implementing and managing a training
course/workshop. The Guide will incorporate some important lessons learned
from FAO's experience in conducting field training activities and in
developing training curricula and instructional modules and learning aids.
The prototype of the Guide is expected to be ready for protesting in late
7. Integration of Population Education into Agricultural Extension
Since 1986, ESHE has been operating a UNFPA-funded project on
"Strategic Integration of Population Education into the Agricultural
Extension Services". Significant progress has been made in implementing
the pilot activities in eight countries during 1989. Baseline surveys to
determine the population education needs and relevant messages which need
to be incorporated into the agricultural extension activities have been
conducted in these participating countries. Specific follow-up activities
will include a series of workshops on strategy development, message design,
materials development and training for trainers and agricultural extension
workers. So far, workshops on strategy development, message design and
materials development have been conducted in Malawi and Tunisia.
In addition to this interregional project, ESHE has continued to
provide, since 1988, technical assistance to various national projects
which integrate population education into the agricultural extension
service, such as those in Uganda and Kenya.
8. Integration of Population Education into Programmes for Rural Youth
and Young Farmers
The recognition that population education is a necessary part of
activities related to rural development has provided added emphasis on the
Division's work with rural youth and young farmers. Young men and women
should be in a position to make informed decisions as they prepare for
adult responsibilities in their communities. The effect of rapid
population growth on agricultural production, the environment, the
- 26 -
conservation of natural resources, educational and employment
opportunities and nutrition should be well understood. Through project
INT/88/P98 a set of guides, booklets and tracking aids have been prepared
for the leaders of youth groups. The English language version of these
eleven booklets and the accompanying materials have been field tested in
East Africa while the French and Spanish versions are being field-tested in
West Africa and Latin America. The materials will be made available for
widespread use after appropriate revisions are made. Project activities
will be expanded into the Asia and Pacific region during the coming year.
The main target audience for this project was out-of-school rural
youth, but it is now recognized that these materials will have application
beyond this original group.
9. Other ESHE Activities
a) Joint Action with Specialized Organizations of the UN
In 1989, the FAO/Unesco/ILO Inter-Secretariat Working Group on
Agricultural Education, Science and Training (ISWG), held one session, the
52nd, in FAO Headquarters. During the 51st session, it had been agreed
that future sessions would include substantive discussions on issues of
common interest. The topic selected for the 52nd session, and presented by
FAO, centred on the theme of curriculum design and development in
agricultural education and training.
Collaboration with the World Bank in agricultural extension and
training was further intensified during 1989. Eleven ongoing projects with
large agricultural extension and training elements were backstopped by
ESHE, especially with respect to their technical assistance components that
had been assigned to FAO for execution. At least three additional projects
of a similar nature are in the pipeline. In addition, ESHE collaborated
with the World Bank in the area of policy formulation and advice on
extension strategies which culminated in the Bank's active participation in
the Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension, mentioned earlier in
ESHE continued its collaboration with the WHO/FAO/UNEP Panel of
Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control (PEEM) in the
development of strategies to incorporate environmental management for
vector control into agricultural extension programmes. To this effect,
both ESHE and the WHO Division of Vector Biology and Control allocated
funds in their 1989 budgets for the purpose of establishing a strategy and
preparing a position paper and workshop on the subject. The position paper
will be ready for publication early in 1990.
- 27 -
b) Collaboration on Rural Youth Work
The UNFPA funded project INT/88/P98: "Integration of Population
Education into Programmes for Rural Youth" has continued to provide an
opportunity for inter-agency cooperation in Latin America. Unesco has
assisted in the preparation of a set of Leaders' Guides and Teaching Aids,
which are aimed at helping rural youth and young farmers to better
understand the effects of rapid population growth on a number of issues
related to rural development, increased agricultural production and the
overall quality of life in the rural areas.
Preparations are again underway for the 15th International Seminar
for the Promotion of Rural Youth Work, to be held in Herrsching, FRG. The
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry in Bonn has organized this
biennial seminar for the last thirty years, with FAO assistance in the form
of promotional activities through contacts with the Ministries of
Agriculture and FAO projects in developing countries.
c) Inter-Departmental Working Group on Training (IDWGT)
ESHE continues to be responsible as the Secretariat of the IDWGT.
Its 24th meeting was held in November 1989 and discussed, inter alia, the
issue of FAO.'s agricultural extension policy and the development of
strategies for strengthening agricultural education and training in
developing countries. In addition, based on the results of the Review of
FAO's Educational and Training Publications, which was part of IDWGT
activities, a Guide for Developing Educational/Training Materials was
developed in 1989 by ESHE. The Guide is expected to be ready by mid-1990.
The ESHE publication, "Trainer's Guide to Evaluation", which was
also part of the IDWGT activities, has been requested by many interested
readers, both from within and outside FAO, although it is still in its
prototype version. The Guide is being pretested for its content's
relevance, format, presentation, appropriateness and readability by field
trainers in Sri Lanka, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Solomon Islands,
etc. Based on the results of this evaluation, an improved and revised
version of the Guide is expected to be published by the end of 1990, while
the French and Spanish versions will be available in early 1991. In South
Korea, the Guide has been translated into the Korean language and
distributed to agricultural training.institutions and extension personnel.
d) ESHE Missions
During 1989, ten staff members of ESHE undertook various field
missions to provide technical assistance to member countries. During the
year, nineteen missions related to field programme monitoring and technical
backstopping were carried out in fourteen countries. In addition, fifteen
other missions were undertaken, devoted to the conduct of training seminars
and workshops and attendance at technical meetings.
- 28 -
f) Involvement in Conducting Training Activities
During 1989 ESHE implemented the following workshops and seminars:
Workshop on the Use and Field-Testing of a Set of Leaders' Guides and
Instructional Materials (INT/88/P98), Sierra Leone, January/February.
National Workshop on Agricultural Training, Extension and Research
Linkages, Sudan, March.
National Workshop on Rural Youth Work in the Philippines, April.
National Workshop on Extension Campaign Planning (BDI/85/011),
Three-Country Workshop (Chile, Colombia, Guatemala) on Integration of
Population Education into Programmes for Rural Youth, Chile, May.
National Policy/Strategy Workshop on Improvement of Agricultural
Extension for Women (GCP/RAF/241), Sierra Leone, June.
National Workshop on Strategy Planning, Message Design and Materials
Development for Population Education through Agricultural Extension
Services (INT/88/P28), Malawi, September.
National Workshop on Extension Campaign Planning (TUN/86/020),
National Workshop on Strategy Planning, Message Design and Materials
Development for Population Education through Agricultural Extension
Services (INT/88/P28), Tunisia, December.
- 29 -
4. The Agrarian Reform and Land Settlement Service (ESHL)
R. Sandoval Service Chief
T.C. Varghese Senior Officer (Land Tenure and Settlement)
J.C. Riddell Senior Officer (Land Tenure and Settlement)
M. Dravi Senior Officer (Production Structure)
A. Herrera Garibay Land Tenure and Settlement Officer
Stmmary of Service Activities
ESHL activities cover all aspects of agrarian reform, land tenure
and settlement and the analysis of production structures and in 1989 were
concentrated on the preparation of meetings to commemorate the tenth
anniversary of WCARRD.
Two WCARRD meetings were organized in the Asia and the Pacific
Region. A Round Table on relevant issues was held in Bangkok from 23 to 29
April. It was attended by eight experts from different countries of the
region, including two from the South Pacific. Following the Round Table,
the sixth Government Consultation for Asia and the Pacific Region on the
Follow-up to WCARRD was held in Bangkok from 6 to 9 June. Representatives
from 17 member countries, six U.N. Agencies and four Intergovernmental
Organizations attended the Consultation.
The fifth Government Consultation for Latin American and the
Caribbean was held in Antigua, Guatemala, from 21 to 25 August 1989.
Representatives from 22 Latin American and Caribbean countries, five United
Nations Organisations and three International Organizations attended the
event. The meeting reviewed a report on FAO's activities on WCARRD
follow-up during the last decade, a report on activities by the UN Agencies
in support of rural development as well as reports by countries on progress
achieved and policies proposed for future action in the field of rural
development. The meeting also discussed issues related to recession,
structural adjustment and rural poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean,
people's participation in development activities and the role of NGOs
involved in promoting such activities, the impact of technology on the
production activities of women in Latin America and the Caribbean and
different associate forms of production in the agrarian reform programmes.
In order to commemorate the tenth anniversary of WCARRD in Africa
ESHL organized a Round Table which was held in Arusha, Tanzania from 6 to 8
June in close collaboration with the FAO Regional Office for Africa. It
discussed three of the major issues that emerged as deserving special
attention during the implementation of the WCARRD recommendations in
Africa. These were: 1) The impact of land tenure changes and agrarian
policies on common property resources in Africa; 2) The role of women in
agriculture and food production: achievements, constraints and prospects
and 3) NGOs Rural development and popular participation. The meeting was
attended by 23 participants including representatives of different UN
- 30 -
ESHL also organized the Third Government Consultation on WCARRD
Follow-up in the Africa Region. This was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
from 23 to 27 October. Fourty-six countries were represented at high level
of decision making; other participants included representatives of U.N.
Agencies as well as several donor countries.
The three topics discussed during the Round Table by scholars and
experts in Arusha were presented to and discussed by government officials
attending the Consultation.
The Service completed a series of studies on post-drought
adjustment in the Horn of Africa. Three of them were edited and published
for distribution and use at a seminar on this topic to be held April, 1990
in Mogadishu. This seminar aims at defining the next phase of work to be
undertaken in order to better understand the processes of adjustment to
The Service initiated a programme of support for national scholars
in examining the indigeneous knowledge systems of resource tenure
institution in Near Eastern arid environments. The Service chose the theme
of HEMA, a traditional form of using common grazing lands, for this
activity to commemorate and update the very influential work done under
this title by FAO a decade ago. The studies when completed (one in 1989)
will form the basis for a Round Table on the uses of traditional land
tenure institutions in current development programmes.
The year saw the final preparation of a WCARRD anniversary study
by the Moroccan sociologist, M. Allaoui, surveying the lessons learned in
thirty years of rangeland development in the Near East. The focus of the
study is on issues surrounding resource access, control, development and
In the responsibility area of land registration/cadastering in the
Near East, ESHL made major advances in integrating its diverse efforts. The
Service was able to combine the growing requests for assistance in land
registration and cadastering with the policy questions raised in the
current interest in fostering private land tenure forms. The Service has
organized an Expert Consultation on "Computers and Land Registration and
the Cadaster" to be held in Amman, Jordan in May, 1991. One background
study in Mauritania was completed and two others, one in Tunisia and one in
Sudan were initiated.
Land Registration/cadaster projects were designed for Yemen A.R.
and initiated in Laos and Trinidad-Tobago. The Service organized a similar
exercise on computer techniques in land consolidation in Turkey.
ESHL took an active part in organizing an Inter-Agency WCARRD
Follow-up Mission to Ecuador which took place from 25 September to 6
October. The general objective was to review and analyze the agrarian
reform and rural development policies and strategies now being implemented
by the government, within the framework of the existing development plans
and the Programme of Action adopted by WCARRD. Eight international
agencies, including FAO, participated in this activity.
- 31 -
The Service continued to provide technical assistance in agrarian
reform, land tenure and production structures in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Togo,
Ghana and to participate in project reviews. It has initiated contacts
with a number of countries e.g. Burundi, Lesotho, Gambia, Mauritius and
Seychelles for a regional research programme on land deficit countries.
As part of the activities related to the tenth anniversary of
WCARRD, ESHL prepared a publication about fundamental aspects of the rural
development processes of the sub-region of Central America. The
publication comprised three parts. The first referred to problems in the
rural areas in five Central American countries which have been influencing
their development process, i.e.: in Guatemala: The Indian Population; in
El Salvador: Land Distribution and Tenure; in Honduras: Rural Poverty, in
Nicaragua: Production Organization and Participation and in Costa Rica:
Land Tenure and Human Settlements.
The second part of the publication analysed the rural employment
situation in the sub-region, and the third part described FAO's action in
the sub-region during the last 10 years. The publication will be in
circulation in early 1990.
In collaboration with the Interamerican Indigeneous Institute,
ESHL supported the preparation of a study about the situation of the
indigenous population in Latin America and the Caribbean countries, and the
causes of their poverty and marginalization. The study refers to the need
of the countries concerned, to undertake development processes that include
ethnic and cultural participation to address issues of poverty and
marginalization of the indigenous populations.
In Asia, too, ESHL undertook study on rural poverty alleviation
programmes. It was conducted in accordance with the recommendation of the
Sixth Government Consultation for Asia and the Pacific on WCARRD Follow-up.
A detailed micro-study on landlessness in Sri Lanka was completed together
with a comparative analysis of land settlement programmes in Indonesia and
Technical assistance to land settlement programmes in Sri Lanka
and to comprehensive programmes in the Philippines was provided. The
Service participated in a multi-disciplinary mission to China with the
objective of enhancing the capability of the provincial governments to
generate improved programmes for integrated and sustained development in
On the basis of a contractual arrangement, the Centre on
Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP) has been
asked to assist member countries in developing a monitoring and evaluation
mechanism for agrarian reform and rural development. A regional workshop
was held towards the end of 1988. According to the guidelines provided by
the regional workshop, national workshops were held in 1989 in eleven
countries with the aim of assisting the countries to develop and integrate
monitoring and evaluation mechanism in agrarian reform and rural
- 32 -
5. Women in Agricultural Production and
Rural Development Service (ESHW)
Senior Officer (Women in Food Systems)
Senior Officer (Home Economics)
Senior Officer (Women in Development)
Women's Programme Officer
Associate Professional Officer (Women, Population and
Summary of Service Activities
The main feature of ESHW's activities is the implementation of the
Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development, approved by the
94th Session of the FAO Council in November 1988. The Plan was made
operational through a series of measures:
- Re-organization of the Service in order to better respond to its
re-inforced mandate as the co-ordinating unit for the implemen-
tation of the Plan and the Organization's principal unit
addressing women's issues;
- Conceptualization and elaboration of the programme of women
according to the newly defined priorities, classified into two
A. Programmatic Priorities
1. FAO staff training on Women in Development (WID);
2. Policy advice to Member Governments;
3. Project development and monitoring;
4. Re-orientation of home economics and agricultural
5. Preparation and promotion of WID guidelines and manuals;
6. Data collection, research studies, communications and
7. Population education and WID.
- 33 -
B. Administrative Priorities
1. Organization-wide efforts of awareness and compliance;
2. Provision of financial resources;
3. Increase in the number of women professional staff;
4. Co-ordination with other UN agencies.
These priorities were presented in a Progress Report submitted to
the 25th Session of the FAO Conference in November 1989 which was
unanimously approved by Member Governments.
- In the overall and intensified effort to integrate women into
mainstream development, continuous contacts were developed with
all technical divisions. One of the most significant outcomes of
this endeavour is the concrete commitment from them to include a
WID component in their Regular Programme and field activities, as
shown in the second part of the Progress Report.
At country level, FAO Representatives were requested to inform the
various governments of the Plan of Action and to define their own
priorities. So far about twenty-five requests have been
received from them.
A. Programmatic Priorities
The implementation of these priorities required the participation
of several technical units for their conception and preparation in terms of
technical inputs and budget.
Priority No. 1: FAO Staff Training on WID
Given its importance in the implementation of the Plan this
priority has been given due recognition in the Service's activities. Its
aim is to provide FAO staff with the required skills and tools to better
understand and integrate gender planning and the concerns of women in
agriculture. Chronologically and in a logical sequence, the following
activities were carried out:
Stage One: Preparatory Phase
Training needs assessment by three independent bodies in
order to get the most accurate information.
Subsequently, the conceptual framework of FAO's staff
training was designed;
Review of international training experiences on WID;
Development of training strategies and methods for
headquarters staff, regional officers and national
officers at FAO Representatives' Offices;
- 34 -
Organization of a pilot training course for participants
from four Divisions of the Agriculture Department and
Attendance of an ESHW officer at the UNDP Training
Course on Gender Analysis;
Preparation, testing and finalization of a WID module,
in English and French, for the briefing/training of
National Project Directors;
Preparation, testing and finalization of a WID module
for the Workshop/Seminar on Project Appraisal and
Development of an internal roster on potential WID
Identification and recruitment of two training
Carrying out of administrative procedures to set up a
Regular Programme post for a trainer.
Stage Two: Design of Materials and Courses
This stage was initiated in late 1989 and will be implemented
Some training activities were carried out in various countries,
such as Ethiopia, where a project was formulated to train extension staff
in WID and to review the FAO portfolio of projects.
The integration of WID in extension and in project activities, or
the lack thereof, is likely to influence the efficiency and effectiveness
in increasing rural production as well as in improving the living standards
of rural families and communities. The training in WID at country level
requires the participation of decision and policy makers as well as
agricultural staff. FAO received a request from the Government of Ethiopia
for TCP assistance to develop a project for training of extension staff on
WID and to review the FAO portfolio of projects in the country in terms of
how the topic of women in development can be better incorporated into
projects. The major objectives of the TCP assistance that constitutes the
rationale and expected goals for FAO assistance are:
(a) to develop a project for training Ethiopian agricultural extension
staff in the Ministry of Agriculture and in the field. The
training should aim at increasing the awareness of WID issues and
providing the tools to ensure inclusion of WID in the services
- 35 -
(b) to review ongoing FAO projects in Ethiopia and to determine the
extent to which WID has been taken into consideration so far and
to determine if found necessary, measures with a view to involving
women more systematically.
The methodology followed and developed in Ethiopia is expected to
be used in other countries in the future.
Priority No. 2: Policy Advice to Member Governments
The basic objective of this priority is to assist Member
Governments, within their own context, to adopt policies, technical and
legal measures to improve the status of women and their participation in
the social and economic life of their family, community and country.
The implementation of this priority is executed either through
specific policy advice missions or through field projects that have policy
and planning components (see Priority No. 3).
Here are some examples of activities in this field:
Consultancy mission to El Salvador to formulate a project which
aims to build a national programme for the integration of rural
women into agricultural and rural development strategies of the
country. This was a joint activity with UNDP.
Technical assistance to the FAO/Italy Training Programme in
agricultural and rural development planning, policies and projects
for Latin America and the Caribbean (PROCAPLAN), to integrate
women's issues and develop an academic content in the training
courses carried out by the regional programme. The report of the
consultancy is now being reviewed.
Backstopping of consultancy mission to integrate women's concerns
into the national forestry programmes of Mexico and Tanzania which
were designed under the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. Joint
activity with FOD.
Preparation of a pre-project concerning an umbrella programme to
assist FAO in the implementation of a Plan of Action for WID for
some Latin American and African countries. This pre-project was
submitted to the Italian Government requesting their support in
setting up a preparatory phase of a larger project.
Together with ESN two joint activities were developed in order to:
a) integrate nutritional components into the training courses for
rural women leaders under project GCP/HON/013/NET; and b) support
the National Associations of Peasant and Indigenous Women in
Colombia (AMUCIC) to integrate institutional components in their
own training programmes.
- 36 -
Organization of a Regional Workshop on Planning and Implementation
Aspects of Programmes and Projects Assisting Women Farmers in
ASEAN Countries to understand some of the successful approaches
and results, as well as constraints encountered in planning and
implementation of rural development projects assisting women
farmers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In order
to develop a much needed knowledge base for programming activities
at country level and to further strengthen regional co-operation
in the future, the workshop was organised in Thailand in August
1989. It was attended by thirty-three participants and focused on
the following issues:
(a) Background information on the status and contributions of
women in agriculture and development;
(b) National development plans and national machineries
especially the roles of key departments/institutions/organiz-
ations with major programme objectives and activities in
regard to supporting rural women in agriculture and rural
(c) Co-ordination among various agencies engaged in local
planning and integration of rural women's concerns into
mainstream agriculture and rural development action
(d) Key planning and implementation issues and mechanisms in
development efforts to effectively meet women's needs,
enhance their productivity and ensure their access to
development resources and benefits;
(e) Identification of issues and mechanisms which would further
strengthen co-operation among countries in the region,
particularly in: survey designs for rapid analysis of
beneficiary needs, effective training of planners and project
staff for planning and executing programmes to strengthen the
roles of rural women; skill development training for
beneficiaries in production, management, marketing,
establishing revolving fund-credit schemes, and obtaining
rural credit; and project monitoring-evaluation tools; and,
(f) Provision of vital technical information and framework for
possible implementation by participating countries and for
possible future support by FAO.
The outcome of the workshop is being followed with project
development exercises at country level. FAO also assisted the
ASEAN Secretariat in the development of a regional project
- 37 -
Priority No. 3: Project Development and Monitoring
As projects are the main instrument in delivery of development
assistance special emphasis was put on this priority. The two-pronged
approach of specific projects or components for women and of integrating
them into the mainstream of projects was maintained. Within the framework
of a project funded by the Netherlands, a one-year post in headquarters was
created in order to systematically analyze pipeline projects and monitor
the inclusion of gender considerations and WID concerns in the planning,
formulating, implementing, monitoring and evaluating field projects. The
members of the Inter-Divisional Working Group on Women in Development
(IDWG/WID) together with WID focal points were informed about the
above-mentioned priorities and the modalities of the Plan of Action.
ESHW's intervention may be classified into two categories:
technical backstopping of on-going projects and participation during design
of new projects.
Regarding the first category, technical backstopping is provided
to an average of sixty projects. During the reporting period ESHW
continued to provide technical backstopping to the field projects under
funding sources of TCP, TF and UNDP. It was particularly encouraging to
have increased collaboration with UNDP regional programme divisions and
country offices. Field projects in Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Yemen Arab Republic
and Tanzania 'had their tripartite reviews during the year and all of them
were extended into a second phase. A new project in Nepal funded by
Norway, on women in agricultural development, was initiated during the
second half of 1989.
The following projects were backstopped:
GCP/EGY/017/NET: This project is being reorganized at the
recommendations of the tripartite review mission. A new National
Expert on Planning Women's Programmes was recruited and helped
design a new Plan of Work.
Preparation of a TCP project on "Training of Female Extension
Workers" for the General Department of Training, Ministry of
Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt.
YEM/88/004: "Rural Development for Women in Khowlan".
GCP/HON/013/NET: This project trained 374 rural women leaders in
agricultural cum entrepreneurial and social skills and promoted
their self-sufficient organization, and benefitted more than 5 400
other women, organized in 450 groups. A document for the second
phase of the project has been prepared and submitted to the
Government of the Netherlands for funding consideration.
A TCP project will play the role of a "bridge" between phases 1
and 2 of the project.
- 38 -
Reformulation and subsequent submission to the Government of
Norway of a project proposal aiming to integrate rural women into
the agriculture co-operative sector of Nicaragua.
Formulation of a project proposal to integrate peasant women into
food production and income-generating strategies in the Dominican
Mission to Mexico to discuss with field staff mechanisms to
integrate women's concerns into activities of the three ongoing
FAO/UNDP projects related to the areas of: agriculture, milk
production and rural development.
With regard to the participation of ESHW in project design,
comments have been prepared for fifteen projects drafted by other
Two new WID projects were formulated one in Uganda entitled
"Agricultural Pre-Cooperative Development Demonstration Project for Low
Income Women Farmer Groups in Tororo District" and one in Cameroon entitled
"Assistance to Small Farmers and Women's Groups in Production, Storage,
Processing and Marketing of Potatoes and Associated Food Crops".
Priority No. 4: Reorientation of Home Economics and Agricultural Curricula
The redesign of home economics and agricultural curricula is a key
to development as home economics and agricultural extension workers are
important agents for promoting agricultural and rural development.
One of the main activity has been the preparation of a curriculum
guide for a course on "Rural Households and Resource Allocation for
Development An Ecosystem Perspective". Three workshops were organized in
1989 (Bangkok: 18-20 April; Malawi: 17-21 July; and Nigeria: 29-31 August)
in order to appraise the guidelines. They have subsequently been revised.
A final version has been prepared and is ready for printing.
In order to better assist Member Governments and institutions in
curriculum revision, two concept papers have been prepared: a) Redefining
the Role of Home Economics in Development: A Rationale and Conceptual
Framework and b) Redesigning and Restructuring Home Economics Training in
Selected Developing Countries in Africa and Asia.
In collaboration with the World Conservation Union, a workshop was
organized in Mali, from 11 to 23 December on the subject of "Improvement of
Management Capacities of Members of Women's Groups Involved in
Income-generating Activities". The workshop aimed at training trainers who
are providing assistance to women's groups. Its conclusions will serve as a
basis for a publication on the subject of "Management Skills Related to
- 39 -
Priority No. 5: Preparation and Promotion of Women in Development
Guidelines and Manuals
Guidelines and manuals are practical tools to help
decision-makers, advisors and technical assistance to integrate WID
concerns in policy and programme development.
Project GCP/INT/463/NOR: "Inter-Regional Support for Activities
of the Inter-Divisional Working Group on Women in Development", was
instrumental in strengthening of the activities the IDWG/WID through the
development of case studies, guidelines, checklists and participation of
WID specialists in formulation missions. The main outputs were the
preparation of three sets of guidelines, two for the Forestry Department
and one for the Agriculture Department, two case studies, one on livestock
for women and one on fisheries and two formulation missions for the
inclusion of a women's component in two agricultural production projects.
In view of the success of this project, a new project proposal entitled:
"Support to the Implementation of the Plan of Action for Integration of
Women in Development", was developed and presented to the Government of
Norway. It focuses, in particular, on the development of guidelines in
the field of fertilizer application, animal production, integrated pest
management, the integration of WID in the project cycle and the
establishment of socio-economic indicators for monitoring and evaluating
agrarian reform and rural development.
Furthermore working sessions were held with the TCP unit to revise
TCP guidelines in order to include women's issues. The guidelines of UNDP
on the integration of WID components were reviewed and commented upon.
Priority No. 6: Data Collection, Research Studies, Communication and
The main activity under this priority, jointly carried out with
ESS, was the completion of preliminary work to set up a database on women
in rural development. In the mid-term ESHW is planning to install, in the
planning units of technical ministries of Member Governments, a database on
Research studies concerning several aspects of women in rural
development, in particular legislation and agricultural production have
been carried out, such as:
Studies on rural women and legislation in Colombia, Cuba, El
Salvador, Mexico and Venezuela, in co-operation with RLAC.
A study on "The Impact of Agricultural Technology and Production
Activities of Rural Women in Latin America and the Caribbean",
which was presented in the 5th WCARRD Follow-up Government
Consultation in Antigua, Guatemala, held in August.
- 40 -
An analytical study with a comparative approach concerning the
impact of legislation on rural women's conditions in various
countries in Asia and the Pacific and in Latin America.
Case studies of experiences of some rural women's organizations in
Andean countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela,
aiming to identify methodological elements of work with these
organizations through the study of the constraints and successful
factors of their organizational experiences. Joint activity with
A study on women in fishery activities in Chile and Peru. Joint
activity with the Fisheries Department.
Country studies on the impact of irrigation development on women
farmers i.e. the effects of the introduction of irrigation in
traditionally rainfed situations in Botswana, Madagascar, Malawi
and Zimbabwe. They focuss on the economic and social role of women
farmers, describe their involvement in project design and
implementation and relative to men, their position before and
after the introduction of irrigation schemes. The studies also
highlight what women would have wanted from the project and
whether it would have been possible to achieve. The overall
objectives of the studies were to identify successful mechanisms
for assisting women farmers to better benefit from irrigation
development and management. The results of the studies will be
summarised in a publication and will form the basis for a regional
workshop, where project checklists and guidelines would be
A study on "The Impact of Irrigation on Women in Asia: an
Overview". Before being finalized, this document will be expanded
by incorporating specific data collected in India.
A document on "Improvement of Traditional Technology in Food
Processing" based on experience from women's groups activities in
Benin is ready for publication.
A case study on the methodology to reach women and youth groups in
a project in Senegal. Analysis of obstacles, successes and
lessons for the future will be strengthened before the case study
can be finalized for publication.
Two documents on women on the occasion of the commemoration of the
tenth anniversary of WCARRD: "Women, Agriculture and Food
Production in Africa", presented at the Third Governmental
Consultation on Follow-up to WCARRD in Africa in Ethiopia and at
the Expert Consultation on Rural Development in Arusha, Tanzania;
and "Rural Women and the Changing Socio-Economic Conditions in the
Near East", presented at the Round Table on Selected Issues on
Rural Development in the Near East, Amman, Jordan.
- 41 -
- In collaboration with the Information Division a bibliography on
WID extracted from the FAO documents database was issued.
- The publication of a Popular Version of the Plan of Action in
English, French and Spanish was initiated in 1989.
Priority No. 7: Population Education and WID
The aim of this priority was to integrate demographic concerns
affecting women in agricultural and rural development planning and
programming into development projects.
The FAO/UNFPA inter-regional project INT/86/PO5 entitled
"Pre-project Population, Women and Rural/Agricultural Development"
continued in 1989, with particular emphasis on the identification of
linkages between women's food production oriented activities, income/
welfare of families, demographic size of the families and farm resources,
and how they affect or are affected by, production factors. This enabled
FAO to start integrating population into ongoing and pipeline projects on
women in food systems and agricultural development, to bring about more
grass-roots level information on the relationship between development
issues and demographic factors and will be of value to governments in the
formulation of their population and development strategies and action
The outcome of the research studies, conducted in Africa, as well
as in Nicaragua and Honduras, will also help to convey to project planners
and field staff a better understanding of the issues involved and provide
them with a basis for strengthening rural development policies, planning
and support services reaching rural women. The results already indicate
the need for integration of population education components into women in
rural and agricultural development projects.
The research methodology and analytical tools developed under the
Pre-project INT/86/P05 during 1989 will be utilized further for the
development of a standardized baseline survey format and a monitoring and
evaluation system for all country projects related to the integration of
population/women concerns in rural/agricultural development.
With regard to research activities under INT/86/P05 in Asia, a
Technical Consultation was organized in Bangkok in December 1989 in close
collaboration with the Regional Population Advisers in RAPA. The overall
objective of the meeting was to provide an orientation concerning the
project to government officials, to consult with them concerning the
research component; and to share and formulate ideas for possible
follow-up programmes. The consultation was attended by officials from
liaison and counterpart ministries and institutions from Thailand,
Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines and Indonesia.
- 42 -
The meeting led to the following action. The design of country
case studies, in the participating Asian countries, was further refined;
their methodological framework was developed on the basis of integrating
population concerns into ongoing and pipeline projects that reach rural
women and the development of regional programmes and country projects for
integrated population, women and agricultural development.
Draft guidelines on the formulation of integrated population/
women in rural/agricultural development projects were developed under the
pre-project INT/86/P05 and will be further tested and refined during 1990.
In addition to the activities carried out under INT/86/P05, ESHW
also provided technical backstopping, formulation, review and advisory
services to the newly developed UNFPA-funded Population, Women and Rural
Development country projects in China, Vietnam, Uganda and Ghana; the
UNFPA-funded pipeline projects for Zambia, Philippines, Indonesia and
Nepal, and the WIFS projects funded by UNDP, Norway and the Netherlands in
Nepal, Yemen Arab Republic and Egypt, which have already integrated
population/family-life education components.
B. Administrative Priorities
Certain administrative and operational arrangements were
identified to support the implementation of the programme priorities and
consequently the effective implementation of the Plan of Action. ESHW was
particularly active in the following areas:
1. Organization-Wide Efforts of Awareness and Compliance
The main activities to publicize the Plan of Action, both at
headquarters and in the field, were the following:
Preparation of a letter from the Director-General to all
Departments at headquarters and Regional Offices to initiate the
implementation of the Plan in their respective fields;
Preparation of a letter to FAO Representatives and UNDP
Representatives (in countries without FAORs) requesting them to
notify Member Governments of FAO's readiness in considering
requests for assistance within the limits of available resources;
Intensive contacts and briefing of FAO technical units on the Plan
Organization of a monthly seminar series on women in agriculture,
consisting of presentations by consultants, visiting experts and
FAO staff on research, project experiences, new methods/theories
- 43 -
2. Increasing the Number of Female Professionals in FAO
In collaboration with Personnel Division, a strategy was developed
in order to make progress toward reaching the UN target of 30 percent
female staff members in FAO by 1995. Its main components are the
- Development of a roster with female candidates;
- Sensitization of technical divisions to recruit female officers
- Promoting applications from female candidates through modified
vacancy announcements and revision of its distribution list;
- Seeking FAOR participation to identify suitable female candidates.
3. Co-ordination and Collaboration with Other UN Agencies
In this field the Service undertook the following activities:
- Participation in the annual meeting of the Commission for the
- Attendance at an Inter-Agency meeting during which a chapter on
"Women, Food Systems and Agriculture" for the World Survey,
prepared by FAO was presented;
- Preparation of Item 7: "Review of Programme of Work of Task Force
Members on Implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking
Strategies Toward the Year 2000 for Rural Women" for the 17th
Meeting of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development; and
- Participation in the International Seminar on "Women and Rural
Development: Programmes and Projects", and presentation of a case
study on "Rural Promotion in the Senegal River Valley".
- 44 -
During 1989 the Division provided field programme assistance to
rural development and related subjects through 667 projects. They were
funded by UNDP, TF, TCP or WFP.
During 1989, the Division made 312 assessments and evaluations of
curricula vitae for 116 experts and 196 consultants. This led to the
recruitment of 32 experts and 81 consultants as well as the extension of 11
posts, all of which were backstopped by ESH. During 1989 ESH undertook 18
missions to field projects, the same as in 1988.
The initial number of staff assigned to field projects and
backstopped by ESH as of 1 January 1989 was 143, of which 93 experts and 56
consultants. With recruitments, extensions and completion of assignments
during the year, the number of field staff amounted on 31 December 1989 to
81, of which 49 staff members with longer term contracts and 32
Of the total of 667 projects which have been backstopped by the
Division, 409 or 61 percent were funded UNDP or TF; 147 or 22 percent by
TCP and 111 or 17 percent by WFP. Out of these projects backstopped, 16
were Italian Trust Fund Projects.
The regional distribution was in favour of Africa with 316 or 47
percent of all projects backstopped, followed by Asia, with 23 percent,
Near East and Latin America had a share of 13 percent and 15 percent
respectively. About 2 percent of projects were interregional.
About 8.5 percent of all projects were backstopped by more than
one Service, whereas ESHE backstopped 46.5 percent; ESHA 22.5 percent;
ESHL 11 percent and ESHW 11.4 percent (see Table 4).
Table 1. ONGOING/COMPLETED UNDP/TF PROJECTS BACKSTOPPED BY ESI!
(as at 31 December 1989)
AFRICA ASIA N.EAST L. AMERICA INTER- TOTAL %/
ESHIE 103 49 41 10 3 206 50.3
ESIIA 43 11 5 8 4 71 17.4
ESHIL 10 7 5 10 32 7.8
ES1iW 24 9 4 6 4 47 11.5
Combination 33 7 5 8 53 13.0
TOTAL 213 .83 60 42 11 409 100.0
: more than 1 service involved.
Table 2. ONGOING/COMPLETED
TCP PROJECTS BACKSTOPPED BY ESII
31 December 1989)
AFRICA ASIA L.AMERICA NEAR EAST EUROPE TOTAL %
ESHE 33 16 15 7 2 73 49.7
ESHA 13 10 10 3 36 24.5
ESIIL 3 10 6 19 12.9
ESIIW 13 2 2 2 19 12.9
TOTAL 62 38 33 12 2 147 100.0
Note: including 11 projects operated by ESII.
Table 3. ONGOING/COMPLETED WFP PROJECTS BACKSTOPPED BY ESII
(as at 31 December 1989)
AFRICA ASIA N. EAST L. AMERICA TOTAL 7.
ESHE 19 4 3 5 31 27.9
ESIIA 16 14 4 9 43 38.8
ESIIL 4 7 6 6 23 20.7
ESHW 1 4 2 3 10 9.0
Combination 1 1 1 1 4 3.6
more than 1 service involved.
Table 4. REGIONAL AND BY SERVICE DISTRIBUTION OF PROJECTS BACKSTOPPED BY ESII
(as at 31 December 1989)
AFRICA ASIA N.EAST L.AMERICA INTER- TOTAL .
UNDP/TF 103 49 41 10 3 206
TCP 33 16 7 15 2 1/ 73
WFP 19 4 3 5 31
Total 155 69 51 30 5 310 46.5
UNDP/TF 43 11 5 8 4 71
ES11A TCP 13 10 3 10 36
WFP 16 14 4 9 43
Total 72 35 12 27 4 150 22.5
UNDP/TF 10 7 5 10 32
ES1L TCP 3 10 6 19
WFP 4 7 6 6 21
Total 17 24 11 22 74 11.1
UNDP/TF 24 9 4 6 4 47
S1W TCP 13 2 2 2 19
WFP 1 4 2 3 _
Total 38 15 8 11 4 76 11.4
UNDP/TF 33 7 5 8 53
WFP 1 1 1 1 4
Total 34 8 6 9 57 8.5
(;RAND TOTAL 316 151 88 99 13 667 100.0
- 49 -
AGRARIAN REFORM AND LAND SETTLEMENT
Documento de informaci6n basica. Misi6n interagencial, (sobre
estrategias de reform agraria y desarrollo rural) Ecuador, (25 de
septiembre al 6 de octubre, 1989), 168 p.
Informe: Misi6n Interagencial sobre "estrategias de reform agraria y
desarrollo rural". Seguimiento a la Conferencia Mundial sobre Reforma
Agraria y Desarrollo Rural, Quito, Ecuador, 25 de septiembre al 6 de
octubre, 1989, 113 p.
Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives 1989, no. 1/2, 171 p.
Activities and experiences of FAO in the implementation of the
Programme of Action of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and
Rural Development, 1979-1989, by H. Meliczek, p. 1-22
Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean by R. Moreno, p. 23-32
Land reform in Chile: the process twenty years on, by J. Diaz
Osorio, p. 33-56
Recent progress toward agrarian reform in the Philippines, by
W.C. Thiesenhusen, p. 57-78
Rural development and the cadastre: issues and examples from
Somalia, by J.C. Riddell, p. 79-96
Relationships between settlers' organizations and the settlement
community in new land settlement projects: cross national
experiences, by Y. Levi, p. 97-122
Rehabilitation alternatives for pastoral populations in the Sudan, by
M.O. El Sammani, 93 p.
A study on drought induced migration and its impact on land tenure and
production in the inter-riverine region of Somalia, by M. Said
Samantar, 70 p.
- 50 -
EDUCATION, TRAINING AND EXTENSION
Global Consultation on Agricultural Extension, Rome, 4-8 December 1989
FAO's experiences in agricultural extension in agricultural and
rural development, 45 p.
The current status of agricultural extension worldwide, 43 p.
Agricultural extension approaches: what FAO's case studies reveal,
Strengthening technical support to smallholder plantation staff
through specialized training, Indonesia. Project findings and
recommendations, 34 p.
The Use and Field Testing of a Prototype Leader's Guide and Teaching
Aids: Zimbabwe Training Workshop, Kadoma, Zimbabwe, 28 November -
2 December 1988, 59 p.
Youthworks: Information Bulletin on Rural Youth and Young Farmers
(En/Fr/Sp). (Two issues in 1989)
RURAL DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AND ORGANIZATION
Alternatives de developpement des populations pastorales en R6publique
de Djibouti, by M. Guedda, 73 p.
Bilan de trente ans de developpement pastoral dans le bassin
mediterrancen, by M. Allaoui, 126 p.
People's participation in agricultural and rural development. Paper
presented at the Tenth Session of the Committee on Agriculture,
26 April 5 May 1989, 18 p. (En/Fr/Sp/Ar/Ch)
The people's participation programme in Africa (informational
brochure), 16 p.
- 51 -
The Regional Centre on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development for the
Near East. Report of the First Session of the Governing Council,
Amman, Jordan, 28 February 2 March 1989, 46 p.
Report of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development on its Seventeenth
Meeting, Vienna, 31 May 2 June 1989, 22 p.
Progress report by the Lead Agency, 133 p.
Coordination and collaboration on rural development and agrarian
reform activities and programmes proposed for the Agencies' coming
biennium 1988-1989, 48 p.
Impact of national macro-economic policies on the rural poor,
Report of the Round Table of Experts on Selected Issues in Rural
Development in the Near East, Amman, Jordan, 14-18 May 1989, 32 p.
Rural migration and its impact on agricultural production and
rural development in the Near East, by A. Richards, 58 p.
Agricultural mechanization in the Near East: its output and
employment impacts and related policy issues, by D. Hunt, 47 p.
Rural women and the changing socio-economic conditions in the Near
East, by V. DeLancey and E. Elwy, 85 p.
Organization and management of agricultural services for small
farmers in the Near East region, by S. Wazzan, 39 p.
Report on Government Consultation for the Near East on the Follow-up
to the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development,
Rabat, Morocco, 3-7 July 1989, 32 p. (En/Ar)
Report on FAO's activities on WCARRD follow-up during the last
decade, 21 p.
(see list of papers for the Near East Round Table of Experts,
Amman, May 1989, above)
- 52 -
Report of the Sixth Government Consultation for Asia and the Pacific
Region on the follow-up to the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and
Rural Development, Bangkok, Thailand, 6-9 June 1989, 159 p.
Selected papers presented:
Increasing productivity of small farms through appropriate
technology, 36 p.
Promotion of rural employment in Asia, 25 p.
Promotion of equitable income distribution in the rural sector,
Involvement of people in development activities and the role of
promotional Non-Govenmental Organizations 24 p.
Report of the Fifth Government Consultation on Follow-up to WCARRD in
Latin America. and the Caribbean, Guatemala City, Guatemala, 21-25
August 1989, 61 p. (En/Sp)
Report on FAO's activities on WCARRD follow-up during the last
decade, 29 p. (En/Sp)
Recession, structural adjustment and rural poverty in Latin
America and the Caribbean, 38 p. (En/Sp)
People's participation in development activities and the role of
NGOs involved in promoting such activities, 31 p. (En/Sp)
The impact of technology on the production activities of women in
Latin America and the Caribbean, 30 p. (En/Sp)
Associative forms of production in the agrarian reform programmes,
34 p. (En/Sp)
Report of the Third Government Consultation on Follow-up to WCARRD in
Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-27 October 1989, 32 p. (En/Fr)
Report on FAO's activities on WCARRD follow-up during the last
decade, 21 p. (En/Fr)
NGOs, rural development and popular participation, 53 p. (En/Fr)
Impact of land tenure changes and agrarian policies on common
property resources in Africa, 23 p. (En/Fr)
- 53 -
Women, agriculture and food production in Africa, 52 p. (En/Fr)
Report on the Round Table on Selected Issues in Africa to
Commemorate the 10th Anniversary of the WCARRD, Arusha, Tanzania,
5-8 June 1989, 21 p. (En/Fr)
Rural Development Newsletter No. 11, January-December 1989.
Selected issues in rural development in the Near East, 251 p. (En/Ar)
(Monograph containing the background papers presented at the Round
Table of Experts on Selected Issues in Rural Development in the Near
East, Amman, May 1989; and the Government Consultation for the Near
East on the Follow-up to WCARRD, Rabat, July 1989)
"Working together to reach our common goals". The People's
Participation Programme in Africa. Illustrated field training manual.
WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
FAO documentation: women in agriculture and rural development
1980-1989, 56 p.
Progress report on the implementation of the Plan of Action for
Integration of Women in Development. Paper presented at the
Twenty-fifth Session of the FAO Conference, 11-30 November 1989, 24 p.