Rapid food security assessment in Mwense District, Luapula, Province, Zambia

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Title:
Rapid food security assessment in Mwense District, Luapula, Province, Zambia
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Book
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English
Creator:
Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries, Zambia
Ministry of Health, Zambia
United Nations International Children's Emergancy Fund
The Program Against Malnutrition
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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
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Copyright Date:
1993

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Africa   ( lcsh )
Farming   ( lcsh )
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Spatial Coverage:
Africa -- Zambia -- Luapula

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
    Executive summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
    Methodology
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Background of Mwense district
        Page 9
    General features of villages surveyed
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Livelihood strategies
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Food consumption patterns
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Child care
        Page 41
    Summary of constraints to household food and nutritional security
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Recommendations
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Annexes
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Matrices
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
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        Page 73
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        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Bibliography
        Page 104
    Back Cover
        Page 105
Full Text
'2 2. /It r
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A RAPID FOOD SECURITY ASSESSMENT IN MWENSE DISTRICT
LUAPULA, PROVINCE, ZAMBIA






August, 1993





















Sponsored by:

The Central Statistics Ollice
The Ministry ol Agricullture, Food, and Fisheries
The Ministry of Health
The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization
The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
The Program Against Malnutrition







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


There are numerous persons to whom thanks are due, and we sincerely appreciate the help and
support that they have extended to us in the completion of this document. We would like to
take this opportunity to thank Dr. Robert C. Weisell, Nutrition Officer, Nutrition Planning,
Assessment and Evaluation Service, Food Policy and Nutrition Division, Food and Agriculture
Organization, United Nations for his help and support. Sincere thanks are also due to Mr.
George Mburathi, FAO Representative, Lusaka, Zambia and all of his staff for their contribution
to this effort. We also wish to thank Prof. Ben Kiregyera, Chief Technical Advisor, Strengthening
Household Food Security and Nutrition Monitoring, FAO Project TCP/ZAM/2353, and all of his
staff. We are grateful for their help and support.

Sincere thanks are also extended to Mr. Ian Hopwood, UNICEF Representative, Lusaka,
Zambia and all of his staff for providing ample support and resources for carrying out this
exercise. We also wish to thank Ms. Freda Luhila and all of her staff in the Programme Against
Malnutrition for their contributions to this effort.

Sincere thanks are also extended to the University of Arizona for providing support to this
project. We would like to thank in particular Ms. Jennifer Manthei and Ms. Katherine
McCaston for the many hours of editing, formatting, and typing text. We would also like to
personally thank Ms. Mary Storie for typing the matrices. To the rest of the staff at the Office of
Arid Lands Studies, the University of Arizona, we extend our deepest gratitude.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................. 1

II INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 4

III METHODOLOGY ................................................... 5


A. Objectives .......................
B. Composition of the Survey Team .....
C. Pre-Survey Preparation .............


1. Secondary Data Review


......................................... 5


2. Key Informant Interviews ...........
3. Letters of Introduction .............
4. Development of the Topical Outlines ..
5. Village Selection .................
D. Survey Procedures .....................


IV BACKGROUND OF MWENSE DISTRICT.........


A. Location ..........................
B. Geographical Features ...............
C. Clim ate ..........................
D Soils .............................
E. Population and Infrastructure ..........
F. Socioeconomic Characteristics ..........
1. Social Infrastructure ............
2. Main Economic Activities ........


V GENERAL FEATURES OF VILLAGES SURVEYED


A. Valley Villages .................................
1. Population Trends .........................
2. Access to Infrastructure .....................
3. Access to Government Services ...............
4. Access to Natural Resources .................
5. Social Organizations ........................
6. Access to Development Projects ...............
7. Health Status .............................
B. Plateau Villages ................................
1. Population Trends .........................
2. Access to Infrastructure .....................
3. Access to Government Services ...............
4. Access to Natural Resources .................
5. Social Organizations ........................
6. Access to Development Projects ...............
7. Health Status .............................
C. Differences Between the Areas .....................


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VI LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES .......................................... 18

A Valley Villages .................................................... 18
1. Access to Resources ........................................... 18
2. Cropping Systems ............................................. 19
3. Crop Production Practices ...................................... 20
4. Other Income-Generating Activities .......................... ..... 22
5. Coping Strategies ............................................. 23
B. Plateau Villages ................................................... 24
1. Access to Resources ........................................... 24
2. Cropping Systems ............................................. 26
3. Crop Production Practices ...................................... 26
4. Other Income-Generating Activities ............................ ... 28
5. Coping Strategies ............................................. 29
C. Changes in Livelihood Strategies ....................................... 32
1. V alley A rea ................................................. 32
2. Plateau A rea ................................................ 34

VII FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS ................................... 35

A. Composition of Diet ................................................ 35
1. Types of Staples .............................................. 35
2. M ain Relishes ............................................... 35
3. Snack Foods ................................................. 36
B. Sources of Food ................................................... 36
C. Problems of Food Availability ......................................... 37
1. The V alley .................................................. 37
2. The Plateau ................................................. 37
D. Food Conservation/Preservation ...................................... 38
1. Food Processing .............................................. 38
2. Food Storage ................................................ 39
E. Traditional Food-Sharing Practices ..................................... 40
F. Food Preferences ................................................... 40
G. Food Taboos/Specialty Foods ......................................... 40
H Changes in the D iet ................................................ 40
1. The Valley .................................................. 40
2. The Plateau ................................................. 41

VIII CHILD CARE ....................................................... 41

A Care of Children ................................................... 41
B. Feeding Patterns for Children ......................................... 42
C. W meaning Foods .................................................... 42

IX SUMMARY OF CONSTRAINTS TO HOUSEHOLD FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL
SECURITY ......................................................... 42







X RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................. 45

A. Access to Infrastructure ............................................. 45
B. Credit ....... ................................................. 46
C. Access to Traction Equipment ......................................... 46
D. Access to Improved Seed ............................................ 46
E. Dambo Utilization to Address the Relish and Cash Shortage Problem .......... 47
F. Goat Management .................................................. 47
G Fish Ponds ....................................................... 48
H. Soil Fertility Enhancing Measures ..................................... 48
I. Access to Improved Storage Facilities ................................... 48
J. Child care ........................................................ 48
K. Monitoring Forest Resources ....................................... 49

ANNEXES ............................................................... 50

I. Crop Calendars ................................................ 51
II. Food Availability Calendar ........................................ 54
III. List of Key Contacts ............................................. 56
IV. Team M embers ................................................ 57
V. List of Villages ................................................. 57
VI. Topical O utline ................................................ 58
V II. M atrices ...................................................... 64
VIII. Bibliography .................................................. 104







I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


To determine the causes, dimensions, and characteristics of the food and nutritional insecurity
situation in Mwense District, Luapula Province, Zambia, a rapid food security assessment was
carried out in 12 villages, August 18-28, 1993. The purposes of this survey were to examine the
livelihood systems in the district, identify the most food and nutritional insecure groups in the
area, determine the causes of food and nutritional insecurity, and suggest possible interventions
to address the existing problems. This survey was carried out by personnel from the Central
Statistics Office, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries, and the Ministry of Health, in
conjunction with consultants from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO), the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the
Program Against Malnutrition (PAM). Funding for this survey was provided by FAO, UNICEF
and PAM.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Access to Infrastructure
The food and nutritional security of many of the villages are being affected negatively by the lack
of basic infrastructural amenities. Many villages lack access to basic health facilities, clean water,
hammermills, and adequate transport. In order to deal with these infrastructural problems, an
inventory of the villages in the district that lack many of these amenities should be conducted.
Priority should be given to those villages that lack health facilities, clean water, and hammermills
in order to improve the nutritional security in the area.

Credit
Throughout the area surveyed, there appears to be a shortage of smallholder credit, both
seasonal loans and medium-term credit. This shortage is limiting the livelihood options of the
communities in both the valley and the plateau. Presently, credit is only targeted to farmers that
are interested in growing maize. Credit should also be considered for other high-value crops such
as vegetables, especially in the valley. Vegetable production may not be as viable for villages in
the plateau that are isolated from market roads. Therefore, credit programs need to be opened
up to the livelihood options that have the most chance of success for the different agroecological
zones. Loans must also be made as easy for women to obtain as for men; many legumes,
oilseeds, and vegetables grown by women can be highly profitable. The need for the husband's
consent to a woman's loan should be abolished.

Access to Traction Equipment
Labor is a limiting factor in both the valley and the plateau. The time and energy spent on land
preparation is negatively impacting the nutritional security of farmers, especially female- headed
households. Many farmers acknowledged that animal traction was something desired to help
alleviate these labor constraints, and were willing to adopt such practices if medium-term loans
and proper training were made available.

The introduction of animal traction in areas where farmers do not have a tradition of cattle
keeping may have to be done in phases. First, the animals are introduced for multiple purposes
such as transport and meat. Second, the traction concept is more fully introduced. In addition,
the introduction of animal traction into an area where it is not widely practiced will likely fail if
supportive measures are not also introduced. This would include veterinary services, equipment
maintenance provisions, training centers, and extension with regards to animal care and feed, to







name a few. If animal traction is introduced into such an area to any large extent, careful
program planning will be necessary.

Finally, animal traction, even in those areas where it is commonly practiced, is not always
available to women. This needs to be addressed more explicitly if animal traction is to address
food security.

Access to Improved Seed
Food access and diet quality are both negatively affected by the shortage of improved seed in the
area. The continued use of retained seed coupled with labor constraints has led to low productive
output, seriously affecting the food security of the local population in both the valley and
plateau. The lack of an oil seed other than groundnuts has threatened the nutritional security of
many households, especially as the percentage of groundnuts sold for cash rather than retained
for home consumption continues to rise. This shortage of oil in the diet can adversely affect the
ability of people to synthesize vitamin A, and reduces the availability of energy for laboring in
the fields. The lack of a variety of cassava that matures in one year will make it difficult to
practice proper rotation as a soil fertility measure. In addition, the lack of alternative cash crops
encourages people to continue to use fingermillet for the production of beer for sale rather than
for home consumption as a staple substitute.

Presently, several decentralized seed multiplication efforts are being implemented in the district
to address this problem. Every effort should be made to accelerate this dissemination, given the
current trends.

Dambo Utilization to Address the Relish and Cash Shortage Problem
Although farmers in both the valley and plateau have access to dambos, they are often
underutilized. This is primarily because of the competing labor demands of the chitemene system.
To compensate for this problem, consideration should be given to identifying perennial relish
crops that can be planted on a small patch of the dambos to provide a dry-season relish. In those
areas where exotic vegetable gardens have good potential as a source of cash (e.g., the valley),
adequate seed, chemicals and equipment need to be made available to farmers on a sustainable
basis. These inputs could be provided through loan packages by the lending institutions operating
in the area.

Before promoting wide-scale use of dambos for crop production, careful inventories need to be
carried out to identify those wetlands that have favorable characteristics for such uses. Not all
dambos are alike, and inappropriate use of some of these wetlands can exacerbate environmental
degradation.

Goat Management
In every village surveyed, farmers complained bitterly about the crop destruction caused by goats.
This especially affects the food-insecure households that depend on cassava leaves as their main
source of relish in the dry season. Labor constraints are also exacerbated by the goat problem
because farmers are forced to locate their fields at great distances from the village to avoid crop
damage. This can have a negative impact on child care because of the time mothers spend
walking to their fields.







To address this problem, a number of alternatives can be proposed. These include corralling the
goats near the homesteads, corralling the goats in the dambo areas using mobile fences, and
fencing the goats in the communal areas. ARPT could test each of these alternative approaches
in different villages to see which is the most feasible for this area.

Fish Ponds
Access to fish resources has declined considerably over the past several years in almost every
village surveyed. As a result, an important relish and protein source is being removed from the
diet. To improve access to fish resources, fish ponds could be established by households in areas
where they are ecologically feasible. Support for fish farming could be provided through loan
packages by lending institutions operating in the area.

Soil Fertility Enhancing Measures
Presently, farmers are using varieties of cassava that take two to three years to mature, making it
difficult to introduce rotation practices for restoring soil fertility. Under current practices,
intercropping of legumes and agroforestry are the best fertility-enhancing activities that can be
promoted, along with fallow rotation in the chitemene system.

To encourage crop rotation, the promotion of a cassava variety that matures in one year will be
greatly needed. Such varieties already exist, and are being tested by ARPT. Efforts should be
made to make such varieties more readily available to farmers in the district.

Access to Improved Storage Facilities
Storage structures can be greatly improved to cut down on pest and moisture damage.
Unfortunately, as the food security situation has worsened due to changes in the viability of
existing livelihood systems, theft has increased dramatically. For this reason, farmers are more
reluctant to place their harvested crops in storage structures outside the house. This could have
an influence on the receptivity of households to the adoption of improved structures. Until the
problem of theft is resolved, it is warranted to take anti-theft measures into account as a major
design feature in any structures proposed.

Child Care
When considering alternative day-care options for mothers who travel great distances to reach
their fields, one factor to take into account is that mothers are often reluctant to leave their
children with other adults for feeding and care due to a fear of witchcraft. If small feeding and
care centers are to be established, ways must be sought to overcome this fear.

Monitoring Forest Resources
Currently, the forest resources in the district are being mined at an alarming rate, significantly
impacting the biodiversity of the area. Timber cutting is carried out with very little monitoring,
and wild foods are increasingly scarce. More effort must be made to carry out an inventory of
the area in order to determine what resources exist and which areas are threatened by heavy
encroachment. These resources must also be monitored systematically to ensure that resources
are being managed in a sustainable manner. To do this effectively, community involvement is
essential.







II INTRODUCTION


Luapula Province has one of the highest rates of malnutrition in Zambia, and Mwense District
has a high prevalence within the Province. These high malnutrition rates are the outcome of
significant problems contributing to nutritional insecurity, such as household food insecurity,
inadequate child care and exposure to unsanitary conditions and disease. Delineating these causal
factors in a time-effective manner will enable the Government, through donor support, to act
quickly to alleviate these adverse conditions.

To determine the causes, dimensions, and characteristics of the food and nutritional insecurity
situation in Mwense District, a rapid food security assessment was carried out in 12 villages,
August 18-28, 1993. The purposes of this survey were to examine the livelihood systems in the
district, identify the most food and nutritional insecure groups in the area, determine the causes
of food and nutrition insecurity, and suggest possible interventions to address the existing
problems. This survey was carried out by personnel from the Central Statistics Office, the
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, and the Ministry of Health, in conjunction with
consultants from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the Program Against
Malnutrition (PAM)'. Funding for this survey was provided by FAO, UNICEF, and PAM.

This report provides a summary of the survey findings and is organized into the following
sections. First, the methodology is described, explaining how the information was collected, the
types of people that participated in the survey, and how the information was analyzed. Second,
background information is provided on Mwense District, such as the District's location,
geographical features, population, infrastructure, and socioeconomic characteristics. Third, a
description of the of the general features of the villages surveyed is provided, grouping the
characteristics of valley villages and plateau villages separately. Fourth, the livelihood strategies
are described for each of the village types, delineating access to resources, cropping systems,
other income-generating activities (e.g., fishing, off-farm employment,trading, beer-brewing,etc.),
and the coping strategies used during times of food deficit. Fifth, changes in the livelihood
strategies are identified, specifying the implication of such changes for the food and nutrition
security of the affected populations. Sixth, the food consumption patterns are described,
presenting information on the composition of the diet, sources of food, problems with food
availability, food conservation/preservation, traditional food sharing practices, food preferences,
food taboos/specialty foods, and changes in the diet. Seventh, child care practices in the surveyed
area are summarized, describing who cares for children, the feeding patterns, and common
weaning foods. Eighth, the report provides a summary of the major constraints to household and
nutrition security found in Mwense District, differentiating between the valley area and the
plateau area. The final section of the report presents a set of recommendations aimed at


The team members in the survey were: Timothy R. Frankenberger (FAO Consultant and Team
Leader), Joyce Kanyangwa-Luma (FAO Country Expert and Team Leader), Abraham Ngoliya (MAFF
and Team Leader), Francis Mushibwe (MAFF), Chileshe Chilangwa (PAM), M.D. Simwizyi (CSO), Kefi
Chanda (MAFF), Lewis Bangwe (MAFF), Ward Siamusantu (MOH), Derrina Mukupo (UNICEF
Consultant), Dorothy Namuchimba (UNICEF Consultant), Chipo Mwela (MOH), and Julius Siwale
(MAFF). Hermien Vrieze also joined the team during the first few days of the field trip but was unable
to continue due to illness.







improving the food and nutrition security situation in the surveyed area. The annexes of this
report consist of the crop calendars, list of key contacts, team members that participated in the
survey, list of villages surveyed, the topical outline used in the survey, references, and the village
matrices that summarize the information collected.


III METHODOLOGY

This rapid food security survey was carried out from August 18-28, 1993, in 12 villages in
Mwense District, Luapula Province. This district was chosen as the survey site because Luapula
Province has one of the highest malnutrition rates in the country, survey coverage in Mwense
District was not extensive, and the opportunity of linking donor response to the survey findings
was high.

A. OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the livelihood systems in the district; (2)
identify the most food and nutritional insecure groups in the area; (3) determine the causes of
food and nutrition insecurity and; (4) suggest possible interventions to address the existing
problems. An additional objective of this study was to train a group of Zambian researchers in
the techniques of rapid food security assessments in order to have a cadre of experts to draw
from for future surveys of this type. To accomplish these objectives, an interdisciplinary team was
assembled that had the necessary background to cover the various topical areas that would be
addressed in the survey.

B. COMPOSITION OF THE SURVEY TEAM

The survey team consisted of 15 members; nine males and six females. The various disciplines
represented included agricultural statistics, agricultural business, home economics (1), agricultural
economics, rural sociology (2), agronomy (3), and nutrition (5). The various institutions
represented included MAFF (Planning Division, Adaptive Research Planning Team, Commodity
Research Team), CSO, MOH (National Food and Nutrition Commission), FAO, UNICEF, and
PAM. The main purpose of bringing together team members from different institutions was to
foster future interinstitutional collaboration in addressing food and nutrition security problems.

The large team was divided into three smaller teams of four to five persons each, with each team
having a designated team leader. The various teams visited different villages on each of the days
the survey was conducted. Team members were rotated within and between teams throughout
the survey to give each person an opportunity to work with and learn from the other team
members. An attempt was made to match up one technical scientist with one nutritional or social
scientist in pairs to carry out interviews.

C. PRE-SURVEY PREPARATION

1. Secondary Data Review
Prior to going to the field, the team examined existing information that had been collected on
the area. Two previous RRAs had been conducted, focusing mostly on the valley area, and







several documents provided a good overview of the district characteristics. In addition, maps
were obtained of the survey area as well to aid in the selection of villages.

2. Key Informant Interviews
Good background information was obtained from knowledgeable personnel such as local
government officials, extension officers (Provincial Agriculture Office, the Deputy Provincial
Agriculture Office, the District Agriculture Office, and local camp officers), health officers
(Provincial Medical Officers), local researchers (Adaptive Research Planning Team staff), local
leaders, school teachers and other resource persons in the area (see list of contact persons in the
Annex). This information provided the team with an understanding of the major trends in the
area and the ongoing development activities that could be tapped into when considering
interventions.

3. Letters of Introduction
Letters of introduction were obtained from government officials in Lusaka prior to going to the
field to facilitate collaboration with regional officials and to ensure access to the study area.

4. Development of the Topical Outlines
Topical lists or minimum data sets were developed to help guide the interviews before going to
the field. These lists assisted the team members in addressing the topics and aspects of the topic
they may otherwise omit. Topical outlines were developed for the general village interview, the
specific household interview, and the various key informant interviews (see Annex). Secondary
data sources were consulted to help devise the topical lists.

The development of the topical lists were important team-building exercises. Each team member
contributed to the lists, and survey priorities were established prior to going to the field.
Consensus was reached on every topic included in the outline to ensure that the team functioned
as a single entity from the beginning of the field exercise.

The topical outlines were pretested in the first village surveyed. Prior to this field test, the teams
discussed the appropriate procedures of how to conduct the interviews, avoid asking biased
questions, handle translation, and handle sensitive topics.

Before going to the field, matrices were constructed from the topical lists to allow for the
transfer of data from the field notes to a comparative format (see Annex). These matrices
allowed for continuous comparisons among households and villages, which helped focus
discussions among team members. They also provided a means for evaluating or checking the
completeness of the field notes. At the end of the survey, these matrices were shared with all of
the team members to facilitate the write-up of the report.

5. Village Selection
In terms of sampling, this survey relied on purposive sampling techniques in the selection of
villages. Factors taken into account in the selection of villages included: (1) location (valley
versus plateau); (2) access to roads; (3) institutional complexity (e.g., infrastructural
development); and (4) access to resources. In all, 12 villages were selected. The four villages in
the valley area included Kapamba, Chibumbu, Chiposa, and Mulundu. The eight villages
surveyed in the plateau area were Mbulukuta, Chipili, Kamami, Mupeta, Munanga, Mukonshi,
Nambale-Musele, and Kalundu (see Map).











Villages Surveyed in Mwense District


Mbulukuta*


1..-" -' Scale 1:750,000 km
0 15 30 45 60
I I 1 1 I


-Mwemse


LUAPULA PROVINCE




ZAMBIA.







D. SURVEY PROCEDURES


Upon arrival in the village, the team met with the village leaders and explained the purpose of
the study to them and other villagers present. In this meeting, the team explained who they
represented, what the results would be used for, and why so many questions would be asked.
General inquiries were directed to the group regarding: village infrastructure; access to resources;
land-tenure arrangements; major crops grown; sources of credit; government programs in the
area; major population; climatic, resource and food security trends; social organizations operating
in the village; access to development projects; and community problems and needs. At the same
time that the group interview dominated by the men was being conducted, one of the female
researchers would be conducting a focus group discussion with a group of women, asking the
same set of questions.

After the initial inquiries with the assembled villagers, the team split up into groups of two to
conduct interviews with individual households. In general, the teams tried to seek interviews with
a range of household types, taking age, gender, and access to resources into account. Local
teachers often assisted in this selection process and in translation for those team members who
did not know the local language. At the same time, other team members were conducting key
informant interviews with local extension agents, community health workers, traditional healers,
clinical officers, and people engaged in other income-generating activities such as fishing, trading,
and basket making.

Specific interviews were conducted with households away from the rest of the villagers in order
to avoid biased responses. Attempts were made to interview both the husband and the wife in
married households, recognizing that the women have different knowledge and opinions than the
men. For example, they are more likely to know more about harvest quantities, processing values,
storage losses, and consumption patterns.

After the interviews were completed for a selected village, the team members got together to
discuss their findings and formulate hypotheses about the major food security trends in the area.
This procedure helped summarize the important attributes, constraints, and opportunities
characterizing the food security situation, and provided a basis for comparison when the survey
work was initiated in the other villages. These reviews helped revise the topical outlines for
further interviews. In addition, this process was also a crucial team-building exercise.

Once the survey was completed, hypotheses were formulated regarding the major livelihood
systems operating in the valley and plateau, changes that are occurring in these livelihood
systems, major food and nutrition constraints, the most vulnerable populations, and the
recommended interventions that could help improve household food security in the area. Team
consensus was reached on all constraints and recommendations proposed. This review gave the
team members an opportunity to combine their various disciplinary expertise in formulating
possible solutions.

Following the discussion of the constraints and recommendations, the team leaders assigned each
member a portion of the report that they were responsible for writing up. The results of this
write-up begins with the next section of this report.







IV BACKGROUND OF MWENSE DISTRICT


A. LOCATION

Mwense district is one of the five districts in Luapula province of Zambia lying between 10 and
11 degrees south of the equator and 28.8 and 29.5 degrees west of the equator. Mwense shares
common boundaries with Kawambwa in the north and north east, Luwingu in the east, Mansa in
the south, and a river boundary (Luapula) with Zaire in the west.

B. GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES

The Adaptive Research Planning team (1993) identified three main geographical features as: (1)
The Muchinga escarpment, which is mostly covered by the miombo forests; it receives rainfall in
the range of 1000 to 1500 mm per year and cuts the Luapula valley from the Mbala-Kawambwa
plateau; (2) The Mweru depressions lying between 920 and 960 meters above sea level. The
depressions extend upward to Nchelenge in the north and receives about 1000 mm of rainfall per
year; (3) The Mbala-Kawambwa plateau is known for its potentially fertile soils, compared to
Mweru depression and Muchinga escarpment areas. This also includes the Luongo valley, a
relatively narrower valley than the Mweru depressions. The plateau receives approximately the
same amount of rainfall as the Muchinga escarpment.

C. CLIMATE

Although the valley climate is described as subtropical with a mean annual temperature of 25
degrees Celsius, plateau temperatures are humid and mesothermal (ARPT, 1993).

D. SOILS

The parent material for plateau soils are quartzite and sandstone, while the valley soils are
mainly sandy to sandy loams. Generally, the soils in Mwense are acidic and leached. The
grassland is mainly the savannah and the woodland is miombo.

E. POPULATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE

The population of Mwense district is 81,000, with 42,000 females and 39,000 males, and more
than 95 percent residing in the rural area (1990 census statistics).

The following infrastructures exist. Besides the all-weather road serving Mwense, Nchelenge, and
Kawambwa, there is a secondary school, a post office, two postal agencies, four basic secondary
schools, five community centers, and seven local courts in the district.

F. SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS

1. Social Infrastructure
People in Mwense are headed by senior and junior chiefs. In this traditional setup, chiefs are
assisted by councilors (ba Chilolo). The chiefs rule through village headmen who may inform the
people directly or through their assistants. The role of chiefs involves settling of disputes and






offering direction in development, although the latter has been overtaken by the introduction of
village development committees.

2. Main Economic Activities
Agriculture and fishing are the main economic activities. Farming is more prominent and
dominant on the plateau than in the valley where fishing is dominant. A wide range of crops are
grown, but major ones are cassava, finger millet, maize, potatoes (starch), beans, and groundnuts.
Most of the agricultural produce is consumed by households, but substantial amounts are also
sold or bartered leading to food shortages. Fishing is on the decline in terms of amount, species,
and quality, due to an increase in population in the area and indiscriminate fishing practices.
Livestock production involves goat, chicken, duck, pig and cattle keeping. The latter two involve
limited numbers and ownership. Other economic activities include sawing of timber and various
forms of trading, ranging from sale of beer and groceries at subsistence level to sale of beer,
groceries, and other commodities at the commercial level.


V. GENERAL FEATURES OF VILLAGES SURVEYED

A. VALLEY VILLAGES

The valley area visited by the Rapid Food Security Assessment Team included the following
localities in Mwense District: Kapamba, Chiposa, Mulundu, and Chibumbu. This section focuses
on issues pertaining to access to infrastructure, access to natural resources, access to Government
services, population trends, access to development projects, and social organizations within the
valley regions of Mwense District.

1. Population Trends
The general trend in these localities was rapid population growth due to in-migration, from
urban to rural, especially from the Copperbelt Province and the neighboring Shaba Province of
Zaire. Men who had been employed as laborers and miners are returning due to recession of the
mines and other economic difficulties. It was difficult to quantify the percentage of people
flocking back from the larger towns and cities.

2. Access to Infrastructure

Health Facilities: Most of the valley regions visited had no easily accessible health facilities. The
only exception was Mulundu, which had a hospital with a Rural Health Worker. People living in
Chiposa had to walk 10-12 km to seek medical attention, and those living in Chibumbu sought
medical attention 27 km away. Apart from Mulundu, where medicines were readily available,
most of the clinics lacked basic and essential medicines. Health Community Workers were
available in the four valley localities we visited, as were traditional birth attendants, who played a
major role.

Access to Schools: Three out of four localities in the valley had access to primary education. The
only exception was Kapamba, which did not have any school. However, plans were underway to
construct a school on a self-help basis. Although there was a school in Mulundu, many parents
reported a need for more schools in the area.







Access to Markets: In most of the localities visited in the valley, markets were readily available,
although in some instances no permanent or established structures were set up. Most of the local
people in the valley areas were, however, unable to satisfy their "bundle of food needs and wants"
because of the high prices that prevailed in these markets. For instance, four small breams in
Mulundu sold at K200.00, and in Chiposa, salt sold at K50.00 per small vaseline lid.

Access to Roads: In general, most of the valley localities were fairly accessible. There are a series
of good road networks within the District, such as the Mansa-Mwense-Nchelenge highway.
Others include the Mansa-Kawambwa road links. Most of the feeder roads were not as good, and
needed occasional grading by the Mwense District Council to make them more accessible,
especially during the rainy season.

Storage Infrastructure: The construction of proper storage structures was lacking in the four
localities, which was particularly significant in view of the increased production of most crops.
There are three main methods of storage: (1) platforms are used for safe keeping of cassava; (2)
ubutala (traditional storage structures) are used mainly for storing finger millet; and (3) in-house
storage for groundnuts, maize, and beans due to theft.

Access to Water Resources: Access to abundant water resources is of great importance in
sustaining human, animal, and forestry resources. In the valley localities visited, most of the
people had no access to supplies of clean drinking water. Their main source of water was usually
rivers and swamps. For example, Mulundu got its water supplies from the untreated Luapula
River. Shallow wells were cited in all the localities as a major water source, although they tended
to dry up earlier. This was evident in Chiposa and Kapamba.

3. Access to Government Services
There was access to Government service in all four valley localities visited, each of which had an
Agricultural Extension Officer. However, due to problems pertaining to relish availability and
access to clean drinking water, some of the extension staff left their places of work to live in
other localities. In general, they were described as inefficient and ineffective. There were no
Forestry nor Veterinary Officers in any of the localities; these were located in Mwense.
Community Health Workers were found in three of the four valley localities, namely in Mulundu,
Chibumbu, and Chiposa. Kapamba had no Community Health Worker, and only Mulundu had a
Social Welfare program to assist the disabled, orphans, and the elderly.

4. Access to Natural Resources

Forest Reserves and Wetlands: Although Mwense District is rich in natural resources, the
forestry resources are becoming depleted due to an increase in the timber industries, the use of
wood for firewood and charcoal burning, Chitemene system practices, and rapid population
growth. Wetlands are found in the valley but are far away, as in the case of Chiposa and
Kapamba. These are rich in organic content as well as alluvial soils. Dambos are also found but
not utilized fully due to labor constraints and lack of agricultural inputs (e.g., seeds, pesticides,
and fertilizers). Dambos have potential for integrated resource use (crops, livestock, fisheries,
water supply, and wildlife).

Mining Resources: The four valley localities visited had no access to any form of mineral
resources.







Fish Resources: Of the four valley localities visited, both Mulundu and Chibumbu, located on the
shores of the Luapula River, had access to fish resources. However, the fish resources have
become limited in species available and quantities caught. The major types of fish caught are
chisense, misebele (tiger fish), and breams, caught mainly during the rainy season. Some of the
fishermen have access to means of production such as labor, nets, and dugout canoes. Others
share or borrow labor and equipment (nets and boats) due to lack of financial resources. Those
without the means of production generally offer their labor and are paid in kind. The major
markets for dried fish are in the Copperbelt and other larger towns (Mansa and Samfya). Sales
of fresh fish are normally to local traders.

Livestock: The livestock population in the valley includes goats, poultry, pigs, and cattle. The
average household in the valley has four to five goats, four to six chickens, and up to two pigs.
Very few households kept ducks, except in Mulundu, Chiposa, and Chibumbu, where some
households had one to two ducks. The most common disease affecting chicken was New Castle
disease, found in all four localities. Goats were, by far, the largest in terms of numbers of
livestock kept. They also played a major negative role in the agricultural section, eating away
crops grown by farmers in the valley.

Wild Game: The wild game population has declined tremendously in the valley localities visited.
Wild game is occasionally reported in Kapamba.

Wild Foods: Despite the ongoing depletion of the natural resource base in the valley, most of the
population depends on wild foods gathered in the forests. The most commonly sought wild foods
are mushrooms, masuku, chikanda, itungulu, and nsengwa.

5. Social Organizations
Of the four village localities visited in the valley, only Chibumbu had no social organizations in
place. Kapamba had only a political group organizations such as the MMD. Chiposa and
Mulundu had both the MMD and UNIP political parties in their regions. The participation of
these political parties was described, however, as nonexistent.

Mulundu had a series of activities going on, particularly through the Ministry of Social Welfare,
Child Care, and Community Development. They were involved in social welfare aspects such as
helping the disabled, orphans, and the elderly, especially with food aid and clothes. Chiposa was
equally active, with a number of social organizations present, mostly NGOs. UNICEF was
involved in agricultural activities such as distributing seeds and fertilizers to a limited number of
villagers for vegetable growing. Other active social organizations were identified as the basket-
making group, a women's club, and a health group. A cooperative club was in the process of
being formed. IFAD was slowly becoming involved in the area, especially in the agricultural
sector.

6. Access to Development Projects
Access to development projects within the four valley localities visited was limited and, in most
areas, nonexistent. Increasing production of palm oil and digging bore holes are development
areas that could be explored by the donors currently operating in the area, such as UNICEF and
maybe IFAD in the near future.






7. Health Status
In this section, the health, water, and sanitation services of the 12 villages are described.

In the valley, Chibumbu and Kapamba have no health facilities in the area--the nearest clinics
are 27km and 20km away respectively. Mambilima Mission hospital, which is in walking distance
from Mulundu village, caters adequately for the area, while Chiposa village has a health post
with a Community Health Worker (CHW). There is also a mobile clinic that runs once a week in
the area. The absence of and distance to health facilities in some villages means that only very
serious conditions are treated, which affects recovery rates and the duration of illnesses. This
means more people are sick and need tending for longer periods of time, reducing labor and
time for productive work. In turn, this has wider implications on household food security and
nutrition. Shortage of staff is another serious problem affecting the delivery of health services in
these communities. Most of the rural health centers are poorly staffed. The CHW and the
Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) need to be better remunerated and provided with some
means of transport to enable them to reach distant households.

Common Diseases: The most common diseases affecting children under five are malaria,
respiratory tract infections, skin infections (especially scabies), diarrhea, eye infections, anaemia,
and edema associated with malnutrition. The same findings were reported in Helen Young's
Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) in these areas in 1992. Dental problems were reported in
Chibumbu village. There were no reported cases of measles during the time of the assessment.
Isolated incidences of cholera and dysentery were reported but these were said to be seasonal.
Anaemia was reported as a serious problem in the valley. Because malaria is the most prevalent
disease, the incidences of anaemia are most likely related to this and also to the quality and
quantity of diets. In the adult population, the most prevalent diseases are malaria, coughs, fevers,
backaches, and headaches.

Disease Calendar:

Malaria is prevalent in both adults and children, and occurs throughout the year
but mostly during the rainy season (November to April). Stagnant water makes
suitable breeding places for mosquitoes. Children are most vulnerable because of
their smaller body size and blood volume, and the fact that most children will not
cover themselves in the night, making them obvious targets.

Diarrhealdiseaseswere reported to affect mostly children 5-36 months old. It
occurs most frequently in the hot and rainy months of the year--August to
December, the peak being October. The hot and wet weather promotes the
multiplication of disease carriers such as flies. Storage of fresh and cooked food
items becomes more difficult during hot months, facilitating the transmission of
disease. Contaminated water from unprotected wells and dirty rivers also lead to
diarrhea in these villages.
Eye infections, especially conjunctivitis, sore eyes, and itchy eyes also occur most
frequently in children year round with a peak period from June to September,
when the weather is dry, windy, and dusty.







Upperrespiratorytract infections, including coughs, are most prevalent from May
to July.

Skin Infections (especially scabies and skin sores) are also very common among
children and school-going children. This can be attributed to poor sanitation, and
dirty and inadequate water and soap.

Malnutritionis a serious problem in all villages surveyed. During the two focus
group meetings for women in Mulundu and Chiposa, five out of seven children,
and four out of the five children who were present, had some form of
malnutrition. In the female-headed household interviewed in Chiposa, all three
grandchildren she kept were severely malnourished. This reflects the quality and
quantity of the diet, care of children, and frequency of disease.

Traditional healers play an important role in disease treatment in all the villages visited, each of
which reported having more than one herbalist. Diseases treated include spirits, abdominal
pains, miscarriages, madness, polio, and ghost-haunted individuals.

Supply of Drugs: The supply of drugs to most clinics is irregular and the drugs insufficient. Out
of the four villages surveyed in the valley, only one clinic reported having adequate stocks and a
regular supply of drugs. This, too, affects the duration and recovery rate of individuals and in
turn the labor supply for food production.

Water and Sanitation: All villages draw their drinking water from either rivers or unprotected
wells. Most of these rivers are dirty and dry up during the dry season. Chiposa has a protected
well but the water is contaminated. The distances to most water sources increases the burden on
women who draw the water and further reduces their time available for child care and food
preparation. The result is inadequately fed families, whose members are more sickly and need
more tending, robbing the family of much needed labor and time for productive work.

Whereas more than 50 percent of households had pit latrines, the general hygiene and sanitation
needs improving. Water is not adequate, and soap is not easily available due to the distance to
markets and prohibitive prices for the villagers.

Water-Borne Diseases: As a result of poor sanitation coupled with contaminated water sources,
diarrheal diseases, cholera, and dysentery are common occurrences. Although all villages
indicated that these were seasonal, they could be prevented if sanitary rules and regulations were
followed (for example, boiling drinking water). Intensified health and nutrition education is
needed to deal with this problem.

Growth Monitoring: The concept of growth monitoring is well understood by most women. At
group meetings, almost all women knew about the children's clinic and reported having taken
their children for immunization. Villages that do not have clinics are served by mobile clinics or
outreach programs.







B. PLATEAU VILLAGES


Eight villages were included in the survey: Chipili, Kalundu, Kamami, Mbulukuta, Mukonshi,
Munanga, Mupeta, and Nambale-Musele. Many of the plateau villages covered are over 80 km
away from the district offices in the valley.

1. Population Trends
The eight villages under study reported in-migration by people from the urban areas and the
valley, where people have no land for cultivation near their homes. Despite population increase,
the area is still sparsely populated.

2. Access to Infrastructure
Villages on the plateau are geographically distant from each other, making it difficult for villages
to share infrastructure. Health infrastructure in the area is at two levels (1) Rural Health Centers
with Clinical Officers, and (2) Health Posts with Health Workers. In general, villages on the
plateau have access to health infrastructure. Chipili, Mukonshi, and Kalundu have rural health
centers with Clinical Officers. The rest of the villages have only Health Posts. The supply of
medicines is the major constraint in most centers, compounded by understaffing.

Access to Schools. Primary schools are within walking distance in all the villages visited. One
basic secondary school is located in Chipili. Long distances between villages makes this secondary
school inaccessible to other villages; the nearest is in Munanga village, about 30 kilometers away.

Access to Markets. Communal market structures are not in place. People sell their produce at
their homesteads. Prices are high for the local community. For example, in Chipili a tomato cost
K20 per medium size fruit, rape was K50 per bunch of five to six leaves, and cooking oil was
K100 per small vaseline lid.

Access to Roads. Villages are set far apart, and travel is by roads. Roads connecting villages are
accessible during the dry season. These are the same feeder roads villagers use for taking
produce to markets. The plateau is split into two parts by an all-weather road from Mansa to
Kawambwa with branches at Munanga to Luwingu in Northern Province and another branch at
Mwenda connecting the plateau area to district offices in the valley.

Storage Infrastructure. Communal storage facilities for farm produce or inputs do not exist. The
common storage facility in the plateau is the traditional storage bin (ubutala) for finger millet
and groundnuts. Improvised storage facilities such as empty diesel drums, four-gallon cooking oil
tins, etc. are used to store other foods such as beans, dried vegetables, and some maize.

Access to Water Facilities. Water sources on the plateau are mainly rivers, shallow wells in the
wetlands, and deep wells in the villages. Water sources are very unreliable in the villages during
the dry season. Most rivers and village wells dry up, leaving only the shallow wells in the
wetlands.

3. Access to Government Services
Agricultural Officers are present in all of the villages visited except Mbulukuta. However, the
farming community in this village has access to a nearby village with an extension officer. The
distribution of extension staff on the plateau is good but some form of transport is needed for







them to execute effectively their duties throughout their camp areas. Forestry and veterinary
services are not available. The two Government departments are based at district offices in
Mwense, which is over 80 km away. Lack of transportation hampers access of the officers in the
two departments to the plateau villages. Health services are spread throughout all the villages but
are poorly managed and understaffed; often less qualified and in some cases unqualified
personnel staff the Rural Health Centers. The plateau area needs a hospital, especially now that
the population is increasing. Other Government departments on the plateau include the Water
Affairs and Roads Department.

4. Access to Natural Resources

Forest Reserves and Wetlands. Forest reserves and wetlands are within walking distances of all
villages. All villages have free access to forests and dambos. Utilization of forest through
chitemene has a negative effect on the reserves. The gathering of wild foods such as masuku and
mushrooms is another beneficial aspect of the forest to people on the plateau. Dambos are
underutilized; less than 10 percent of the dambo area is used for growing rice and exotic
vegetables.

Mining Resources. Mining resources exist only in Nambale-Musele, where manganese deposits
are found. The rest of the plateau has no access to mining resources.

Fish Resources. Fish resources in Kamami have been depleted. Fish is seasonably available in
large quantities, especially during the rainy season, which is when farmers are busy in the fields.
There are no fish ponds, and other parts of the plateau have no access to fish resources.

Livestock: Goats and chickens are common in all the villages. Cattle is reported in Kamami and
Nambale-Musele. Other livestock kept on the plateau include pigs and ducks but on a very small
scale.

Wild Game. Wild game resources have been depleted seriously in the area.

Wild Foods. Wild foods are available seasonally, especially in the rainy season. The most
commonly found foods are mushrooms and masuku fruits. People have access to all foods when
in season, but all natural resources are diminishing due to increased population and other
pressures.

5. Social Organizations
There are a number of social groupings and organizations on the Plateau that administer to
different needs. No intervillage grouping was identified by the survey team. A number of
individual village social organizations exist in all villages visited and vary by village. School PTAs
are found at all schools. They are responsible for coordinating school activities and are quite
effective in organizing parents' participation in school development. Health Community Groups
organize villagers in implementing health activities in the village. Village Productivity Committees
deal mainly with agricultural development in the village. Church groups sometimes organize their
members and teach them different forms of income-generating activities. Some villages have
political groups with pronounced political leadership, especially the Movement for Multi-Party
Democracy (MMD) and United National Independence Party (UNIP). And Cooperative
Societies deal separately with the agricultural participation of men and women.







6. Access to Development Projects
Five non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) operate on the plateau. All have a support
program in agriculture development, issuing loans for crop growing. Water supply projects such
as digging wells are managed by some of these development projects. The existing organizations
include ZCF, LIMA BANK, FINNIDA, IFAD, and ADF.

7. Health Status Information
Eight villages were visited on the plateau. Munanga and Kamami each have a health post,
Mupeta has a clinic, and Mukonshi has a clinic and three health posts. Chipili Rural Health
Center services the village, has a 19-bed capacity for in-patients and three cots for children.
Again, distance to and nonavailability of health facilities in some villages has implications for
household food security and nutrition (see discussion of Valley Villages).

Common Diseases: Whereas the most common disease affecting children under the age of five in
the valley was malaria, diarrhea was the most prevalent on the plateau. Others include malaria,
skin infections, URTI, eye infections, and malnutrition. The women on the plateau do recognize
malnutrition as food related. Kalundu reported increased cases of Kwashiorkor this year (25
percent underweight). Munanga, on the other hand, report (45 percent underweight).

Disease Calendar:

Diarrhea July to November
Malaria year round, especially rainy season
Skin infections year round
Eye infections June to September
Malnutrition year round
Abdominal pains year round
URTI year round

Sources of Drinking Water: Most households get their drinking water from shallow wells and
nearby rivers. In some communities, the same water is used by livestock and the water is
contaminated. These rivers go dry from August until the rains. During this period, women have
to walk longer distances to find other sources of water, which has implications for the time
women have to care for their families. Contaminated water also causes diarrheal diseases in both
adults and children.

Water-Borne Diseases: The obvious forms are dysentery, cholera, and ordinary diarrhea.
Dysentery and cholera are seasonal, whereas ordinary diarrhea is present all the time.

Sanitation: General sanitation is poor in most villages. There has been a significant rise in the
number of households with pit latrines (70 percent) in some villages. More health and nutrition
is needed to sensitize communities as to the benefits of a clean environment.

Growth Monitoring: Growth monitoring is carried out in the clinics. Villages that do not have
clinics are serviced by a mobile clinic and through outreach programs. Immunization in most
villages on the plateau was reported as well over 60 percent. Activities during these sessions
include weighing children in order to detect growth faltering, immunization, and nutrition and







health education. Most women from focus group meetings could explain and identify children
with growth problems.

HEPS: This food supplement is still a problem in the majority of rural clinics, most of which had
not had a supply in the last five to six months, and the few that had did not have adequate
stocks. This creates a problem of continued supply, especially for children being rehabilitated.

C. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE AREAS:

Several differences between the plateau and valley localities were identified, including:

Health facilities were relatively available in the plateau localities, with seven out of eight
(approximately 87 percent) of localities having access to health facilities. This was not the case
for the valley villages, where only Mulundu had access to medical facilities. People within the
localities visited had to walk long distances to seek medical attention. Chibumbu villagers sought
medical attention some 27 km away.

Access to primary schools was relatively easy on the plateau, unlike the valley. For instance,
Kapamba had no school, although one was nearly completed on a self-help basis.

Social organizations were many on the plateau, unlike in the valley. On the plateau, about 50
percent of the villages visited had school PTAS, village productivity committees, and women's
clubs. These were found mainly in Mupeta, Munanga, Kalundu, and Mbulukuta. Mukonshi, on
the plateau, had an Anti-Aids Club. However, the valley village of Mulundu had a social welfare
program to assist the disabled, orphans, and the elderly; no such program was found in the
plateau villages.


VI LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES

A. VALLEY VILLAGES

1. Access to Resources

Land: Farmers in the valley have access to land. Most farmers are cultivating not more than one
hectare (four lima), the range being one to four limas (1/four-i ha). Two land tenure
arrangements can be found. The village headman, on behalf of the chief, allocates land to
subjects when the amounts of land requested are small. Those who need large areas may have to
apply through the District Council (lease holds). Although farmers have access to land, fields are
usually located far from villages. For example, in Mulundu farmers have to walk for two to three
hours to reach the fields (12 km). This impacts especially female-headed households in Mulundu
who find it difficult to get to this resource. The remote location of fields may have implication
for child care and the size of fields under cultivation because farmers are spending more time
travelling.

Livestock: The predominant livestock kept in the area are goats. On average, farmers keep four
goats per household. Goats are important in the system as they are a form of payment in village
disputes and can be sold to buy food. In Chiposa, for example, several households are selling








goats to buy food during food shortfalls. However, management of goats is poor and has resulted
in conflict between crop production and goat keeping. Goats are destroying crops grown near the
villages, which has also contributed to moving fields far from villages. Other livestock found in
the valley include cattle, sheep, and pigs although these are in few numbers. The few cattle kept
are not utilized for draft purposes. Chickens are also kept by many households. In Kapamba,
farmers reported selling chickens for cash to meet other household needs (e.g., salt, sugar, and
soap).

Means of Production: Nearly all farmers in the valley are dependant on the hand hoe and axe as
the major equipment in their farming operations. This limitation has implications for the size of
fields cultivated and may influence the cropping system a farmer can adopt as well as the types
of crops grown.

Access to Credit: In general, access to credit facilities was limited in the valley localities visited.
This factor alone was cited in most of the valley as a hinderance to agricultural productivity.
Most of the farmers in the valley sought credit facilities for the purchase of agricultural inputs
such as agrochemicals and hybrid seeds (e.g., maize, groundnuts, and vegetables). This feature
was clearly evident in Kapamba, Mulundu, Chibumbu, and Chiposa. Other farmers, especially in
Chiposa, sought credit facilities to purchase durable farm implements such as hand hoes as well
as to acquire cattle for animal traction. Hammermills for cassava and maize were much sought
after in Chiposa. Farmers cited improved access to credit facilities as important. The vast
majority of farmers in Chiposa expressed their disappointment with UNICEF on the manner in
which credit was given out in the area; there was virtually no participation by the local people in
the village in UNICEF's credit scheme and only about 23 farmers had access to UNICEF's credit
facility. The availability and access to credit facilities in Chiposa may improve when IFAD starts
operating in the area. Major financial lending institutions such as ZCF, CUSA and Lima Bank
were not well established in valley localities. In fact, only in Kapamba did we come across an
operating lending institution (ZCF).

2. Cropping Systems
Five cropping systems have been identified in Luapula Province (KOKWE, Chileya 1993). In the
valley, three farming system are predominant.

Shifting Cultivation (Chitemene): This is a slash-and-burn crop production practice found in the
major millet-producing areas of Zambia (Luapula and Northern Provinces). In the first year, the
major crop is millet but cassava can also be mixed. In the second year, groundnuts are planted in
small mounds between the cassava stations. In the third year, other crops such as pulses
(cowpeas) are mixed with the cassava. The cassava harvest marks the end of the first cycle, and
the land is left fallow. This cropping system can no longer sustain the livelihoods of the people in
the area, mainly because the tree resources are gradually declining. Slashing of tree branches is
normally done from June to August and burning in September; shrubs and branches are burned
in October. The cassava planted in chitemene is on flat ground. Various varieties of cassava are
grown in the area but there is no particular preference of varieties to be grown in chitemene.
Chitemene fields are usually located very far from the village. Farmers reported shifting from
their villages to the chitemene sites, especially during bush clearing.







Permanent Fields: Several forms of permanent fields were identified in the valley:

Chisebe:This is a permanent land system in which the field is cleared and/or
vegetation is uprooted and burned. This could be on either virgin or rested land.
The crops grown include cassava, groundnuts, cowpeas beans, and local maize.
The cassava grown in this cropping system is usually intercropped with leguminous
crops (e.g., groundnuts, beans, and bambara nuts). Timing of land preparation in
this system depends on the state of the land. If the land is virgin, land preparation
starts at the onset of the rains. For rested land, preparation is done shortly
after the rains. Fertilizer is not applied to the crops grown in this system. Land
preparation is done by men, but planting is done by women.

Amabala (Mound Fields): These mound fields are often found nearer to the
villages. They can be located on either virgin or rested land. The major crop is
cassava. As in Chisebe, cassava is mixed with a range of crops (e.g., groundnuts,
beans, and pumpkins. When making mounds, the vegetation is buried in order to
serve as a source of nutrients after decomposition. Making mounds is very labor
intensive and performed by both men and women. Productivity per unit area may
be low.

Amafamu (Farm Fields): These are permanent fields where the commercial hybrid
maize is planted. The field is prepared by tilling the land with a hand hoe.
Fertilizer is applied to the maize crop. Farmers would like these fields to be
placed near the homesteads. Credit to grow hybrid maize was limited.

Dambo: This system is found at the bottom of the river system and is wide-spread in the valley.
Alluvial soils, high in organic matter, are the major features of the system. The major crops
grown are rice in the rainy season and exotic vegetables (rape, tomato, cabbage, and chinese
cabbage) in dry season. Other crops include sweet potatoes, palm trees, sugarcane, and bananas.
Due to the high population of the valley, not all farmers have access to this resource, especially
female-headed households. Due to the nature of the crops grown in the dambo, this is becoming
an important form of on-farm income generation. There is technology for growing a number of
vegetables. This is a fast-evolving cropping system for which conservation practices need to be
well in place.

3. Crop Production Practices

Cassava: Cassava is the most widely grown staple food in the valley, and is grown in both shifting
cultivation (chitemene) and permanent cropping systems. In chitemene, cassava is grown in
association with fingermillet in the first year and then becomes the dominant crop in the
subsequent years. On permanent fields, cassava is grown on mounds and intercropped with
groundnuts, beans, pumpkins, and any other type of traditional vegetables. Planting of cassava
starts in November in chitemene and is on flat land. On permanent fields, planting can go
through to March/April.

Land preparation for cassava is done by men but planting is done by women. The varieties grown
(Mwaka, Zaire, Kalyabwela, and Sailashi) are long maturing (two to three seasons) and are said
to differ in their yielding potential. Harvesting occurs throughout the year according to need, but







harvesting in bulk is done from August to September. The cassava is then dried and stored on
platforms (Ulwino), and consumed in the rainy season when the drying of cassava is problematic.
No artificial fertilizer is applied to the crop and no improved cultivars were being grown.
.Weeding of cassava is done by women in March and April.

The major constraints to increased cassava production in the valley were: the lack of labor,
especially for mound/ridge making; the long-maturing variety of cassava, which makes food
availability a problem; pests such as the cassava mealybug; and the long distances to fields.

Fingermillet: Fingermillet is grown on chitemene mixed with cassava. Bush clearing (cutting of
trees and burning) runs from June to October. The seed is planted in December and harvesting
is done in May and June, mainly by women. Few farmers in the valley are eating fingermillet,
which is used mainly to brew beer to be sold to generate income for the household. The ash is
said to provide needed nutrients. Limitations to increased fingermillet production are labor for
cutting trees and distance to resources as forests are diminished.

Groundnuts: Groundnuts were reported to be grown by most households in the valley. When
grown in chitemene it is planted randomly on flat ground. In permanent fields, groundnuts are
intercropped with cassava and other pulses. Land preparation for groundnuts is the same as for
cassava, and planting is done in November and December. Two varieties (Nachikondo and
Solontoni) are the most commonly grown. Harvesting of groundnuts is in April and May. The
yields obtained from the varieties grown were not high. Pops was identified as a major problem
in some soil types and closely associated with the time of planting; the incidences of pops is high
when planting is late.

No fertilizer is applied to the crop. Production levels are low and most households were selling
most of the harvest. Production constraints in groundnuts are lack of suitable high-yielding
varieties that are relatively tolerant to low pH. Seed availability of groundnuts limits the area
planted. Labor demand for land preparation, lifting, and shelling contribute to low levels
currently being produced. Because groundnuts are planted in November and December, they
compete for labor with other crops planted during this time (cassava, maize, and millet).

Maize: Maize is not widely grown in the valley. Where grown, it is often intercropped with
cassava and other crops groundnutss and beans). Maize grown on permanent fields is planted in
November and December. The most common variety is local maize, and it is not fertilized. In
Chiposa, however, farmers covered by a UNICEF project are receiving fertilizer and hybrid seed
for one lima per household. Maize is weeded once in January; subsequent weeding may occur
depending on weed pressure. It was difficult to establish the yields obtained per hectare, but
most farmers reported harvesting two to four bags of maize.

The major pests reported were the stalkborer and termites. Maize streak virus was also
mentioned. Harvesting of maize is between June and July. Maize nshima is preferred to cassava
meal. Farmers that grow maize consume most of it, and some surplus is exchanged for fish. The
major constraints in maize production were cited as inadequate credit facilities for fertilizer and
seed; and inadequate extension services, especially to "new" farmers going into maize farming.

Beans: Beans are an important relish crop in the valley. They are produced twice in the growing
season. The first crop is planted in November and December, and harvested in February and







March, when the second crop is planted. The first crop is usually intercropped with maize. The
second can either be grown in association or as a pure stand. No fertilizer is applied to the crop.
A number of varieties are grown, most notably Pembela, Kabulangeti, Mulele, and Solwezi. The
yields of these varieties are estimated at 2-3 x 80kg/lima (Diagnostic survey, Mwense District).
The beans grown are sold to traders but reasonable amounts are consumed. Limiting factors to
bean production include lack of seed; lack of high yielding bean cultivars; and labor shortage in
the households.

Vegetables: Two groups of vegetables are found in the valley. The traditional vegetables are
important relishes for the majority of farmers, especially in female-headed households. Most of
the traditional vegetables consumed are cultivated (pumpkin leaves, cassava leaves, cowpeas
leaves, sweet potato leaves, and bean leaves), and some are collected from the wild (Ibondwe and
Pupwe). The cultivated vegetables are grown in mixtures with the major staples. Pumpkins and
cassava are planted early in the season, whereas cowpeas and beans can be planted later (January
to February). Most of the leaves are consumed in the rainy season when they are still green.
Some may be dried and preserved for other times. Vegetables from the wild are plentiful during
the rainy season and some types are also preserved for later use. Exotic vegetables (chinese
cabbage, tomato, rape, and onions) can be found in areas where dambos exist (e.g., Chiposa and
Kapamba). Land preparations for the dambo gardens start in May or June after the rains.
Planting of crops is done in July and August. An appreciable amount of fertilizers are applied to
the vegetables.

4. Other Income-Generating Activities
Four villages were studied in the valley area: Kapamba, Chiposa, Mulundu, and Chibumbu. A
wide variety of nonfarm income-generating activities were presented, but were highly village
specific. Chibumbu had the widest range of off-farm income sources.

Fishing: This activity was most common in the Mulundu and Chibumbu villages, along the Lang
and Luapula rivers. The types of fish caught are tiger fish, bottle fish, mintesa, matuku, chisense,
and small breams. Major fishing equipment included nets, baskets, and hooks. Fish is largely
available year round except for the cold season. More catches were reported in the rainy season.
Processing methods included sun drying, fire drying, salting, and the preparation of fresh fish. In
Chibumbu, more of the fish catches are consumed than sold. In Mulundu more are sold. The
major constraints reported with fish were diminishing stocks due to damming at Musonda Falls
and overexploitation on Luapula River. The high cost of fishing equipment and unreliable nets
were other reported constraints.

Off-Farm Employment (wage labor): Wage labor was also reported, especially in Chibumbu. The
most common income sources involved working for other people--brick laying, logging, and other
general work. Logging is most common among young males.

Charcoal and Firewood Sales: Charcoal sales were reported in all the villages in the valley area.
Firewood sales for fish drying and in urban places is common. The high population density has
worsened the situation as people have to walk long distances to find trees.

Trading: Trading used to be a big cash earner for most people, especially in the Mulundu area.
The terms of trade for most commodities between the Zambians and Zairians have worsened,
depriving most valley people of income. Local sales of Chisense, sugar, salt, cooking oil, Salaula,







paraffin, and fish were reported. The barter system is quite common and people have a system of
valuing exchangeable products. Trading in crafts is also common. There has been an observed
increase in social vices, especially in Mulundu.

Beer Brewing: This is a major source of income for most households. It is done by women and
intensifies in the dry season. In Mulundu, however, no beer brewing was reported; this may be
attributed to the presence of the Zairian brand Simba, which most households sell. Local beer is
made from finger miller. Lighter or sweeter types such as Munkoyo are also brewed for sale.

Sale of Wild Foods: Due to high population density and diminished forest resources, no sales of
wild foods by locals was reported in Mulundu. Chiposa and Kapamba also reported no sales,
possibly because of poor access to markets. Only Chibumbu reported sales of masuku,
mushrooms, honey, and other foods to raise money.

Other Nonfarm Income Sources: Other money-raising activities reported, especially in Chibumbu,
were hunting, blacksmithing, remittances, and money lending at about 50 percent interest per
month.

5. Coping Strategies

Adjustments in Meals and Food Substitution: As a coping strategy in times of food scarcity,
many households in the valley areas resorted to cutting down the number of meals that a
household normally eats per day. On average, most households eat two to three meals a day
when there is enough food, but when food becomes scarce, households eat only one meal. This
adjustment was being practiced by both male- and female-headed households without exception.
Another way in which many households change their pattern of eating is food substitution. Most
households eat raw and roasted cassava and fried maize due to lack of adequate relish. Rice is
also eaten as a substitute food in these times of hardship.

Sale of Assets: This is another coping strategy used by households when they have little food to
go around. However, this strategy is being used by less than a quarter of the households
interviewed. Liquid assets such as goats, chickens, furniture, and personal clothing are sold in
order to raise money to buy food for the household. The majority of households were selling
liquid assets in all four villages interviewed.

Borrowing from Relatives/Friends: The practice of borrowing food from friends and relatives as a
coping strategy was reported in three of the four villages covered. This strategy is being practiced
equally by male- and female-headed households. Some households also beg for food from others
as a coping strategy when they have no food of their own. Opportunistic appearances at meals
was reported.

Credit: Within these valley areas, some households are relatively better off than others and act as
lending institutions of food and money to the poor households. Money is lent at exorbitant
interest rates, usually 50 percent. If lending is in food, the borrowing household pays the
equivalent amount of food borrowed at the end of the next season. This lending arrangement was
practiced by both male- and female-headed households.







Wild Foods: Two of the four villages interviewed reported resorting to gathering wild foods as a
coping strategy in times of food scarcity. Wild foods gathered include masuku, chikanda, and
mushrooms. This strategy is used primarily by female-headed households, probably due to
traditional roles.

Alternative Employment: In three of the four villages covered, many households were resorting
to alternative employment as a coping strategy in times of food scarcity, particularly male-headed
households. This alternative employment includes doing piece work for wages, bricklaying,
carpentry, basket weaving, and mat making for sale. Also, some households are involved in petty
trading, selling salt, cooking oil, and paraffin in smaller quantities. The selling of such essentials
in being practiced by both male- and female-headed households in the three villages covered.
Other wage labor jobs include working in the fields of or fishing for other households. Payment
may be in cash or food, depending on the arrangement of the parties concerned.

Remittances: In one of the villages (Chibumbu), some households have the privilege of receiving
remittances from relatives working in towns as a coping strategies. However, this is not a widely
practiced strategy because only a few households--relatively well off themselves--have educated
relatives with good and secure jobs in towns.

Household Perception of Household Food Security: Many of the households interviewed had
difficulty identifying indicators of their own food insecurity. Each interpretation of household
food security was based on the livelihood strategy of the particular household. The quantitative
aspect of household food security (HHFS) also varied according to household size. However, the
general picture to emerge was that a household was food secure if it could sustain its daily ration
from one point of food acquisition to the next.

Households that grow maize and or millet measure HHFS in terms of number of bags the
household has, while a households that grow cassava measure HHFS in terms of number and
area of fields under mature cassava. Households that depend on other sources of income, such as
trading and wage labor, measure HHFS in terms of cash at hand to buy food from one point to
the next (e.g., from one month to the next). Some households measured HHFS in terms of
number of meals eaten per day.

In the four villages covered in the valley area, the majority of the households indicated not
having enough food to last from one point to the next. For instance, the majority of farming
households have foodstuffs from their fields to last an average of only three to four months from
the time of harvest. Thus these households do not produce enough food to last them until the
next agricultural season.

B. PLATEAU VILLAGES

1. Access to Resources
Under this topic, we discuss issues pertaining to access to land (tenure), common property
(forests and wetlands), means of production (farm equipment, animal traction, and fishing
equipment), livestock by types and numbers, and credit.

Access to Land (Tenure): Traditionally, land available is owned or administered by the chief. All
power is vested in the chiefs (male or female), who delegate land tenure rights for their subjects







for purposes of settlement and farming. Other forms of access to land tenure are by inheritance
and/or transfer entitlement, in which cases one is entitled by legitimacy, as well as through leases,
which are granted by the local district councils. The latter generally pass through the following
manner: (1) application for land tenure, (2) land sought, (3) shown by the Chief, (4) application
to the Councils, (5) lands surveyed, and (6) granting of land leasehold by the Councils.

Access to Common Property (Forests and Wetlands): Plateau villages had access to both forests
and wetlands. Concern was registered in all the villages visited with regard to the depletion of
forest resources, which can be attributed to the chitemene system, rapid population growth, and
sparser vegetative cover due to soil erosion and the use of wood for charcoal burning. In all of
the plateau villages visited, villagers gather wild foods such as masuku, mushrooms, impundu, and
ifisongole.

Five out of the eight villages visited (approximately 60 percent) were involved in charcoal
burning: Mukonshi, Nambale-Musele, Kalundu, Mbulukuta, and Mupeta. Charcoal prices ranged
from K200 to K250 per 50kg bag if sold within the villages and from K800 to K1,000 if sold in
Mwense or Mansa. Underutilization of wetlands can be attributed to lack of farm implements,
labor constraints, and lack of agricultural inputs and credit facilities.

Access to the Means of Production (Farm Equipment, Animal Traction, Fishing Equipment):
The dissemination of technological information and equipment, especially implements for
agricultural production, has lagged. Most households involved in agricultural production only
have access to hand hoes and axes for tilling. Animal traction for cultivation of lands was
virtually nonexistent. This can be attributed to lack of capital resources to purchase cattle, lack of
technical information, and general lack of experience with traction animals. Fishing equipment
was only found in two of the eight villages (about 25 percent), namely Mupeta and Kalundu.
These two villages were engaged in fishing activities, and fishermen had access to dugout canoes,
fishing baskets, nets, and fishing traps.

Access to Livestock by Types and Numbers: Villagers within the plateau localities had access to
livestock. The most common livestock types are goats, chickens, cattle, pigs and ducks. Kamami,
for instance had a total population of goats amounting to 5,000, 49 pigs, and 180 head of cattle.
On average, households in the plateau had up to 23 chickens, up to 10 pigs, up to six goats, up
to five head of cattle, and up to five ducks per household. The goat problem was evident in many
plateau villages visited. Goats were also identified as an impediment to agricultural production
because they eat most of the crops planted in the nearby fields.

Access to Credit: Access to credit facilities on the plateau was found in most of the villages we
visited (approximately 50-70 percent), but was limited. Only Nambale-Musele had no access to
credit facilities. The main financial lending institutions providing credit were ZCF and Lima
Bank in Mbulukuta, Chipili, Kamami, Mukonshi, and Kalundu. IFAD provided credit facilities in
Mukonshi, Kamami, and Chiposa. However, credit was described as limited in Chiposa because
of the manner in which people were selected for credit extension. Chiposa villagers were
unhappy with IFAD's exclusion of the local villagers in the credit program. World Vision
provided credit facilities in Chipili and Mupeta.







2. Cropping Systems
Three cropping systems were identified in the plateau villages (Mbulukuta, Chipili, Kamami,
Mukonshi, Nambale-Musele, Kalundu, Mupeta, and Munanga). The most common system is
chitemene, followed by permanent cultivation. Dambo cultivation is the least practiced.

The Chitemene System of Cultivation: This system is practiced in all the eight villages surveyed
on the plateau. Under this system, men cut down shrubs, trees, and branches between April and
August. Women gather and pile up the cut material in a central place. Burning is done by men
in October. Because this is almost the beginning of the rainy season, not much ash is blown away
by the wind. The principal crops planted in the first year are cassava and fingermillet. Cassava is
planted in November or December and fingermillet in December or January. Minor crops
include pumpkins and gourds.

There is generally no weeding because most of the weed seeds are burned along with the
gathered trees. If there is a need, weeding is done between February and April. In the second
year, beans, groundnuts, and sometimes bambara nuts join the cassava. Cassava harvesting starts
in the second or third year, depending on the variety and the family's staple food needs.

Harvesting ends in the fourth year, after which the field is left fallow for some years to allow the
trees to regenerate. Alternatively, the field that was initially called Umunda may be planted to
groundnuts, beans, or cassava on mounds. At this stage, the field is called ibala. Each year a new
chitemene field is cultivated to facilitate the planting of fingermillet, which is only planted in
chitemene, and cassava, which performs better in chitemene than in a permanent cultivation
system.

Permanent Cultivation System: Permanent cultivation is only done around the villages. Because
all of the villages surveyed had large numbers of goats, farmers leave the land in the immediate
vicinity of the village uncultivated. Farmers make mounds and plant cassava, beans, maize, and
groundnuts as the major crops. Other crops are bambara nuts, pumpkins, sweet potatoes,
cowpeas, and some local vegetables.

Dambo Cultivation: Although all the villages surveyed have access to dambos, very few people
use them. Dambo is only common in Kamami, where the farmers grow rice, and to a lesser
extent in Mbulukutu. Vegetables are occasionally grown in the dambos, and are mainly exotic
vegetables such as tomatoes, rape, chinese cabbage, cabbage, and onions. In Chipili, farmers
emphasized the early drying up of dambos. In Kamami, a farmer said that vegetables are grown
in dambos at the time of the year (cool dry season) that he would like to have some rest after a
lot of hard work in the chitemene and permanent fields.

3. Crop Production Practices

Cassava: Cassava is planted in both chitemene and permanent cultivation fields. Land
preparation is as described under the chitemene and permanent systems of cultivation. Under the
latter system, some farmers continue making mounds and planting cassava up to as late as March
(Chipili area). In chitemene, cassava is planted by women in November/December, using cuttings
from their own, friends', or relatives' fields. Some get the cuttings from the portions of fields they
have bought from other people in the village. In the Chipili area, two cuttings of 25-30 cm long
are planted per station. Planting stations are spaced such that when millet is sown in January in







the same field it will not be choked by cassava. There are no rows. No external inputs such as
fertilizer are used.

Harvesting starts in the second or third year, depending on the variety (early or late maturing)
and the family's staple food needs. Harvesting goes on throughout the year but is intensified
between May and September because cassava is harvested both for immediate consumption and
storage (to be eaten during the rain season when weather conditions make cassava processing
difficult). Cassava is processed in two ways. If it is meant for immediate consumption, it is
peeled, soaked and dried. Cassava for storage is peeled, sun dried, soaked in water, and dried
again. Such cassava is very hard and difficult to pound. Even storage pests such as weevils and
borers do not easily eat through such cassava tubers. Dried cassava is stored in the house on
racks (ulwino) constructed above the fire place. Sometimes it is stored in sacks within the house.
Termites attack the cassava on the rack if cassava is in contact with the wall. Other pests are
weevils and borers. All the preparatory work for the storage of cassava is done by women.

Cassava is processed into flour by women, who pound it in a mortar and pestle. Cassava meal is
the staple food in all the villages surveyed, prepared as nshima. It is common to mix in
fingermillet meal or maize meal in the preparation of nshima. Some of the cassava is sold (if the
family has more than what they need) to raise money for other household needs or bartered for
other foodstuffs. It may be sold in either the processed form or as standing plants in the field.

Varieties of cassava include Mwakamoya (matures after one year), Kasenga (or Nakasumba),
Kasonkoti, Napebe, and Zaire. The major constraints to increased cassava production were: the
long maturity period for most varieties (two to three years), so immigrants from other villages
and new couples remain food insecure for a long period; the distance of Chitemene fields, which
are sometimes a two-hour walk away; termites, which attack if planting is followed by a dry spell;
cassava mealybugs (cholera); and the difficulty of processing during the rainy season.

Fingermillet: Like cassava, this is also a principal crop in the chitemene field.

Land preparation and planting follow the chitemene cultivation system described above.
Fingermillet is broadcasted in December/January. Mutubila, a white variety, is preferred for
nshima; Amayengeyenge or Ayakashika (because it red) is chiefly used for beer brewing. Women
harvest fingermillet by cutting the heads using a knife. Stems remain standing in the field.
Harvesting starts around May and ends around July. Fingermillet is used mainly for brewing
beer. It is also mixed with cassava to make nshima. It is becoming an important commercial crop
on the plateau.

Groundnuts: This is an oil crop that is also becoming a commercial crop. Groundnuts are
planted on flat land and/or on ridges in November/December. If grown in chitemene, it is
intercropped with cassava in the second year. No fertilizer or other external inputs are used.
Weeding takes place in January/February. Varieties grown include Nachikondo, Solontoni, and
Malawi. Harvesting for immediate consumption (raw or boiled) and storage takes place between
April and June. Storage is in the traditional bins that are sealed on top or in bags in the house.
The groundnuts stored in bags are prone to rodent attack. Groundnuts are mainly used in
vegetable cooking when pounded. They are also eaten raw or fried and eaten with roasted
cassava. Some is sold for cash. Two problems were highlighted in the production of groundnuts:
the rosette virus disease and 'pops' (especially in exhausted fields around the villages).







Beans: Beans are the most important pulse crop in the area. In permanent fields, they are
planted on mounds from November to February. Some of the seeds for February planting come
from November/December plantings. Planting is done by women. In chitemene, beans are
intercropped with cassava. Varieties planted include Pembela (so called because it cooks quickly),
Kabulangeti (the most popular), and Mensopansaka. Harvesting takes place in January/February
for November/December plantings, and in March/April for January/February plantings. Beans are
used as a relish for the family and as a source of cash. When growing beans, leaves are harvested
and cooked as a vegetable. Some leaves are preserved for use in the dry season.

Maize: Two types of maize are grown: the local Kanjilimine and improved commercial varieties.
Farmers do not like Kanjilimine for commercial production because it does not respond to
fertilizer application. Men, sometimes assisted by women, make mounds in November/December
and women plant maize at the same time. Weeding is done by women in January/February;
however, in Chipili area, where maize is an important commercial crop, men also weed.
Harvesting of dry cobs takes place from April to June. The cobs are shelled and packed in 90kg
bags, especially if the crop is for sale, or in empty fertilizer bags in the house. The problems
farmers are facing in the production of maize is availability and high prices of external inputs,
fertilizer in particular. There is also a problem of maize marketing in remote areas under the
liberalized maize marketing system.

4. Other Income-Generating Activities

Fishing: Fish resources on the plateau are very limited. Only villages near water have access to
fishing, except for Munanga, Chipili, Kalundu, and Nambale-Musele. Some of the villages visited
on the plateau fish with either draw nets or dugout boats.and fishing baskets. Both men and
women are involved in fishing, although it was reported that women's catch (fish) is usually for
home consumption while men catch fish to sell.

Fishing is done in some of the major rivers (e.g., the Luongo river) and the villages have very
limited fish ponds, although seasonal fishing was reported. Most households fish during the rainy
season when agricultural activities are at the peak. Fish is either marketed or consumed,
depending on the quantity of the catch. The fish meant for sale is either dried, smoked, or salted.
Although most of the households in Mupeta are involved in fishing, there is a shortage of fish for
relish because most of the fish is for sale. Fishing is a potential income-generating activity in
some of the visited villages, but access to fishing equipment and to a lesser extent the seasonal
availability of fish are constraints.

Off-Farm Employment (wage labor): Most of the households on the plateau face labor supply as
well as resource problems (e.g., base for payment of labor). Men and women in most households
are involved in wage/casual labor, except in Mupeta and Kamami. The men are involved in labor-
intensive work (e.g., timber logging, carpentry, and brick laying), and women work for food in
other people's fields. In Munanga, it was reported that working for beer was also common. Wage
labor done on the fields is meant to meet the labor supply problems.

Charcoal Sales: In five out of the eight villages visited on the plateau, the sale of charcoal is very
common. Charcoal sales were reported as one of the major household off-farm, income-
generating activities. Charcoal is sold by both female- and male-headed households. The quantity
of charcoal produced is highly dependent on the labor supply of the household. On average, 10








bags of charcoal per household are produced for sale. Charcoal sales were reported to be high
after the rainy season when tree cutting is done in the chitemene fields. The charcoal produced
by the women is mostly for home use, with very few bags for sale. The prices of charcoal bags
(50kg) range from K200-K250 on site and K800-K1,000 if sold in Mwense or Mansa. The price
was reported to fluctuate seasonally (the price is usually higher in the rainy season than in the
dry season). Charcoal sales have fuelled deforestation on the plateau, leading to limited access to
wild food supplies (e.g., fruits).

Trading: Trading contributes significantly to the inflow of income in most of the households on
the plateau. Trading is done within and between villages (among households and mostly along
the roadside, between the villages and across the border in Zaire). The commonly traded items
were mostly agricultural produce and fish, as well as salt, sugar, and soap. Women are mostly
involved in petty trading (by the roadside) while the men do trade between villages and cross-
border trading. In Munanga and Kalundu, it was reported that the major trading system is
bartering with food and nonfood items. The prices of the commodities were usually very high for
most of the households. Due to unfavorable terms of trade in the areas visited (resulting in low
cross-border trade), the market for all the commodities is very limited.

Beer Brewing: In all eight villages visited, beer brewing, primarily using millet, is an important
off-farm source of income. Brewing is considered women's work in all the villages. The beer is
sold for cash and/or people worked for it. Both alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages are brewed
in all the villages.

Sale of wild fruits: Wild food resources in the plateau are very limited. This has been attributed
to the farming system (chitemene) as well as early bush fires. The major wild food sold on the
plateau is mushroom when in season (rainy season). The mushroom are either sold fresh or
dried. Both male- and female-headed households sell mushrooms. Mushrooms are collected by
women and children.

Timber Logging: Timber logging, from the local forest, is another major source of income for
most of the households on the plateau. About 75 percent of the villages visited cited timber
logging as the main off-farm, income-generating activity. The tree types used mostly for plank
making are: Milombwa, Mupe, Mupepe, Mutobe, and Imipoto. Simple hand tools (e.g., pit-saws
and axes) are used in timber logging. It was reported that young, able-bodied men were mostly
involved in this activity. The sawyers supply the timber, mainly to Chloride Zambia Limited,
Minestone (Z) Limited, Asbestos, and private dealers. The price of the logs is about K800.
Usually the sawyers work in twos and share transportation costs as well as profits.

In Mbulukuta, the sawyers make a profit of about K2,000 per person per sale. The money is used
to buy foods and meet other livelihood needs. Timber logging is generally done after the rainy
season, but sometimes throughout the year. The sawyers face several problems in terms of
transportation of the logs, markets, tools, and obtaining licenses, as well as access to relish foods
while cutting timber in the forest. For example, the forest resources of the plateau are being
depleted.

5. Coping Strategies
Mwense, like most of Luapula Province, has not experienced drought conditions as did the
districts in the Southern part of the country. However, most households on the plateau have








experienced periods of food shortages when food staples in stock, and green and dry vegetables
are scarce. Food scarcity among plateau households can be divided into scarcity of either staples
or relishes. Most of the households on the plateau reported scarcity of relishes. In response to
food scarcity, households on the plateau adopted the following coping strategies.

Adjustment in Meals and Food Substitution: All the villages visited in the plateau indicated
reducing the number of meals eaten per day. Households from three of the eight villages reduced
the number of meals from at least two to one. One household in Chiposa reported not having
any meal at all when food was scarce. Both female- and male-headed households reduced the
number of meals.

Reduction of meals is often practiced when relish is not available, mostly after the rainy season
when most of traditional vegetables are finished. The worst period is between June and October,
when both green and dried vegetables are no longer in stock. In addition to the reduction of
number of meals, the quantity of food prepared is reduced.

Households also substitute one food with another in times of food scarcity. For example, rice,
which is often grown as a cash crop, is used in place of nshima when households do not have
relish or the staple itself. When relish runs out, rice is eaten plain. Households prefer eating rice
without an accompaniment over nshima without relish. According to the women interviewed,
cassava nshima is less palatable than rice when consumed without relishes. Other foods
substituted for nshima include bananas, sugarcane, roasted cassava, sweet potatoes, pumpkins,
squash, and roasted dry maize.

Sale of Assets: None of the households visited in the plateau sell productive assets in times of
food scarcity. One male household head in Chipili said he would rather die than sell his
productive assets (axes and hoes). However, he sold his labor for cash to buy food. Most
households, however, sell liquid assets such as goats and chickens to generate cash for purchasing
foodstuffs. Others exchange goats or chickens for foodstuffs such as cassava and millet. Five of
the villages on the plateau reported selling goats, one household in Kalundu reported selling
furniture to get food, and another household sold clothes to buy food.

Borrowing/Begging From Relatives/Friends: Many households borrow from friends and relatives
when food is scarce. Borrowing is practiced in seven out of the eight villages visited. In Mupeta,
borrowing within the village from fellow church members is common and does not require
payment of interest. Most households borrow food items such as cassava. One household
borrowed everything from staples to relishes. Borrowing is done with reluctance; one household
was quick to point out that they will borrow but did not want to make it a habit.

Credit: Most of the villages visited in the plateau did not obtain credit to get food in times of
food scarcity. Only two of the eight villages indicated using credit, which was given at 50 percent
interest.

Wild Foods: The use of wild foods was common among households throughout the year. Foods
such as mushroom, leafy okras, and chikanda are collected even in times when there was plenty.
These wild foods have become part of the regular diet among many households. Households
indicated intensifying the use of wild foods and time spent in such procurement during food
scarcity. None of the households in the plateau indicated use of unusual foods.







Alternative Employment: Seeking alternative employment was the most common practice among
households experiencing food scarcity on the plateau; all the households indicated resorting to
wage labor. Some of the poorer households offered labor to other households in return for either
money or food. Households offering labor to other households during the rainy season were most
likely to experience food shortages throughout the year, and were vulnerable to chronic food
insecurity; household labor that would have been used for home production is diverted to
achieving immediate food needs. In turn, this affects the household's ability to recover from short
periods of food scarcity. Although income is earned from supply of labor to meet immediate
food needs, it is unlikely to be adequate to purchase food year round. Demand for labor among
households tends to be seasonal and hence can not be relied upon as a sustainable livelihood
strategy. Thus engaging in wage labor during times of crop cultivation may be deleterious to
household food security status for households already experiencing labor constraints.

To iron out large fluctuations in food availability, household members participated in the
following activities: working in the fields of other households (e.g., weeding, slashing school
grounds, and processing). Although both men and women worked in other people's fields, there
were major differences between the alternative employment patterns of men and women.
Women's alternative employment included processing crops for other households. In one group
interview, men talked about 'women turning themselves into hammermills'; another group talked
about 'women turning into trucks, transporting produce from people's fields in response to food
scarcity.

Most of the above activities have become livelihood strategies. Many households are already
participating in these activities to generate income for other needs. The only difference is that
during food scarcity, households increase their participation in these activities. Because such
coping strategies are now turning into livelihood strategies, it will become more difficult to gain
access to alternative employment, so that households may be forced to more extreme measures
such as seasonal migration or even outmigration.

Current alternative employment opportunities for women such as pounding are likely to diminish
as mechanized hammermills are introduced in these communities. Lack of access to such
employment will result in failure to recover from food stress. According to Frankenberger (1993),
when buffers against periodic stress begin to disappear, successive food shortfalls develop into
crises from which households fail to recover.

Remittances: Few households are receiving money from children or other relatives in the form of
remittances. Relatives remitted money about two times a year, with amounts ranging from.K2000
to K1000 per remittance. More female- than male-headed households received money from
relatives. Even fewer households are likely to receive money from children or siblings in the
future because of the impact of policy changes (structural adjustment) on the urban communities.
Many households on the plateau did realize that incomes in the urban areas have declined and
that it was becoming difficult for the urban communities to meet their basic needs. Many
households have stopped expecting remittances from their relatives. One woman in Chipili
explained that she no longer visits her children because it was equally hard for them.

Others: Increased brewing, prostitution, and stealing were reported to be coping strategies
adopted by many households. Most of these activities have negative impacts on the general
welfare of the communities. With the coming of AIDS, coping strategies such as prostitution are






not only risky to the women but to the community at large. More households are now tending
the sick and attending funerals and therefore are not able to devote their time to production.
This in turn puts them at greater risk of food insecurity.

In one village, beer drinking was cited as an important constraint to production. Increased
brewing, especially during crop production periods, affects household labor supply, which in turn
affects the amount of food production. In addition, millet, which was a backup crop, is now used
as a cash crop. Households no longer have enough millet in stock. In the case of a mealy bug
attack on cassava, most households would have nothing to eat.

The above situation shows that buffers against food stress are beginning to disappear.
Redistribution of children, a common practice among many households in the past, is not
practiced as much as before because other households are facing similar stressful conditions.
Communities may now have to rely more on the government to provide income or food to meet
needs during periodic food shortfalls. However, the government, with its large budget deficit, is
unlikely to intervene in time.

Household Perception of Household Food Security: Many households on the plateau measured
food security in terms of the amount of food they had in the field or in the granary bin. The
definition of food security was closely related to the cropping pattern used by the household. For
example, a cassava-growing household assessed food security through crops in the field. In
Mbulukuta, household food security was dependent upon having fingermillet in storage so that
even when cassava was infested with mealy bugs, there was still something to eat. In this case,
fingermillet was regarded as a backup crop because cassava was the main food crop. In Chipili,
households having both cassava in the field and fingermillet in storage were considered as being
food secure. Female-headed households tended to define household food security in terms of
money; two female-headed households measured food security not only in terms of the staple but
also in terms of money for buying food.

Almost all of the households interviewed measured food security in terms of the staple. None of
the households described food security in terms of the availability of relish, although relish was
the most important food security constraint. This is probably because it is easier to deal with a
relish problem compared to a staple. It is possible to pick wild vegetables when domesticated
vegetables are finished. It is also easier to borrow vegetables for a meal than to borrow a staple.

C. CHANGES IN LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES

1. Valley Area

Conversion of Traditional Food Crops to Cash Crops: In all four villages covered in the valley
area, the majority of the households have resorted selling a larger portion of their food crops for
cash. The major cash crops are maize, millet, groundnuts, vegetables (both exotic and
traditional), and red palm oil. These crops are major energy and protein foods that usually form
the core diet for normal households. Obviously, this shift from food to cash crops has resulted in
major changes in the diets of the households in the community. This shift is possibly due to the
decline in petty trading of essentials, especially in the valley area, which is well known for
trading. People would rather have ready cash to buy anything they need, including food. Male-







and female-headed households are equally involved in this shift. Beer brewing for cash has also
had a negative impact on millet consumption.

Disappearance of Traditional Crops: In all four villages covered, households have also given
prominence to growing exotic crops at the expense of traditional crops such as munkolobwe. The
reason for this is, again, to gain cash. Households prefer to grow crops that are easier to manage
and mature faster. The overall effect of this trend is a reduction in both the quantity and quality
of traditional crops, which had been the cheapest and easiest sources of a balanced diet for the
average household. This decline in traditional food crops was evident in the high levels of
malnutrition of children in the four valley communities covered.

Increase in Population Density: The valley is a traditionally trade-oriented area, with a dense
population in comparison with the plateau. With the decline in terms of trade within these
communities and across the border, many households have no alternative but to farm. The
decline in fish production has also added impetus for farming. However, because there is less
land suitable for farming in the valley, households have to travel long distances (particularly to
the plateau) in search of land for cultivation. The time spent en route has resulted in the
problems of child care. In the valley area, the available land and forest has all been cleared for
the chitemene cultivation of both food and cash crops. This has brought about deforestation, soil
erosion, and a general reduction in soil fertility.

Change in Terms of Trade: The unfavorable terms of trade currently facing the valley area has
had a telling impact on the livelihood strategies of the households in the villages covered.
Trading was found to be more predominant in the Mulundu and Chibumbu areas. Households
can no longer afford to trade across the border with Zaire, although cross-border trade and
smuggling are still common in Mulundu. The unfavorable terms of trade have resulted in high
unemployment in the area, and social vices are reportedly on the increase. Malnutrition is widely
evident in children, especially in Mulundu.

Decrease in Natural Resources: The high population density in the valley has had a negative
impact on the natural resources of the area. Former resources of game, fish, wild foods, and
forest products are now less available. Fish and game have been depleted due to overfishing and
overhunting. The Smaller nets are being used, which clear all types of fish in a given area. Illegal
methods of fishing such as trapping and herding fish into nets have meant catching any type of
fish at any cost. Drying and smoking of fish has resulted in deforestation by cutting every
available tree for smoking purposes. In the long run, wild game has no sanctuary and is being
killed at will without regard to size and type. Wild birds have no trees in which to nest and
reproduce. Birds and fish are known to have favorable cohabitation links. Extensive logging and
basket/mat making also result in the depletion of natural resources. Households expressed the
need for introduction of fish ponds to support natural waters.

Increase in Cash-Crop Inputs: The shift from food to cash crops has compelled households to
seek external inputs such as seed and fertilizers. In all the four valley villages covered,
households had problems in securing both fertilizer and seed for maize due to nonavailability and
high prices. Households also complained that they have no access to credit facilities. Where such
facilities exist, they are quite limited both in scope and quantity. This input constraint has caused
households to produce less than they need for both food and cash crops, a vicious cycle in
household food sufficiency and cash accumulation.








Vulnerable Groups: The above livelihood food trends have affected both male- and female-
headed households. However, in the final analysis, the most affected group are the children and
the elderly, who can do very little on their own to cope with the changing trends. This impact is
seen in the high levels of malnutrition among both groups.

2. Plateau Area
Farming was the major livelihood system identified in the.villages of the plateau. Others included
beer brewing, some trading, wild food collection, and piece work. Fishing is also done on a small
scale. Major changes were observed in livelihood systems, including the following.

Conversion of Traditional Food Crops to Cash Crops: Fingermillet is one traditional food crop
reportedly being sold mainly in the form of beer. The need for cash and labor in most
households in the plateau village forces them to use fingermillet for beer rather than food. Other
crops whose sale was on the increase were groundnuts and beans in Kalundu and Nambale-
Musele on the plateau. The sale of these high-value protein sources is affecting nutrition; the
most vulnerable are the children. Most farmers complained that the terms of trade with buyers
who bring other goods for barter were against them. Some households also reported increased
sale of exotic vegetables. Increased crop sales may be a blessing if farmers have a marketable
surplus and if they use the income to purchase other high-value food crops such as fish.
However, it may have a negative impact on nutrition if the need for cash competes with the need
for food.

Disappearance of Traditional Crops: Historically, traditional food production systems have been
known to display a wide variety of food crops. Some of these have been minor in volume but
significant in the contribution to diets. They have been maintained through proper seed retention
and intercropping systems. The changes in production systems and increased reliance on
purchased seed/food has led to a decline or total disappearance of some of these crops, including
traditional vegetables such as Lumanda, mankolobwe, cucumbers, sweet potatoes, fikabe (water
melon), cowpeas, and squash. Most plateau villages, especially those exposed to external
influence through better infrastructure such as Chibumbu, Kalundu and Nambale-Musele
displayed this trend.

Increase in Population Density: Almost all the plateau villages indicated an increase in cases of
in-migration due mostly to retirees. Looking at the traditional practice of chitemene, this implies
an accelerated decrease in forest resources. It also implies that people have to walk increasing
distances from villages; almost all the villages were located at least two hours from the fields. As
a result, people have fewer hours to work unless they move close to the fields. Moving to the
fields would have a negative impact on child care, access to schools, and government services.
Women in particular are affected because they perform most of the tasks of production and child
care. The decline in forest resources is also leading to unsustainable land use practices, such as
cutting young trees and fruit trees.

Change in Terms of Trade: Cross-border trade with Zaire used to be a very prosperous
livelihood strategy, especially for people along the Luapula valley. Agricultural commodities such
as maize, groundnuts, and beans were bought from plateau areas by full-time traders who took
them across to Zaire. The terms of trade with the new economic policy of liberalization has
made most prices of Zambian items almost at par with international prices. This has deprived the








plateau people of a market avenue. Traders are especially affected, particularly young men and
women who used to depend on trade as a livelihood.

Decrease in Natural Resources: All the plateau villages reported a marked decrease in the
availability of natural resources such as fish, wild foods (especially chikanda), forest resources,
and wild game. Wild game is even referred to as a dog's horn--never seen. Although wild foods
are still plentiful, chikanda, which is highly commercialized, was reported to be on the decline in
Mupeta, Mukonshi, Kapamba, Mbulukuta, and other villages. The decrease is probably due to
overexploitation and high commercialization. The Mukwa tree will soon be in danger of
extinction due to lumbering. The double assault from lumbering and chitemene needs to be
closely monitored by the forest department.

Increase in Livestock Resources: In all the plateau villages, a marked increase in livestock
resources was reported, especially goats, pigs, and ducks. These play a security role in times of
cash needs and difficulties such as sickness and funerals. However, they have also had a negative
effect in disturbing other people's crops and water sources.


VII FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

A. COMPOSITION OF DIET

1. Types of Staples
The staple food in most parts of Zambia is nshima, prepared from either cassava, maize, millet,
or sorghum. In Mwense, three crops are available for staples on the plateau, namely cassava,
millet, and to some extent, maize. Cassava is by far the most commonly consumed staple,
reported in all the villages. Millet, mostly in combination with cassava, is used for nshima in all
the villages on the plateau, but to a lesser extent than cassava, especially in the younger
households. Millet and cassava are regarded as security crops when all else fails. So far, there are
no reported problems with the production and storage of millet, unlike cassava (mealy bug) and
hybrid maize. Maize consumption was reported in seven of the eight villages on the plateau (all
but in Nambale Musele), but its use was limited by low availability. Most of the produced crop
did not last for more than three months after harvest.The fact that maize matures for
consumption within one year of planting is a favorable factor for younger households.

As observed in an earlier study in Mwense (Young, 1992), cassava is still the main staple in all
the villages in the valley. It is also the most commonly produced staple because the production of
maize is limited by low soil fertility and lack of production inputs. However, maize is second,
particularly in Mulundu and Chiposa, probably due to easy access to processed maize meal
during the last decade. Millet is used in two of the four villages (Chibumbu and Chiposa) in
combination with Cassava. Most households indicated that they would use more maize meal if it
were readily available and prices more favorable. The use of rice or potatoes as a substitute for
nshima was rarely reported either in the valley or the plateau.

2. Main Relishes
Relish foods are dishes prepared as accompaniments to the staple food, nshima. They are based
on meat, fish, vegetables, or pulses. The main relishes for the valley are cassava leaves, fish, and
other local vegetables to a limited extent. Consumption of local dried vegetables apart from







cassava leaves is limited by lack of groundnuts to add to them as the traditional preparation
method demands. There is a shortage because most of the groundnuts produced are sold for cash
to meet other needs. Availability is further reduced by low productivity due to rosetti disease in
groundnuts leading to "pops." The overall effect is a reduction in the contribution of groundnuts
to the local diet.

For the plateau, the main relish foods are beans, cassava leaves, and a host of fresh and dried
local vegetables. All eight villages reported using cassava leaves almost all year round. Five of the
eight reported using beans as a main relish crop. Of the local vegetables, the most significant are
beans, pumpkin, sweet potato, cowpea leaves, and okra. Gathered food such as mushrooms and
chikanda are also important in their season, especially in Mbulukuta, Mupeta, and Munanga.
Groundnuts and beans are a significant part of the diet on the plateau despite being an
important medium of exchange with people from outside the community. In Nambale Musele, it
was reported that a decreased production of beans would ultimately reduce the access to other
purchased food and nonfood commodities. Though used in trading, groundnuts were primarily a
part of the usual diet; thus the villages used considerably more dried vegetables with groundnuts
than their counterparts in the valley.

Relish, especially in the plateau, was the reported limiting factor to food consumption because it
was difficult to come by. Cassava leaves are available most of the time but with difficulty between
May and August. Most families do not preserve cassava leaves. Other fresh vegetables are
available between November and April. Mushrooms are also common during this time and are
preserved for later use. Dried vegetables are consumed between April and October in the
Plateau and between April and June in the valley villages. Fish is consumed in the valley villages
all year round but less between June and July when is cold. Few villages in the plateau reported
fish other than purchased during the rainy season. Goats are rarely reported as used in the
preparation of relish.

3. Snack Foods
The main snack foods eaten in both the valley and plateau villages are roasted and raw cassava.
In the plateau villages this is usually eaten with groundnuts. Other seasonal snacks include
pumpkins (March to June), sweet potatoes (April to August), bananas, and citrus fruits. Rice was
reported as a main snack in Kapamba, Mbulukuta, and Kamami.

B. SOURCES OF FOOD

In both the valley and the plateau villages, most foods, and particularly staples, were produced by
the household members for their own consumption. Of the purchased staples, maize and cassava
are the most common. Millet used for consumption is almost exclusively locally produced.

The most commonly reported food purchases are sugar, salt, fish, and exotic vegetables
(especially during the dry season when most are produced and traditional vegetables and other
crops are no longer available). The medium of exchange in most of the plateau food purchases
was barter with some of the produce especially millet, beans and groundnuts being traded for
fish, salt, and sugar.







Some households, particularly female-headed households, reported working for food from their
neighbors. Food remittances and begging were less common in the valley villages but were
reported to some extent in the plateau villages, especially between relatives and neighbors.

C. PROBLEMS OF FOOD AVAILABILITY

1. The Valley
Here the problem of availability affects both the staples and the relish foods and is related to
production as well as market forces. In the valley, several factors contribute to insufficient food
production, including population density as compared to farming land within a reasonable
distance, rapidly declining soil fertility, low seed availability groundnutss, beans) leading to less
variety of crops grown, crop diseases such as "pops" in groundnuts and mealy bug in cassava (two
of the most important food crops), and a changing climate with reduced overall rainfall.

The market systems are better developed in the valley area, except Chiposa; however, the prices
of food commodities, notably maize meal (hitherto very cheap), combined with low incomes of
the people, have reduced purchases of goods. Notably, groundnuts, which were traditionally a
food crop, are currently used as a cash crop. This has literally taken the groundnut out of the
local diet.

Other food availability constraints in the valley are related to the declining fish resources that
have provided thus far not only the main relish food but a main source of income for many
families. Families that relied predominantly on fishing may now be looking to alternative or
supplementary sources of food and income.

Gathered food as well as food sharing networks were less dependable in the valley areas than the
plateau, probably reflecting the increasing pressure on social networks.

2. The Plateau
Most food availability problems in the plateau villages were generally associated with relish foods
and, in those household depending on maize as a staple, shortfalls in maize production. The
shortfall in relish food production was in terms of both quantity and variety, and related to the
availability of the important accompaniment, groundnuts, as well as for dried vegetables.
Shortfalls in maize production were associated with low soil fertility, a general lack of inputs
including improved seed, and high prices of the same when available. Other households were
constrained by labor shortage.

Poor access to markets for foods not found in the plateau areas, particularly fish, was cited as a
major constraint. Markets were also limited for farmers' produce that could enable them to
acquire some income to meet the shortfalls in their own production. The few food commodities
that found their way into these communities fetched high prices, making access difficult for most
families.

Most plateau areas reported a drastic reduction in natural food resources such as fish and wild
game. Almost all the fish consumption reported in these areas were from purchased fish, while
game meat was almost nonexistent. Although some livestock are kept, these are not regularly
utilized for consumption purposes.






In Mupeta, a breakdown of the food-sharing networks contributed to the problem of food
availability. Seasonality in relish availability was more pronounced on the plateau because most
sources of relish are produced by the households themselves. There were fewer problems during
the rainy season that the dry season.

D. FOOD CONSERVATION/PRESERVATION

1. Food Processing
The food processing methods of crops grown in the 12 villages surveyed were found to be similar
across the board. Preservation was incorporated into the processing procedure because food
availability is seasonal. Processing methods were examined according to crop type. The survey of
these areas showed that different varieties of a particular crop undergo the same processing
methods.

Cassava has two common methods of processing which were seen applied throughout the
surveyed areas. The first method is the "peel-soak-dry" method: after cassava is dried, pounded,
and sieved, it is ready for use. This method is popular for immediate consumption. The second
method is "peel-dry-soak-dry:" this procedure is used in preparing cassava for storage for use
during the rainy season (late October to April). The extra drying step ensures that the cassava is
completely dried and is thus less susceptible to pest infestation. The only major complaint with
this process is that the tuber is too hard when it comes to pounding it into flour. Chibumbu
village in the valley and Chipili and Kamami on the plateau confirmed use of both processing
methods.

Finger Millet is the second most abundant crop in the surveyed region. For this particular crop,
processing begins as soon as it is picked. The crop is harvested semidry and taken home where it
is completely dried. This is done to prevent grain loss during the movement of the grain to the
house. After drying, millet is thrashed, winnowed, and ground using a grinding stone. All
processing generally takes place at home unless the community has access to a hammer mill.
Only two of the villages (Mbulukuta and Chibumbu) had access to hammer mills.

Maize, although common as a staple in most parts of the country, ranked third in the villages
visited. This is attributed to the high cost of inputs. In addition, maize grinding in the traditional
mortar and pestle is more laborious. Thus unless the community has access to a hammer mill,
little maize is utilized for nshima. As mentioned above, only two villages surveyed had direct
access to a hammer mill. Where maize is grown, it is usually processed into "samp," a cracked
maize grain. The maize is pounded into small bits to loosen the bran after which it is ready for
consumption.

Groundnuts are processed by a sun-drying method. Other processing methods applied are
determined by the use of the groundnuts after the initial drying. In most cases they are ground to
powder, sieved, and used in cooking vegetables. Another method is to roast them for
consumption as snacks.

Rice, found mainly on the plateau, is processed by thrashing followed by pounding to release the
husk. The husk is separated from the grain by winnowing.

Beans are only processed through sun drying.







Vegetables are processed by a drying method comparable to the one describe by Helen Young
(1992).

2. Food Storage
It is unclear as to whether the storage facilities currently available in the surveyed region are
adequate. It is clear that the durability of the facilities needs improvement.

Cassava is only stored in the house just before the rainy season (August to October). This is the
time it is processed, broken into chips, and stored in bags. These bags are placed on a platform
called "ulwino," which is situated under the cooking area in the house. This is the main storage
place because external storage is prone to theft. The smoke produced from the fire assists in
preventing the cassava from being attacked by weevils and white maggots. The amount stored is
usually a supply to last at least the seven months of the rainy season. Differences in amounts
stored do occur between male- and female-headed households. The male-headed households
tend to secure supplies to last the entire season whereas the female headed-households run short
of cassava.

Finger Millet is stored after it has completely dried and in its natural form, on the stem. Millet is
placed in a mud structure known as an "ubutala" located outside the house. This granary is
supported by wooden poles and is not sealed at the top in order to facilitate the retrieval of
grain. Millet can keep in this way for up to a year or more depending on whether stocks last.
Both male- and female-headed households are able to acquire adequate stocks of millet without
spoilage.

Maize is usually stored in sacks and put somewhere in the house. Farmers that have drums use
them as storage bins which are tightly sealed to prevent weevil infestation. No external storage
facilities are constructed because maize is also prone to theft. The duration of this storage is
between three to nine months if stocks last that long, as they do in most male-headed
households. For female-headed households, duration is dependant on how much was produced.

Beans are stored in the house in either a calabash or a sack. They are susceptible to weevil
attack and moisture spoilage. Storage duration for the male-headed household is about three
months, while in female-headed households it is undetermined because stocks are usually very
limited. Beans are always stored in the house as theft is rampant.

Cowpeas in Chiposa are stored in ash.

Groundnuts are shelled and bagged if they are going to be stored in the house. Groundnuts can
also be stored in an "ubutala" (see finger millet) but with the top sealed. A groundnut ubutala
was only seen in Kamami. Mupeta village was the only village to show groundnut storage in
trees. Stored groundnuts have to be protected from rodents, children, and theft because they are
a valued cash crop. Average duration of stored groundnuts is four months in a male-headed
household and up to nine months in one particular female-headed household.

Vegetables, once processed, are usually stored in sacks or baskets and put in the house on the
"ulwino" platform. Female-headed households had more dried vegetables stored and duration was
up to eight months. Male-headed households, on the other hand, had preserved vegetables but
the duration was unknown.








Storage of food did not involve the use of any insecticides. The only external protection provided
to stored foods was the smoking of crops stored on the "ulwino" platform. This is why households
try to store as much as possible on this structure. Every village visited, regardless of geographic
location, had at its disposal some sort of storage facility. A general observation was that those
structures (if they had any) belonging to female-headed households were of inferior standard.
This was seen in Mbulukuta and Chipili and the lack of structures in Chibumbu and Kapamba.

E. TRADITIONAL FOOD-SHARING PRACTICES

The most notable traditional food sharing practices still used in both areas involved food
assistance during funerals and weddings. There is also considerable food sharing with visitors.
Target foods for such occasions include flour, goats, chicken, and millet for brewing of beer. In
Kalundu this was reported to be a kind of safety net or investment, to "help others so that they
may help you when in need." However, more casual food sharing practices were on the wane. In
Mbulukuta, there were no longer common sharing places, ("insaka") and women no longer
cooled food to be shared with neighbors except very close relatives (in physical proximity and
relationship) such as mothers. Beer brewing is being used more to bridge a labor or cash gap
than as a social function.

F. FOOD PREFERENCES

Overall, cassava competes favorably with maize for preference in both the valley and plateau
areas. Some households indicated that they had little choice because only one staple was
available. The least preferred staple was millet, which was only preferred in two of the plateau
villages, and even then it was combined with cassava or maize. Millet was valued, however, as a
food security crop in the plateau areas.

The preferred relish was fish, with beans and meat coming second especially in the plateau
villages. Cassava leaves were the preferred vegetable, with bean leaves, rape, and chinese cabbage
preferred by a few respondents.

G. FOOD TABOOS/SPECIALTY FOODS

There were hardly any taboos reported other than those closely related to an individual's
personal health, such as food restrictions on the basis of ill health. The main illnesses had to do
with spirits, as observed in Young's study (1992). One of the more important taboos reported
was the prohibition of breast feeding during pregnancy. On the basis of current knowledge, this
has serious implications for child health and survival.

H. CHANGES IN THE DIET

1. The Valley
All four villages reported a reduction in the variety of foods eaten. In Chibumbu the decrease in
cucumbers, sweet potatoes, beans, groundnuts, mankolobwe, and watermelons was attributed to
poor soils and reduction in growing of crops such as beans for fear of theft. Kapamba observed a
particular reduction in the variety of relish crops.







High food prices were seen as contributing to reduced quantity and variety of food in Chiposa
and Mulundu, with the latter being particularly affected by the reduction in the cross-border
trade with Zaire.

In two of the four valley villages that grew groundnuts, Kapamba and Chibumbu, groundnuts
were no longer available in the diet but rather were used mostly for trade. This is because
groundnuts fetched a better price than other produce and were more acceptable for barter trade.
In Kapamba, there was an increase in the number of households eating maize, although cassava
was still the main staple.

2. The Plateau
Although all eight villages of the plateau were still growing similar staples, different trends in
consumption were observed. Three of the eight villages had an overall reduction in the quantity
of food available. In Mbulukuta, there was less leftover food ("ifimbala"), which previously filled
the children's meal gap in the mornings while parents were working. In Mupeta, there was an
increase in cassava consumption over millet because cassava was easier to process. Maize
consumption was also on the increase in this village as well as in Mbulukuta and Kalundu. In the
latter villages, a trend was observed among the younger couples who preferred growing maize
because it took less time to mature.

However, in all the villages the changes were mostly in the variety of foods, especially relish,
which were usually the limiting factor to the number of meals eaten. Six of the eight villages
reported a reduction in fish availability and high prices for purchased food, especially fish and
meat. A marked decline in the contribution of wild game to the diet was noted for most plateau
villages. In Kalundu wild game availability was equated with a dog's horn (Lusengo Iwa mbwa)--
never seen!

Although Mupeta and Kalundu reported a near extinction of some traditional foods such as
mankolobwe, mankangala (relish cucumbers), and other local vegetables, Nambale-Musele and
Chipili reported an increase in consumption of exotic vegetables, particularly during the dry
season. In Nambale-Musele the consumption of pork was reported to have increased because
people were rearing pigs.


VIII CHILD CARE

A. CARE OF CHILDREN

In all twelve villages visited, inappropriate child care is caused by seasonal work loads and labor
constraints. Child care can vary across geographical zone or type of household. In the valley
village of Chibumbu, and especially in female-headed households, children are left with other
children aged five or six on average. This is because their mothers have to walk at least three to
four hours to and from the field. On the plateau, female-headed households in Nambale-Musele
are in the same situation but the walk is one or two hours.








B. FEEDING PATTERNS FOR CHILDREN


Feeding patterns vary within a given year and are related to seasonal availability of food and
time available for mothers to attend to their children, which is directly related to labor
constraints.

Food stores are plentiful in the cold and dry season as it is after harvest, medium in the hot and
dry season, and lowest in the hot and wet season. As food stores become depleted in the hot and
wet season, mothers have increasingly limited time to attend to their children because they are
fully engaged in field work. In Nambale-Musele the female-headed households had to do most of
the work, resulting in less attention to the children. During this season there is also a reduction
in the number of meals fed to children.

The number of feeding times varies between the valley and plateau and between female- and
male-headed households. For example, in Mulundu feeding times of female-headed households
range from one to two, and two to three in male-headed households. On the plateau, Munanga
village showed that male- and female-headed households both ranged from two to four feeding
times per day. Besides the main meals, children eat seasonal snacks such as cassava chips and
roasted groundnuts, bananas, and sweet potatoes.

C. WEANING FOODS

Weaning foods given to children are common throughout the 12 villages visited: cassava porridge
with salt, maize porridge with salt, mashed pumpkin, cassava nshima or cassava and maize
nshima with beans, cassava leaves with or without groundnuts, and mashed sweet potatoes with
or without pounded groundnuts. Before introduction of these weaning foods, many mothers give
their babies water when they are thirsty. This could be one way of introducing infection causing
diarrheal disease.

The weaning age (introduction of solid foods) in both cases varies from three to six months and
complete weaning from 12 to 18 months. However, breast-fed children who are being weaned get
some supply of their nutritional requirement from breast milk. It is after the child is removed
completely from the breast that the food composition of the diet makes the child prone to
nutritional deficiency and the need for diversity in diet becomes important. The plateau is better
off in food security and dietary diversification compared to the valley area.


IX SUMMARY OF CONSTRAINTS TO HOUSEHOLD FOOD
AND NUTRITIONAL SECURITY

Most of the constraints to achieving food security are common to both the plateau and valley
areas. However, some constraints are more specific to some areas. The following constraints have
been identified.

1. Decline in Soil Fertility
Both the valley and the plateau have problems of declining soil fertility due to poor cropping
practices and deforestation. Declining soil fertility is more acute in the valley than the plateau,








due to higher population density and more acidic soils, which has implications for groundnut
production.

2. Negative Interaction Between Livestock and Crops
Goats are important liquid assets in both the valley and plateau. However, goats need to be
kraalled in order to increase the production of vegetables. Because of their grazing habits,
vegetable gardens have been destroyed, so that many households are discouraged from keeping
vegetable gardens. Goat owners tend to be relatively better-off members of their communities
and grow maize. Poorer households depend upon cassava for both relish and nshima. But goats
feed on the cassava plants, destroying the most important relish for most poor households.
Households without access to relish reduced the number of meals eaten per day, thus making
them vulnerable to nutritional insecurity.

3. Extension
Extension is not effective and needs more accountability. There is too much emphasis on maize
and conventional methods of agriculture. The importance of traditional crops and cropping
patterns is ignored, resulting in a reduction in traditional crops and consequently narrowing the
food availability. The curriculum for extension must be changed to include traditional farming-
systems aspects.

4. Lack of Credit
Constraints include lack of credit, and the restriction of credit to maize production instead of
high-valued crops. The tendency is to exploit the farmer, who usually produces just enough to
pay back the loans.

5. Storage
Storage structures are poor and almost nonexistent in the valley. Produce is lost due to pest and
rodent attack in storage. This also affects seed quality because stored produce is a major source
of seed. With liberalization, the plateau will need better storage structures for maize as it may
not be sold immediately after harvest.

Theft is rampant in the valley because of changes in livelihood systems and chaos in Zaire. The
valley is closer to Zaire than the plateau areas and therefore is more affected by the stealing.
This has implications for storage; farmers in the valley have resorted to storing produce inside
their houses, and consequently produce only what they can store in their houses.

6. Climatic Change
The rain distribution pattern has changed. Rains come early, but there is a long dry spell during
the season. Crops such as maize, groundnuts, and fingermillet are affected by the dry spells. At
times, farmers have to replant, thus leading to problems of late planting.

7. Isolated Markets
This is more of a problem for the plateau villages than the valley. Population densities are higher
in the valley, and therefore the local communities depend more on market-purchased foods.
There is more potential in the valley for high-valued crops such as vegetables because these need
to be disposed of quickly. However, vegetable gardening has potential for plateau villages near
the roads.







8. Lack of Oil in the Diet
With declining terms of trade among valley households, the consumption of groundnuts is
declining. Groundnuts have become a cash crop. This leads to increased vulnerability to vitamin
A deficiency, because the absorption of vitamin of A depends upon the amount of fat in the diet.
In addition, groundnuts are an important source of energy and protein. Most of the groundnuts
produced at the household level are sold, and only consumed in small amounts.

9. Increase in Diseases
The most vulnerable groups are children under five years who have to be left with older siblings
early in the morning as their parents go to work in distant fields. Child care is generally very
poor, and children have only up to two meals per day when food is available. Also vulnerable are
the adults who have to walk long distances to fields, depend on the hoe as the means of
production, work long hours to meet food demands, eat little, and have an unbalanced diet.

10. Lack of Labor and Farming Equipment
Labor shortages are major constraints to achieving household food security in both the valley and
plateau. Household labor is the major input for crop production. All crop cultivation is done by
hand hoe and axe and no animal traction is used. Yet energy intake among many households is
inadequate. Individuals consuming low energy foods tend to be underweight, which has
implications for labor capacity. Kanyangwa (1992) reported reduced agricultural labor supply
among underweight adults in Eastern province. In turn, reduced labor supply affects the amount
of food that households are able to produce. Higher yields are achievable with use of improved
technology such as oxenization and better crop practices.

11. Use of Recycled Seed
Most of the farmers use recycled seed for almost all crops. Although the seed may be potentially
adaptable to the local environmental conditions, the varieties tend to be low-yielding because
they do not respond very well to improved methods of cultivation. The use of recycled seed leads
to reduced productivity, which in turn leads to shortfalls in production. To increase production,
households expand fields, thus increasing labor demand. This has implications on energy
demands and child care; women have more area to weed and therefore spend more time in the
fields, leaving children in the care of siblings.

12. Forestry
There is not much monitoring of forest reserves. Licenses are provided without monitoring. On
the plateau, mukwe trees are cut and sold to industries on the Copperbelt. Deforestation has
negative implications on the valley community in particular, which depends on firewood as a
source of fuel. Deforestation is also affecting the plateau communities; they must now walk
longer distances to fields, reducing time for other activities such as farming and child care.

13. Access to Relish
Lack of relish is a major problem in both the valley and the plateau, often resulting in a
reduction of the number of meals eaten per day. Cassava leaves are an inadequate source of
protein, especially when consumed with cassava nshima. Chicken is a good source of protein but
is scarce. Therefore, fish is critical to improving access to protein relishes.

On the plateau, access to fish is limited because fishing is best in the rainy season when
households are heavily involved in farming. In addition, the plateau villages tend to be further







from the water. Although the valley villages are closer, the amount of fish in the water is
declining. Fish ponds may be the alternative; however, there may be limitations regarding the
location of fish ponds.

14. Beer Brewing
Beer brewing is affecting labor, especially of men. There is more beer brewing in the dry season
when men are supposed to be cutting trees for chitemene fields. Beer drinking is associated with
a reduction in the amount of time men spend cutting trees, which in turn affects the amount of
land planted. Total production is determined mainly by the amount of land farmed, because most
households do not use external inputs. Millet, which was predominantly a food crop, has not
become a cash crop because it is an important ingredient in beer production.


X RECOMMENDATIONS

The recommendations derived from this study are organized in the following manner. First,
general recommendations with applicability for both the valley and plateau villages are discussed.
These recommendations deal with infrastructural needs, credit, labor-saving technologies, access
to inputs, livestock management, dambo utilization, resource monitoring, fish ponds, soil fertility
enhancing measures, reforestation, storage, and child care. Under each recommendation, the
particular attributes of the different agroecological areas will be discussed if they have some
bearing on the successful implementation of the intervention.

A. Access to Infrastructure

The food and nutrition security of many of the villages are being negatively affected by the lack
of basic infrastructural amenities. For example, the impact of disease incidence in some of the
villages is more difficult to control because of the lack of basic health facilities (e.g., Kapamba,
Chiposa) and trained medical staff (Nambele-Musele). Access to clean water can also have a
significant impact on nutritional security (e.g., Chibumbu and Chiposa have no access to clean
water). Household food and nutritional security are also negatively affected by a shortage of
labor resulting from the lack of hammermills (e.g., Mupeta Mukonshi, Nambale-Musele). Half of
the villages surveyed do not have access to a hammermill within 12 kilometers. In such cases,
women are turning into hammermills. Household food security is also negatively affected by poor
access to transport, especially in the rainy season (e.g., Mupeta, Chiposa, Mukonshi). Poor roads
make it difficult to get food supplies in and to market goods out during the rainy season, limiting
the livelihood options for households. Poor access to roads appears to be more serious in the
plateau.

To deal effectively with these infrastructural problems, the district council could work closely
with donor agencies such as IFAD, UNICEF and FINNIDA to do an inventory of the villages in
the district that lack many of these amenities. Priority should be given to those villages that lack
health facilities, clean water, and hammermills in order to improve the nutritional security of the
area.







B. Credit


Throughout the surveyed area,)there appears to be a shortage of smallholder credit, both
seasonal loans and medium-term credit. This shortage is limiting the livelihood options of the
communities in both the valley and the plateau. Although credit institutions are operating in the
district, very few farmers are aware of how to obtain loans. The extension staff could do a lot
more to notify farmers about their credit options. Presently, it appears that credit is only targeted
to those farmers that art interested in growing maize. Credit should also be considered for other
high-value crops such as vegetables, especially in the valley. Vegetable production may not be as
viable for those villages in the plateau that are isolated from market roads. Therefore, credit
programs need to be opened~up to the livelihood options that have the most chance of success
for the different agroecological zones. Loans must also be made as easy for women to obtain as
for men; many legumes, oilseeds, and vegetables grown by women can be highly profitable. The
need for the husband's conent to a woman's loan should be abolished.

C. Access to Traction Equipment

Labor appears to be a limiting factor in both the valley and the plateau. The time and energy
spent on land preparation is negatively impacting the nutritional security of farmers, especially
female-headed households. Many farmers acknowledged that animal traction was something
desired to help alleviate these labor constraints, and were willing to adopt such practices if
medium-term loans and proper training were made available. However, animal traction as a
means for alleviating labor constraints is more likely to be adopted in areas where cattle keeping
is an acceptable and common practice. There are two aspects to animal draft power: the animals
and the implements. In areas where people are not familiar with either of these, animal traction
is much more difficult to introduce. In addition, the prevailing farming systems may also have
some effect on the acceptability of draft power.

The introduction of animal traction in areas where farmers do not have a tradition of cattle
keeping may have to be done in phases. First the animals are introduced for multiple purposes,
such as transport and meat. Second, the traction concept is more fully introduced. In addition,
the introduction of animal traction into an area where it is not widely practiced will likely fail if
supportive measures are not also introduced. This would include veterinary services, equipment
maintenance provisions, training centers, and extension with regard to animal care and feed to
name a few. If animal traction is introduced into such an area to any large extent, careful
program planning will be necessary. Finally, animal traction, even in those areas where it is
commonly practiced, is not always available to women. This needs to be addressed more
explicitly if animal traction is to address food security.

D. Access to Improved Seed

Food access and diet quality are both negatively affected by the shortage of improved seed in the
area. The continued use of retained seed coupled with labor constraints has led to low productive
output, seriously affecting the food security of the local population in both the valley and
plateau. The lack of an oil seed other than groundnuts has threatened the nutritional security of
many households, especially as the percentage of groundnuts sold for cash rather than retained
for home consumption continues to rise. This shortage of oil in the diet can adversely affect the
ability of people to synthesize vitamin A, and reduces the availability of energy for laboring in








the fields. The lack of a variety of cassava that matures in one year will make it difficult to
practice proper rotation as a soil fertility measure. In addition, the lack of alternative cash crops
encourages people to continue to use fingermillet for the production of beer for sale rather than
for home consumption as a staple substitute.

Presently, several decentralized seed multiplication efforts are being implemented in the district
to address this problem. For example, IFAD and FINNIDA are working with the Ministry of
Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries to increase access to improved groundnuts, beans, other
legumes, sweet potatoes, and rice seed, as well as cassava. ARPT is involved through the
provision of improved varieties. Every effort should be made to accelerate this dissemination,
given the current trends.

E. Dambo Utilization to Address the Relish and Cash Shortage Problem

Although farmers in both the valley and plateau have access to dambos, they are often
underutilized. This is primarily because of the competing labor demands of the chitemene system.
To compensate for this problem, consideration should be given to identifying perennial relish
crops that can be planted on a small patch of the dambos to provide a dry season relish.
Currently, chimonia is being grown in Zimbabwe as a perennial relish crop. There are many
other plants that grow in this region that could serve this purpose. ARPT could help identify
some of these plants to test in dambos areas.

In those areas where exotic vegetable gardens have good potential as a source of cash (e.g., the
valley) adequate seed, chemicals, and equipment need to be made available to farmers on a
sustainable basis. These inputs could be provided through loan packages by the lending
institutions operating in the area. However, before promoting wide-scale use of dambos for crop
production, careful inventories need to be carried out to identify those wetlands that have
favorable characteristics for such uses. Not all dambos are alike, and inappropriate use of some
of these wetlands can exacerbate environmental degradation.

F. Goat Management

In every village surveyed, farmers complained bitterly about the crop destruction caused by goats.
This affects especially the food-insecure households that depend on cassava leaves as their main
source of relish in the dry season. Labor constraints are also exacerbated by the goat problem
because farmers are forced to locate their fields at great distances from the village to avoid crop
damage. This can have a negative impact on child care because mothers are walking so far to get
to their fields.

To address this problem, a number of alternatives can be proposed. First, farmers could place
their goats in corrals near their homes in the dry season and feed them hay and other forage
obtained from either the bush or grown through agroforestry measures. The agroforestry
measures may take time to establish, so other stop-gap measures may need to be implemented in
the short term until the trees can be established. Second, goats could be placed in large
enclosures in communal areas in the dry season so that farmers would not have to worry about
the feed problem. Goats would be branded to enable owners to determine ownership. Although
this solution was derived from a local chief, many farmers expressed concern over this
alternative, citing the vulnerability of the animals to theft. A third alternative involves corralling







the animals in the dambo areas using a mobile fence to ensure adequate access to fodder. Such
mobile fences are presently being used in Zimbabwe communal areas with some success. ARPT
could test each of these alternative approaches in different villages to see which is the most
feasible for this area.

G. Fish Ponds

Access to fish resources has declined considerably over the past several years in almost every
village surveyed. As a result, an important relish and protein source is being removed from the
diet. To improve access to fish resources, fish ponds could be established by households in areas
where they are ecologically feasible. Presently, farmers are aware of fish ponds in the region and
expressed a real need for obtaining their own. Fish fingerlings are obtainable in Luapula
Province and parts of Mwense District. Support for fish farming could be provided through loan
packages by lending institutions operating in the area.

H. Soil Fertility Enhancing Measures

Presently, farmers are using varieties of cassava that take two to three years to mature, making it
difficult to introduce rotation practices for restoring soil fertility. Under current practices,
intercropping of legumes and agroforestry are the best fertility-enhancing activities that can be
promoted, along with fallow rotation in the chitemene system. Unfortunately, extension messages
have not been developed for intercropping systems, although ARPT is currently conducting
experiments in this area.

To encourage crop rotation, the promotion of a cassava variety that matures in one year will be
greatly needed. Such varieties already exist, and are being tested by ARPT. Efforts should be
made to make such varieties more readily available to farmers in the district.

I. Access to Improved Storage Facilities

Storage structures can be greatly improved to cut down on pest and moisture damage.
Unfortunately, as the food security situation has worsened due the changes in the viability of
existing livelihood systems, theft has increased dramatically. For this reason, farmers are more
reluctant to place their harvested crops in storage structures outside the house. This could have
an influence on the receptivity of households to the adoption of improved structures. Until the
problem of theft is resolved, it is warranted to take anti-theft measures into account as a major
design feature of any structures proposed.

J. Child Care

When considering alternative day-care options for mothers who travel great, distances to reach
their fields, one factor to take into account is that mothers are often reluctant to leave their
children with other adults for feeding and care due to a fear of witchcraft. If small feeding and
care centers are to be established, ways to overcome this fear must be sought.







K. Monitoring Forest Resources


Currently, the forest resources in the district are being mined at an alarming rate, significantly
impacting the biodiversity of the area. Timber cutting is carried out with very little monitoring,
and wild foods are getting harder to come by. More effort must be made to carry out an
inventory of the area to determine what resources exist and which areas are 'in danger from
heavy encroachment. These resources also need to be monitored systematically to ensure that
resources are being managed in a sustainable way. To do this effectively, community involvement
is essential.










ANNEXES






CROPPING ACTIVITY CALENDAR=DIVISION OF LABOR=VALLEY AREA

GENDER
ACTIVITY ENTERPRISE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC M F
Cut trees x x x x x x x x x

Gather branches x x x x x x x

Hoe x x x x x x

Mound x x x x x x x x

Planting Casava x x x x x x x

Fingermillet x x x x
Groundnuts x x x

Beans x x x x x x

Maize x x x x x

Rice x x x x

Others x x x x
Weeding x x x x x x x x

Basal fertilizer x x x x x

Top dress x x x x

Harvesting Fingermillet x x x x x

Groundnuts x x x

Beans x x x x x x

Maize x x x x x

Rice x x x x
Storage_ x x x x x x

Food processing Vegetables x x x x x x x x x
& casava
Fishing x x x x x x x x x x x x x







CROPPING ACTIVITY CALENDAR= DIVISION OF LABOR=VALLEY AREA

GENDER
ACTIVITY ENTERPRISE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC M F

Wild food x x x x x x x x
collection






CROPPING ACTIVITY CALENDAR=DIVISION OF LABOR=PLATEAU AREA

GENDER
ACTIVITY ENTERPRISE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC M F
Cut trees x x x x x x

Gather branches x x x x x x x

Hoe x x x x x x

Mound x x x x

Planting x x x x x x x

Groundnuts x x x

Beans x x x

Maize x x x x x

Other x x x
Weeding x x x x x

Basal fertilizer Maize & rice only x x x x x

Top dress Maize & rice only x x x x x

Harvesting Fingermillet x x x x

Groundnuts x x x x

Beans x x x x x

Maize x x x x x x x x

Storage x x x x x

Food processing Vegetables x x x x x x x
& casava

Wild food x x x x x x x x
collection





FOOD CONSUMPTION CALENDAR=VALLEY AREA

KEY : xxx = very dependable; xx = dependable; x = occasional.
FOOD CATEGORY FOOD TYPE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Starches Casava xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

Fingermillet x x x x xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx x x

Maize xx xx xxx xxx xx x

Rice x xx xx

Sweet potato xx xx xx xx

Relishes Beans x x xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx x

Casava leaves xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xx xxx xxx xxx

Bean leaves xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx x x

Pumpkin leaves xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx x x

Groundnuts x xx xx xxx xxx xx xx x

Fish xxx xxx xxx xx xx xx x x xx xxx xxx xxx xxx

Meat x x x x x x x x xx xx x x

Exotic vegetables x x xx xx xx xx xx x x

Fruits x x xx x x xx xxx xx xx xx

Wild foods Masuku x x xx xxx xxx

Bowa xx x x x x xxx xxx xxx

Mpundu x xxx xxx xx x

Nsapwa x xx xx x x

Caterpillars x x x xx xx

Game meat x x

Chikanda x xx xxx xx






FOOD CONSUMPTION CALENDAR=PLATEAU AREA

Key: xxx = very dependable; xx = dependable; x = occasional.
FOOD CATEGORY FOOD TYPE JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Starches Casava xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

Fingermillet x x x x xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx x

Maize x x x xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx x

Rice x xx xx xx x x

Sweet potato x xx xx xx xx x

Relishes Beans x xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx x

Casava leaves xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx x x xx xxx xxx xxx

Bean leaves xx xx xx x x x x x x

Pumpkin leaves xx xx xx xx xx xx x x x x xx xxx

Groundnuts x xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xx x x

Fish x x x x x x x x x x

Meat x x x x x x x x x x x x

Exotic vegetables x x x xx xx xx xx xx xx x

Fruits x x x xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

Wild foods Masuku x x' xx xx

Bowa xx x x x xx xx

Mpundu x xx xx x

Nsapwa x xx xx xx x

Caterpillars x x x xx xx x

Game meat x x x xx x x x

Chikanda x x xx xxx xxx xx x x









III LIST OF KEY CONTACTS


DESIGNATION


F.S. KAFUMBE
A. NGOLIYA
DR. KASANDA
ALICK SIAMPONDA
MR. MUTONO
IDA CHAMA
MR. PHIRI
MR. MUSONDA ROBBY
MS. MOYO
MR. CHISULO
MR. E. MATENDE
HON. CHIEF MULUNDU
MR. KASONGO GILBERT
MR. NGALANDE
MR. MUPETA NKASA
MR. MUTAMBALA MUSONDA
MR. ZULU STEPHEN
MR. BANDA MUPETA
MR. ISAAC KAFWIMBI
MR. DENNIS CHISHA
MR. ENOCK MWAPE
MR. DICKSON KAPEMBWA
MR. JAMESON CHANIKA
MR. DERRICK MUPANGO
MR. JAMES CHITONGO
MR. CONELIUS MAKOPE
MR. C.MUTUNA
MR. ANTTI YUVERRONEN
MR. CLEMENT KABWE
HON. CHIEF


PROV. FISHERIES OFFICER
ARPT AGRONOMIST
PROV. MEDICAL OFFICER
PROV. NUTRITIONIST

HOSPITAL NUTRITIONIST
SEO, (DMO)
DAO
DHEO
PAO
SENIOR AGRIC. OFFICER
CHIEF
CLINICAL OFFICER
SENIOR TEACHER
HEADMAN
TEACHER
CLINICAL OFFICER
CHIEF'S SON
TEACHER
CLINICAL OFFICER
CHAIRMAN
HEADMAN
HEADMAN
AGRIC OFFICER
TEACHER
EX. OFFICER
DEPUTY PAO
FINNIDA
HEALTH COMMUNITY OFFICER
MWENDA


MANSA
MANSA
MANSA
MANSA
MANSA
MANSA
MANSA
MWENSE
MWENSE
MANSA
MWENSE-MUKONSHI
MWENSE-MUKONSHI
MWENSE-MUKONSHI
MULUNDU
MUPETA-MWENSE
MUPETA
MUPETA
MUPETA
MUSONDA FALLS
MUSONDA FALLS
KAPAMBA-MWENSE
KAPAMBA-MWENSE
MBULUKUTU
LUPOSOSHI
MUSELE
KALUNDU
MANSA
MANSA
CHIPOSA
MWENSE


NAME


LOCATION








IV TEAM MEMBERS


Timothy R. Frankenberger
Joyce Kanyangwa-Luma
Abraham Ngoliya

Francis Mushibwe
Chileshe Chilangwa
M.D. Simwizyi
Kefi Chanda
Lewis Bangwe
Ward Siamusantu
Derrina Mukupo

Dorothy Namuchimba

Chipo Mwela
Julius Siwale

Hermien Vrieze also joined
continue due to illness.


FAO Consultant and Team Leader
FAO Country Expert and Team Leader
Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries (MAFF) and Team
Leader
Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries (MAFF)
Program Against Malnutrition
Central Statistics Office
Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries (MAFF)
Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries (MAFF)
Ministry of Health
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
(UNICEF) Consultant
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
(UNICEF) Consultant
Ministry of Health (MOH)
Ministry of Agriculture. Food, and Fisheries (MAFF)

the team during the first few days of the field trip but was unable to


V LIST OF VILLAGES


THE VALLEY

Kapamba
Chiposa
Mulundu
Chibumbu


THE PLATEAU

Chipili
Kamami
Mukonshi
Mupeta
Kalundu
Mbulukuta
Munanga
Nambale-Musele








VI TOPICAL OUTLINE


Rapid Food Security Assessment Topical Outline:
Group Interview for Village Profile

Name of Village

Location

Population:
number
ethnic Groups
Household Types

Major Crops Grown and Trends

Access to Infrastructure .
health facilities
schools
markets (prices)
roads
storage
water sources

Access to Natural Resources
forests reserves/wetlands
mining resources
fish resources
livestock
wild game
wild foods
trends

Access to Government Services
agriculture
forestry -
veterinary
health
other

Village Participation in Food Aid

Population Trends (outmigration)

Climatic Trends

Social Organization (village groups, political
leadership, food sharing networks)








Other Income-Generating Activities

General Responses to Food Scarcity

Access to Development Projects
government, donor, NGO programs
participation in design

Land Tenure Arrangements

Access to Credit

Community Problems and Needs








Rapid Food Security Assessment Topical Outline

Specific Household Interview

Name of Village

Name of Head of Household

I. Demographic Information

Gender of HH Head

Marital Status

Age

Family Composition
(adults living in household.
children, other dependents)

Health status

Educational Background of
HH members

Ethnic Group/Tribe

Religion

Occupations of HH members

II. Access to Resources

Access to Land; Tenure

Access to Common Property
forests
wetlands

Access to Means of Production
farm equipment(plows, tools)
traction animals
Fishing equipment (boats, nets)

Access to Livestock
types and number
selling patterns








III. Livelihood Strategies


Crops Grown (cassava, maize, millet,
groundnuts, beans, vegetables)
For each crop ask:
cultivation practices
division of labor
timing of different stages of
cultivation (crop calendar)
inputs used (seeds, fertilizers, manures,
insecticides) Where obtained
use of crop (marketed, consumed)
constraints to production
solution to problems

Access to Dambos
types of crops grown
seasonal availability

Other Income-Generating Activities
fishing
types of fish caught
technique used
location
seasonality
processing
marketed or consumed
constraints
solutions to problems
off-farm employment (wage labor)
seasonal migration
hunting
firewood or charcoal sales
trading
beer brewing
sale of wild foods
other

IV. Coping Strategies

Adjustment to Meals (number, amount, diversity)

Food Substitution

Sale of Assets

Borrowing from Relatives/Friends








Credit (who, interest rate, terms)


Migration

Wild Foods\Unusual Foods

Alternative Employment

Redistributing Children

Remittances

Food Aid

Other

V.Food Consumption Patterns

Composition of Diet (seasonal access)
types of staples
main relishes (vegetables, meat. fish)
snack foods (supplementary energy foods)

Sources of Food
own production
market purchases
types of food purchased
seasonality
prices
hunting/gathering
fishing
sharing/borrowing/begging
credit
food aid

Problems of Food Availability (market access.
price, income, production shortfall)

Food Conservation/Preservation
food processing (what, how, who)
access to hammermills
access to oil press
food storage
types of structures
types of food stored
duration of storage
other preservation techniques
problems (losses do to pests.








moisture damage)

Traditional Food Sharing Practices
(including ceremonies and festivals)

Food Preferences (qualities)
staples
relishes
snacks

Food Taboos/Specialty Foods

Changes in the Diet (trends)


VI. Child Care

Care of Children When Mother Is Working

Number of Feeding Times

Weaning Foods (types, weaning age)

VII. Household's Own Perception of
Household Food Security

Perceived Adequacy of Access to Food

Constraints

Competition Between Food Needs
and Other Livelihood Needs

Proposed Solutions











VII MATRICES








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Group Interview for
Village Profile

Name of Village Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu

Location Mwense (valley) Mwense (plateau) Mwense-plateau along Luwingo road, Muense east plateau off Luwingo-Manse
off Mansa-Kawambra road Road

Population: Chishinga Chishinga About 200 households-Chishinga 46 HHS; 13 FHH; 33 MHH
number Male and female headed Male and female headed 150 male and 50 female headed HH
ethnic groups
household types

Major Crops Grown Cassava, maize, millet, grdnuts, beans, Cassava, millet, grdnuts, maize, beans, Cassava, f.millet, grdnuts, beans; Major crops: cassava, grdnuts, beans,
and Trends sweet potatoes-maize is new crop rice-maize, rice, exotic vegs are new maize production down-sorghum f.millet, maize (HB); maize production
disappeared; less prickly cucumbers; has gone up
increase in exotic vegs

Access to Infrastructure One hospital within walking distance, One clinic within walking distance + 3 They have access but not adequate RTTC available but inadequate
health facilities well stocked w/drugs health posts health facilities

schools Few schools for the area (does not meet One school within walking distance One self-help school within village, in Accessible up to grade 7
demand) poor condition

Markets (prices) Market available but prices are too high No established market place but people Barter system most common; low Barter widely used but cash market
for average villager buy and sell to other households prices for most crops (felt) accessible with difficulty

roads Good roads linking Ninense with Mania Roads are seasonal, used during dry Road (main) is good but not all Good but feeder roads in bad condition
and Nthelenge but poor feeder roads season; feeder roads are very bad weather;, bad feeder roads

storage No storage structure but platforms in the Storage bins available but can only store Not bad as per current crops being Adequate for traditional crops but not for
houses (fear of theft) grdnuts and millet (termite problems) produced (millet, beans, grdnuts) maize

water sources Luapula River (untreated water); distant Rivers and wells; water problem in the Accessible but contamination by pigs Attainable through natural streams and a
to water source; some wells in some dry season canal
places

Access to Natural Resources Forest reserves available but distant; Very far but available; wetlands Accessible to forest reserves, wetlands; land is plentiful and accessible; seasonally
forests reserves/wetlands wetlands available but limited available no problem with land fertility fertile for current crops

mining resources No mining resources NIL-no mining resources Manganese exists but not accessible No mines

fish resources Available but limited quality, species, NIL-no fish No fish No fish
size

livestock Goats, poultry (local chicken and ducks); Goats mainly, chickens and few pigs Goats, pigs, chickens, cattle Goats, pigs, chickens, wild game
no cattle

wild game Depleted Depleted Depleted







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


wild foods Depleted Plenty but seasonal Plentiful and accessible (maluku, More wild fruit plentiful
inblongua, tusangole, etc.)

trends Have significantly reduced (15 yrs past) Natural resources on decline due to Increase in livestock, decrease in game Wild game and fish almost extinct, wild
destruction by cutting of trees and bush and increase in wild fruits fruit becoming more plentiful
fires

Access to Government Agric services available but underutilized Services to local people Accessible, but people's perception of Accessible but biased to maize growers,
Services the service limits it to conventional not Chitemene
agriculture agriculture

forestry Not available Not available Not accessible except for collection of Not seen in the village
levy on timber

veterinary Not available Not available Accessible-come from Mwense (quite No veterinary services
distant)

health Available and accessible Available and accessible Accessible with difficulty; TBA and Available but 1 trained worker, no
CHW available but lack transport antenatal and Om questionable

other Social development org. is available Water affairs and roads department Transport

Village Participation in Food Through social welfare to disabled, No participation None, but involved Some through social welfare and for the
Aid orphans and elderly _old and lame

Population Trends Population increase due to immigration More people have moved in the area, Inmigration on the increase More inmigration
(outmigration) therefore, population has increased

Climatic Trends Fluctuations in climate Less rainfall and temps are getting high Rainfall constant but rise in No change
temperature

Social Organization (village Traditional leadership-chief village Traditional leadership; health advisory Community (women) club; MMD Coop society; women's club; village
groups, political leadership, headmen; church organizations-9 committee; cooperative society; anti- committee committee; extension service unit
food sharing networks) AIDS club; women's clubs

Other Income Generating Beer brewing; smuggling and petty Sale of labor, beer brewing; crafts and Logging (young men) Lumber jacks for the young men wage
Activities trading; selling of labor; commercial sex blacksmith; charcoal burning labor on the feeder road construction
workers

General Responses to Food Intensified beer brewing; intensified sale Intensified sale of labor and beer Work for others (piece work); livestock Piece work, food for work from
Scarcity of labor;, increased smuggling, brewing; charcoal burning sale/exchange; sale/exchange for food neighbors
prostitution

Access to Development No government, donor, project/programs IFAD funded cooperatives for credit None IFAD
Projects available
government, donor, NGO
programs

participation in design NIL NIL -Minimal as wage laborers









Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Land Tenure Arrangements Land allocation by the chief Village head man and inheritance Through the village head man Usually free

Access to Credit Limited in terms of amount and activity Through the IFAD funded ZCF and to None ZCF, but unsatisfactory
members only

Community Problems and Low soil fertility; lack of equipment Lack of credit; lack of processing plants; Hammer mill; women's clubs; school; No secondary school; inadequate materials
Needs (oxen, tractor); lack of agricultural lack of clean water, poor road clinic; transport for community health and services at clinic; technical and
inputs (fertilizers); lack of agricultural rehabilitation (rainy season); lack of worker, farming inputs/implements: material assistance to women's clubs; no
knowledge grocery store; police post was too far oxen, plows, fertilizers; adult education; food processing facility (hammer mill); no
Needs: intensification of agricultural away; irregular visits by health and borehole; credit source (other than lima local depot; feeder roads-bad; lack of cash
extension to teach farmers; inputs; agricultural staff; recreation facilities; bank) market, esp the maize, ZCF buying only
formation of cooperatives; clean water; damage of crops by goats from loaners
equipment (agricultural)







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview ( 9 9

Head of Household Robinson Chaba, Alfonso, Bwanga, Robert Mpundu, Albert Kabne, 3 MHH 1FHH Male-Married Female-widowed
Mwandana Nishimbu, Mutale Lawrence Bwalga, Bana Mwape,
Dominic Mutale, Kananda

I. Demographic Information

Gender of HH Head Male HH Female HH Male HH Female HH Male Female

Marital Status Married Single Married Widow Married Single Married Widowed

Age 28-42 30 37-46 50 29-45 33 22-67 67

Family Composition 6-11 members 6 members 8-10 members 6 members 2-5 adults 2 adults 2-3 adults 3 adults
(adults living in household, 7 under 5 2 under 5 yrs 3 under 5 yrs none under 5 yrs 3-6 children 5 children 0-1 children 8
children, other dependents) 4 adults 3 5 & 15 yrs 15 between 6-18 2 adults 0-2 dependents I dependent 0-1 dependents 0
1 adult yrs 4 under 18
18 between 19-46
yrs

Health Status Occasional Generally in good Good health Good health for One child sick Wife unwell; dep. Healthy
illnesses, esp health all family mentally sick
common diseases

Educational Background One in grade 12, Adults-grade 7-10 Adult-grade 0 to 7 Grade 7-9 2 in school 0 Unza 0-7 grades
the rest grade 7 Children-0-7 Children-5-6 2-5 children in 1 stopped in
and below school grade 5
head of HH in
grade 1

Ethnic Group/Tribe Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga; Lunda; Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga
Bemba

Religion Catholic; cmml Catholic Catholic; cmml cmml cmml, sba Watchtower

Occupations of HH members Farming, fishing, Commercial; sex Farming Farming Farming, Fanning Farming, fish Farming
trading worker bricklayer, farming, lumber
carpentry, jack
lumber jack,

II. Access to Resources

Access to Land; Tenure Access to land is Yes, but distant Plenty of land Plenty of land Unlimited Unlimited Free access Free access
possible but
distant








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview 9 9 (9 9

Access to Common property Village head man Village head man Village headman Village headman Unlimited Unlimited Accessible Accessible
forests allocated land allocates land allocates land allocates
wetlands
Free access to Free access to Free access to Free access to Unlimited Unlimited
forests and forests and forest, limited forests and access
wetlands wetlands access to wetlands to wetlands

Access to Means of Plows, ox/traction Access to hoes Hoes and axes Hoes and axes Hoes and axes Hoes-0-4 Hoe-I
Production equip not and axes; no only Axes-5 Axe-1
farm equipment (plows, tools) available; simple animal
traction animals tools (hoes,axes) trasction,;no
fishing equip (boats, nets) available but plows; no tractors
costly

Fishing equipment N/A N/A NIL NIL
limited to few
people who can
afford them

Access to Livestock Access to chickens NIL Chickens-7-10; Chickens-more Goats-0-6; pigs- Goats-2-4; Goats-2-4; Goats-5; chickens-
types and number (very few local goats-1 or 2 than 10; goats- 1 9-10; chickens-5- chickens-10-14 chickens-1-8 10
breeds); ducks or 2 23
(few); goats (less
than 10)

Selling patterns Rarely sold None sold No sales No sales Sells when need To pay people No-sale only when No sale
arises working for her is abundance

III. Livelihood Strategies

Crops Grown (cassava, Cassava, beans, None Cassava, beans, Cassava, millet, Cassava, Cassava, maize, Cassava, maize Cassava, beans,
maize, millet, grndnuts, millet, sorghum, grdnuts, maize, vegs, beans, cowpeas, beans, finger millet, (hybrid), citrus grdnuts,
beans, vegetables) grdnuts, pumpkin, finger millet, vegs grdnuts, sweet sorghum, finger grdnuts, fruits, beans, cucumbers,
cowpeas, maize potatoes millet, rape, watermelons, grdnuts, cowpeas, cowpeas, finger
grdnuts, beans, bananas, finger millet millet
cucumbers, sweet potatoes,
maize, pumpkins, squash
watermelons,
pumpkins,
onions, sweet
potatoes,
tomatoes







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview & 9 & 9 5 9 (T 9

For each crop: Chitemene system N/A Chitemene and Improved All planted in All planted in Conventional Same
cultivation practices improved cultivation Chitemene Chitemene ploughing: maize,
cultivation methods (fisebe) beans, grdnuts,
practice (fisebe) cowpeas

division of labor Chopping of trees N/A Chitmene cutting All by women and Cutting of trees Hired labor for Women-gather All alone by
by men, gathering by men, gathering children by men; cutting and crop; branches- women but hires
by women; by women, gathering of trees gathering on men cut; trees- laborer for tree
planting, men and planting by by women; similar dates as women and men cutting
women; women; fisebe-all planting by both MHH plant and harvest;
management men and women weeding by women
practices: weeding
by women;
harvesting by men
and women

timing of different stages of Timings: Chitemene-May- Cultivation-Oct Cutting of trees: Same As for female Nov-cutting;
cultivation (crop calendar) land preparation- N/A Sept Planting-Oct Apr to Sep headed households cassava planting
inputs used (seeds, fertilizers, March to Sept Planting-Dec-Jan Weeding-when Gathering: Jul to Jan-Mar: weeding,
manures, insecticides) where planting (cassava)- N/A Harvesting-May necessary Oct plant beans
obtained late Oct Harvesting-May- Planting: Oct-Jan Apr-Jul: Harvest
use of crop (marketed, Nov-millet-minor June Weeding: Jan- Jun-Sep: tree
consumed) Dee-crops May cutting
constraints to production Weeding in N/A Harvesting: Feb- Sep-Oct: cassava
solution to problems cassava in dry Aug drying
fertilizers needed season-May-July
good feeder roads Harvesting N/A
cooperative/marketing beans-Jan-May
organizations pumpkins-Feb-
credit facilities Mar
cassava-any time
maize-May

Sale N/A Input Only seed Inputs Same Inputs Own retained
Cassava, millet, Only seed; retained; veg seed retained seed; Improved seed Seed
pumpkin leaves, retained seed; veg purchased from fertilizer for NIL fertilizers
beans, grdnuts, purchased from depot exotic vegs
maize-when they depots
are ready; no
fertilizer, manure

Constraints N/A Use Home Use For consumption Use Use
When harvesting Home consumption Consumption and and bartering Consumes and sells Consumes,sells
transportation is a consumption veg bartering excess or surplus
problem sold








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview $T 9 & 9 & $

Constraints: Marketing- N/A Constraints Damage by goats; Constraints Lack of seeds Constraints Labor shortage;
especially setting Damage by goats; long distance to Weeds; labor Shift from Labor shortage; lack of implements
Solutions: of prices long distance to fields; low yields; Solution cassava to maize food storage and (hoes/axes)
Thefts fields; low yields; no market Sell pigs problems; limited
Declining soil no market cash market; use of Beer brewing; sell
fertility Solution hoes/axes limits excess crops
Govt on goat area cultivated;
destruction of fertilizer depot
crop distant
Solutions
Beer brewing; sell
excess crops

Access to Dambos Limited number of NIL gender bias Limited Limited and is Access to dambo Do Accessible Accessible
people have access gender biased
to dambo

types of crops grown Cassava, maize NA Cassava, maize, N/A Exotic vegs Exotic vegs Nothing grown
seasonal availability Vegetables vegetables N/A Common in dry In dry season NIL
throughout the Throughout the season
year year


Other Income Generating
Activities

Fishing Mintensa, matuku, N/A N/A N/A N/A Fish
types of fish caught chifinsa, small Farming by one
breams family; types
tilopia

technique used ????? nets and N/A N/A N/A N/A
hooks

location Luapula river N/A N/A N/A

seasonality More in the rainy N/A N/A N/A N/A
season; Dec to
March

processing Fresh roasted; N/A N/A N/A N/A
dried; some salted
fish

marketed or consumed Both N/A N/A N/A







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview T 9 < 9 9

fishing constraints High cost fishing nets, seasonal N/A N/A N/A
availability of fish, fishing controlled by
fisheries

fishing solutions to Fish pond N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Cleaning furrow
problems establishment upstream

off-farm employment (wage Beer brewing, N/A NIL wage labor NIL Brewing, brick Beer brewing One family works N/A
labor) grass cutting; laying; carpentry, at ZCE
brick laying, wage labor,
general work lumber

seasonal migration NIL N/A NIL no seasonal NIL
migration

hunting Game depleted N/A Game depleted N/A No No No No

firewood or charcoal sales Yes N/A Yes, charcoal N/A No No No No

trading Various Various Minimal Minimal Sells salt No Trading salt, No
sugar, soap, fish,
etc.

beer brewing Beer brewing and munkoyo Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

sale of wild foods No N/A No No No No No No

other Timber sawing, N/A No No Lumber sales No
blacksmith and
crafts

IV. Coping Strategies

Adjustment to Meals Adjust meals Begging Yes, from 3 to I Yes, from 1 or 2 Reduction in Same Yes No
(number, amount, diversity) or 2 in day; in a day; amount number of meals
amount is reduced; limited from 3 to 1
reduced; limited diversity
diversity

Food Substitution Yes, roasted Yes, meal Yes, very Yes, common No Nshima for s. Yes No
cassava for reduction common potato, squash
nshima

Sale of Assets Sell assets NIL No sale of assets No sale of assets Sells livestock No Yes, furniture to No
___________ get food








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview 9 (9

Borrowing from Relatives, Yes N/A N/A Yes Yes
Friends

Credit (who,interest rate, No credit N/A N/A Yes, from Yes, 50% interest Yes No
terms) relatives; no
interest

Migration No No No No, but No No No
redistributing
children

Wild Foods, Unusual Foods Depleted Yes, but seasonal Yes, but seasonal No No No No

Alternative Employment General piece Petty sales N/A N/A Work for food Piece work Yes, ZCF No
work, working for
food

Redistribution No No No No Yes No No No

Remittances NIL NIL Sometimes Sometimes Yes No No No

Food Aid No NIL N/A N/A No No No No

Other Gardening; parafin Beer brewing; Beer brewing Begging; Do Beg; work for it No
sales working for food opportunistic
appearance at
meal times of
others; HH

V. Food Consumption
Patterns

Composition of Diet (seasonal Cassava, maize Cassava, maize Cassava, maize, Cassava, millet Cassava, millet Cassava, millet Cassava, maize, Cassava
access) millet millet
types of staples

main relishes (vegs, meat, Chisense/fish, Chisense Local vegetables Local vegetables Beans, cassava Bean leaves, Cassava leaves, Cassava leaves,
fish) cassava leaves, leaves, bean beans, cassava beans and bean beans and bean
beans, meat leaves, s. potato leaves, leaves, cowpea leaves, cowpea
leaves, okra mushrooms leaves, exotic leaves
(wild) vegs, fish

snack foods (supplementary Roasted cassava, Roasted cassava Sweet potatoes, Sweet potatoes, Pumpkins, a. Cassava Potatoes, bananas, Squash, pumpkins,
energy foods) sw potatoes, with grdnuts, s. roasted cassava, pumpkins, potatoes, roasted (regional) with pumpkins, roasted raw and roasted
pumpkins, potatoes, pumpkins mangoes when in cassava with grdnuts cassava with cassava with
cucumbers, pumpkins, season, munkoyo grdnuts grdnuts, sample, grdnuts
bananas bananas oranges, coffee







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview 9 9 9 9 a 9

Sources of Food Own production Purchase Own production Own production Mostly own Mostly own Own production Own production
own production production production but buy fish

market purchases Fish, vegetables, Vegetables, mealie Fish Fish Fish, meat, exotic Rarely buy Sugar, cooking oil, None
types of food purchased grdnuts meal, cassava vegetables meat, fish
meal, fish,
chisenet

seasonality All year round All year round Seasonal Seasonal Fish throughout Irregular-barter N/A
the year;, veg-dry system
season-

prices Complain of too Too high prices High prices High prices
high prices

hunting and gathering Resources N/A N/A N/A No hunting but Only fruits/wild Wild fruits No, except those
depleted wild foods food growing in village

fishing Limited amounts N/A Minimal N/A No No No No

sharing, borrowing, begging N/A Borrowing, Sharing within Sharing within Yes Yes Yes No
begging families families

credit NIA N/A Limited Limited Yes Yes Yes No

food aid N/A N/A N/A N/A No No No No

Problems of Food Some food not Not enough food Production Production When bean Poor market Road availability No
Availability (market access, available due to due to low income shortfall due to shortfall due to production falls access and low associated with
price, income, production production and high prices low yields low yields income goes income market availability
shortfall) shortfall; low (depleted soils), down and food generation
income, high price no inputs availability drops
for available food

Food Conservation, Cassava and local Okra and leafy Cassava-dried; Cassava-dried; All crops sun All crops sun All crops sun All crops
Preservation vegs are dried by vegs dried local veg-dried; local veg-dried; dried by women dried by women dried; coffee- Same
food processing (what, how, women (usually) mostly done by by women roasted and ground
who) women

access to hammermills Yes Yes No hammer mill No hammer mill Nearest 12 km Same Nearest 7 km from 7 km from village
away village

access to oil press No No None None None None NIL NIL

food storage








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview C 9 9 c 9 9

storage No storage bins; No storage bins Storage bins Storage bins Storage bins; Storage bins Storage bin- Same
types of structures platforms in the available available platforms; bags grdnuts, finger
house in millet; bags:
Calabashes beans, maize;
platforms: cassava

types of food stored Cassava, maize, N/A Finger millet, Finger millet, Millet, grdnuts, millet, grdnuts, Cassava Grdnuts
grdnuts grdnuts grdnuts cassava, beans, cassava Pecans Millet
maize Millet Beans
Maize

duration of storage 6 months N/A 7-9 months 7-9 months Up to 1 year;, veg Less than 1 year Cassava: over I Ordnuts-Apr-Feb;
April to Oct yr, pecans: 3 millet-I yr, beans-
months; Apr-Oct; veg:
millet/grdnut-I yr; April to Dec
maize-9 months

other preservation Fish smoking
techniques

problems (losses due to Weevils, termites, N/A Germites, rats, Termites, rats, Weevils-beans; NIL crop eaten Bean-weevils; Bean-weevil
pests, moisture damage) rats weevils, goats weevils, goats rats-grdnuts; before damage maize-bettle;
termites cassava-white
maggots; bean
germination before
harvesting

Traditional Food Sharing N/A N/A Weddings, Weddings, Visitors, sick, Funerals, visitors Still in practice, Exists
Practices (including funerals, initiation funerals, initiation funeral, wedding, perceived as Same
ceremonies and festivals) ceremonies ceremony courtesy, new investment
baby

Food Preferences (qualities) Cassava, maize Cassava, maize Cassava, maize Cassava Cassava, maize Maize Maize No particular
staples meal preference

relishes Fish, bean leaves Fish, cassava with Fish and Fish and Beans, fish, Cassava leaves, Relishes, fish, Any
and grdnuts, beans palm oil vegetables vegetables meat, chickens beans meat, chicken

snacks Sweet potatoes, Sweet potatoes, Sweet potatoes, Sweet potatoes, Rice, sweet Cassava and Rice, roasted Cassava with
roasted cassava bananas cassava roasted roasted cassava potatoes, grdnuts grdnuts cassava, grdnuts, grdnuts
and cassava coffee







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview & 9 (a 9 ( 9 (9

Food Taboos, Specialty NIL NIL NIL NIL Monkey and NIL No pounding No
Foods small animals not cassava at night;
to be eaten by lump of nshima
women in dropped at night
reproductive not to be picked
stage

Changes in the Diet (trends) Brought about by end of smuggling Decline in food Decline in food Pork has No changes Game meat No noticeable
resulting in reduction in quantities and quantity, quality quantity variety increased; fresh depleted including changes
quality of diet and increase in and quality vegs available in certain other local
price hot season food

VI. Child Care

Care of Children When
Mother is Working

Number of Feeding Times Depends on Once, twice or 3 Not specific, will Not specific, will Porridge 2 times; Snack in the 2-3 times Does not know
availability of times depend on depend on nshima once morning (cassava
food; may range availability and availability and and grdnuts);
from 1 to 3 times demand demand nshima in the
and snacks evening

Weaning Foods (types, Porridge (cassava) Cassava, porridge Munukoyo, Cassava, porridge Cassava porridge, Bananas when in Nshima, cassava Nshima and
weaning age) & salt, roasted and sugar, some bananas, cassava, with grdnuts or porridge (maize) season porridge, rice; 5-6 porridge (cassava)
cassava beans water sugar or salt, mixed with mos
bananas, weaving grdnuts, 4-8 mos
at 1 yr and 6 mos

VII. Household's Own Depends on Availability of Enough to eat plus Availability of all Amount of Enough food and No
Perception of Household production, food surplus to sell types of food in cassava, beans experience; no
Food Security dietary needs and HH and grdnuts the longer throughout
household size family has the year

Perceived Adequacy of That which can If money is Regular supply As long as there Without cassava Eating premature
Access to Food last 1 year available are food crops in the household is cassava is a sign
the fields not food secure of food insecurity

Constraints Low production Lack of money Lack of proper Lack of market Lack of Lack of relish Old age and lack
child care equipment to limits food of supplementing
practices increase area consumption; lack labor
cultivated; lack of and cost of inputs
fertilizer, lack of
credit








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Mulundu Mukonshi Nambale-Musele Kalundu


Specific Household Interview ( 9 & ( 9

Competition Between Food Exists with Idea is to satisfy Exists inclines to Exists but tends to Leans more to Competition exists Other needs met
Needs and Other Livelihood emphasis on food both needs equally food needs focus more on food needs than with equal weight, by children; minds
Needs production or food needs other livelihood leans more to food food needs
needs needs needs to
consequently
satisfy other needs

Proposed Solutions Clear-cut policy in Hammer mill to Brewing beer to Provision of Credit facilities; Labor saving;
training or encourage increase meet both needs foods for sale depot; transport; hammer mill
education in many yields improved canal to
areas of or aspects Pooled labor facilitate fish
of agriculture; Utilization of pond construction
cooperatives and nearby fields Shifting into
other agricultural growing maize,
related activities therefore needs
credit
To teach people
the importance of
loans since they
have fear to get
loans







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Group Interview for Village
Profile

Name of Village Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami

Location 20 km east of Lukwesa 59 km from main road (Kashuba) About 60 km from Mansa

Population:

number 600 HH 192 HH 5000 people 3,500 people, 280 HH

ethnic groups Lunda Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga

household types 80% MHH; 20% FHH < 20% FHH

Major Crops Grown and Cassava, maize, rice, grdnuts, sweet Cassava, finger millet, maize, beans; Cassava, maize, finger millet, grdnuts, Cassava, finger millet, rice, grdnuts,
Trends potato; maize recently introduced; growing less cassava; older generation beans, s/potato, pumpkins, rice, b/nuts, maize, beans, bananas, pumpkins,
number of HH growing maize increased; still growing cassava; younger generation gourds, c. peas, tomato; maize a new s/potato; declining production of rice,
grdnuts previously for consumption, now growing maize crop grdnuts and beans; increased production
grdnuts is a cash crop; more HH of finger millet; declining soil fertility
growing rice

Access to Infrastructure

health facilities No health center No clinic in village; community health Health center 19 beds, 3 cots Health point with CHW, UCI, universal
work is in training child immune

schools No school; self help school built recently school in village Primary and secondary school 1 primary school
but not open

Markets (prices) Mkt exists; sell to Zairens and local Market for products available locally and Small market for vegetables; mkt is Market-no access, nearest for produce is
community; 50 kg unshelled grdnuts, for Zaire (Zairens offer more than local local community but mkt is uncertain Mwense
K8-9000; maize I cup K50.00; 50 kg popn) for maize
cassava clothes; rice-K50/small plate;
Kl00/large plate

roads Accessible Not graded in a long time Good road Seasonal road

storage Poor-stored in bag in homes; rats and Most HH have storage bins; improved Storage at HH house Traditional-produce in houses
weevils using local material

water sources River/stream Unprotected well-dries up; one well for Protected but seasonal; stream/river as Shallow well/unprotected
whole village other source

Access to Natural Resources

forests reserves, wetlands Access to both forests and wetlands but Use forests for logging, wild fruits, Access to forest reserves; access to Unlimited to forests and dambos
dambos dry up early; use forest for charcoal, chikoide and wild game; dambos but not as many HH utilizing
fruits, mushrooms/masuko, chikoide, but grazing for goats
low reserves








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


mining resources None None None None

fish resources None Limited

livestock 260 goats; 9 sheep; 15 pigs; 22 heads of Goats; chickens, ducks
cattle

wild game Occasional None None

wild foods Wild foods utilization Wild foods utilization

trends Wild animals, not as many; chikoide is Game becoming scarce; chikoide Declining wild game, fruits; go longer Decline of fish, forest, wild game
declining because of lack of water declining because of dry environment distances for fruits due to population
pressure and cutting down of trees
Access to Government
Services

agriculture Camp and block extension workers visit No agric extension; extension worker ran Agriculture-2 extn workers Agric extension present
the area both 20 km from area away

forestry No forestry department None and not wanted None None

veterinary None None None None

health None, but nearest 20 km; no traditional Community health worker in training Present CHW present
healer

other School present Post office; water affairs Teachers

Village Participation in Food None None None None
Aid

Population Trends Inmigration rather than out; more no outmigration Inmigration Inmigration
(outmigration) difficult in urban areas

Climatic Trends Drying out; rains start early and finish Shorter rainy season beginning early and Not as much precipitation; rivers are Less precipitation, longer dry spells,
early; shorter season, large hot spells; stops early; less ppt drying; shorter rain periods shorter rainy season
less ppt

Social Organization (village No village groups; MMD leadership; no Womens groups present (15); coop Womens club; farmers club-250 Farmers club-for men-42 men; women
groups, political leadership, food sharing networks society; more than 40 people members club-women vegetables and cooking
food sharing networks)

Other Income Generating Basket making (sell on the Copperbelt Basket making, logging, beer brewing, Logging, basket making, wage labor, Logging, basket making, fishing
Activities Livingstone); charcoal, beer brewing wage labor, chikoide sales blacksmith, charcoal burning







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


General Responses to Food Going away for fishing and exchanging Buy from other places; millet as a back- Food for work; more beer brewing Exchange rice for cassava
Scarcity fish for cassava; eating low quality food up crop; brewing; stealing cassava
of which would not be consumed; rotting soaked in the river/stream
cassava; beer brewing intensities;
charcoal burning

Access to Development
Projects

government, donor, NGO No donor projects; No NGO NGO; World Vision International ZCF, Lima Bank; World Vision Int'l; ZCC, FINNIDA, IFAD
programs contacted community to find out were
to dig wells

participation in design No participation in design; World Vision
and the village took pictures of children
and gave few clothes

Land Tenure Arrangements 2 systems operating; obtain land through Communal and leasehold Communal and leasehold; communal Letter of introduction to the village head;
the headman; communal arrangement; through the headman, chief 2 systems: leasehold and communal
leasehold through the council

Access to Credit None Limited through ZCF ZCF; Lima Bank; World Vision Int'l ZCF, FINNIDA and IFAD

Community Problems and Schools; health center/clinic; roads; Clinic; water;, road; roofing; material for Water-need piped water;, poor soils; Health facility; transport means to gain
Needs water; market infrastructure; agric school building (sheeting); market for improved cassava varieties which can access to market; hammer mills; potable
inputs; basic essentials; goods to veg produces; agric inputs and credit; withstand poor soils; lack of water, e.g. wells; access to storage for
markets; soap; salt extension services; inputs needed for equipment, oxen; floor price of maize essential goods
women's club activities is too low; needed to interact with
other villages doing better in terms of
production so as to learn from others








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Specific Household 5 9 S 9 9 9
Interview


I. Demographic Information

Gender of HH Head 3 males 1 female 3 males 2 females 2 males 2 females Male headed

Marital Status Married Widowed Married Widowed Married Widowed/married Married

Age 30-49 63 29-71 d/know 37 42-61 26-59 38 yrs

Family Composition Adults: 2-4 2 female adults Adults: 2 Adults: 1 Adults: 3-6 Adults: 2-3 Adults: 2
(adults living in household, Children: 3-7 Dependents: 1 Children: 4 Children: 3-6 Children: 2 Children: 4-5
children, other dependents) Dependents: None Children: 3-6 Dependents: Dependents: 3 1 dependent child

Health status Children: poor Good but old HH Poor health to Good but disabled Good Stomach ache in Good
Adults: good disabled good both disabled baby

Educational Background of 0-grade 9 None 0-grade 9 None 2-6 yrs in school 0-10 years in Grade 2-7 husband
HH Members (HH); wife grade school 2-5 wife
4
Religion Christian Christian mission Christian Christian Anglican Anglican Anglican, Catholic, Jehova's Witness
in many lands

Occupations of HH Members Farming Farming Fanning Farming Farming; wage Farming Farming
labor
II. Access to Resources

Access to Land; Tenure Available and Less than Lima Unlimited for the Enough land; 1 Unlimited; unable Limited because About 2 ha 2 ha of cultivated but have
limited but would more if kind of labor Lima to cultivate all chief allocating to more uncultivated
able incoming
population
Access to Common Property

forests Available Does not utilize Yes, available to No limit to Accessible but 0-3 Lima dambo
established forest/wetlands not utilizing
household

wetlands Available Does not utilize Have access

Access to Means of
Production

farm equip (plows, tools) Hand hoes and Hand hoe and axe Hand hoe and axe Hand hoes and Hoe, axe, shovel Hoes, axes Axe, hoes
axes axes







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Specific Household 9 9 9 9
Interview


traction animals None None None None None None None

fishing equip (boats,nets) None No fishing Fishing baskets Fishing basket, canoes, nets, fishing traps
equipment

Access to Livestock

types and number 0-2 goats Chickens few 0-4 goats No goats 0-10 goats 2 chickens 2-10 chickens
0-4 chickens 0-10 chickens No chickens 4-8 chickens 3-6 goats
0-5 cattle
selling patterns Selling goats for None Not selling Chickens for cash None sold Sell goats/chickens to get cash for other
labor;, chickens for as coping strategy needs; soap (3-5000 per goat; 1-3
cash as coping chickens; sells about 1 goat/yr
strategies

III. Livelihood Strategies

Crops grown (cassava, maize,
millet, groundnuts, beans,
vegetables)

For each crop ask: Cassava, maize, Cassava, grdnuts, Cassava, finger Cassava, finger Maize, cassava, Cassava, maize, Cassava, grdnuts, rice, finger millet,
cultivation practices grdnuts, rice, maize, beans; no millet, rice, millet; cassava finger millet, finger millet, beans
division of labor sweet potatoes, external inputs for grdnuts, bananas, and rice, sw grdnuts, beans, grdnuts, Seed-recycled seed; some extension
timing of different stages of beans, cowpeas all crops; Chinese cabbage, potatoes veg, pumpkins; pumpkin, beans; inputs in rice only fertilizer
cultivation (crop calendar) Intercropping intercropping cabbage, maize Aug-Oct: not Cassava and Practices Aug: cutting of trees-men; Sept: women
inputs used (seeds, fertilizers, Beans and casava cassava and Intercrop cassava much work; Nov: finger millet in Same as men but pick and heap branches; Oct: burning of
manures, insecticides) Chitemene grdnuts and beans; and grdnuts; land prep, Chitemene; hires labor for trees; Nov: planting of cassava in
where obtained No. external maize pure stand- cassava and finger planting cassava, cassava and cutting trees; son- Chitemene; make mounds; Nov grdnuts
use of crop (marketed, inputs alone, she does all millet-Chtemene w potatoes; Dec: grdnuts on in-law assists; no also plants; Dec: rice planting then go
consumed) Aug-Oct: land the work; follows first year;, some planting cassava, mounds; no extension inputs; back to Jan: cassava; Feb: make more
constraints to production prep, burning of the same calendar form of rotation beans and finger extension or crops used for mounds for cassava and beans, weeding
solution to problems trees in Oct; Nov: as other Vegetables: millet; Jan: inputs; recycled consumption in cassava field; Mar: weeding; use of
planting maize households; uses dambos, fert. in weeding; Feb: seed; land Constraints crops for consumption
first, then grdnuts recycled seed veg weeding; Mar: prepared by men; Labor, land is a Constraints
and rice; Constraints Mar-Apr: men cut weeding, planting, problem; fields labor constraints
Dec: maize, labor trees; women start harvesting of weeding, only around the pests because of late planting (white
grdnuts and rice; Solution to harvesting beans, planting of harvesting mostly house grubs)
weeding begins Problem May-June: cutting beans; April: by women; May-
(women); cassava borehold, of trees; Jul-Aug: finger millet, cutting; Oct-
planting begins; development aid women collect harvesting beans: digging
Jan: planting of branches; Sept:
cassava, weeding; land prep begins
continues (women)








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Specific Household 9
Interview


Crops (cont.) Feb: planting Oct: land prep May: f/millet, Nov: burning, planting maize; planting
cassava, maize; begins; Nov: harvesting beans; cassava through chitemene on mounds;
April: harvesting planting cassava, June: f/millet, Dec: burning, planting maize; planting
of grdnuts and finger millet, then harvesting beans; cassava through chitemene on mounds;
maize; May: beans, grdnuts; July: employs Jan: plant f/millet or chitemene and
harvesting stops; Dec: f/millet is someone to chop grdnuts on mounds, weeding; Feb:
June: storing of planted; Jan-Feb: trees weeding; Mar-Apr: harvesting begins,
produce weeding of fields No external maize, grdnuts; May-June: harvesting
Constraints by women inputs; crops for produce, brought home; July: mostly
Labor, equipment, Use of Crops: sell home consumption for consumption, f/millet
credit to valley popn and and brewing for Constraints
use money for fish labor Crop yields low; pops in grdnuts, labor
Constraints
labor


Access to Dambos Sugarcane, citrus, Does not utilize Does not utilize Not utilizing Yes No access to Yes
types of crops grown tomato, s/potato, None To utilize veg None Permanent to dambo Rice in dambos
seasonal availability Chinese cabbage None crop see previous seasonal None Vegetables in dry season
-available in dry section Drying rice, Not for sale
season May-Oct s/potato, beans,
tomatoes

Other Income Generating None None No fishing None No fishing None Fishing nets-traps, baskets
Activities -fishing done in rainy season
fishing -smoking
types of fish caught -for consumption
technique used -not as much time
location
seasonality
processing
marketed or consumed
constraints
solutions to problems

off-farm employment (wage Bricklayer, Wage labor for None-piece work, Work for others Wage labor None None
labor) logging other HHs logging, beer esp pounding
brewing, munkoyo grain

seasonal migration None None None None None None

hunting None None Yes, Nov-Dec No No No No







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Specific Household 9 9 9
Interview


firewood or charcoal sales Charcoal None None Yes, charcoal 25 None None None
kg/250

trading None None Yes Yes No No No

beer brewing None None Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

sale of wild foods None None None

IV. Coping Strategies

Adjustment to Meals From 2 to 1 Reduction of Meal redn to Redn of meals Redn from 2 No problems- Reduction of meals from 3 to 2
(number, amount, diversity) number of meals 2 I/day due to from 4 to 1 meals to 1; wage reduction of
to I relishes shortfall labor from other meals
HH

Food Substitution None None Food subst rice None Roasted maize in Roasted cassava Rice instead of nshima
when no food place of relishes;
eat bananas

Sales of Assets Chickens (liquid None None None None None None
assets)

Borrowing from Relatives or None None Borrow for None Borrows food None Begs
Friends relishes from relatives

Credit None None Sell goats and None None None None
(who,interest,rate,terms) clothes

Migration None None None Not possible None None None

Wild Foods-Unusual Foods None Use of wild foods None None None None None

Alternative Employment None None None Turns into h/mill Wage labor None None
to process cassava
and f/millet

Redistributing Children None None None No food red, no None None None
support for
children

Remittances None None None None Yes, 5000/yr None None

Food Aid None None None For children None None None








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Specific Household ( 9 9 9
Interview


Other Selling charcoal None None None Exchanging None None
staples for relish

V. Food Consumption
Patterns

Composition of Diet (seasonal
access)

types of staples Cassava-main Cassava and Cassava, millet None Cassava and Cassava, maize Cassava all year round, millet, millet
main relishes (begs, meat, staple throughout f/millet and maize Cassava leaves, f/millet; cassava Fish, cassava Maize consumed shortly after harvest
fish) year, maize also Cassava leaves fish, bean, and maize leaves June-August
snack foods (supplementary consumed, and beans Cassava leaves, grdnuts, chikende Cassava Pumpkin leaves
energy foods) blended w/cassava throughout mushrooms, fish, Cassava leaves; in season Cassava leaves, bean leaves, pumpkin
Cassava leaves; Rainy season: chikende Roasted cassava bean leaves; fish, Rape/Chinese in leaves in rainy season, dried pumpkin
s/potatoes leaves, mushrooms, beans, roasted dry season leaves
bean leaves pumpkin leaves Cassava roasted or cassava Fish
Rainy season: Roasted cassava, raw, bananas, rice Bananas, Roasted cassava,
mushrooms fresh cassava pumpkin, bananas, grdnuts, Roated cassava, rice, w/potato,
Rice as snack oranges, maize pumpkins, bananas
food, also roasted mangoes, s/potato
and raw cassava,
s/potatoes

Sources of Food Sources of food: Own production Own production Own production Own production Owm production Own production
own production own production; Food for Work Fish, salt, sugar and food for work Grdnuts, oranges, KF Purchases
market purchases food for work; Salt None Sugar, fish cassava Vegetables, rape, Yes, fish, beef, salt, sugar, vegs
types of food purchased Salt, sugar, fish Borrowing from Dec-March food 500/basket for tomatoes, (Brassicas)
seasonality Mushrooms relatives/friends shortage in terms cassava oranges, bananas, Fish-Kl00 for 15 small
prices Fungo None 2 HH of relish None fish Rape-K50/bunch
hunting/gathering None None None After April more No fishing Prices too high Tomatoes-K20/2
fishing Food sharing with diverse None purchased No fishing Cabbage-Kl00/head
sharing/borrowing, begging relatives None None Sharing, Gathering of chikedne in dambos
credit None None Mushroom 1HH borrowing
food aid None None No credit Fishing for home consumption
Share food No food aid
w/children


Problems of Food No market access; Production No food aid; none No credit; food No credit; no Lack of access to Food aid none; lack of access to stores;
Availability (market access, production shortfall; not in terms of staples aid for children; food aid; market; prices prices too high; production shortfall
price, income, production shortfall producing enough; but seasonality of production low; production too high
shortfall) income levels low relishes income and prod shortfall
shortfall







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Specific Household S 9 C 9
Interview

Food Conservation,
Preservation

food processing (what, how, Women dig, peel, Cassava-soaks, Cassava, digging, Same as male HH Cassava: Same as MHH Cassava-peeled, soaked, washed, break
who) some dry and dries and grinds preserving, drying No access to Peel, soak, wash, for processing into small pieces, dried
access to hammer mills pound cassava, for flour and grinding h/mills dry, pound cassava Pounding, sifting, meal prep.
access to oil press drying bean Bean drying; bean None available in No access to oil Peel, dry, soak, Also use h/mill Kaleleka-peel, dry, soak, dry, pound
food storage leaves; cassava leaves drying next village press dry, pound by No access to oil Meal prep
types of structures and mushroom; No hammer mill (h/mill) Poorly made women press Used mainly for rainy season-less weevil
types of food stores threshing of rice None None structure for Maize: h/mill, Traditional attack
duration of storage No access to No structures; Improved storage bin f/millet, pound grainery bin Yes, nearest h/mill 3 hra walking
other preservation h/mills stores in house structure made of compared to HH and stone grind made of thatch k250/tin
techniques No oil press Cassava, beans, local material Finger millet No access to oil (walls and roof), Traditional structures made of mud-for
Houses, storing in vegs, cassava (mud) stored press bottom made of f/millet
bgs in houses Four months after f/millet stored, Finger millet Store maize in mud Ordnuts in sacks in house-or traditional
Maize, cassava, harvesting grdnuts and rice finished by Aug drums; f/millet in Store f/millet bins-rice in homes; cassava chips on
rice, grdnuts, None f/millet-whole None grainery bins F/millet stored up platform under fire
beans year round made of mud; to Jan/Feb
0-4 months Rice-finished beans in tin;
Smoking; seed January grdnuts in drums
and cassava kept Grdnuts finished or sacks
in the roof; by Aug. F/millet-August
smokes, prevents
weevils

problems (losses due to pests, Rodents, weevils None, sets up No problem with No problem with Rodents attack More losses due
moisture damage) everything weevils in weevils in f/millet grdnuts; moisture to weevil attack
f/millet; more of roof; weevils of cassava; stored
problems with attack cassava and soaked before
weevils and chips, esp ones drying
rodents in maize processed without
drying before
storing

Traditional Food Sharing None None Weddings and Yes Funerals Funerals Funerals
Practices (including funerals
ceremonies and festivals)

VI. Child Care

Care of Children When
Mother is Working








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Kapamba Mbulukuta Chipili Kamami


Specific Household
Interview

Number of Feeding Times 2 times-lazy to Once 4 times 2-3 times when 3 times a day 2-3 times a day when she's not working;
cook more often food available; 1 time a day when working in the field
once/day when
food not available
Weaning Foods (types, Cassava and Roasted cassava; Cassava Cassava porridge Maize porridge; At 3 months cassava porridge
weaning age) f/millet at 3 cassava porridge; plus salt at 6 salt; bananas;
months; breast 1-3 times; also months beans, grdnuts
feeding stops at 20 sorghum porridge,
months and when rice
child has many
teeth

VII. Household's Own
Perception of Household
Food Security

Perceived Adequacy of Producing and Ability to have 2 F/millet in stock F/millet in storage Cassava in the When HH As long as there is cassava in the field -
Access to Food storing enough to meals a day field and f/millet produces enough and millet
have 4 meals a in the grainery plus market
day purchases

Constraints Labor, lack of Labor, migration Water problem Labor constraints Lack of adequate Obligated to the Labor as major constraint
farm equipment, with soaking of due to no adult supply of relish sick and friends
lack of agric cassava, labor male
inputs constraint: lack of
market for vegs
Competition Between Food Sacrifice other Sacrificing other Sacrifice other Sacrifice Sacrificing other Sacrifices other Sacrificing other needs for food
Needs and Other Livelihood livelihood needs livelihood needs livelihood needs livelihood needs livelihood needs needs of clothing
Needs for food for food; for food needs for food needs for food and soap for food
preoccupation is needs
food



Proposed Solutions Improved Wants government No solutions Extension Access to credit Need assistance
availability of to bring services-unable to for fish farming with labor
agric input development meet needs
including credit, everything
improved revolves around
extension services; food
need schools and Boreholes
health facilities







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Group Interview for
Village Profile 20/8/93 21/8/93 23/8/93 24/8/93

Name of Village Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa

Location Muasonda Falls-Mwense Valley Mwense-Kauambwa Rd Plateau Plateau near Mwenda Junction Valley between Lewingu and
Mansa-Kauambwa Rd, 16 km
away
Population:
Number 200 (33 HH) 600 (105 HH) 1,000 (200 HH) 6,200 (780 HH)
Ethnic Groups Chishinga>Lunda, Ush: Chishinga Chisinga Chisinga, Lundu
Household tTpes 15 female; 18 male headed 20 female headed 5 female headed Not many F-headed hseholds.
Clans: Bena Bwali, Bena Fula, Bena
Mgombe, Nama, Poshi, Kani, Luo
Major Crops Grown Cassava, fingermillet, groundnuts, cassava, maize, millet, red cabbage, cassava, finger millet, beans, cassava, maize, groudnuts, millet, rice,
and Trends maize, (local, hybrid 603), cowpeas, sweet potatoes, beans, rice, babara nuts, groundnuts, maize; production going sweet potatoes cowpeas, beans, palm oil,
sweet potatoes, babara nuts, cucumbers, pumpkin, squash, soybeans, cowpeas, up; would grow more maize if had okra, bananas, cocoyams, paupau,
pumpkins, tobacco, oranges, bananas, groundnuts, rape, rice & maize on inputs sugarcane, veg, shortage of seeds for
amanko lo bwe; increase cassava, decrease, cassava constant, beans & peas grdnuts, beans and maize, rice new crop,
fingermillet, hybrid maize,groundnuts, declined in prod., grdnuts pops; maize maize new crop
more chitemene system, no fertilizer going down due to fertilizer costs

Access to Infrastructure

Health Facilities Clinic Zesco nearby but village does not 1 health clinic Muwinda clinic 8 km away; herbalist in Health clinic 10-12 km; health post in
have own. Other is 44 ha hospital 27 village; health post in village village; problem with drugs; lack of
km away personnel

Schools Primary school 1-7 Primary school 1-7 School in Muwinda, grade 9; building a Primary school in village 1-7
primary school
Markets (prices) Traders at bridge 5 km; no market in No market all barter, prices depressed Roadside sales; main market Mansa, Sell to Zairians (cloths for crops); no est
village; barter trading along main tarmac Kauambwa at junction of Mansa market
road Kawambwa, Laamnju Road

Roads Road problem in rainy season Road not maintained; dif in rainy season

Storage Trad storage structures; one person has Depot for fertilizer 16 km away; World Trad structure (Ubatola) millet; Cassava-platforms; millet (ubatola);
improved storage; most produce stored Vision has storage structure, brick cassava-platforms; grdnuts in sacks in grdnuts-in house
in house building but not accessible to all house

Water Sources River sometimes contaminated 2 wells; river-shallow wells 1 well contaminated; shallow wells in No wells, get water from river, dries up
____ __ dambo in October








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Access to Natural Resources

Forest Reserves/Wetlands Forests are plentiful; most people don't 2 hour walk to Chetimene fields; fertility Good access to forests for chetimene; Had access to forests; some dambos close
have access to dambos of soil near village declining; doing more not good access to dambos; not good by (limited access); most far away
chetimene now than in past; access to for crops
dambos rice veg

Mining resources No mining No mining Manganese mine nearby (10 kmn), No mining
closed in 1964

Fish Resources Before dam built, fish more plentiful; Fishing-esp rainy season; had 2 fish No river for fish; are fish ponds in No fishing
now little access ponds for school; dried up; no fish ponds Mwindu (24) belonging to fisheries;
now purchase all fish

Livestock Goats> sheep; no cattle; chickens Goats 5 ave HH (65-70 to HH); pigs (1 Goats 5-6 per HH; pigs 2 in village; Most HH goats up to 10; 3 HH pigs 1-
(Newcastle) pig person); chickens 5 per HH (Newcastle); chickens 3-10 per HH 2; all HH chickens (Newcastle)
no cattle eat them

Wild Game Limited access Wild animals extinct No wild game No wild game

Wild Foods Fruit: masuku, nfongo, efiru, nsengwa, Fruit: masuku, insongwa, insanbya, Masuku, nfungo, nfundu, utusongole, ubowa, masuka, utasongole, nfungo,
ntongulu, amabungo, mpundu, sofeoli, utusongole, amabungo, imfilu, ubowa, imfilu, amabungo, nsengwa, caterpillars, mankolobwe, ntugulu
utusongole; fimberi (palm fruit); ubowe- amasafwa, imfungo intungulu, ubona, caterpillars, termite
pustous; (honey) back; snacks-sold amulembwe (wild okra), chiconda (bulb),
locally honey

Trends Poor people coping strategy; sold for Chicanda decreasing; deforestation Food sources becoming scarce because -
cash; M & F collect limiting access of chetimene system and bush fires

Access to Government
Services

Agriculture Ag extension officer 5 km away Poor performance of ext. staff in village Ag officer available but does not come Went away because lack of vehicles, but
to village comes from next village does not help

Forestry None None Not seen, not known None

Veterinary None None (came 4 years ago) Vet services come but asks people to None; vet based in Mwense
buy medicines

Health Rural health officer limited access; one One clinic officer, one comm. health Health officers available; accessible, Health clinic away (10 km); health
traditional healer employee; one trad. birth attendant; one efficient; health worker in village, also community worker
trad. healer, World Vision stationed a TBA
there; Africa Development Fund

Other

Village Participation in Food None None None None
Aid







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Population Trends Increasing, in migration; copperbelt, People not migrating out; moving in People migrating in, not out People moving out because of lack of
(outmigration) neighboring villages relish; lot of seasonal migration

Climatic Trends Drought 1991-92, last year good rains Dryer than past; ponds drying up Rains begin early, stop then start and Rains less than in past; start early, stop-
end earlier than before start, end early (March) fluctuates

Social Organization (village None; limited food sharing School FPTA; health community group; Women's groups (knitting, sewing); Village group committee (UNICEF); 2
groups, political leadership, village productivity committee (mostly PTA; MMD/UNIP; Anglican, Roman farmer groups: IFAD, UNICEF; veg
food sharing networked) settle disputes); 3 church groups: Catholics group UNICEF; basket making group;
watchtower, CMML, catholic women's group; health group; MMD;
district cooperative

Other Income-Generating Livestock sales, piecework, beer Not very much food sharing; timber, Beer brewing, hammer mill, marketing- Basket making, beer brewing, sell grass,
Activities brewing, basket sales, wild food sales, beer brewing, crop sales (cassava, trading sell veg, sell red palm oil, trading
blacksmithing, fishing sales, remittances, maize), piecework, livestock sales
(ukubombela), food sales, charcoal sales

General Responses to Food Work for others (cheap labor), begging, Work for food from neighbors, sharing Reduce amount of food; working for Sell goats; work for food; beer brewing;
Scarcity stealing food, stealing (more common in rainy food; selling food to buy food purchase food
season); processing problems in rainy
season; most people don't run out of
food

Access to Development None World Vision; African Dev Fund Catholics: fertilizer, hammer mill, IFAD just starting, slow start-up (season
Projects government, donor, women's club loans); UNICEF: (food security 23 HH)
NGO programs

Participation in Design None Buying people's boat for bringing kids to Yes, they did participate No participation in design in either
school; bricks for maternity ward activities; needy left out

Land Tenure Arrangements Usu fnuct rights; headman gives right to Usu fruct from chief; borrow land from People don't ask for land inherited People don't ask for permission; headman
land friends through clan; headman provides land to grants outsiders land
outsiders, usu fruct; commercial use -
permission from chief

Access to Credit Limited access to formal credit; informal Credit through World Vision but Limited access, ned more coordination Limited (very few) could improve with
loans high interest (50% per month) limited IFAD








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Community Problems and
Needs


Parent principal
Child interest

Goats eating everything so have to plant
fields 3 hours one way

Access to a health clinic

Newcastle disease for chickens

Limited access to credit

Low soil fertility

Rosette virus for groundnuts

Lack of improved seed
groundnuts
beans

Lack of fertilizer

Declining fish revenues

Limited access to agricultural extension

Lack of knowledge about development
assistance


Road improvement, bridge

Transportation (inaccessible in rainy
season)

Long distance to processing; would like
grinding mill

To deal with labor problems oxen,
training

Would like a cooperative union for
fertilizer access

Need a depot near area for fertilizer

Retail shop

More staff for health clinic

Ox carts

Facilities in school very poor -
chalkboards, desks


Labor problem with clearing

Want a primary school

Clean water access

Shelter for market

Lack of transport to Mwense

Wanted a village clinic

Access to credit and farm inputs

Short maturing variety of cassava

Need way to deal with goats


Hammermill for maize and cassava

Health post

Grading road

Water access well

Storage structures for maize

Fish ponds

Veg seed, insecticides sprayer, market

Early maturing variety of cassava

Wire for goats

Hoes that are more durable

Better houses for teachers

Want to market baskets easier

Provision of credit

Would like to finish school buildings


____________________ .1 ______________________







Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Specific Household Interview C 9 S 9 9 6 9

I. Demographic Information

Gender of HH Head 2 males 1 female 2 males 2 females 4 males 3 females 3 males 2 females

Marital Status 2 married Widow 2 married 2 widows 4 married 1 widow 3 married 1 widow
1 separated 1 single
1 polyginous

Age 36-45 25 34-52 72-79 (31 wife) 28-53 30-51 32-51 49-69

Family Composition 6-7 9 8 8 3-8 6-7 4-10 4-6
(adults living in household, 2-4 adults 4 adults 2-5 adults 2 adults 1-2 adults 1-3 adults 2-4 adults 2 adults
children, other dependents) 2-5 children 5 children 3-5 children 6 children 1-6 children 5 children

Health Status AIDS (adult); Malaria (child); Respiratory Diarrhea, fever, Healthy Skin diseases; eye Healthy Malnourished
respiratory respiratory problems old women sick problems; children;
problems problems malnourished rheumatism
(children)

Educational Background of Adults 2-6 grade; Adults 3-7 grade; Adults 3-7 grade; Head illiterate; Adults 0-10 0-3 grade Adults 5-7 grade; Mother/dau
HH Members children in school; children all in children all in children in school grade; children 0-7 grade children 0-7 grade illiterate; mother-
1 child stopped 6 school school 1 + grades grade 4; children
0-5 grade

Ethnic Group/Tribe Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga Chishinga

Religion Christian, Christian mission Catholic, CMML CMML Anglican, Roman Anglican, Roman CMML, UCZ, CMML, Catholic
Anglican in many lands Catholic, Catholic Catholic
Watchtower,
CMML

Occupations of HH Members Farmers/fishing/ Trading/farming Farming Farming/midwife 2 farmer/trader, Farmer/trader Farmnner/basket Farmer/son basket
bricklaying 1 herbalist maker maker

II. Access to Resources

Access to Land Tenure Usufruct 2-3 limas, I ha (4 limas) 1-5 limas 1-5 limas 3-4 limas Less than a lima
usufruct usufruct usufruct usu fruct 3 limas in fallow (2)
3 fields 1-3 chitemene 0-2 chitemene 1-2 limas-dambos
2 permanent 3 permanent

Access to Common Property Forest access; Forest access; no Use forest for Access but doesn't Good access; no Good access; 0-1 Good access; Good access
Forests no dambos dambos charcoal; have use dambos dambo access to dambos (don't use)
Wetlands access to dambos (all men)
but not using it








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Specific Household Interview & 9 (9 9 9 CT 9

Access to Means of Shovel, hoes/axes, Hoes; no traction No traction Hoes, axes; Hoes, axes; no Hoes, axes; no Hoes, axes; no No hoe (borrows
Production fishing nets; no equipment; no animals; hoes, pestal/motor; fish traction traction traction equipment; hoe); no traction
Farm Equipment (plows, traction equipment fishing nets or axes, nets, fish basket equipment; no equipment; no no fishing equipment; no
tools) baskets basket, canoe fishing equipment fishing equipment equipment fishing equipment
Traction Animals
Fishing Equipment (boats,
nets)

Access to Livestock 2-6 goats No animals (no 1-2 goats 0-3 goats 0-4 goats 0-3 goats 0-10 goats 0-1 goat
Types and Number 1 pig chickens) 0-5 chickens 0-4 chickens 0-17 chickens 0-10 chickens 0-1 chicken 0-3 chickens
I duck 0-5 ducks
No chickens (died)
2 dogs

Selling Patterns Sells goats Sells goats to Sells to buy food Sells to buy food Sells when Hopes to sell when
health bills purchase cassava multiply to buy multiply
buy food food and clothes;
clothes sells goats to buy
inputs and HH
needs
III. Livelihood Strategies

Crops Grown (cassava, Cassava, millet, Cassava, maize, Cassava, maize, Cassava, finger Cassava, millet, Cassava, millet, Cassava, grdnuts, Cassava, grdnuts,
maize, millet, grdnuts, beans, local maize, sweet potatoes finger millet, millet, beans, grdnuts, beans, grdnuts, beans, millet, maize, cowpeas,
vegetables) beans, cowpeas, Cassava beans, grdnuts, grdnuts pumpkins, sweet maize, sweet tomatoes, beans, sugarcane,
For each crop ask: groundnuts Ditto sweet potatoes, Cassava potatoes potatoes bananas, palm oil, bananas, pumpkin
cultivation practices Cassava pumpkins, 1 veg Mounded & Cassava rice, sweet leaves, sweet
division of labor mounds-chitemene Cassava chitemene intercropped Same potatoes potatoes, lemon
timing of different stages of land clearing Chitemene Cutting-June-Aug cassava Cassava trees, palm trees
cultivation (crop calendar) preparation-Oct Cutting-Apr-July Gather & burn- millet intercrops Cassava -
input used (seeds, fertiliz- planting-Mar-Apr Burning-Oct Aug cassava maize, tomatoes intercrops
era, manures, insecti- 24-36 months to Planting-Nov-Dec Planting-Dec grdnuts in dambos
cides) where obtained harvest (women) Weeding-Jan Harvest-Jun cassava single separate grdnuts
Use of crop (marketed, stems-own May-June-harvest Aug-finger millet field
consumed) stock finger millet
Constraints to production friends 3 yr cassava
Solution to problems








Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Specific Household Interview ( $ 9 ( ? 9


Division of labor
mounding-men
weeding-women
harvest-women
cleaning-men
ridging-men


Groundnuts
planting-Nov-Dec
Maize-hybrid
Chifeka-previously
used field
Inshandie-virgin
land
plowing-planting-
Nov
weed-Jan
harvest-May-lun
cut trees-men
plants, weeds,
harvests-women


Problem w/labor-
old age-boys do
labor on cutting-
hires people
w/chicken & beer


Division of labor
cut trees-men
carry-women
plant-men
weed-women h
harvest-both
Crop calendar
cut trees-May-Sep
bum-Aug-Oct
plant cassava-
Nov-Dec
grdnuts-Nov-Dec
weeding-not done
1st yr Jan-Mar


Same

brews beer to
help till land

Same

Same


Division of labor
cut trees-men
weed,carry sticks-
wife
plant jointly
harvest-wife
maize-all
tomatoes-all


Division of labor
woman does
everything-son
helps sometimes


Both consumed Consumes it all Constraints: Harvesting Same Crop calendar
and sold access to labor, grdnuts/beans- clear-Aug-Sep clear-June
Constraints pest attack, Apr bum-Oct
-ridge making maize-reddish bug millet-May plant-Nov similar
-tools expensive grdnut-worms 2 bean crops a cassava,grdnuts
-long maturity adequate tending year-Nov-Jan-Feb weed-Jan-Feb
Maize-hybrid Maize-local and storage Jan-Feb-May harvest-Apr
clear bush-Jun plant-Oct-Nov maize,grdnuts
bum-Oct millet-May-June
plant-Nov

Division of Labor No division of Seeds & Stems input Same Input Inmuts
clears-man labor purchase hybrid, retain seeds local seed retained retained seed
plant-all Consumes all maize, grdnuts no fertilizers buys some
most for Purchase seed retains finger sells cassava, fertilizer
consumption from other people millet, grdnuts, grdnuts, millet,
source seed-coop cassava stems sweet potatoes
union Loan of fertilizer
from W.Vision


Finger millet
land prep-Aug-Oct
planting-Dec
harvest-May-Jul
storage-Jul-Aug


Used to use goat
manure for veg


Constraints
lack
fertilizer
problem-rainfall
labor problem
lack of capital
lack of ag inputs
pest problem


Constraints
grdnuts suffered
from pops
labor
lack of tools
mealie bug


Markets
tomatoes
grdnlutes
millet
bananas
palm oil
cassava


Markets
red palm oil
consumes most


Crops (cont.)


All do all
operations


,









Rapid Food Security
Assessment Matrix Chibumbu Mupeta Munanga Chiposa


Specific Household Interview ( 9 ( 9 9 9

Crops (cont.) Division of Labor Market-locally Markets Capital to buy Needed money Constraints Constraints
cut trees-man maize finger millet cattle to assist in for tool purchase- lack of seeds, labor
gather-women cassava beer farming labor inputs, animal no tools
planting-all finger millet goats traction, markets groundnut seeds
harvest-women pumpkins Solutions needs money
storage structure- sweet potatoes markets for
man bananas products
processing-woman Sells cassava grant
Sale-consumption Maize to valley

Access to Dambos None None Has son grow Does have but No access Doesn't farm it 1/2 yr-I yr None
veg-access-don't doesn't use
use because seed because doesn't
problem grow rice

Types of crops grown tomatoes, maize,
Seasonal Availability bananas, leafy veg,
onions, sugarcane
Other Income Generating
Activities

Fishing tiger,bottle fish No Yes-No Yes None None None None
Types of fish caught (lupesha)

Technique used river nets, baskets nets, canoes river/dambos

Location Luongo River river river

Seasonality except June, all rainy season rainy season
year round

Processing fresh or dry -

Marketed or Consumed women's catch home consumption
more consumed-
men's sold

Constraints lack of nets, nets shortage of fish fish stock
tear easily, diminished
reduction in fish
stocks

Solutions to problems buys new nets -