Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Opening of the consultation
 Purpose of the consultation
 Summary of discussions
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Agenda and timetable
 Participant's contact list
 List of documents
 Compilation of briefs
 Summary of background document...

Title: Report of the Inter-Agency Consultation on Statistics and Data Bases on Gender in Agriculture and Rural Development, Rome, 24-26 September 1991
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085092/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of the Inter-Agency Consultation on Statistics and Data Bases on Gender in Agriculture and Rural Development, Rome, 24-26 September 1991
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Inter-Agency Consultation on Statistics and Databases on Gender in Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organizationof the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1992
Subject: Farming   ( lcsh )
Agriculture   ( lcsh )
Farm life   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00085092
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Opening of the consultation
        Page 2
    Purpose of the consultation
        Page 3
    Summary of discussions
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Agenda and timetable
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
    Participant's contact list
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
    List of documents
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
    Compilation of briefs
        Page D-0
        Page D-1
        Page D-2
        Page D-3
        Page D-4
        Page D-5
        Page D-6
        Page D-7
        Page D-8
        Page D-9
        Page D-10
        Page D-11
        Page D-12
    Summary of background documents
        Page E-1
        Page E-2
        Page E-3
        Page E-4
        Page E-5
        Page E-6
        Page E-7
        Page E-8
        Page E-9
        Page E-10
        Page E-11
        Page E-12
        Page E-13
        Page E-14
Full Text


Rome, 24-26 September 1991

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 1992








APPENDIX A Agenda and Timetable

APPENDIX B List of Participants

APPENDIX C List of Documents

APPENDIX D Compilation of Agencies' Briefs

APPENDIX E Summaries of Background Documents


The Inter-Agency Consultation on Statistics and Data Bases on Gender in
Agriculture and Rural Development, initiated and organized by the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, was held at FAO Headquarters in
Rome, Italy, from 24 to 26 September 1991. Participants from 13 Agencies attended,
as well as representatives of FAO and its Regional Offices (Appendix B).

The need for data on women is grounded in the UN goal of equality between
men and women and was first expressed in 1975 in the World Plan of Action adopted
by the World Conference of International Women's Year. Since that year, significant
improvements have been made in the availability of data on women in general, but on
women in agriculture, the availability and accessibility of data remain rather poor.

The FAO WCARRD Programme of Action adopted in 1979 has emphasized the
urgent need to increase the availability of data on all aspects of women's roles in rural
activities, and to disseminate this information to promote greater awareness of women's
role in society. The FAO Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development,
approved in 1989, also points to the need for data on women in agriculture, noting that
the lack of such data "hampers the design of remedies, policies and programmes, their
implementation and appraisal". Confirmation of this has been gained through the current
FAO Gender Analysis Training Workshops that have demonstrated that the integration
of gender issues in the formulation of agricultural development projects and
programmes is mostly hampered by lack of information on gender in agriculture.

The Plan of Action also provides for the establishment of a global gender-
disaggregated data base on human resources in agriculture and rural development. This
would facilitate the compilation, retrieval and dissemination of data for a wide variety
of users. Work towards this goal has begun, with two studies assessing the feasibility
of such a data base and the availability of data. Proposals have also been made for
improving the existing international statistical standards, programmes and guidelines on
censuses and surveys and other statistics to provide the type of information required.
Both the establishment of the data base and the improvement of gender-disaggregated
data require the collaboration of international agencies and countries.

Such collaboration is already occurring to some extent, as for example in the
case of FAO/World Bank/UN Statistical Office Technical Consultation on the
WCARRD Socio-Economic Indicators Programme, the Social Dimensions of
Adjustment (SDA) Project and the National Household Survey Capability Programme
(NHSCP), held in 1990, which recommended that the NHSCP and SDA project
promote the collection of data for both WCARRD and the embryo FAO data base on
women in agriculture, and the disaggregation of data by gender and by agricultural/non-
agricultural households. Agency-country collaboration has started through the FAO
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific after the Regional Expert Consultation on

Database for Women in Agriculture, also held in 1990, which recommended that pilot
surveys be conducted according to the design and guidelines developed by that

The need for greater inter-agency collaboration has led to the present Inter-
Agency Consultation on Statistics and Data Bases on Gender in Agriculture and Rural
Development. The Consultation has been organized by FAO, with valuable inputs from
both the UN Statistical Office and INSTRAW.


The Consultation was opened by Mr. M. Trkulja, Director of the Statistics
Division (ESS). Mr Trkulja read the opening address on behalf of the Assistant
Director-General of the Economic and Social Policy Department, Mr. B.P. Dutia, who
was regretfully unable to attend. In his address, Mr Dutia pointed to the important role
that women play in agriculture and rural development, to the inadequacy of relevant
data on this role and to the consequent omission of women from agricultural and rural
development policy planning and programming. One of the priorities of the FAO Plan
of Action for the Integration of Women in Development is to address the collection of
data on women in agriculture. This includes the strengthening of data bases on women
in agriculture, the development of statistical indicators on women in agriculture and the
analysis of standard agricultural data by gender. It also includes studies on women's
issues in agricultural and rural development and the development of guidelines for the
generation of data for gender analyses at project level and for the collection of baseline
data needed for project formulation, monitoring and evaluation.

The Assistant Director-General also noted the timeliness of the Consultation in
relation to preparations for the 2000 World Census of Agriculture. He also expressed
FAO's intention to bring the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultation to
the 1992 meeting of the ACC Sub-Committee on Statistics and to the UN Statistical
Commission in 1993.

After the opening address, and the introduction of participants and observers,
Mr. Trkulja was appointed to the Chair, and Mr. X. Charoy, Chief of the Statistical
Development Service (ESSS), was appointed Secretary to the Consultation. The Agenda
(Appendix A) was adopted without amendments.

The Consultation agreed to hold a brief general discussion after the presentation
of papers for each item, and to hold more detailed discussions in two smaller groups,
which would report back to the plenary session.

Agencies' briefs were presented to the Consultation as part of the Opening
Ceremony. Three tables were compiled from the information provided by 13 Agencies
(Appendix D). The first table gives types and sources of statistical data collected or
compiled by Agency and whether such data are disaggregated by gender, rural/urban
breakdown and agricultural/non-agricultural breakdown. The main role of international

agencies is in data compilation rather than collection, though some data collection is
undertaken (for example, by FAO on FAO training, fellowships and employment from
FAO records; by UNESCO on education and educational expenditure through
questionnaires sent to countries; and by IFAD and UNIFEM on project beneficiaries
from project records). Whether compiled or collected, most data are available by gender
but rather infrequently available by rural/urban breakdown.

The second table contains information on actions concerning statistical
indicators, data bases and sub-national data. Several agencies are involved in the
development of statistical indicators, with specific actions including the establishment
of indicators, the improvement of measurement instruments and the provision of
assistance to governments. The first gender-disaggregated data base, the United Nations
Women's Indicators and Statistics Data Base (WISTAT), was developed between 1984
and 1987, with several other data bases either being created or gender-disaggregated.
Actions concerning sub-national data include carrying out analyses, surveys and case
studies, and the production of data through project and programming activities.

This table also includes information on existing forms of inter-agency
collaboration, which include the interchange of data, consultations and meetings to
promote inter-agency collaboration, joint implementation of projects and programmes,
collaboration in publications and collaboration in the development of data bases.

The third table summarizes the actions envisaged by agencies and their
recommendations for inter-agency collaboration. Most agencies express a commitment
to the improvement of gender-disaggregated data, be it through the improvement of
measurement instruments, research, training, the establishment or improvement of data
bases, or the development of indicators. Inter-agency collaboration is recommended
with respect to the identification of data gaps and determination of priorities; the
improvement of training; cost-sharing in data collection, analysis and dissemination;
sharing of data bases; and the development and adoption of common gender-sensitive


The overall purpose of the Consultation was to provide a forum where agencies
could present their activities and plans concerning statistics and data bases on gender
in agriculture and rural development. Each agency would have the opportunity to learn
from other agencies and to share their own experiences. Areas for further collaboration
and cooperation could thus be identified.

In particular, the Consultation's objectives were to:

1. consider the UN agencies' statistical standards, concepts and classifications with
a view to improving their relevance and suitability for measuring women's
contribution to development;

2. review existing national and international sources of data on women in
agriculture, available at the national and sub-national levels, and make
recommendations for their improvement;

3. suggest technical, operational and institutional measures for promoting the
development of statistics on women in agriculture at national level;

4. plan for the international exchange and analysis of gender-disaggregated data on
agriculture, for the related networking among UN agencies and countries, and
for the development of compatible data base formats for compiling, processing
and disseminating such information.


It was clear throughout the discussions that there are major gaps to be filled in
the availability of data on gender in agriculture and rural development. The
development of such data is a shared responsibility of the UN system as a whole, each
within its own area of responsibility, and FAO alone cannot provide all of the required
data. It was recognized that the development of data necessitated a long-term
commitment, though some data could be made available in the short and medium term.

At the same time, it was also true that there is a significant volume of data on
gender that is available but has not been analyzed. It was thought to be the
responsibility of users to try to analyze data that are available.

Item 1: Review of international standards, concepts and classifications for
statistics on women in agriculture

It was acknowledged that there have been considerable improvements in recent
years in the international classification schemes relating to economic activity, especially
with regard to their coverage of women. The importance for women in agriculture of
the new reference period for economically active groups was recognized, namely the
population that has been economically active during the last year (supplementing current
and usual activities). It was felt, however, that further improvements could be made in
classification schemes in general, and ILO and other international agencies were urged
to continue work in this area, paying particular attention to women in further revisions.

The problem of measuring the participation of women in agriculture was
highlighted and the need expressed for primary research into this aspect, to be
undertaken by FAO and ILO. The additional value of qualitative data was recognized.

The lack of an internationally agreed definition of "rural" and "urban" was
suggested as a contributory factor to the infrequency of rural/urban disaggregation in
some data sources, particularly with respect to internal migration, for which data are

lacking. The need for an international definition of rural and urban was stressed and
close collaboration between the UN Statistical Office and FAO was called for in order
to address this issue. It was suggested that FAO Regional Offices also work with the
UN Regional Commissions on this issue.

Regarding the concept of head of household, the opinion was expressed that this
may not always be a convenient statistical concept, especially with regard to women.
Nevertheless, where it is used, gender should be obtained and special attention should
be paid to the relation between gender of head of household and migration. It was
recognized that secondary questions are necessary to ensure accurate definition of head
of household, and participants felt that guidelines are needed.

Though concepts and definitions have been improved at the international level,
there is often a reluctance or lack of motivation to adopt these at the national level in
statistical operations. Thus in practice deficiencies still arise. Governments were thus
urged to apply the revisions as they become available.

Where concepts and definitions are applied, their interpretation at the national
level or in the field often deviates considerably from the intended concept. Participants
urged international agencies to provide follow-up support to ensure their correct
application. The need to "translate" international definitions and concepts into terms that
are understandable by interviewees was also stressed.

A case study from Egypt illustrated these points. A statistics project that focused
on measuring women's work showed that four times more women were economically
active than the previous official labour force survey had indicated. This level of
participation was obtained by (i) simply applying the internationally recognized
definitions of work and (ii) by providing extensive and appropriate training on gender-
related issues to the enumerators.

It was acknowledged that different sources of data will give different results as
long as different concepts are used, and that it may not be appropriate or possible to use
the same concepts in all sources. Several approaches may be necessary to obtain the
information required.

Item 2: Concepts and definitions relating to the measurement of employment
in the informal agricultural sector

The complexities of defining the informal sector were recognized, but
nevertheless it was felt that an international definition or set of definitions should be
developed. In making such a definition or definitions, the uses of data on the informal
sector should be taken into account. Standardization was also needed. The discussion
centered around the definition of the informal sector in terms of the productive unit, and
its measurement through censuses or labour force surveys.

Other criteria for delineating informal productive units were suggested including
level of capital input, sources of capital input, family labour input, labour needs, etc.
Problems were raised, however, about operationalizing these criteria, and the
importance of adopting simple, operational definitions was stressed.

Reservations were expressed by some participants about the application of the
concept of the informal sector in its present form to agriculture.. It was recognized,
however, that if the concept of the informal sector is used in project targeting, which
will increasingly be the case, rural women and men may be omitted from such targeting
if the concept is not applied to them. The need was felt for further study with a view
to determining the relevance of the concept of the informal sector to agriculture, to
examining the relationship between the subsistence sector and the informal sector, and
to increasing the visibility of women in agriculture in data sources. Such studies should
take into account the new category of "members of household establishments" which
would replace self-employed status for the household head and unpaid family worker
status for other household members. Such further work on the informal sector was to
be undertaken with a view to agencies such as FAO and INSTRAW making a
contribution to the 1992 and 1993 ILO meetings which will discuss and define the
informal sector. HABITAT also expressed an interest in making a contribution to these

The need for the elaboration of data collection approaches and the refinement
of compilation methods was endorsed. The increasing interest in time-use studies was
noted and the need to develop them further was stressed, particularly in the light of
women's multiple roles and the fragmentation of women's time. Resources were needed
for such studies, which were recognized as costly. It was noted that INSTRAW intends
to undertake methodological research on the effectiveness of time-use studies for
collecting data on the informal sector with a view to developing a method suitable for
most developing countries.

Participants endorsed the need for gender disaggregation of data on secondary
activities and occupations, and for more detailed classifications that can reflect the
diversity of women's activities in agriculture over adequate reference periods. It was
also felt that there is a need for further research and statistics on rural areas, in
particular through national household surveys. Participants also endorsed the need for
special enquiries regarding the characteristics of small-scale agricultural units, and for
household surveys focusing on women in agriculture.

Item 3: Critical revieNw of data sources, statistics and indicators on women in
agriculture and rural development

Regarding the availability of data on women in agriculture, it was noted that a
significant volume of gender-disaggregated data has already been collected but that
some of these have not been tabulated and analysed. These data should be made
available through tabulation and analysis. Rural/urban disaggregation is much less

common due to the definitional problems already discussed (Item 1) and results in a
significant "loss" of data on women in agriculture.

Agricultural censuses and surveys were recognized as an important potential
source of data on women in agriculture, especially with the new tabulations by gender
of holder recommended for the 1990 round. The unit of investigation is the holding,
since this is the basic economic unit of agriculture. It was agreed that the identification
of holdings should continue to be through households, and it was felt that this process
could be assisted by better linkages between population censuses and agricultural
censuses and surveys.

After identification, participants agreed that holdings should not be confused
with households, since this had led to the under-representation of female holders. The
practice of amalgamating multiple holdings into a single holding within a household
would thus be eliminated, as would the need to identify a senior holder amongst joint
holders. Both of these practices had led to the underenumeration of female holders, and
in fact violated the concept of the holding as the unit of analysis. It was noted that in
agricultural surveys, sampling practices would have to be examined in relation to these
proposed changes.

A further source of bias against female holders in agricultural census data is the
omission of smallholdings, which are often operated by women. It was acknowledged
that, by trying to strike a balance between developed countries and developing
countries, the minimum holding size was often biased towards existing holding sizes in
the developed countries, and therefore excluded many of the smaller holdings
characteristic of developing countries. It was proposed that coverage of smallholdings
could be increased by sub-sampling the smaller holdings with lower minimum holding
sizes determined on a regional basis. It was recognized that these minima could not be
lowered to include kitchen gardens, but that there was room for greater coverage in
many countries, which would increase the visibility of women holders.

FAO recommends that countries cover smallholdings falling below the minimum
through special household surveys, but it was noted that these are rarely carried out.
It was suggested that FAO provide further guidance to countries in respect of both
minimum size of holding criteria and sample surveys to cover the smallest units.

It was emphasized that it is an opportune time to reorient the Agricultural
Census for the year 2000, as the preparations for this exercise are about to begin. It
was noted that the above suggestions for overcoming existing biases can be achieved
without increasing the amount of resources required.

It was also emphasized that the Agricultural Census is only one of many
instruments of statistical data collection. Each country has to decide for itself which
data items are to be obtained from which census or survey. It was noted that some
agricultural censuses and surveys obtain data on gender of agricultural labour force
reached by extension agents, and FAO was urged to encourage more countries to collect
such data.

Where the required data are too detailed for inclusion in the Agricultural
Census, it was proposed that pertinent indicative questions be included, so as to provide
a frame for sub-sampling for the further investigation of particular areas of interest such
as women farmers, food processing, trading, use of and access to credit, and use of and
access to technology.

It was recognized that the agricultural census does not provide comprehensive
coverage of human resources in agriculture, because of its omission of most activities
in fisheries and forestry, the landless and some occasional labour. It was thus important
to obtain data through labour force surveys.

With regard to data obtained from projects, it was noted that FAO has developed
a new gender coding system which will give qualitative information on the potential of
a project for reaching women: the inclusion of women or gender issues in project
documents; and the degree to which women are participants or beneficiaries in project
execution. It was suggested that project reporting formats should be changed to include
gender-specific reporting.

Item 4: National statistical programmes to generate the required data

The need was stressed for further gender-sensitive research and statistics on rural
areas and the informal sector, in particular through national household surveys.
However, it was noted that it is often difficult to persuade Ministries of Agriculture and
Statistical Offices to do this. It was suggested that international agencies and national
users of rural data should more actively encourage such work. Examples from India and
Malawi had shown that this could be successful.

One of the main reasons for the inadequacy of data on women in agriculture is
the reluctance of countries to adopt international definitions and guidelines. Strategies
were needed to encourage their systematic adoption in national statistical programmes.
Two examples in respect of the application of the concept of economic activity were
discussed. India trained census enumerators on activities to be included as women's
"work", and also carried out a public information programme to inform women about
which tasks should be counted as work. In the case of Honduras. a special module was
developed for the national labour force survey, which asked women which of a
comprehensive list of major domestic and non-domestic activities they had performed
in a specific time period. Activities were classified subsequently as economic or non-

Participants acknowledged the importance of sub-national and qualitative data
as a complement to national statistical sources. It was noted that currently there is a
great deal of interest at both national and sub-national levels in time-use studies, which
are increasingly being acknowledged as essential for capturing the types of gender-
disaggregated data required. Time-use studies are important with regard to obtaining
data on productivity and intervening variables explaining gender differentials.

It was agreed that there is a general need to develop further the methodologies
used in developing countries and to clarify the objectives of time-use surveys. It was
suggested that time-use data could be obtained through modules attached to existing
surveys, particularly in view of the costs involved. Such modules would be adopted at
the sub-regional level. It was agreed that different methods of data collection
(observation, diaries, etc.) should be tested, since they produce different results. In
addition, it was noted that the fragmentation of time and multiple activities (especially
relevant to women) necessitate the use of simple questions and the careful selection of
categories. Objectives should also be as simple as possible. It was perhaps necessary
to evaluate experiences to date, with a view towards adopting a more institutionalized
approach through national statistical services.

It was also agreed that there is a general need for more widespread support to
national statistical systems to enhance the scope and coverage of existing national
surveys such that more relevant gender statistics could be obtained on a continuous
basis. Collaboration between producers and users of data on women should be
stimulated to highlight the need for gender statistics and to generate the necessary
support for modifications in the national statistical surveys. The careful selection and
training of enumerators was important in all methods of data collection, at both national
and subnational levels, and there was a need to sensitize enumerators to gender issues
if data on women in agriculture were to be improved. At the subnational level in
particular, there was a need to develop training methodologies and to give feedback,
where possible, to the groups who provided the data.

Participants agreed that greater gender awareness was also needed amongst
national and other statisticians involved in the collection of data on women. It was
suggested that the existing FAO support provided to countries undertaking an
agricultural census or survey should be gender-sensitive where appropriate, and that
national statistical service staff involved in the agricultural statistics should be invited
to attend FAO's regional or national gender training workshops. Planners and policy
makers should also be gender-sensitive and those concerned with women in agriculture
might also be invited. It was noted that the African Development Bank was already
carrying out such sensitization workshops.

The general lack of analysis on women in agriculture, even where data are
available, was felt to be due to a low level of gender-awareness amongst users. There
was a need for support to policy makers and planners in the incorporation of gender
issues in development plans and programmes. There was also a need for assistance in
statistical awareness for users.

Increased gender and statistical awareness would both facilitate and be facilitated
by greater collaboration and dialogue between the users and producers of data. The
need was stressed for dialogue between planners and statisticians at all stages of gender
data collection and their use in national plans. Policy dialogue was also strongly

It was proposed that the recommendations of this meeting be brought to the 1991
Conference of Statisticians for the Africa region.

Item 5: Inter-Agency coordination and collaboration on data base formats
and systems of analysis. Networking and information exchange

In addition to the papers presented under this item, UNIDO orally presented
their experiences in statistics and data base development in respect of industry. Within
their general industrial data base, data are included (to date, for 32 countries) on female
employees disaggregated at the 3 and 4 digit levels of ISIC. These data are analyzed and
mainly used in studies and research. The derived indicators are subsequently published
in UNIDO documents. Efforts to obtain data on wages and salaries paid to female
employees have produced very few returns.

UNIDO's main approach to women is mainstreaming in industrial development.
To assist in this process at the policy, institution-building and enterprise or direct
support levels, a Reference File for the Consideration of Women in Project Design,
Management and Evaluation and a data base on women in industry have been
developed. The data base contains both bibliographical information and data and
information on women in industry. The second is being developed on a country basis
and includes both quantitative and qualitative information, the latter having been found
to be important for understanding the participation patterns, constraints and problems
faced by women thus providing valuable information for the development of
projects/programmes. UNIDO's experience was acknowledged by participants as a
useful example of structuring a database through the identification of needs.

An oral presentation was also made by FAO concerning current data base
developments at FAO. Past data handling experience had been characterized by
decentralization and difficulties in access. In response, an integrated system is being
developed, the prototype phase of which is due to be finalized in November 1991, with
data processing due to be completed by the end of 1992. This would include the three
main data bases held at FAO. namel\ AGRIOSTAT, food consumption data, and
agricultural census data. AGROSTAT contains very few gender-disaggregated data and
is not an appropriate vehicle for detailed data on gender. Food consumption and
agricultural census data include some gender-disaggregation, but there is room for
improvement. More collaboration with governments and national institutions is needed
to ensure this, and experience in Africa is encouraging. It was not enough merely for
FAO and other agencies to ask for gender-disaggregated data; rather it is necessary to
create the demand for such data by demonstrating their usefulness.

Thus, though the main emphasis of FAO's data collection remains the provision
of reliable production and trade figures. special attempts are being made to improve the
availability and quality of data on women in agriculture and on environment and
sustainable development. As planning for the 2000 agricultural census is about to begin,

it is an opportune time to review data collection methods, and a new framework will
be developed and proposed to the FAO Conference in November 1991.

In discussion, it was agreed that agencies should continue to collaborate in all
stages of the development of gender-disaggregated data on agriculture and rural
development, from the definition of concepts to the improvement of data collection
methodologies to the development and utilization of data bases. It was recognized that
the task of data improvement and filling data gaps was a common concern and that
FAO could not and should not address this alone. Agencies would divide the work
according to their respective areas of responsibility. Collaboration would also maximize
efficiency through cost-sharing, and the sharing of expertise and data.

INSTRAW expressed an interest in taking an active part in collaboration with
other agencies in standardizing and coordinating a systematic approach to the informal

It was generally agreed that there was a real need to establish an FAO gender-
disaggregated database in agriculture. In order to facilitate its development, it was
agreed that an arrangement should be worked out between ESH and ESS to guide the
direction of this programme.

The immediate need was to define the contents of the data base, taking into
account the objectives of the data base. Lists of suggested data were already provided
in the papers ESH/ESS 91/5 and 91/7, and by WCARRD and the UN Regional
Economic Commissions. Some of these data are already available. All data should be
gender-disaggregated and refer to rural areas (or agriculture) and should include all
relevant detail to permit gender analysis.

It was recognized that the majority of the data necessary to implement the FAO
Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development are not currently
available. Since the development of such data cannot be achieved immediately, a
strategy was required. It was felt that a systems approach to the development of data
would be more effective than the hitherto ad hoc approach, and that there could be
increased inter-agency and agency/national cooperation. Priorities for the production of
data should be established, based on the priorities of the Plan of Action and on
consultation with various units of FAO.

In terms of data base management, it was agreed that the system used should be
user-friendly and flexible enough to accommodate the expansion of the data base as new
data become available. The World Agricultural Information Centre, WAICENT, now
under development at FAO, will be able to derive indicators from the data. There
would also be the need to create a mechanism for inputting new data as they are
developed (especially those available for only a few countries), including sub-national
and qualitative information.

It was also felt that it would probably be necessary to set up data bases at
regional as well as international levels, since differences in the gender division of
labour across regions would make the presentation of comparable, detailed data quite

difficult. Work had already begun in Africa and in Asia and the Pacific. INSTRAW
expressed an interest in strengthening the database on women in agriculture and rural
development in Asia and the Pacific.


1. There already exists a small but significant volume of gender-disaggregated data
relating to agriculture and rural development, some of which have not been
tabulated and analysed. Such data could be rapidly and inexpensively exploited
to increase the availability of gender-disaggregated data.

It is recommended that as a first step, international agencies encourage
governments to process existing data in order to allow analysis by gender.

2. Much needs to be done to improve the availability and quality of gender-
disaggregated data on agriculture and rural development. Whilst gender is often
obtained during data collection, rural/urban (or agricultural/non-agricultural,
farm/non-farm, etc.) is far less common. In addition, many of the concepts and
classifications used to define the activities undertaken in agriculture do not
adequately address women. This includes concepts defined by the System of
National Accounts (SNA). In addition, the relevance of the concept of the
informal sector for agriculture is unclear, and its definition has not been
internationally agreed upon.

It is recommended that all international agencies, each in its own area of
responsibility and in close collaboration with one another, continue to improve
definitions and classifications with particular attention to the coverage of women
and the elimination of gender biases.

3. In many cases, data collection methodologies lead to gender biases in the data,
or do not allow for sufficient detail to adequately address women's roles.

It is recommended that international agencies conduct research into the methods
of data collection on women in agriculture, particularly in subsistence

It is also recommended that future census and survey programmes should:

adapt their recommended data collection methodologies (such as
sampling methods, definition of units, interviewing techniques, training
of enumerators, etc.) in order to obtain as precise and detailed results as

recommend questions for obtaining the required level of detail;

set guidelines for minimum standard tabulation programmes.

4. To date, the provision of data on gender in agriculture has been piecemeal,
resulting in minimal consistency and complementarity within countries, both
between sources and over time, and in reduced comparability between countries.
This is exacerbated by the non-adoption on the part of some countries of up-
dated international definitions, classifications and guidelines. There is also a lack
of detailed data, addressing the multiple roles of women in agriculture.

It is recommended that international agencies actively encourage countries to:

conduct censuses and surveys on a regular basis as part of an integrated
statistical programme;

adopt up-dated international definitions, classifications and guidelines;

conduct specific surveys allowing more in-depth studies, such as surveys
on household economic activities and time-use surveys as part of the
integrated programme.

5. Many relevant data are more appropriately obtained from administrative records
and projects, but in practice such data are rather infrequently made available.

It is recommended that international agencies review the collection and
compilation of gender-disaggregated data from their administrative records and
projects with a view to more effective identification of target populations and
monitoring, evaluation and programming of development activities.

6. At all stages of data collection, processing and utilization, there is need for a
gender-sensitive approach.

It is recommended that international agencies promote gender-sensitive
approaches to data collection, processing, analysis and utilization through all
possible means including existing training programmes, published guidelines,
field support, meetings and seminars, etc.



Tuesday, 24 September 1991











Registration of Participants

Opening of the Consultation:

- Opening Address by the Assistant Director-
General, Economic and Social Policy Department
- Introduction of Participants
- Election of Officers
- Adoption of the Agenda and Timetable
- Presentation of Compilation of Agencies' Briefs

Item 1: Review of international standards, concepts
and classifications for statistics on women
in agriculture

Conceptual Framework for the Development of Statistics
and Indicators on Women in Agriculture and Rural
Development (FAO) (ESH/ESS 91/2)

General discussion

Working Group discussions on Item 1

Item 2: concepts and definitions relating to the
measurement of employment in the informal
agricultural sector

Defining Employment in the Informal Sector: Its
Effects on Women (ILO) (ESH/ESS 91/3)

Measuring Women's Contribution to the Informal
Agricultural Sector (FAO) (ESH/ESS 91/4)

Concepts and Issues Relevant to International
Standards, Classifications and Work in the Informal
Sector Review of International Standards, Concepts
and Classifications for Strategies on Women in
Agriculture (INSTRAW) (ESH/ESS 91/6)

General discussion

Working Group discussions on Item 2

18:00 Reception

.. Wednesday, 25












Item 3: Critical review of data sources, statistics
and indicators on women in agriculture and
rural development

The Establishment of a Gender-disaggregated Data Base
on Human Resources in Agriculture (FAO) (ESH/ESS 91/5)

Review of Main Data Sources in the United Nations
Statistical Office for Statistics and Indicators on
Women in Agriculture and Rural Development (UNSO)
(ESH/ESS 91/7)

General discussion

Working Group discussions on Item 3

Item 4: National statistical programme to generate
the required data

Surveys of Household Economic Activities in
Agriculture, with Special Reference to Women's
Activities (FAO) (ESH/ESS 91/8)

General discussion

Data and Statistics in Agriculture Gender Concerns -
The National Experience in India (UNIFEM)

Counting Women's Work Developing Instruments for
Strengthening the Data Bases on Rural Women in Asia
and the Pacific (FAO Regional Office for Asia and the
Pacific) (ESH/ESS 91/11)

Investigation into Available Data on Women in the
Agricultural Sector in Africa (FAO Regional Office for
Africa) (ESH/ESS 91/10)

General discussion

Working Goup discussions on Item 3

September 1991


Thursday, 26 September 1991






Item 5: Inter-Agency coordination and collaboration
on data base formats and systems of
analysis. Networking and information
exchange systems.

The Women's Information System and Statistical Series
on Women in Decision-making (Division for the
Advancement of Women)

The ISI's Activities in Promoting the Availability,
Analysis and Interpretation of Microdata (ISI)
(ESH/ESS 91/12)

Incorporating Gender Disaggregation in FAO Data Banks

Working Group discussions on Item 5

Adoption of Report

Closing of the Consultation





Ms Joann Vanek fax 212-963-4116
Women in Development Officer tel. 212-963-4939
Statistical Office
Department of International Economic and Social Affairs
New York, N.Y. 10017


Ms Madhu Bala Nath
Programme Advisor
United Nations Development Fund
for Women (UNIFEM)
c/o FAO Permanent Representation in India
P.O. Box 3088
New Delhi, 110 003

Ms Jocelline Bazile-Finley
Deputy Programme Director
Division for Women in Development
Bureau for Programme Policy and Evaluation
One United Nations Plaza
New York, 17, N.Y.


Ms Catherine S. Pierce
Chief, Special Unit for Women,
Population and Development
220 East 42nd Street
New York 17, N.Y.

fax 91-11-4627/612
tel. 4628877

fax 212-906-5365
tel. 212-906-5046

fax 212-370-0201
tel. 212-2975141


Ms Catalina Hinchey Trujillo
Women's Programme
United Nations Office at Nairobi
P.O. Box 30030

fax (254-2) 520724
tel. 333930
ext. 5046-5048


Ms Daniela Colombo
President, AIDOS
INSTRAW Focal Point in Italy
Via dei Giubbonari 30
00186 Rome


Ms Mona Hammam
Programme Advisor (Socioeconomist/
WID Focal Point)
Project Design Service
Evaluation and Policy Division
Via C. Colombo, 426
00145 Rome

Mr. George Konda
Statistical Analyst
Policy and Data Analysis Branch
Via C. Colombo, 426
00145 Rome


fax 39-6-6872549
tel. (AIDOS Rome) 6873214
(INSTRAW Santo Domingo:
fax 809-6852117)

fax 57975652
tel. 39-6-57976812

tel. 39-6-57976624

Ms Azita Berar-Awad
Rural Employment Policies Branch
Department of Employment and Development
4, Route des Morillons
CH 1211 Geneva 22

fax 22-7988685
tel. 41-22-7996906

Ms Adriana Mata-Greenwood tel. 41-22-7996040
Focal Point on Women's Issues
Bureau of Statistics of Employment and Unemployment Section
4, Route des Morillons
CH 1211 Geneva 22


Ms Heli Perrett
Technical Advisor (a.i.), Women
in Development
Technical Advisory Division
Project Management Department
Via del Serafico 107
00142 Rome

fax 5043463
tel. 39-6-54592464


Ms Amira Muammar
Research Analyst
Policy and Planning Division
Economic and Planning Department
Via del Serafico 107
00142 Rome

tel. 39-6-54592431


Ms Susanna Seeling fax 211-31-232156
Statistical Assistant tel. 211-31-3683
Industrial Statistics and Sectoral
Surveys Branch
Industrial Policy and Perspectives Division
Department for Programme and Project Development
P.O. Box 300
Vienna International Centre
A-1400 Vienna

Ms Tezer Ulusay de Groot
Expert on Information Research and tel. 211-31-5359
Unit for the Integration of Women in
Industrial Development
Industrial Cooperation and Funds Mobilization Division
Department for Programme and Project Development
P.O. Box 300
Vienna International Centre
A-1400 Vienna


Ms Aribot Bruce Mariama
Coordinator, Women in Development Unit
Central Projects Department
B.P. 1387
Abidjan 01
Ivory Coast

tel. 225-204321


Mr. Dal-Hyun Kim
Senior Statistician
Statistics and Data System Division
Economics and Development Resource Center
P.O. Box 789
1099 Manila

fax 63-2-741-7961
tel. 632-55-85


Ms Marion Volk
Systems/Information Officer
428 Prinses Beatrixlaan
P.O. Box 950
2270 AZ Voorburg

fax 31-70-3860025
tel. 31-70-3375737



Mr. B.P. Dutia
Assistant Director-General
Economic and Social Policy Department

Mr. M. Trkulja
Statistics Division
Economic and Social Policy Department

Mr. W.D. Maalouf
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division
Economic and Social Policy Department

Mr. J. Vercueil
Training Service
Policy Analysis Division
Economic and Social Policy Department

Regional Offices

Ms Diana Tempelman
Women in Development Programme Officer
Regional Office for Africa (RAFR)
P.O. Box 1628

Mr. G. Coker
Regional Statistician
Regional Office for Africa (RAFR)
P.O. Box 1628

Ms Alexandra Stephens
Regional Sociologist and Women
in Development Officer
Regional Office for Asia and
the Pacific (RAPA)
Maliwan Mansion
Phra Atit Road
Bangkok 10200

fax 233-21-668427
tel. 666851-4
ext. 155

tel. 666851-4
ext. 130

fax 662-2800445
tel. 662-2430785 (home)
tel. 66-2-2817844
(134/143) (office)


SECRETARIAT FAO fax 39-6-57973152
FAO tel. 39-6-57971

Mr X.M.A. Charoy tel. 39-6-57973249
Statistical Development Service (ESSS)
Statistics Division

Ms Marie Randriamamonjy tel. 39-6-57973932
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

Ms Cornelia Koenraadt tel. 39-6-57974757
Home Economics Officer
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

Mr. Zoran Roca tel. 39-6-57974741
Population Officer
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

Ms Tuula Ripatti tel. 39-6-57974388
Women in Development Officer
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

Ms Anita Spring fax 904-3926929
Resource Person tel. 904-3922031

Ms Heather Booth fax (687) 284143 (attn. J.P. Siorat)
Consultant tel. (687) 418264
(Noumea, New Caledonia)

Ms Carmen McFarlane fax & tel. 80-9-9293588
Consultant (answering machine)
(Kingston, Jamaica)

Ms Lourdes Urdaneta Ferran fax 58-2-7817301
Consultant tel. 58-2-7819860
(Caracas, Venezuela)

Mr C.M.H. Morojele tel. 39-6-6097400
(Rome, Italy)



ESH/ESS 91/1-Rev.l

ESH/ESS 91/2

ESH/ESS 91/3

ESH/ESS 91/4

ESH/ESS 91/5

ESH/ESS 91/6

Agenda and Timetable

Conceptual Framework for the
Development of Statistics and
Indicators on Women in
Agriculture and Rural Development

Defining Employment in the
Informal Sector: Its Effects on

Measuring Women's Contribution to
the Informal Agricultural Sector

The Establishment of a Gender-
disaggregated Data Base on Human
Resources in Agriculture

Concepts and Issues Relevant to
International Standards,
Classifications and Work in the
Informal Sector Review of
International Standards, Concepts
and Classifications for
Statistics on Women in

Review of Main Data Sources in
the United Nations Statistical
Office for Statistics and
Indicators on Women in
Agriculture and Rural Development

Surveys of Household Economic
Activities in Agriculture, with
Special Reference to Women's

Data and Statistics in
Agriculture Gender Concerns:
The National Experience in India

Investigation into Available Data
on Women in the Agricultural
Sector in Africa

ESH/ESS 91/7

ESH/ESS 91/8

ESH/ESS 91/9

ESH/ESS 91/10

Addendum to ESH/ESS 91/10

ESH/ESS 91/10 Add.1

- 2 -

ESH/ESS 91/11

ESH/ESS 91/12


ESH/ESS 91/INF.2-Rev.l



Counting Women's Work -
Developing Instruments for
Strengthening the Data Bases on
Rural Women in Asia and the

The ISI's Activities in Promoting
the Availability, Analysis and
Interpretation of Microdata

Information for Participants

List of Participants

List of Documents

Compilation of Agencies' Briefs



Table 1.

Table 2.

Table 3.

Types and Sources of Statistical Data on Gender
in Agricultural and Rural Development Collected
or Compiled by the Agency

Actions Concerning Statistical Indicators, Data
Bases and Sub-National Data Related to Gender
in Agriculture and Rural Development

Action Envisaged by Agency and Recommendations
for Inter-Agency Collaboration Regarding
Statistics and Data Bases on Gender in


Table 1.

.:__:__._ J:_ j URBAN NON-AGRICULT.

AFRICAN DEVEL. does not collect or compile statistics not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable

ASIAN DEVEL. does not collect or compile statistics not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable

DAW Statistical series on women at highest levels International directory of government available not available not available
of government decision making officials by ministries
of agriculture
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
Legal status of rural women Reporting by States parties to the available available for not indicated
Convention on the Elimination of All rural only
Forms of Discrimination Against Women

Compiles agricultural census data on:
- holdings; crops; livestock; non-human
agricultural inputs
- farm holders; household members; permanent
and occasional agricultural workers

Collects national data on food consumption

Collects data on:
- numbers of trainees completing FAO training
activities per region
- FAO fellows by region of origin and by type
of training
- FAO employment

Compiles data on extension services in 113
countries (data on people reached by extension
is currently not obtained)

World Census of Agriculture and
agricultural surveys

available (1)

Income and expenditure surveys not available

FAO administrative records

FAO extension records

available but
generally not
tabulated by gender

available but does
not cover all

usually not


not applicable

not applicable

not applicable

not available

not applicable

not applicable

----- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------







Produced compilations of gender-disaggregated Special compilations available not indicated not indicated
data, such as:
- case studies and country statements prepared
for the Workshop on Improving Statistics on
Women in Agriculture (1985)
- 13 country pilot studies on socio-economic
indicators for monitoring and evaluating WCARRD

Statistics (primary and secondary) related to Official publications available available not applicable
human settlements on:
- population, housing, infrastructure and
services, land use;

- economy Official publications available not available not applicable

Computerizes data on targeting of women in Project documentation (project cost available for women available (by available
IFAD projects-. analysis, appraisal and president's beneficiaries definition,
reports) since IFAD
projects are
exclusively in
rural areas)

Labour statistics on:
- employment
- unemployment
- economically active population
- weekly working hours
- weekly wages

National statistical services and
official publications


not available

available- not available
available I not available


available for
sector only

INSTRAM Does not produce or regularly compile not applicable not applicable not applicable not applicable
statistics (2).

Educational statistics on:
- preprimary, 1st, 2nd and 3rd level education
- educational finance and expenditure

Annual and ad-hoc questionnaires in
200 countries or territories


not available

available for
field of study
in vocational/
2nd level and



---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------
Statistics transmitted to and compiled by UNSO available not indicated not indicated
educational attainment

Ad-hoc and occasional surveys Questionnaires in 200 countries or as relevant as relevant not indicated

UNFPA Population statistics National censuses and surveys available (3) not not indicated

UNIDO Compiles official statistics on manufacturing General and Supplementary Industrial For a limited number not available not available
industries categorized by standard ISIC Statistics questionnaires sent to of countries, data on
groupings (4). national statistical offices through the number of female
UNSO. employees and female
wages are available
but are generally not
tabulated by both
genders (5).

UNIFEM Collects and uses data on the role of women in Project documentation not indicated not indicated not indicated
development on a programming and project basis.

WFP Not a primary source of statistics
Data available on project beneficiaries Food-aid project documentation available not indicated not indicated

Table 2.


AFRICAN not indicated A data base including both Plans to prepare a series of not indicated
DEVELOPMENT quantitative and qualitative WID monographies on women in
BANK data is being finalized different African countries.

ASIAN Socio-economic indicators reflecting The Bank does not plan to create No systematic studies have been Uses e.g., the following WID data
DEVELOPMENT women's participation in development a data base specifically on women undertaken, but number of produced by other UN agencies:
BANK are currently being established in rural development papers related to WID have been UNSO Compendium of Statistics and
(6). produced. Indicators on the Situation of Women
UNESCAP Compendium of Social
Development Indicators in the ESCAP
World Bank Social Indicators of
Development/ World Tables

Uses WID data produced by other
agencies, e.g.,
US Bureau of Census; Women of the
World, 1985; International Data Base on
WID Component
National Statistical Office:
Statistical Yearbooks; Social
Indicators; National Census and Surveys

DAW DAW is not actively involved in not indicated Has undertaken comparative Uses statistics contained in WISTAT
collection or improvement of analyses e.g., on the (7).
statistical indicators functioning of national
machineries for the advancement
of women.


FAO Developed Guidelines on Socio- AGROSTAT is the existing FAO Surveys, case studies and Uses data bases and compilations of
Economic Indicators for Monitoring data base containing data from project documents of various other UN agencies (ILO, UN, UNESCO,
and Evaluation of Agrarian Reform FAO, ILO and the World Bank technical divisions of FAO World Bank etc.);
and Rural Development (8); containing demographic data and contain relevant sub-national
data on economic activity data. Held an FAO, World Bank and UNSO
Developed a conceptual framework rates (9); Technical Consultation in 1990 to plan
for developing statistics and s a first step towards the coordination of the agencies' programmes
Indicators on the role of women in establishment of a data base on (10).
agriculture, women and men in agriculture and
rural development (see Table 3.),
availability of (i) national and
(Ii) sub-national statistics and
(Off) textual material has been

HABITAT Has put into practice a series of Has established Human Settlements Has recently launched City Interchange of data with other UN
National Shelter Strategy Statistical Data Base Data Programme which will cover agencies
Indicators, containing also gender- (HSOB.stat). Gender-specific data gender-specific issues at the
specific indicacors. will be integrated in the general city level;
data base. Has undertaken urban-related
case studies;
Plans to undertake country
case studies on credit and land
tenure in Africa, Latin America
and Asia.

IFAD Has compiled indicators on the Has recently established a data A series of case studies of Existing UN data bases (FAO/AGROSTAT;
situation of women for 114 base on gender in agriculture the participation in and impact UNSO/WISTAT) and various sources (ILO,
developing countries for two bench- which is currently being on women of IFAD-financed UNDP, UNICEF, World Bank etc.) are
mark years (1965 and 1985). broadened; projects in different regions included in IFAD data base;
is being completed.
Maintains a data base on Diagnostic socio-economic Has organized three Regional
targeting of women in IFAD studies are conducted as part Consultations on Economic Advancement of
projects. of IFAD's project formulation Rural Women (11).
(guidelines for the purpose
have been developed).

ILO Develops and promotes use of Does not plan creating a special Studies carried out by not indicated
appropriate measurement instruments data base on women. Such data various departments of the ILO
and assists governments in could, however, be easily drawn produce statistics on women;
production of reliable labour from the main ILO database. Data are also obtained
statistics (12). through technical cooperation


INSTRAW Has organized No special action envisaged since INSTRAW is not involved in the Research and training proog.:ines have
research and training programmrnes establishment of data base is not collection of primary data. been developed jointly with UNSO andI
on the improvement of gender- the focus of INSTRAU's work. Pilot projects for compiling carried out in cooperation with relevant
specific concepts and methods and However, INSTRAW is willing to and analyzing statistics, from regional cournisslons. In the
coarpilation of statistics; collaborate with other agencies secondary sources, on women in collaboration, INSTRAW has focused on
workshops on improving statistics In efforts directed towards the the informal sector in four training in the compilation nrxl nnly9Is
on the situation of women and on establishment of international, African countries were carried of the statistics and on disseminating
women In the Informal sector, regional and national data bases, out in 1989/90 and wilt be of previous research results.
specifically in designing published in 1991.
research and training programmrnes.

UNESCO Has developed basic standards for not Indicated not indicated not indicated
collection and classification of
educational data (13).

UNFPA Supports censuses, statistics Has been involved In development not indicated Collaboration with UNDICD (14) for
registration system-,, population of WISTAT. the execution of projects in the field
registers, population sample surveys of data collection and analyst;
and other activities of national Collaborated with UNSO, INSTAAU etc.
statistical services (through for the development of UISTAT;
training, Information campaigns Based on WISIAT and with funding from
etc.) UNFPA and UNIFEM, published Co pendiun
of Statistics and Indicators on the
Situation of Women (1985);
Involved in preparation of "The
World's Women" (1991), in collaboration
with UNSO, UNICEr, UNHIfE and the Centre
for Social Developnxrnt and llknanltarian

UNIDO No planned activities in the field. Is currently establishing a Women Country case studies, not indicated
Work will be continued to upgrade in Industry data base which will producing mainly quantitative
the coverage of female employees In include quantitative, qualitative data, have been conducted in
Industry and number of reporting and bibliographic data. When various countries on e.g.
countries, available, rural data will be women's role in industrial
included in the data base (15). development, fisheries
industrial system and small-
scale rural industrialization.
Staff is encouraged to
include collection and analysis
of gender-specific data In
project design (16).


UNIFEM Assistance is provided to Member One of the ongoing projects seeks not indicated Collaboration on the collection and use
Governments through several (7 to develop a data base on women of statistical data with UNSO, INSTRAW,
country and 2 regional) ongoing in Grenadian society. ESCWA, UNFPA (as well as with the
projects to enhance collection and National Statistics offices, Census
analysis of gender-sensitive (No indication of UNIFEM data Bureaux and national women's
national statistics. base is given.) machineries).

WFP Has developed sector-specific not indicated At present, six case studies not indicated
guidelines for carrying out gender and surveys in different
analysis at different stages of countries involving gender
project cycle, analysis have been undertaken.

Table 3.


AFRICAN Collaboration with other regional/international Collaboration should be oriented towards standardized collection, compilation and
DEVELOPMENT data bases; use of statistics.
BANK Collaboration with Regional Member Countries in
order to obtain gender specific statistics and
indicators on the following: rural households; civil
status of farmers; incomes and expenses; production
growth rates; indicators on work conditions, health,
nutrition and housing.

ASIAN Technical assistance project to establish socio- 1. A consultative committee, at FAO's initiative, should be established for the
DEVELOPMENT economic indicators reflecting women's participation exchange of WID-related (agricultural and rural development) statistical data and
BANK (see Table 2.). publications;
2. FAO's data base on women in agriculture should be established in two phases:
First, through collecting relevant statistical publications from national
statistical offices and international organizations; and secondly, through
generating its own data;

3. FAO should continue to encourage UN agencies and international organizations to
include gender concern in agriculture in their statistical projects.

DAW not Indicated Priority should be given to obtaining data which are not presently available but
which could be obtained quickly. As a first step, the type of lacking data should
be identified.


FAO Setting up a global data base on women and men in 1. Reciprocity in setting up and maintaining the data base: Other agencies or
agriculture to facilitate compilation, retrieval and governments could benefit from the FAO data base and, in turn, contribute to the
dissemination of data for a wide variety of users; overall collection of data. The end result would be an international data base on
women in which the FAO's contribution would be data specifically on agriculture and
Developing qualitative and, especially, rural development;
quantitative indicators for monitoring progress
towa.ds attaining the objectives of the Plan of 2. Improvement of the existing international statistical standards, programmnes and
Action (17); guidelines including e.g. the following: greater country coverage; increased
disaggregation by gender and by rural/urban; collection of data not presently
Developing instruments for measuring women's available;
contribution and participation in the informal
agricultural sector. 3. Improvement of national data on women in agriculture;

4. Promotion of the development and use of statistics on women in agriculture
through development of national data bases; provision of technical assistance and
training etc.

HABITAT Collection of gender-specific primary and 1. Establishment of a common statistical data base on WID-related data;
secondary statistics related to human settlements;
2. Adoption of common gender-specific indicators for monitoring purposes;
Updating HSDBstat In order to intengrate gender-
specific topics into the general data base on human 3. Inclusion of.gender-specific data in coninonly used indicators, In order to avoid
settlements; use of separate "gender-specific" indicators.

Launching City Data Programme under which gender-
specific issues at the city level will be covered.

IFAD The newly established data base will be strengthened 1. Promotion of general awareness of the need for addressing womny in development
through Inclusion of socio-economic studies and programers and the importance of related infoimatlon;
monitoring and evaluation related data collection
activities. 2. Deciding on the data to be collected and most cost-effective modalities for the
collection and compilation;

3. Standardisntion of the coopitation and format of the data;

4. Creating viable collaboration for data collection, updating and exchange.

ILO As a general strategy, ILO continues development and 1. Establishment of a data base on national statistics by gender and
recommendation of appropriate measurement instrument agriculturol/non-agricultural classification;
to improve availability of nntiorlal statistics.
2. Establishment of a data base on studies on rural women in development.
(Detailed action plans not indicated.)


INSTRAW Intensification of efforts to improve statistical In general, availability of statistics on production and gender in agriculture and
systems through research and training. In rural development should be improved. In particular, the following action is
particular, production of a training manual to be recommended:
used as a basic guide for the compilation of
statistics and Indicators is foreseen. 1. Research which reviews data sources, identifies gaps and uses of these data;

2. Development of training materials providing guidelines on what kind of
statistics are needed and how they can be obtained;

3. Training to sensitize agricultural and extension offices in the importance of
collecting and analysing statistics.

UNESCO not indicated not indicated

UNFPA The major aim of UNFPA assistance is to develop a not indicated
continuing national capacity in the collection and
compilation of population data. The Fund's strategy
emphasizes human resources development; institution
-building; strengthening managerial and
administrative capacity; and operational research
and pilot projects to explore innovative approaches.

(Detailed action plans not indicated.)

UNIDO Continued efforts to collect and analyse gender- Cost-sharing of collection, analysis and dissemination of agricultural and
specific socio-economic data. Data requirements to industrial production-related data through the following actions:
be covered include:
1. Provisions should be made to share existing data both at the level of official
Survey-based information on the intended target statistical compilations and project-level information, experiences and evaluation.
beneficiaries; "Clearing house" collection and dissemination functions could be established in
order to avoid duplication and to transfer successful approaches among the UN
Data from similar projects of other agencies; system;

Data base that could help to assess and monitor 2. A system of indicators should be developed to monitor and assess the situation
rural women's agricultural and productive situation, of women, incorporating both their agricultural and non-farm roles. Development of
indicators should be guided by a multi-disciplinary inter-agency working group;

3. At the national level, assistance needs to be extended to governments,
researchers, universities etc. to strengthen data collection, analysis and
dissemination capabilities. Issues requiring in-depth consideration include
identification of data gaps; determining data collection priorities; establishing
modalities for collecting/generating and disseminating data; coordination;
reflection of gender issues in all data sets.

UNIFEM not indicated not indicated


1. Agricultural census data have not been seriously exploited as a source of data on human resources in agriculture: only about half of the roughly
100 censuses covered human resources at all. Gender is not recorded in all countries or data may not be tabulated by gender even when it is recorded. The
statistical programme.for the 1990 World Census of Agriculture proposed that data be obtained on gender, age and economic activity of the holder and the
holder's household members, and gender of permanent workers. (Booth 1991)

2. To carry out its specific projects, INSTRAW has compiled gender-specific data from a few selected project countries in Asia, Latin America and
Africa. These compilations serve primarily INSTRAW's research and training programmes in the review and improvement of the concepts and methodology applied
in their collection and analysis.

3. UNFPA's policy stresses disaggregation of data by gender in all phases of data collection and analysis.

4. UNIDO also provides technical assistance with respect to the collection of industrial statistics through the National Industrial Statistics
Programme (NISP). NISP has been designed for installation in both national statistical offices and for use by other national bodies. Major functions
include data collection; screening/editing; aggregation for publications and dissemination; and data analysis.

5. With the exception of the Handbook of Industrial Statistics 1990, which did compile shares of female employees of total industrial employment.
The number of countries reporting data on women in industry is rather modest.

6. 46 indicators on population; fertility and family planning; household structure, health and mortality, literacy and education; and labor force
participation are foreseen and will be developed from existing primary data sources presently available and secondary data sources published by
international organizations.

7. United Nations Women's Indicators and Statistics Data Base for Microcomputers (WISTAT) was established in the UN Secretariat as a special project
in 1984 and terminated in 1987.

8. The guidelines have been distributed to all Member Governments to assist them in reporting ont he WCARRD follow-up to the FAO Conference in 1991,
and in establishing long-term socio-economic indicator programmes for rural development and in improving related statistical sources and services. The
guidelines contain various indicators pertaining to the role of women and men in agriculture and rural development.


WFP not Indicated 1. Collaboration on data collection methodologies, particularly gender-sensitive
rapid appraisal techniques;

2. Strengthening exchange of statistical information and gender-disaggregated data,
particularly at micro-economic level.

9. AGROSTAT contains also data compiled in 1987 for WCARRO. Very few of the data are, however, disaggregated by gender.

10. The WCARRD Socio-Economic Indicators of the FAO; the Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) of the World Bank; and the National Household Survey
Capability Progranime (NHSCP) of UNSO.

11. One more Regional Consultation, an International Consultation and Women's Summit on the Economic Advancement of Rural Women will be organized
by IFAD within the coming six months.

12. Although the goal is not to improve measurement of women's participation only, refinement in the measurement instruments wilt benefit women more
than men due to the general underenumeration end omition of women from labour statistics.

13. The basic standards are I,,-.uded in the Recommendation concerning the International Standardization of Educational Statistics (revised in 1978)
and in the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).

14. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development

15. The Women in Industry data base will cover the following data which are at present being assembled for each country: National policy for the
advancement of women; qualitative information on women's formal/informal industrial sectors and on women's socio-cultural, legal and educational status;
factors influencing women's industrial participation; names and addresses of national private sector, credit institutions and NGOs related to women in
industry; synopsis of relevant UN system activities relating to women in industry; industrial employment by branch and occupation; wages; unemployment;
literacy and school ehrolment rates etc.

16. For this end, a Reference File on the Consideration of Women in Project Design, Management and Evaluation is used. The Reference File contains
checklists, guidelines and reference tools for integrating women in industry concerns throughout the project cycle.

17. The indicators should cover the following subject areas indicated in the conceptual framework for the development of statistics and indicators:

1. Activity (all forms of format and informal work);
2. Access to productive resources and services;
3. Productivity;
4. Income and consumption;
5. Education, health and nutrition, status and access to services;
6. Household and housing characteristics;
7. Participation in decision-making, access to media;
8. Background data such as age, marital status, migration.



Conceptual Framework for the Development of Statistics and Indicators
on Women in Agriculture and Rural Development (ESH/ESS 91/2)

There is general recognition of the need to produce and disseminate gender-specific
statistics and indicators on women and men which may be used for analyzing the conditions
under which they live and operate, for the purpose of generating plans and programmes
which could lead to improving these conditions. For FAO, the areas of concern relate to
agricultural activities including forestry and fishing, and more generally, to rural

The conceptual framework within which any programme of work in FAO designed
for the establishment of an information base to facilitate storage, retrieval and dissemination
of data must be developed, is governed by the FAO mandate which identifies the fields of
action to be taken and comprises raising levels of nutrition and standards of living within
countries, securing improvements in the efficiency of the production and distribution of all
food and agricultural products, and bettering conditions of rural populations.

With respect to the focus on women, the statistical framework must be determined
on the basis of the actions envisaged in the Plan of Action. Within this context, the need to
improve statistical concepts and methods in agriculture, food and rural development field
aimed at gender specific data collection; to speed up collection of reliable, comprehensive
and unbiased data; to disaggregate by gender the standard items collected by FAO
programmes and projects; to set up a set of WID indicators and integrate them into the
overall sectoral set of indicators has been identified and the development of an FAO's
women's data base has been identified as a priority action under the Plan.

A schematic approach to such a development, therefore, could be to classify areas to
be addressed to coincide with three of the four spheres identified in the Plan of Action the
economic sphere, the social sphere and the decision making sphere. The fourth sphere, the
civil status sphere, could be incorporated under the appropriate items in the three identified
spheres. Subject area fields within each sphere could then be distinguished, coinciding as
closely as possible to the actions identified in the Plan. The subject area classifications could

Economic sphere economic activity of the population; income; production and
distribution; access to means of production; participation in agricultural/rural

Social sphere demographic features of the population; household type and
composition; time use; education; nutrition and food consumption; housing and

Decision making sphere participation in decision making.

Within these broad subject area fields, there will be the need for a breakdown of the
data. Two major breakdowns are identified gender disaggregations (wherever relevant) and
urban/rural classification. In order to develop meaningful indicators there will in addition
be the need for further classifications. Useful socio-economic indicators are agricultural
holder/labourer, landless, household composition and sex of household, and land ownership.
Other geographical classifications (regional/national and sub-national) could be useful).

The application of appropriate concepts and definitions is necessary if data included
in the data base are to be useful, and in almost all instances there are international
recommendations. Many of these have been developed before gender sensitization became
accepted and accordingly some may require further modifications to ensure that the concepts
and definitions applied reflect the full participation of women in the phenomena being
measured. A further factor is that, even where revisions have been made to count more
accurately the contribution of women, such as for example, the economically active
population and the labour force, these have not always been accepted and/or implemented
in the countries and accordingly, available data may not always reflect these changes.

An important element in the formulation of data is the application of appropriate and
consistent classification schemes. A number of the international classification schemes have
been revised over the past decade, reflecting some of the concerns which relate to women.
In developing the data base, it is important that the classification schemes allow for
consistency over time as well as across countries. Attention will therefore have to be paid
as the application or otherwise of international classifications in the data sets. The
international classifications developed include those on occupation (ISCO), industry (ISIC),
education (ISEC), health (ICD) and production of goods and services (SNA). These should
be considered for use in the data base.

Another aspect of the data base which should be considered is the extent to which full
coverage of available information can be accommodated in a purely quantitative data base.
Accordingly, consideration should be given to a parallel development of a qualitative data
base within the programme.

Defining Employment in the Informal Sector:
Its Effects on Women (ESH/ESS 91/3)

The measurement of employment in the informal sector, as part of a national
programme for the collection of statistical data, is particularly relevant to women since many
women are employed in this sector.

Though the informal sector was originally viewed as a temporary phenomenon and
relating to the urban environment, it is now accepted as more permanent, though its
extension to the rural environment is unclear. This has led to an increased demand for data
on the informal sector for policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation purposes and to
identify segments of the informal sector for specific support programmes. Existing data are
neither comprehensive nor consistent, due to conceptual and methodological problems. There
is a need to develop international standards on statistics on the informal sector, and it is
planned that the Fifteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS, 1993) will
address this issue.

Some agreement has already been reached by the ICLS in relation to: the difference
between informal and concealed activities, economic unit as the determining factor, the need
for sub-classification to identify more homogenous segments for analysis, and the need for
coordination with related international statistical frameworks such as the System of National

Work towards an international statistical reference definition of the informal sector
has identified several specific definitions. The concept of unincorporated enterprises can
provide a starting point, but is not synonymous with informal sector, since some
unincorporated enterprises are not part of the informal sector. Household enterprises could
be defined as the core of the informal sector, but do not constitute the entire informal sector.
Each country would define the informal sector as somewhere between the core of household
enterprises and the larger universe of unincorporated enterprises, based on a limited number
of relevant and easily applicable criteria, such as size of economic unit and registration
status. Particular attention would have to be paid to special cases, such as outworkers, own
account production, and paid domestic work

It also has yet to be decided whether agriculture and rural non-farm activities fall
inside or outside the scope of the informal sector. It is increasingly felt that the concept
should be expanded to include rural non-farm activities, which represent an important and
growing source of employment and income in the rural areas of many countries. In certain
circumstances, small-scale agriculture may also be included as a separate category of the
informal sector. provided that at least part of the produce is intended for sale in the market.

Careful study is needed before any of these suggested definitions can be submitted for
consideration as an international standard.

Measuring Women's Contribution to the Inforinal
Agricultural Sector (ESH/ESS 91/4)

While the importance of women's contribution to the informal agricultural sector is
universally recognized, statistical data on this sector are almost non-existent. There is
currently no agreed concept of the informal sector in agriculture, forestry and fisheries.
Consensus is evolving, however, on the productive unit as the definitional variable for the
informal sector. One of the difficulties in reaching a definition is the unclear relation between
the informal sector and subsistence agriculture. Subsistence agriculture is generally regarded
as part of the informal agricultural sector but defining the remaining part remains

The main aggregates of data on women in the informal agricultural sector are those
expressed by employment, product and income. Employment data comprise numbers
employed and hours worked, but difficulties are encountered in separating the informal sector
from other agricultural activities. Many women are classed as doing household work, when
in fact they may be economically active. Product (or value added) is defined as the goods and
economic services produced minus non-factor inputs. and is measured in money terms.
Income, which includes cash and kind, is usually derived from production data.

Measurement of women's contribution to the informal agricultural sector should take
into account existing international standard classifications (ISIC, ISCO and ICSE) and the
system of national accounts (SNA). The adoption of standard classifications simplifies the
collection, revision and tabulation of data. The SNA is basic to this measurement since it
defines production (as the value of all goods and services produced during a certain period
for sale in the market) and hence economic activity. Proposed changes would incorporate
within the production boundary certain activities carried out for own consumption, including
many carried out by women in the agricultural sector.

The availability of relevant data has increased, but further improvements are required,
such as increased gender-disaggregation of employment, remuneration, production and
marketing data: intensification of time-use studies and specialized household surveys of
subsistence agriculture: and improved classification systems to take into account small-scale
modes of production.

The Establishment of a Gender-Disaggregated Dlata Base
on Human Resources in Agriculture (ESII/ESS 91/5)

Work towards the establishment of an FAO gender-disaggregated data base on human
resources in agriculture has included a feasibility study, the determination of data
requirements and availability and suggestions for the improvement and greater availability
of relevant data.

The data requirements are based on the FAO Plan of Action for Integration of Women
in Development and on WCARRD. Disaggregation by gender and by rural/urban or other
agricultural breakdown is considered essential. Of the 98 data sets required, 35 are available,
20 are partially available in that existing data need to be further disaggregated, and 43 are
currently unavailable (through they may exist for some countries and including 30 which are
best suited to sub-national sources).

Improvements in data availability from the agricultural census could be brought about
by increasing country coverage, increasing coverage of human resources, increasing gender-
disaggregation and increasing cross-tabulation of agricultural variables by gender variables.
Coverage of women holders would also be improved if fewer smallholdings were omitted
from the census, and if human resources were related to the holding rather than to the
household. This latter suggestion would avoid bias against women holders arising when
households operate multiple holdings. and when joint holdings exist. In the latter case, a
combined legal status/gender classification is proposed. For agricultural surveys, where
women holders for a small proportion of the total, oversampling would provide more reliable

Increased rural/urban disaggregation would result in the greater availability of data
on women in agriculture. The paucity of data for rural areas stems from the fact that there
is currently no UN definition of "rural" and "urban". If such a definition were to exist, not
only population census data but also data from administrative records (such as educational
statistics) might be more readily available for rural areas.

Further improvements in data on \women in agriculture could be brought about by,
for example, careful tabulation of data on occupation, involving several ISCO codes covering
parts of at least two major groups: by obtaining data on the landless; and by determining de
facto heads of households and absence of spouse. Retabulation of existing data by gender (or
other relevant variables) also provides additional data.

Basic to the improvement of data is training of both users and producers of gender-
disaggregated data. Initiatives in this area have already been undertaken by the UN Statistical
Office and INSTRAW. Prior WID training might increase the effectiveness of such statistical
training. Greater collaboration between users and producers should also be encouraged.

Concepts and Issues Relevant to International Standards, Classifications and
Work in the Informal Sector: Review of International Standards, Concepts and
Classifications for Statistics on Women in Agriculture (ESLH/ESS 91/6)

The failure of statistical systems to capture the levels of women's economic activity
is due partly to the fact that many of these activities are confined to the informal sector, and
are carried out mainly in the home. Definition of the informal sector has been elusive, though
ISIC, ISCO and ICSE apply.

A UNDP-funded project "Improving African Women's Role in the Informal Sector -
Production and Management" aimed inter alia to establish approaches and techniques for the
compilation and analysis of statistical data on women's contribution to, and conditions of
production in, the (mainly non-agricultural) informal sector. Data on the informal sector were
found to be very scanty, but data on secondary occupation were very useful since many
informal activities are secondary to the main source of income.

Household surveys generally provide more accurate data on the informal sector than
censuses, but it would be useful to also have data from establishment surveys. Special
national surveys are ideal but rare, though interest is growing.

Definition of the informal sector varies between countries and even within countries.
Criteria for its definition include ownership and unit size, operating characteristics, quality
of labour force, registration and accounting records. In view of the diversity of national
situations, an international definition is difficult to decide upon, but standardization is

International classifications do not fully reflect the details of activity in the informal
sector, partly because such activities are concentrated in a few occupations and industrial
branches. Commerce and agriculture. in particular, are not usually presented in sufficient
detail. For national accounting purposes, it is necessary to know not only that women are
involved in commerce but also whether they produce what they sell. In this context, data on
secondary activities are crucial. Special sur\eCs arc needed to capture these and the
multiplicity of women's contribution to agricultural production. In national population
censuses and surveys. ICSE could he adapted to include a size of establishment criterion
(based on number of employees) to provide better data on the informal sector.

Review of Main Data Sources in the United Nations Statistical Office
for Statistics and Indicators on Women in Agriculture and
Rural Development (ESH/ESS 91/7)

The United Nations Statistical Office has compiled and published, in various forms,
statistics and indicators on women, and has contributed to a programme of research aimed
at improving statistics on women.

Major UN publications relevant to women in agriculture include The World's Women
1970-1990: Trends and Statistics (1991), Compendium of Statistics and Indicators on the
Situation of Women 1986 (1989), and the Demographic Yearbook (annual). These include
data that are disaggregated by gender wherever possible, but which are less often
disaggregated by rural/urban area. They cover economic activity. demographic features,
household type and composition, education, housing and facilities, etc. The Women's
Indicators and Statistics Data Base (WISTAT) brings together much of the available gender-
disaggregated data in machine-readable form.

The UN Statistical Office's work on methodological development in statistics relating
to women includes the production of documents, convening of training workshops to consider
problems, and cooperation with other international agencies in methodological development
in related areas of work.

Statistics and indicators relevant to women in agriculture are addressed, for example,
incidence of landlessness, ownership of and rights to land, ownership of and rights to cattle,
household and non-household members by labour availability, wage rates, duration and
seasonality of employment, membership in rural/agricultural cooperatives and other
organizations, etc.

Future developments in gender data bases will have to address the specialization of
data bases with regard to rural/urban disaggregation. There is also a need to promote
international classifications at the national level to ensure their adoption. and to promote data
tabulation by rural/urban area. Definition of rural and urban needs re-examination by
interested agencies.

Surveys of Household Economic Activities in Agriculture,
with Special Reference to Women's Activities (ESIH/ESS 91/8)

Surveys on household economic activities have been focused on the own-account
household sector, where activities are carried out by household members with little or no
assistance from regular paid labour. The activities for which data are needed cover economic
production in agriculture, which according to the System of National Accounts (SNA)
includes the production and processing of primary products either for sale of for own
consumption, own-account fixed capital formation and the product and incomes accruing
from such production. Where time-use surveys are used, data collection can be extended to
cover activities outside the economic production boundary, in which most women are

A wide range of socio-economic classifications are useful for cross-classifying
individuals' and household data. The most important, apart from urban/rural areas,
agricultural regions and ethnic groups are the classification of individuals by gender and by
socio-economic status based on occupation and employment status and the classification of
household into male and female headed households and by socio-economic groups. Data on
household and individual activities can also be cross-classified against a wide range of
household characteristics such as size and composition of households, household ownership
of assets, size and type of agricultural holdings, etc. Some of these socio-economic
characteristics provide valuable explanatory variables for the study of households and
women's economic activities in agriculture. They may also serve as instrumental variables
that have meaningful policy implications.

The above gender-disaggregated data on household economic activities have been
shown to have great potential in policy-making and planning, in formulating and evaluating
agricultural development programmes and in agricultural research, training and extension.
However, the available census and survey data on women in agriculture tend to under-
evaluate women's activities and socio-economic status, mainly due to deficiencies in concepts
and methods used, thus defeating the very purpose for which they are primarily collected.

Suitably designed household surveys using improved enumeration methods are one
of the best means of broadening the scope and reliability of data on household and women's
economic activities in agriculture. Such action will also help in improving data on human
resources in general. In analyzing the data. use has to be made of other sources of data such
as population and agricultural censuses and surveys, establishment surveys and household
income and expenditure surveys, since these would be of complementary value to the data
obtained from household surveys. Survey programmes that would generate various types of
data cover the division of labour by gender, time-use, agricultural household enterprises,
labour force participation and activities in forestry and fisheries. While the priority attached
to these programmes would depend on conditions in different countries, there is need for
inter-relating the various data sets for integrated analysis through the adoption of an
integrated programme of surveys. The use of compatible concepts,. classifications and
reporting units provides an important means of achieving such integration.


Some general and desirable features of survey design comprise the identification of
suitable reporting and analysis units; the use of multi-stage sampling designs; the clear
identification and listing of households' activities in agriculture for stratification and sample
selection purposes; the development of optimum samples; and sampling in time, in order to
estimate and eliminate seasonal effects.

Data and Statistics in Agriculture Gender Concerns:
The National Experience in India (ESH/ESS 91/9)

The paucity of gender sensitive data is an attitudinal problem rather than a technical
problem. In India, women's participation in agricultural employment (the primary sector) has
been increasing rapidly as has women's participation in waged employment. As much as 77
percent of India's population lives in rural areas and is dependent on agriculture and allied
activities for subsistence and survival. Yet the 1981 census records only 13 percent of Indian
women in the unorganized sector which includes agricultural labour.

The under-representation of women in statistical data has prevented women from
gaining a fair share of development initiatives in agriculture. Good quality gender-
disaggregated data are needed for effective agricultural programme planning and

The UNIFEM initiative in this area has focused on the 1991 census, in particular on
enumerator and respondent awareness of the work that women do. For enumerators, this
included the development of a list of probing questions for enumerators to use during
interviews, and a poster on women and productive work to be used as training material. For
respondents, a 90-second film was produced and aired on television. This resulted in a lot
of media attention.

In view of the above, the 1991 census data are expected to give a clearer picture of
the state of economic activity, especially with respect to women's unpaid work on farms and
family enterprises (as well as other relevant data such as migration). Also identified is the
need for indicators on the agricultural labour force, access to means of production and credit,
access to information and training.

Investigation into Available Data on Women in the
Agricultural Sector in Africa (ESII/ESS 91/10 and Add. 1)

The FAO Regional Office for Africa is in the process of establishing a statistical data
base on women farmers' contribution to agricultural production in Africa. Current activities
include investigation of the availability of data on women farmers and the determination of
improvements in gender-related data from surveys. It is planned to open up a dialogue
between RAFR and countries with a view to improving data and their availability through
national statistical systems. The data base will be made available to planners and policy-
makers in agricultural and rural development.

Two case studies are discussed. The first discusses data from the 1984 Ghana
Population Census and illustrates some of the concepts commonly used and types of data
obtained. The second discusses the annual agricultural survey of Togo as an example of the
way in which gender-related data can often be obtained by tabulating or re-tabulating existing
data. These case studies gave positive indications of the feasibility, cost effectiveness and
acceptability of the data base programme.

It is intended to involve more countries in the programme, and to seek additional
funding to facilitate this. RAFR is looking for more collaboration at the international level
in the implementation of the programme and at the national level in its execution. To ensure
its sustainability, there is a need to strengthen the capacities of national statistical systems to
produce the required gender-related data.

Counting Women's Work: Developing Instruments for Strengthening
the Data Bases on Rural Women in Asia and the Pacific (ESII/ESS 91/11)

The lack of data on women in agriculture is exacerbated by the fact that those data
that do exist are often biased, inadequate and misleading. There is a need to fundamentally
change the way in which statistics on rural women are collected, processed, compiled and
used. Work towards this goal has recently begun in the Asia and Pacific region, and includes
pilot surveys in some Asian countries to test new research instruments and data collection
methods and to determine the most crucial factors for improving data on rural women's

Difficulties were encountered with many of the concepts commonly used in statistical
operations, in particular the failure to record economic activities as such. Other difficulties
were encountered in relation to the acceptability of the research by the community, quality
of enumerators, categorization of activities and translation of concepts/words into local

Data collection could be improved through surveys based on small stratified samples,
considered adequate for most needs and useful for bridging gaps in conventional sources,
undertaken in conjunction with national agricultural censuses and surveys. Appropriate
sampling frames include land tenure and farming systems, agro-ecological zones, and
ethnic/cultural groupings. Two complementary data collection methods were found
appropriate, namely participant observation of time-use over periods of 24 to 72 hours and
interview questionnaires. Group meetings helped to strengthen and verify the data. It was
important that women interview women, and men interview men, and the composition and
skills of the field research team were also crucial to the success of the surveys.

Greater involvement of women at the Lgrassroots level is needed in creating data bases
and mechanisms of feedback for their own use. Major objectives in improving statistics and
data bases should include the conscientization of rural women and maximization of their
potential, the facilitation of grassroots strategization and networking, and the provision of
accurate data for policy-making and planning at macro levels.

The ISI's Activities In Promoting the Availability, Analysis
and Interpretation of Microdata (ESII/ESS 91/12)

The ISI/IUSSP Dynamic Data Base (DDB) contains data from more than 250
demographic surveys. A UNFPA-funded project aims to maintain the DDB and make the
data available to users, and to increase the technical capacity in developing countries for
exploiting demographic data for policy formulation. Both micro (individual, household and
community level questionnaire responses) and macro data (aggregates based on surveys and
censuses) are available.

ISI promotes the use of the data through providing detailed documentation;
restructuring complex data sets; editing; assisting comparability through standardization of
formats, variable names, etc.; maintenance to enable data linkage: and dissemination and user

Conditions are imposed on the release of data, with three levels depending on the
country and use of the data. Providers and users do not always agree about the release of
data. ISI is examining ways of promoting a constructive dialogue between users and
providers of data in the DDB. ISI has also identified the need for increased assistance to
developing countries in data base development.

Presentation by the Division for the Advancement of' Women

The Division for the Advancement of Women of the United Nations Office at Vienna
compiles data related to women in governmental decision-making, from government sources.
These data are classified by gender of official, level of post and sector.

Data on women in economic decision-making are desirable, but there is first a need
to define what economic decision-making is. Existing data on women decision-makers include
census data on occupation, but decision-makers are found in several of the major groups and
detailed tabulations are necessary. More research is necessary to determine which groups and
sub-groups should be considered as economic decision-makers.

Participation in decision-making can also be defined by combining criteria on the
position of female workers in an enterprise and on the characteristics of the enterprise.
Distinction may be made between public sector and private sector enterprises, between public
companies and private companies, and between small and large enterprises.

The representation of women in top positions in the top industrial financial enterprise
could be used as an indicator. Decisions would be needed as to how many enterprises to
include and whether to do this on a national or international basis. It would also have to be
decided which positions to include.

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