Group Title: Circular (Florida Cooperative Extension Service)
Title: Soybean production guide
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00085037/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soybean production guide
Series Title: Circular, Florida Cooperative Extension Service ; 277E
Physical Description: 17 p. : ; 23 x 10 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bailey, Bryan A ( Bryan Alan ), 1958-
Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
Edition: rev. of 277
 Subjects
Subject: Soybean   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "This guide was prepared by: B.A. Bailey ... et al."--P. 14.
General Note: "January, 1980."
General Note: "1-3M-80."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00085037
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 51254426

Full Text













..L.- Sl. saE fw*c ..umsduin wus
w*^ sal-tin wt"h WhoM w .


4amaL-nnd toppis Imdl &i
twjtNS maeIde"





bpnsea manS Jnm*r Waon 6ini
at- ~at.. it 'k.. 1 n











pro~s wv*tj fig evpsAftb g. Tid







to s and inhtb





Avow poybworn~o wo'drainedd sola -that





1 with
i~i.. ani ew Bmta Smeri.'gowing
m~ps, such as-o &ONaRd sorghum iq.A~t
irQtaIjIol wa~i4~hsiE~Qhnpd. On orgyasi~e
aW Ostur 8 --v"gt1ui may On

ow
-&-nolo w or -o 7poo"tt~lei: gnplc -Gft o









-tiqps, but it is. liketr. thomvnQBitIRJAM
7 ;.Bars* ful olw, amhw1swa





wd.-sp~ies. id Wves ~~~


Movens wyetvly-A 01MO O
*- .-....t *uigsi-ai a,. .4io i~
--118 S *BBBBCB *i-*,
,..*-,.Eo.






Liming
wer should have their soil tested and appl
r scommMd6ed amounts and kinds of limestone.
grow best on mineral soils that have
-wajst of 6.0 or slightly below and with CaO
*iO vadse greater than 600 and 100 pounds
asre, respectively. Soybeans grow best on
ic soils that have a pH of 5.5 to 5.7. Man-
eee and zinc deficiencies may occur on soils
pH levels higher than 6.0.
.There are two kinds of limestone: calcic and
c. In addition to reducing soil acidity,
liteste e supplies the plant nutrient cal-
and dolomitic limestone supplies both cal-
and magnesium.
owybeans respond better to lime than do most
crops with which they might be rotated.
be most effective, any limestone needed should
applied several months before the soybean crop
planted, but it may be applied during prepara-
of the seedbed for the soybean crop, prefer-
ly by broadcasting it and disking into the soil
Sthe land is turned.


8 oybeans respond well to .residual soil fertility.
atisal aleds of soybeans will normally be
lied on obagai e soils- by residual fertilier if
precediS crop was vegetables or on fine-
tesUlmle seils if the preceding crop was
S femMt ed. However, in most cases, ap-
a- of (artilier just before or at the time
Spyea n* laj~p ate is a desirable practice,
S .-Iy on tmdy soils. If a small rain crop
v 4atp s o ,the fertilizer intended for the
n~ apple ied with tbe fertlia top-
g- o for *0 Smel Sgut. Other isNt~tr
of 40MhtH r application for soeheas *l-
WboadmeNg: betere the land is tuned or in
us.m .b& to 8 inches to the side. and
6*A apantiaog,
A sil~-ab~i tpt ld be used to determine the
Sfor say beew. fhloe.
I fertMitatisof 1 eetmM a Baps
based on ailt tests are as follows:
I







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p.

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01-oiwi


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F ;aP~A~i

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Mtta practices can be timely and mads-
eonervnipe In initane. where -rain straw
be ims a ately removed before platn
the Iutea does not damage soil tertlt
SiM we~ soyb yields.
it 41 aeedbed preparation activities, make sure
1 the recommended kinds and amounts of lime-
Be and fertiiimer are applied at the proper times.


Veda""rl>

Mae at Sdala growers, maturity group -d
parted reaianahcold be the main factor to
wnider when selecting a variety. Planting date
d soil conditions should also be considered.
ewnaRturong varieties are generally among the
aLt. Yyelder in Florida. However, grower
.la .e soae ges may also wish to plant some
or, merc~ n nmatarity varieties in order to
bad-ihes a sIrm eattsg period. Growen with icet.
eior soybean eyst nematode infestations salmb
let a resistant variety. Even if nematode in-
Staios ar sot a Preblem, growers should select
isIatnt v Agty to avoid buiding up nemae#
pdiat ns their soil. When planted aet
I 1 e0 n n~ae l oia, Maturty Group V vadke
rMteally. a te in September to early Oeto-
p.i tp ( VI o early to mid-October, 9wcap
$i3faw IApMiOO*Qte& Geblrid (iaqshIzd
at lateP erto< ^areath8er.Ts^ Mi g
-dbfJfief1'~^f^dl&i~r*t^^&&uftif.^^^ii^^Mlk
-IrPtwfF^BH^'?'*^- ^^^^y-^^~H^^*^!






t. was tp of rootf yoUtia
tit att ack. s mebean. The varieties-listed a,
aref resistant only to one; the southern or co
Eoot knot. EArlier maturing varieties are
saject to disease attacks on thePi eds.d a
because Waiwari maetonditiensa snielAto

^ i.:. f et -,i .o^.._. ;..^ . ...*_-.-:

tae ;gi bititv of rdhg t6he o n.cyst.
atode by planting seed known to be free of
pest. Seed produced on the home farm. orn
other nematedefree areas of Florida coutn
relied upon for pw)aty. If hbofrown ised3-
to be planted, their S i~nation should e.-


lee*'atld./ -sy
here uwall ned tedusoybeans have beenrece
grown on the Ried. For fields- tat have ne
g own well-nodplated soybeans, theerate of i-
;laUt should be doubled or tripleW BH3- S
S- OCULAm IS w l sOYIAns. ".
In uad to noculant, t idM

sea a.aisel diss'e w-th t ltbge an .t|
moculant: (1i dlWilve ounce of either
mo~dumi molsbdae or sodium molybdMte in
-iint of het-water (2) add a few drops of yO
S;moele4s () -cLoL then mix the 9oluion1M
ths eedaiB.d E 4 nod.st ila.At


n aemlq* 4 d sae ,-of.pagari%
that have never grown soybeans.
Good stands are often difficult to obtain
moist organic 4gils because couditioas- are v
taelablseii oerseedting and d aAlM or


Pgpat rieey hiS--y at ed sa Jtmei l ed
Plant between May 10 and June, 15 on mBe






and between June 20 and July 20 on organic
at times when soil moisture conditions are
Sable for germination and growth. Varieties
normally mature the first two weeks of Oc-
should be planted near the middle of the
ended planting season.
Plant approximately 8 to 10 seeds per foot of
in 30 to 36-inch rows when good weed control
fertility programs are in use. If this is not
case, plant approximately 12 seeds per foot of
in 80 to 86 inch row spacings. Seedling depth
d be between 1% to 2 inches with the cover-
soil- lightly compacted with a packer wheel.
nsure better inoculation the 2-inch .seeding
th is needed on sandy soils where soybeans are
grown for the first time. Do not plant soy-
seed to a depth greater than 2 inches. Do not
low seed to come into concentrations of Mocap
this material is phytotoxic to seedlings before

After the seed are covered, the top of the row
uld be slightly below the middles. Rows
htly below the level of the middles aid in weed
ntrol during the first cultivation. If too low,
ever, heavy rains before germination may
er seed too deeply.

Disease Contrl
Crop rotat5 a is the best control measure pree-
available for many soybean diseases. Crop
ttion with grain crops is the best plan to con-
ro stem rot southern blight, white mold), pod
Ad.stem blt, -and frogeye leaf spot. Cop
ttion will not eliminate these problem 4ut
certainly reduce their severity. Th stem rot
ans can be reduced even more by burying lit-
er least 6 inches when plowing.
a4 dCeep~gr^eflSemrseaw e seeding blights d
Moff e be reduced by (1) planting non-
Ghed se&e with a high germinatiLa paspeant-
e. treating seeds with an AMassn, enwitaBor
eIoean fitwatt ide and .,() avoiding dtuptepam
ia;. Agypy a recommended on the manufatur-
r's label and follow the safety precautions on the
sael. Arasan fungicides are more compatible with









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~~~~~~I --~k~ o~m~t
EgrO, 4-4in







uWh
ea t4~pimd~o1 aw~c


.8






the weeds emerge and are taller than the soy.
then the weed has the competitive advan-
and will be much more difficult to control.
most effective method to insure that the soy-
has the initial competitive advantage is the
of preplant incorporated and/or preemergence
herbicides.
epe choices of herbicides should be based on
ledge of the weeds present and the soil type
organic matter in each field. At the time of
ng, weeds will not be present, therefore, the
ce of herbicide must be based on the weeds
cipated in that field. This can best be accom-
by making weed maps of each field during
previous season.
cultivation is a good method of weed control;
for cultivation to be effective, there must
a height diferential between the soybeans and
If the weeds are as tall as the soybeans,
cultivation will not be effective in controlling
in the drill. Directed-postemergence appli-
on of herbicides can be extremely important
obtaining full season weed control. These ap-
tions are made after the beans are 8-10 inches
and are achieved by arranging the sprayer
on sliding shoes as on the cultivator so
the herbicide is applied to the lower 8-4 inches
the soybeans and still obtains good coverage of
*weeds. As with cultivation, it is critical that
soybeans be taller than the weeds for this type
tion to be effective.
If poor weed control has been achieved ead W in
eeson and weeds are forming a canopy over
Soybeans, there are herbicides which may be
n late season as a salvage operation or at
as a hsrvest-aid.
Tike best -aproach to insuring that a salvage
a it needed is to use a good weed con-
pm, vaW i including good cultural pramtims
=aa a-i/or preemegence applied barbwids,
lan& a dametedape-temergenee applte-
tes if needed
K Herbloide recommendations for soybeans are
Mid ea yea in Weeds in the Sunuhlaefact
a~ili tHW*e available at your coaty exten-
es office. In addition to recommended herbicides
















No.uwcs CionkM$
IlootolsW,-la 4 IWO"~j~4


se beeii. cL~at. n~L443d,5~ and -m~eau~atly" E

.;~~sr;"i-"4


Lowr~~.aa p~~rDiii~i

.48malmr"Ahm. ROM M-R-b(b ~g


N.Iwc


-of MWOWNs~i~ ar
lip missxu"Q Aw-ji$c~lk~~eac


FAA to336t~iF~


~--;
~B~gi~, g~Pa~tP~E~lt~BIJ~;;;~dbiBib~l~YD~Y~i~:-
-c~S~isma~i~a~i;r ~3ck;cf~e~r~2r
cs,~. + _tiL~-: I
~,q ~LljLil_~IOL s~ulla






managing rootAnot nematode populations.
it is relatively ineffective for control of
r reniftom, and lesion nematodes, because
All resrod~8 well on roots of so many kinds

ldulades practices designed to prVi
spread at sematodes from infested to uasa-
fields. This is especially important for
cyst nematodes, because it is not yet uni-
distributed within Florida. Soybean cysts
ether plant nematodes are easily spread in
and infected plants, yet move only a few feet
r by themselves. Therefore, spread of SCN
skwduced significantly by avoiding any prac-
rwhieh an carry small amounts of ail or
roots from contaminated fields to unaon-
Sfields. It is also important to avoid using
seed that is not certified. SCN is com-
introduced into new areas in small soil
("peds") which are about the size of a soy-
and are often included in bags of soy-
whieh has not been properly cleaned.
M agst les are often the most effective
t tool against SCN and the southern
nemaf de. Varieties which have resst-
gainst either or both Of these pests and are
-to aw in Florida are listed in the table an
'Oentad l and lerrest' also have resit-
to the reniform nematode. Several other
asve specialized populations or "races" of
which asnable to attack the resistant varied
'~ie wrescommend in Florida. This makes
potant to avoid imporftion of
Fb .YU* tg4 by using contaminated sd
SNon of th varieties adapted to Florda


tWtte th#aqs MA iSO$*tta, these spagdli.9SW

4uqJJfan s niatields ses
10 rt05 v e al M bM* twt e tJ0spCea in

pre. reeommaded for control of
m t anut and javanese roottmot
ad very high populations of southern


-rl- 4^' .






.seekd mabadts. TheyI are tot.
-r. control ot- vw-h w ene oef -te.
aVtle4s -is 1sa~iad.. -Oly the. fm .t
Icides, D.D, and Telene I4 are reeomnfended
control of root-knot nematodes. All -at
should give adequate control of sting, lesio
reniform nematodes or other occasional nema
posts.


Scoat fteldsfr.Awo tite d of sa i '
-toliage edus(v(vetnnbwan -cate niaS! ,
worms, loopers, Mexican bean beetles,
beetles, bean leaf beetles) and pod feeders (-
earworms and stink bugs). Obtain a shake c
of white or of-white duck or musli ma
m-easm in 48 X 48 i che. Il e n.
sb.d cloth heanta -odw af&irQf

Mhu. Count: ei^catespiwars -Iut ab it
ia .or tIenwur.-lhei loth an, o-
at other locate~ e in the field until you ha
samples $or each 10 acres or until you feel y
samples are representative. Research.has sho
that soybean plants can withstand 88 rrcent


__ _o to s,

tolaated. F- or fte ~B inah
or longer petrfoot of row indicates need for t
ment Treatment with an insecticide she
begin only when these threshold populations
reached. During podfil no mc le th ope.
erworm, per est vt row foan hb a '.
, e-c .- ",... i ...fe s ,te .
tea- s owe fer sed ha* neme
per 8 feet of row is the ea thdieg
Numbers greater than this shout'be treated.
Table 2 for recommended insecticides.
Lesser cornsteWlhbears are oftA
yoe0U fortebMt. Mieww is no
trol, but 14 pee4twf 14 paemf .B|
aesl or 2W potato hr44 1 eenesfr
~r~~~ 0?-~: B.~J~P~~$'~]l e ;~~io~~Br






i a 8 to S ianh had over the row when the
are % to I lanh tnal may provide some pro.
Further. detailed information can be ob-
trom yearly E1teaaion Entomkology .
Seoiben Insect Control-1978.


a should be harvested as soon as the
content reaches 18 to 20 percent, Ad-
the eombine to the manufacturer's spec a-
Sand harvst enough beans to provide a
to ewalate for damage. If excesove
of beamN oaeurs, reduce cylinder speed or
the space between the cylinder and con-
Ideally soybeans would be harvested at the
at moisture level as is recommended in the
because they are less prone to combine
and the cost of drying the beans to a safe
level would be less. However, harvesting
8 to 20 percent moisture is believed to be a
p peMae* in Florida because excessive leoes
pIe6 and quality often will occur if the harvest
ayed long enough to reach the 14 percent
level under Florida conditions. The high
beans must be placed on the drier as soon
possible because the quality will diminish rap-
when left at the 18 to 20 percent moiature

e bheen -temnined that approximately 10
of .e soybean crop is lost darlu# the
epartion. Approximately 70 percent
i 10 pmont total eeurs at th~ecomiue
Th6.,wybwen gso er should- tow th
S- his owne- maBuAl rdgfi ell4
tdjulments, but especially thmet .the
heade,. The beat advice regarding coam
i-s ba in order to keep losses minimal
sioew A eep t&e header low. Research
a e 4Wbs 4 en *W imrease .seAt -
SaMuftlesr )mrbfeasae thB opeotor mmut
thSe hader at htigrwprped to keep skutesl.

SSopha lAsl Ank Wme xsvex lov. ler seon
M&elitiat -Mmtn at o be treated with Paw.
it to red e the chance of high separation and
tbaloe1 le which often occur in weedy deds.








If harvested beans are to be stored on the ;
for sale at a later date, dry to a moisture con
of 12 percent or slightly below and place the
dean dry bihwtb~ t can be aerated a
1eov6e molsf|e:,that acuumlate .Adrg 4a




Various marketing alternatives, including
market at harvest or at other ties for s
beans, forward contracting, and price.latser
tracting, are available. The- sybeas produ
Should be. awr e of all lternativ es





Table So1. obM rt satemsdMe tldeOmmeli.


Rasw-4000
newero si lipl-est =Lfewlur


' ;

q;ine
*DlanilSO atplat
seiplO at 9
*Nq ia. r 1Lgatlt
fqn seor3 *t abut
TmIkl6SO atpaat.


I-

12-14' bend
12-15" band
1M45' band
11,15 band
8121'band


I


4rntfl, "t74
4448 tat .84.76


220m s.
14.7-81 oa.
6-11ifl.O.
1118 os.


It'
18.I24b '
2.7.8 qt.
1044 lb.


Use of trade maes in this publication is sol*y or
purpose of providing specify information. It is n
guarantee or wasrnt -of products named and does
signify aflroval to the exclusion of others of But
composition.


- gs t -'P A4 eld
uiqias. usd3 .P.CriBAA.8U


.4r
sJ4.
moa&wtWPu
lant e


. .Ult i _ L - ,111 - .I'- -J H H


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Amemt active Appro. amount
Ingredient of formlation Min. days
Inset material Ib. per re per re acre to harvest Restrieti

Vecatted ea earbaryl (Se in) 0.5-0.5 1/8-2/8 lb O8W 0 No limitations
and green cloverworm methomyl (Lannate 0.125-0.25 .6-1.2 pts I8L 14 Do not use within 8 days for
or Nudrin) forage & 7 days for hay.
methyl parathion 0.25-0.88 1/2-8/4 pt 4E 20 Do not apply more than 2
times per season.
acephate (Orthene) 0.6 2/8 lb 758P 14 Do not grase or cut vines for
bay or forage.
Basills turinw m sis See individual 0 No limitations
Bactur WP labels for
Dipel WP amounts
Thuricide HPC

Corn earworm carbaryl (Sevin) 0.75-1.0 1-1 1/ lb SOW 0. See Notes Above
methoyml (Lannate 0.20.46 1.2-2.0 pts 1.L 14 "
or Nudrin)
aeephate (Orthene) 0.50-0.76 2/-1 lb 758P 14 "
methyl parathion 0.75-LO 1%-2 pts 4E 20 "







Table 2 Cont*


:-a


IChebs for


N N '


I....-- --ora acephasft O9s )M G.75-Z 1-1 11 3bas ImSF -`i %e toesM-A"
alfalfa heopwq 1114&*W W.W

@484 1. Z-uS.. 14 See...
Beet "is- LrM e
'home'' IEI)


1. *'Z A J 4" 'l ..,L-


~ - . i...:i..; I...r~n~ . 1_9'~11~-srlrl '. N :c-.- ;rLP;-llj*-.Nn..i.~I~- I.. ..-.: U~*UB-~il~~l-i "1-
~ ..rri~irr~i*cl. 5 ~- ~;- .r ;L~h3~rt~4~PP~84t';~.;~;;~.~;1~LLiE~3~P~


V W -, a '



-airft wam* .Yi


C. lit rc'':- 46*r ' I i'


-*' 1 .


f;B Bwr~i rqq~t~
.; rrr~


CW I .. ..




i

I~et


Waiteiti~


*Pr~rdR SWILSS ts Gt
per .Me te 6rvet


Orthene is ot cleared for me on the Mexican bean beetle; for corn earworm use 1.0 active ingredient per acre which is equivalent to 1 1/8
lbs o 75 8.
E= maulspw eCopnceptreat WP= Wettable powder HPC -High Potency Concentrate
SP- Solale powder NA=Not applicable L Liquid


P ea Feetoea
Corn earwom caaryl (Sevin) 0.7-1.5 1.0-1.88 baBOW 0 See Notes Above
mitbew~ yl (Lannate 0.-0.45 1.2-2.0 pte. 1.8L 14 "
Nufdrin)
aejphte (tblhene) 1.0 11/8 Ibs 758P 14 "
ineh$l parabhion 0.75-1.0 1%-2 pts 4E 20 "

Stinkbugs aeephate (Orthene) 0.75-1.0 1-1 1/8 lbs 75SP 14 See Notes Above
methl paration 0.5 1 pt 4E 20 "
Peneap M 0.5 2 pts 2E 20 Do not apply more than 2
appleations per season. Do
Snot use screens or nozzles
fined than 50 mesh.

Mexican bean beetle carbaryl (Sevin) 0.25-0.5 1/8-2/8 lb SOW 0 See Notes Above
methomyl (Lannate 0.15-0.25 8/4-1 1/5 pts L8E 14 "
or Nudrin)


I-.,--.~-~--~
-C~E~t~4 ~- -~ ----_~L~OTIC~CG~IY~-e~~*PI~-~L7~P~Y~ ~I-ill .-~r .i-: -1


-oeI m fti


Pr~icQku






NOTES






NOTES







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