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An examination of the dependence of mud shore profiles on the nearshore environment

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Title:
An examination of the dependence of mud shore profiles on the nearshore environment
Series Title:
UFLCOEL-96002
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Tarigan, A. P. Mulia, 1966-
University of Florida -- Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Dept
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English
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xvii, 142 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering thesis, M.S ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering -- UF ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 1996.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 99-102).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by A.P. Mulia Tarigan.

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University of Florida
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35172101 ( OCLC )

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UFL/COEL-96/002

AN EXAMINATION OF THE DEPENDENCE OF MUD SHORE PROFILES ON THE NEARSHORE ENVIRONMENT by
A.P. Mulia Tarigan
Thesis

1996




AN EXAMINATION OF THE DEPENDENCE OF MUD SHORE PROFILES
ON THE NEARSHORE ENVIRONMENT
A. P. MULIA TARIGAN
A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1996




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor and the chairman of my supervisory committee, Professor Ashish J. Mehta, who supported, guided and trained me throughout my study. It has been an unforgettable experience that has shown me the joys of challenges.
I wish to thank Dr. Say-Chong Lee who previously initiated the study on the dynamics of mud profile geometry to which this study is closely related. Thanks and appreciation are extended to Professor Robert G. Dean who supplied essential knowledge through his lectures, discussions and research. Special thanks are extended to Dr. Li-Hwa Lin for encouragement and technical discussions at various times. Thanks and appreciation are also due to Professor Donald M. Sheppard for his participation as a supervisory committee member.
My gratitude is extended to the staff of Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), or the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, in Jakarta. Information on the study areas, i.e., Pantai Madura, Pantai Surabaya, and Teluk Waru, used in this study is based on reports submitted to BPPT. Gegar Sapta Prasetya deserves special acknowledgment for helping me obtain and describe the field information.
I would also like to thank George Chappel, Jim Joiner, and Sidney Schofield for their assistance during the experimental phase of this research. Special thanks go to the staff of




the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department, with special acknowledgment to Helen Twedell and John Davis for their friendly greetings that made life easier during my stay.
The contribution of my fellow student colleagues in many ways has had a special place throughout my study. Wayne Walker, Paul Divine, Yigong Li, Renjie Chen, Lee Chee Gwan, Marshal Bridges, Kat Marussin, Miller, and Doynov are among those who provided much more than just nice conversations.
My study was funded by the Natural Resources Management Project assisted by USAID. In this respect, the assistance given by Patricia S. Link of the Institute of International Education (New York) in supervising the academic aspects of my study is specially acknowledged.
Most important of all, I am deeply indebted to my parents who have rendered me with sincere love, support and encouragement to do the best. Lastly, I would like to express my appreciation for the support of my family and Indonesian friends in Gainesville.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOW LEDGMENT ..................................................................................... ii
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................ vi
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................ xi
LIST OF SYM BOLS ........................................................................................... xiii
ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... xvi
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... I
1.1 Problem Statement ........................................................................ 1
1.2 Objective and Scope ....................................................................... 7
1.3 Outline of Presentation ................................................................... 8
2 FIELD INFORM ATION ........................................................................... 9
2.1 Site Descriptions ........................................................................... 9
I? I Hydrodynamic Information ........................................................... 14
2.3 Sedimentary Characteristics .......................................................... 17
2.4 Beach Profiles .............................................................................. 18
3 PROFILE ANALYSIS ............................................................................ 24
3.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 24
3.2 Coarse-Grained Profile Equation ................................................... 26
3.3 Fine-Grained Profile Equation ....................................................... 31
3.4 Field Profile Analysis ..................................................................... 37




4 LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ............................................................ 55
4 .1 Introduction .................................................................................. 55
4.2 Equipment ..................................................................................... 56
4 .3 Sedim ents ...................................................................................... 6 1
4.4 Test Conditions ............................................................................. 61
4.5 Experimental Procedure ............................................................... 63
4.6 Corrections for Wave Data ........................................................... 67
4.7 Profile Change Data and Discussion ............................................. 70
4.8 Wave Envelope Data .................................................................... 85
5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ........................................................ 90
5.1 Mud versus Sand Profile Geometry ............................................... 90
5.2 Erosional and Accretionary Mud Profile Cycles ............................ 93
5.3 Concluding Remarks .................................................................... 95
5.4 Recommendations for Future Work ............................................. 98
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 99
APPENDICES
A PROFILE SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS ...................................... 103
B LEAST SQUARES FIT RESULTS ....................................................... 107
C FIELD PROFILES ................................................................................ 119
D BEST-FIT PLOTS OF EQUATIONS 3.2 AND 3.29 TO
LABORATORY PROFILES ................................................................. 130
E EIGEN VALUE ANALYSIS ................................................................. 135
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................... 142




LIST OF FIGURES

rage
1.1 Typical normal and storm profiles along a sandy shoreline ........................... 3
1.2 Long-term profile change along a glacial till profile at Grimsby, Lake
Ontario, Canada (after Coakley et al., 1988) ............................................... 4
1.3 Spatial changes between periodic surveys for a mud profile along the
southwestern Louisiana chernier plain (after Lee, 1995) ................................ 5
1.4 Spatial changes between periodic surveys for a clayey mud profile in
a laboratory flume (after Lee, 1995) ............................................................. 6
1.5 Spatial changes between periodic surveys of a profile composed of a
less in a laboratory flume (after Lee, 1995) ............................................... 7
2.1 Map of Indonesia. Locations of Pantai Madura, Surabaya, and Teluk
Waru are indicated by letters A and B with arrows pointing to the areas ....... 9
2.2 Locations of Pantai Madura and Surabaya. Both are in the vicinity of an
area (enclosed by rectangle) designated for building a bridge connecting the two islands. Pantai Madura is on the Madura side of the area, while Pantai
Surabaya is on the Surabaya side ................................................................ 10
2.3 Photograph of the study site in Madura taken on August 13, 1994. The
shoreline is in Kecamatan (village) Labang of Kabupaten (county)
Bangkalan-M adura ..................................................................................... 11
2.4 Photograph of the study site in Surabaya taken on August 13, 1994.
The shoreline is in Kecamatan (village) Kenjeran of Kabupaten (county)
Surabaya ................................................................................................... .. 12
2.5 Teluk Waru site (Amsari, 1994). This site is located about 50 km south
of Mataram, the capital city of Nusa Tenggara Barat Province. Lembar,




a small natural harbor just north of Teluk Waru, can be reached easily by
boat from Bali. The rectangular area indicates the region surveyed ........... 13
2.6 Photograph of the study site in Teluk Waru taken on May 19, 1993. The
shoreline is in Desa (village) Teluk Waru of Kabupaten (county) Labuhan
Tereng Lombok Barat. ........................................................... 14
2.7 Textural classification of sediment for beach profiles from Madura and
Surabaya. Data points represent the median particle size. Circle data points are for samples from Surabaya, and rectangular points are from
Madura. The data points for both areas are clustered by open ovals,
indicating that the sediment can be classified in two dominant size ranges .....20
2.8 Textural classification for beach profiles from Teluk Waru. Circle data
points represent the median particle size. Two open ovals cluster the
data points into two dominant size ranges ........................................ 21
2.9 Sketch showing beach profile lines at Madura and Surabaya. Dashed
lines, from the shoreline toward offshore, represent the profiles. Lengths of profiles depicted do not reflect the actual lengths digitized. Numbers I and 7 following the letter M for Madura profiles, and 4 and 5 following letter S
for Surabaya profiles are associated with the sheet numbers of the
bathymetric maps. ................................................................ 22
2.10 Sketch showing Teluk Waru profile lines. Dashed lines, from the shoreline
toward offshore, represent the profiles. Lengths of profiles do not in
general reflect their actual lengths digitized ..................................... 23
3.1 Two-dimensional beach profile illustrating the coordinate adopted. Point (0,0)
is the shoreline position, while (hi, y,) is a profile point denoting an arbitrary position with depth N1 and distance y1 from the shoreline. Point (h, yo) is the
offshore terminus beyond which the profile does not change significantly...... 24
3.2 Plot of profile M7-14 from Pantai Madura, showing the selected location of
the offshore terminus. All the field profiles from the three areas are given in
Appendix C ........................................................................ 36
3.3 Two examples of fitting Equation 3.2 and Equation 3.29 to Madura profiles.
Solid line represents Equation 3.2 using the log-log method, while the dashed line is for the iteration method. The log-log method is found to fit the profiles
better than iteration method for all Madura profiles. Equation 3.29 is shown
by a dotted line. .................................................................. 38




3.4 Two examples of fitting Equation 3.2 and Equation 3.29 to Surabaya profiles.
Solid line represents Equation 3.2 using the log-log method, while the dashed line is for the iteration method. For profile S4-0 1, the log-log method gives a
better fit, but not for profile S5-20. However most of the Surabaya profiles are better fitted by log-log method tahn by iteration method. Equation 3.29
is shown by a dotted line. ........................................................ 38
3.5 Two examples of fitting Equation 3.2 and Equation 3.29 to Warn profiles.
Solid line represents Equation 3.2 using the log-log method, while the dashed
line is for the iteration method. Unlike for the other two areas, the iteration method fits all of the Warn profiles better tahn log-log method does. Fitting
of Equation 3.29 (mud profile equation) is presented by a dotted line......... 39 3.6 Histogram of parameters A and n for Madura profiles........................ 40
3.7 Histogram of parameters A and n for Surabaya profiles ....................... 41
3.8 Histogram of parameters A and n for Teluk Waru profiles ................... 42
3.9 Histogram of parameters A and n for all profiles............................ 44
3.10 Profile scale parameter, A, as a function of sediment settling velocity, w,
Box shows the domain of values obtained for field mud profiles analyzed
by Lee (1995) and of mean values in the present study. ..................... 47
3.11 Histograms of k, and K for all field profiles examined ........................ 50
3.12 Histograms of Fand P3 for all field profiles examidned ........................ 51
4.1 Schematic of the flumes. The two subflumes used were A and B ............. 57
4.2 Photograph of flume with the wavemnaker at the end of seaward portion
of subflumes Aand B............................................................ 58
4.3 Schematic of sediment coring device .......................................... 60
4.4 Time-evolving profile for mud bottom of Run 1 ............................... 72
4.5 Time-evolving profiles for sand bottom of Run 1 .............................. 73
4.6 Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 1 ................... 74
4.7 Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 2 ................... 75




4.8 Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 3 .................. 76
4.9 Schematic section showing the sedimentary formations of
multiple bars of sandy banks and of mud deposits in the
western part of the Bay of Mont- Saint-Michel (after Caline, 1994) ........... 77
4.10 Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 4 ................... 78
4.11 Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 5 ................. 79
4.12 Spatial changes between surveys, for mud and sand profiles of Run 1 .... 80 4.13 Spatial changes between surveys, for mud and sand profiles of Run 2........81
4.14 Plots of sediment mass changes for mud and sand over the profile
for all runs.......................................................................... 83
4.15 Wave height envelope in Run 1 before and after side-wall and linear
shoaling corrections ............................................................... 86
4.16 Two examples of exponential fitting (using Equation 3.18) to wave
height envelope over mud profile ................................................ 87
5.1 Erosional and accretional stages of a coastal mud beach and associated
sedimentary fluxes ................................................................ 96
A. I Sediment samples from the Madura area ...................................... 105
A.2 Sediment samples from the Surabaya area..................................... 106
A.3 Sediment samples from the Teluk Waru. area................................... 106
B. 1 Histograms of parameter k, and K for Madura profiles ....................... 113
B.2 Histograms of parameters F and P3 for Madura profiles ....................... 114
B.3 Histograms of parameter k1 and K for Surabaya profiles ........................ 115
B.4 Histograms of parameters F and P3 for Surabaya profiles ........................ 116
B.5 Histograms of parameter k, and K for Teluk Warn profiles...................... 117




B.6 Histograms of parameters F and P3 for Teluk Waru profiles...................... 118
C.1I through C.51 Profiles Ml1-00 through TW- 10......................... 119- 129
D.1I Best-fit plots of Equations 3.29 and 3.2 to mud and sand profiles,
respectively, for Run 1 ............................................................. 130
D.2 Best-fit plots of Equations 3.29 and 3.2 to mud and sand profiles,
respectively, for Run 2 ............................................................ 131
D.3 Best-fit plots of Equations 3.29 and 3.2 to mud and sand profiles,
respectively, for Run 3 ............................................................ 132
DA4 Best-fit plots of Equations 3.29 and 3.2 to mud and sand profiles,
respectively, for Run 4 ............................................................ 133
D.5 Best-fit plots of Equations 3.29 and 3.2 to mud and sand profiles,
respectively, for Run 5 ............................................................. 134
E.1I First mode of temporal and spatial eigen functions for Run 2 .................. 138
E.2 Second mode of temporal and spatial eigen functions for Run 2 ................ 139
E.3 First mode of temporal and spatial eigen functions for Run 3 ................... 140
EA4 Second mode of temporal and spatial eigen functions for Run 3................ 141




LIST OF TABLES

2.1 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Pantai Madura, Surabaya, and Teluk
W aru ............................................................................................................ 16
3.1 Mean values of the three parameters in Equation 3.29 for each study area ......... 52
3.2 Values of parameters in Equation 3.29 for erosional and accretionary
profile configurations using K = 0. 15 as the demarcation value ....................... 53
3.3 Results of profile divisions into erosional and accretionary configurations
(after Lee, 1995) using K = 0. 15 as the demarcation value ...............................
53
4.1 Sum m ary of test conditions ............................................................................ 62
4.2 Results of mud density measurement ............................................................ 67
4.3 Results of fitting Equation 3.2 to final sandy profile data from laboratory
experim ents ................................................................................................... 84
4.4 Results of fitting Equation 3.29 to final mud profile data from laboratory
experim ents ................................................................................................... 85
4.5 Wave attenuation coefficients ( ) obtained from exponential fitting of
Equation 3.5 to the measured wave height envelopes in each run ................ 88
5.1 Summary of test results for mud profiles ......................................................... 95
A. I Grain size characteristics of Madura and Surabaya study areas ....................... 103
A.2 Grain size characteristics of the Teluk Waru study area .................................. 104
A.3 Grain size characteristics of all the three areas from sieve analysis
conducted at the Coastal Engineering Laboratory of the University
of F lorida .................................................................................................... 105




B. 1 Results of least squares fit of Equation 3.2 for Madura profiles ................ 107
B.2 Results of least squares fit of Equation 3.2 for Surabaya profiles................. 108
B.3 Results of least squares fit of Equation 3.2 for Teluk Waru profiles ........... 109
BA4 Results of least squares fit of Equation 3.29 for Madura profiles .............. 110
B.5 Results of least squares fit of Equation 3.29 for Surabaya profiles ............111
B.6 Results of least squares fit of Equation 3.29 for Teluk Waru profiles ...... 112




LIST OF SYMBOLS

A = Profile scale parameter in Equations 3.1 and 3.5
b = Width of subflume
c(t) = Temporal eigen function
5N = Nearshore depth correction
d~o = Sediment median size
d(y) Spatial (offshore distance) eigen function Deq = Equilibrium value of wave-mean rate of energy dissipation per unit water volume
em,, =Root-mean square error Eeq = Equilibrium value of wave-mean rate of energy dissipation per unit bed area
F = Bottom slope at the shoreline in Equation 3.29 Fs = Beach slope in Equation 3.34 g Acceleration due to gravity h, hi = Water depth; water depth at any point along the profile length h., = Profile measurement at the m-th location and n-th time in Equation D. 1 ho- Depth at the seaward terminus of the profile
h = Predicted depth




h = Non-dimensional water depth
H = Wave height or matrix of time-varying profile data in Equation D. I
H,,= Breaking wave height H,' = Corrected wave height H0 = Incident wave height/Deep water wave height I, j = Index for direction k, Wave attenuation coefficient
k = Wave number
kc, = Shoaling coefficient
k,,,, = Wave attenuation coefficient due to side-wall friction kic Proffle averaged wave attenuation coefficient
K = Non-dimensional wave attenuation parameter M Exponent in Equation 3.2
N = Number of measured profile data points Re,,, Wave Reynolds number
t = Time
T Wave period
=1 Weighting factor in Equation D.2
w, Sediment fall velocity
y = Horizontal axis normal to the shoreline located at the
mean water level, or offshore distance
=j Offshore distance at any point along the profile length




yo = Offshore distance at the offshore terminus or profile length
- = Non-dimensional value of the y-coordinate
= Parameter characterizing depth correction due to wave breaking and related
effects in Equation 3.29 X, = Eigen value f -- Wave energy flux K = Spilling breaker index pw = Water density Pd = Dry density of mud p = Fluid mud density a = Angular wave frequency in radians v, = Kinematic viscosity of water At = Time increment Ay = Distance between two adjacent measuring stations




Abstract of Thesis Presented to Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science AN EXAMINATION OF THE DEPENDENCE OF MU]) SHORE PROFILES ON THE NEARSHORE ENVIRONMENT By
A. P. Mulia Tarigan
May 1996
Chairman: Dr. Ashish J. Mehta
Major Department: Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering
A preliminary study has been carried out to examine the nature of beach profiles composed of fine-grained sediment and their response to wave forcing. The well known power-law equation for sandy profiles and a recently developed profile equation for muddy shores have been best-fitted to fifty-one fine-grain dominated profiles from Indonesia. It is shown that the second equation provides a better profile representation because of the very flat profile slopes, and because the profiles do not always show concavity characteristic of sandy shores.
A previous observation, based on an analysis of the response of muddy coast profiles to oceanic forcing, is further explored in laboratory tests. This observation is that when a muddy profile erodes, the resuspended material, with a low settling velocity and relatively easy transportability, neither necessarily forms an offshore bar characteristic of sandy beaches,




nor necessarily remains within the active profile length. Profiles composed of clayey mud beds were prepared and a thin blanket of fluid mud was initially poured uniformly over the profiles. These profiles were then subjected to suitably high and low monochromatic waves. Fluid mud caused the incoming waves to dampen measurably with a comparatively low degree of breaking restricted to the very nearshore region. In a test with high incident waves, after several hours the fluid mud flowed offshore to the flume bottom, where it deposited uniformly without significant surface features. Also, wave breaking became more intense as the fluid mud layer was depleted. In a test with low waves the fluid mud was largely retained on the profile, with some erosion in the proximity of the shoreline. Wave damping continued to remain significant throughout the test. In contrast to these tests, other tests carried out with profiles composed of very fine sand under the same wave conditions as those for muddy profiles showed behaviors characteristic of sandy profiles.
The above observations suggest that for a muddy profile to prograde, suitably low waves, and most importantly, a source of sediment that is not necessarily within the active profile length may be required. This source can be alongshore, or from land drainage, or from a distal offshore site. Also, the erosional and accretionary cycles of muddy shores appear to be related to the concavity and convexity of the shore profiles, respectively. If this observation is borne out by further studies, it will require the development of a new methodology for calculating the rates of recession of muddy shoreline, e.g., due to sea level rise.

xvii




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 -Problem Statement
Since a relatively large fraction of the world's growing population resides in the coastal zone (Graff, 1991; Yuwono, 1993), the task of coastal engineers to deal with problems related to the intensive use of zones bordering the seas and the oceans demands a better understanding of shoreline erosion and accretionary processes. The fight against shoreline retreat is a worldwide issue that requires knowledge of the behavior of beach profiles responding to natural forces, such as water waves, storms and sea level rise, as a fundamental step toward problem solving.
The study of profile dynamics has been a matter of considerable interest in engineering practice, and has led to the development of many theories and formulas that describe twodimensional cross-shore sediment transport and beach profile geometry. However, most of the applications of such formulas have been confined to coarse-grained, e.g. sandy, profiles, even while many of the coastal areas are composed of fine-grained (silt and clay) sediments. It is also the case that in the coastal zone the sedimentary environment often comprises of mixtures of sand and mud (Torfs, 1995). Thus, with respect to the assessment of profile characteristics, a better knowledge of the nature of mud profile geometries should provide a more rational basis for assessing shoreline changes than at present.




2
Field and laboratory evidence supports the conclusion that the nature and dynamics of beach profiles composed of mud are different from those of coarse-grained profiles such as those composed of sand. A sandy profile can be largely characterized by the variation of sediment size across the profile length, whereas muddy profiles are more difficult to deal with due to the complex properties and transport behavior of fine-grained material. As a result, the task of analyzing the characteristics of mud profiles is considerably more complicated than that of sandy profiles.
A common feature of sandy profiles is the seasonal profile change according to the weather cycle, i.e., fair and severe sea conditions. During fair sea conditions with relatively low wave heights and long periods that typically occur during summer, shoreward sediment movement prevails and produces an accretionary profile. Summer shore proifies are generally marked with gentle nearshore sand bars and relatively flat foreshore. During severe sea conditions in winter, storm waves cause offshore sediment movement, thus eroding the shore. The nearshore sandbars move offshore and, along with the material deposited offshore, form one or more relatively larger bars in deeper waters. At the same time, the foreshore becomes steeper and narrower than in summer.
The seasonal profiles can be considered to be in dynamic equilibrium when averaged over some suitable time-scale over which wave forcing can be assumed to remain reasonably unchanged. Based on the findings by, among others, Bruun (1954), Dean (1977), and Kaihatu (1990), it is observed that the equilibrium shape of sandy profiles is typically concave-upward. Furthermore, for some applications it is found reasonable to assume that the profiles do not change their shape in response to a rise in sea level due to storm




3
conditions, eustatic change, or subsidence, and that cross-shore sediment transport is the prevalent profile changing mechanism. As a result, the sand volume over the active profile is also considered to be conserved. Thus, for example, according to the well known Bruun Rule (Bruun, 1962; Bruun, 1983) for predicting the rate of shoreline recession due to an increase in sea level, the profile is to be shifted upward (by a height equal to the sea level rise) and then landward (so that the volume of material eroded from the foreshore equals that deposited off-shore, up to the depth of closure) by the distance equal to the shoreline retreat.
Normal profile
Storm profile
Figure 1. 1: Typical normal and storm proifies along a sandy shoreline
Field observations suggest that when a mud shore erodes under high waves, the eroded material does not necessarily deposit in sufficient proximity to be potentially available to rebuild the profile naturally under low waves. This behavior thus contrasts with that characteristic to a sandy profile, for which beach mass balance can be represented geometrically in terms of the equal areas associated with "normal" and "storm" 'profiles as




4
shown in Figure 1. 1. In the mud environment, the equal area description does not always apply because an offshore bar within the active profile zone containing the entire mass of resuspended eroded sediment does not necessarily form. There are two reasons for this: 1) the settling velocity of resuspended material being very low, it is carried to alongshore or offshore sites that are considerably remote from the profile, and 2) when the eroded material, that is transported as suspended load settles, a bar-like undulation does not necessarily develop due to the natural tendency of sediment to deposit in a relatively uniform manner.

-9 Western Site [-Profile in 1984
-12 Profilen W1 980
-100 0 100

200 300 400 500 600
offshore distance from baseline (in)

Figure 1.2: Long-term profile change along a glacial till profile at Grimsby, Lake Ontario, Canada (after Coakley et al., 1988)
In fact, at mud shores all the eroded sediment may be "lost," as shown by the example in Figure 1.2 of profile changes in a highly consolidated glacial till profile along Lake Ontario.

700 800 900




5
When the till erodes, it can not reconstitute itself, and the fine material is transported to distal sites (Bishop et al., 1992). Figure 1.3 plots elevation changes with distance along a mud profile near Cheniere au Tigre in southwestern Louisiana, based on two surveys (Kemp, 1986) of the profile over a five month period in 1981 ranging from winter (i.e., storm conditions in February) to summer (i.e., normal conditions in July). Note the lack of full recovery, as indicated by the unequal areas below and above the zero change line. Erosion outweighed accretion most probably because of a lack of sediment supply, despite the occurrence of conditions conducive to deposition and accretion during the summer months.
0.5
0.4
03
' 02 0 0.1 0.0
0.1
-03
-0.4 denotes erosion
+ denotes accretion Period From 2/13/81 (Profile No. LK71) to 7/29/81 (Profile No. LK73)
-0.5 1 1
-60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 so 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Offshore Distance, y (m)
Figure 1.3: Spatial changes between periodic surveys for a mud profile along the southwestern Louisiana chenier plain (after Lee, 1995)




6
Results from tests in laboratory flumes can be interpreted to demonstrate trends akin to those in the field. As shown by the profiles obtained at different times in Figure 1.4, when
a beach composed of a mixture of attapulgite and kaolinite clays and of an initially uniform slope eroded, the material was transported beyond the active profile in deeper zone (Lee,
1995). As a result, a substantial sedimentary imbalance occurred. In contrast, a test carried
out under the same conditions of initial beach slope, water depth (h), wave height (Ho) and
wave period (7) using a cohesionless less showed a considerably closer balance, as observed
in Figure 1.5.
0.100
t.7 0.7'hr Run I (AK mud)
0080 T = 1.3 s
t =4.6 hr Ho =12cm
0.060 t- t=21.9 shoreward award h=0.6m
U -00 =44.3hr
0
0.020
U
U0,000 -0.020
"---0040
-0.060
-0080 denotes erosion
+ denotes accretion
-0.100 I I I l l I I I
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1S 19 20 21 22 23 Distance along Flume (m)
Figure 1.4: Spatial changes between periodic surveys for a clayey mud profile in a laboratory flume (after Lee, 1995)




0.100 1 1 1 1 I I I I I
ts- t= 07hr Run I (Loess)
00o0 t .6h T = 13 s
-n- 46rH0 = 12 cm 0060 -e =t21.9 hr shoreward seaward h -06m
eA t44-3hr
~0.040
an
n 0.020
5)0000 w
-0.020
- -0.040
-0.060
-008 denotes erosion
-odewotes accretion
-0.100 1 1 I I I .
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 9 10 It 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Distance along Flume (mn)
Figure 1.5: Spatial changes between periodic surveys of a profile composed of a loess in a laboratory flume (after Lee, 1995)
While the above test results neither comprehensively nor unequivocally demonstrate
the characteristic behavior of mud profiles under wave action, they do make a point that since
the sediment transported away during erosion may not be "~recoverable" as it can be in the
case of a sandy profile, one or more sources of suspended sediment external to the active
profile may be required to build up the mud profile.
1.2 Objective and Scope
Based on the above observations, the goal set for this study is to examine different
features of mud profiles and their dynamics in relation to characteristic features of sandy
profiles and their response to wave forcing. The most important aspect is related to profile




8
shape and cross-shore sediment budget as would be required, e.g., for the application of the Bruun Rule. Specifically, the two following issues are studied: 1) the shape of mud profiles and their response to wave forcing, and 2) role of sediment supply in governing profile erosion/accretion. To examine these issues, field data from three different coastal areas are first examined. Then, laboratory experiments are conducted to test the influence of waves and sediment supply, so that the behavior of the profile changes in time toward either erosion or deposition can be recorded and analyzed. Finally, conclusions concerning the applicability of Bruun Rule for mud shores are given.
1.3 Outline of Presentation
Chapter 2 describes the selected coastal locations and information on the hydrodynamic and sedimentary environments of the areas. Chapter 3 reviews profile equations used in this study. Results of profile fitting and a discussion of the characteristics of field profiles are then presented. Chapter 4 deals with laboratory experiments. The characteristics of measured profile changes are discussed in detail, and differences between mud and sand profiles are further examined. Chapter 5 presents and discusses the findings of this study in terms of erosional and accretionary cycles at muddy coasts, and the applicability of Bruun Rule is reviewed. This chapter ends with concluding remarks and recommendations for future studies.




CHAPTER 2
FIELD INFORMATION
2.1 Site Descriptions
Three beach sites were selected for the purpose of obtaining field information: 1) Pantai Madura, i.e., Madura coast, 2) Pantai Surabaya, and 3) Teluk Waru, i.e., Gulf of Waru. These beaches are located on the south coast of eastern Madura, north coast of eastern Java, and west coast of Lombok, respectively. They were chosen because they are characterized by different hydrodynamic and sedimentary environments, and also due to the availability of data from the sites.

A LOCATIONS OF PANTAI MADURA AND SURABAYA B LOCATION OF TELUK WARU
Figure 2.1: Map of Indonesia. Locations of Pantai Madura, Surabaya, and Teluk Waru are indicated by the letters A and B with arrows pointing to the areas.
9




10
Figure 2.1 shows the Indonesian archipelago, which consists of approximately 13,800 large and small islands. The combined shoreline of the islands stretches to about 81,000 km in length. Although most of the islands are small and sparsely populated, 75% of Indonesia's cities, which contain more than 100 million people, lie in coastal areas (Yuwono, 1993). Java, Madura, and Lombok, where the selected coastal sites are located, are comparatively large and densely populated. Overall, the present coastline of these islands became established about 6,000 years ago, at the end of the major phase of Holocene marine transgression (Hoekstra, 1993).

Figure 2.2 : Locations of Pantai Madura and Surabaya. Both are in the vicinity of an area (enclosed by the rectangle) designated for a proposed bridge connecting the two islands. Pantai Madura is on the Madura side of the area, while Pantai Surabaya is on the Surabaya side.




11
The areas of Pantai Madura and Surabaya (Figure 2.2) examined are situated approximately 3 to 5 km across from each other with Madura Strait in between. A 1991 Indonesian government plan purposed building a bridge for Madura-Surabaya transportation across Madura Strait. Following the plan, geologic, hydrographic, and oceanographic investigations were executed from April 1991 to end of June 1991 as a part of the feasibility study of the area. The area, located about 70 10' to 70 13'/ northern latitude and 1120 46' to 1120 47' eastern longitude, is approximately 20 km2. Bathymetric, sedimentary and hydrodynamic information used in the present study is based on reports of these investigations (BPP Teknologi and Pusat Pengembangan Geologi Kelautan, 1991; BPP Teknologi and Lembaga Penelitian Institut Teknologi Bandung, 1993). Figures 2.3 and 2.4 show the respective beach sites.
Figure 23: Photograph of the study site in Madura taken on August 13, 1994. The shoreline is in Kecamatan (village) Labang of Kabupaten (county) Bangkalan-Madura.




Figure 2.4: Photograph of the study site in Surabaya taken on August 13, 1994. The shoreline is in Kecamatan (village) Kenjeran of Kabupaten (county) Surabaya.
Pantai Teluk Waru (Figure 2.5) is located in a western embayment of Lombok Island, east of the famous Bali Island. Due to its strategic location for supporting marine (shipping) transportation in the eastern part of Indonesia, this site was proposed as a location for dockyards. A hydro-oceanographic survey was conducted from May 13, 1993 to June 5, 1993. The surveyed area, located in the vicinity of 80 451 southern latitude and 1160 04' eastern longitude, was about 1 km2. Information used in the present study is based on the survey report (BPPT Survey Team, 1993; Anantasena et al., 1994). Figure 2.6 is a site photograph of Teluk Waru.

A I-




Figure 2.5: Teluk Waru site (Amsari, 1994). This site is located about 50 km south of Mataram, the capital city of Nusa Tenggara Barat Province. Lembar, a small natural harbor just north of Teluk Waru, can be reached easily by boat from Bali. The rectangular area indicates the region surveyed.




Figure 2.6: Photograph of the study site in Teluk Waru taken on May 19, 1993. The shoreline is in Desa (village) Teluk Waru of Kabupaten (county) Labuhan Tereng Lombok Barat.
2.2 Hydrodynamic Information
Wave characteristics in Pantai Madura and Surabaya were predicted from wind conditions available for these areas using the well known empirical method of Svedrup, Munk, and Bretschneider (BPP Teknologi and Lembaga Penelitian Institut Teknologi Bandung, 1994). Based on 10-year statistics of wind data, the maximum wave height was shown to reach up to 2.1 m with a period of 8 seconds. The dominant wave height (with probability greater than 50%) was in the range of 0.2 to 0.8 m with a period of 3 to 6 seconds.




15
Unlike Madura and Surabaya, wind data are not available for Teluk Waru, and probably due to the typically low wave heights (less than 0.2 m), no wave measurements have been conducted. The comparatively calm wave conditions coupled with a relatively steep sea bottom slope toward offshore contours (from 3 m up to 15 m deep) may explain why this site was the preferred location for dockyards. However, in Lombok Strait, severe wave conditions do occur during the wet monsoon. If these severe waves are taken into consideration, and if they do enter the embayment, maximum wave heights may possibly reach
2 m.
The tidal regimes in the coastal waters of Madura and Surabaya are similar to those in the embayed waters of Teluk Waru. The tides have a mixed character with predominant semidiurnal constituents. It can be seen from Figure 2.2 that the geometry of Madura Strait resembles an open bay with the head on the western side. The incoming tidal wave (from east to west), which originates from a typically predominant diurnal type of tide, may experience superposition due to the reflection of tidal energy. This would result in a forced standing oscillation increasing the contributions of semidiurnal constituents. Hoekstra (1993) found that the amplitudes of the semidiurnal constituents (M2 and $2) exhibit an increase towards the head of the bay by more than 100%, and concluded that the bay of Madura Strait acts as a quarter-wave resonator for semidiurnal tides.
The spring tidal range for both coastal areas of Madura and Surabaya is 2.4 m and based on 15-days of tidal measurements (BPP Teknologi and Pusat Pengembangan Geologi Kelautan, 1991). Current measurements showed that the tidal current in the Surabaya area varies from 0 to 0.7 m/s during spring tide, and a maximum current with magnitude of 1.0




16
rn/s was measured during neap tide. In the Madura area the tidal current varies from 0 to 0.8 rn/s with no significant differences between spring and neap tide. In Teluk Waru, based also on the same 15-days of tidal measurements, it was found that the spring tidal range is 1.6 m (BPPT Survey Team, 1993; Amsa, 1994). Tidal current in this coastal area varies between
0 to 0.10 m/s during spring tide and 0 to 0.06 m/s during neap tide.
From their geographical positions, it can be seen that the selected beaches are not on open coasts. Due to their protected state, they are not subjected to large waves from open seas, such as the South China Sea or the Indian Ocean. On the other hand, large rivers from the hinterland, such as B. Solo and Brantas as shown in Figure 2.2, flow toward the north coast of eastern Java. In Teluk Waru, S. Bagong and S. Sekotong empty into the embayed coastal waters as shown in Figure 2.5. Hence, tidal and estuarine processes coupled with seasonal wind generated waves appear to be the significant hydrodynamic factors at the three sites. Table 2.1 summarizes information collected on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the locations.
Table 2.1: Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Pantai Madura, Surabaya, and Teluk Waru.
Location Spring Tidal Maximum Wave Wave Period Tidal Current
I Range (m) Height (m (second) (m/s)
PantaiMadura 2.4 1.7 2.1 5 8 0.0 0.8
PantaiSurabaya 2.4 1.7 2.1 5 8 0.0 1.0
Pantai Teluk Waru 1.6 2 8 0.0 0.1




2.3 Sedimentary Characteristics
The surficial sedimentary material covering the Madura and Surabaya sites ranges from about 80% clay to 100% sand. The textural classification for sediment samples from Madura and Surabaya is shown in Figure 2.7 and is based on grain size analysis of beach sediment samples taken at 21 different sampling stations (see Tables Al and A3 in Appendix A). Fifteen samples were from the Surabaya side and six from the Madura side. The data points seem to fall into two distinct clusters: 1) a large cluster featuring mixed sand-silt-clay sediment with predominant clay fraction, and 2) a small cluster of sand dominated sediment. In fact, it was stated in the report of the feasibility study (BPP Teknologi and Pusat Pengembangan Geologi Kelautan, 1991) that the sediments in the Madura and Surabaya coastal waters consist of silty mud and poorly graded sand.
The lithology of the deposits in the Surabaya area can be categorized into 5 different classes: 1) flood plain deposits, 2) recent-Holocene nearshore deposits, 3) beach ridge deposits, 4) old river deposits, and 5) marine deposits (BPP Teknologi and Pusat Pengembangan Geologi Kelautan, 1991). Flood plain deposits are characterized by soft and moist clay. The thickness of this type of deposits is on the order of 1 m. Recent-Holocene nearshore deposits are characterized by a variation between soft clay and sandy clay (with a range of fine to medium sand) accompanied by high contents of minerals and mollusks. This class covers the upper layer of sediment with about 10 to 19 m thickness. Beach ridge deposits are characterized by medium to coarse sands with a high content of minerals and mollusks. These deposits are 2 to 3 m thick below the recent-Holocene nearshore deposits.




18
Old river deposits and marine deposits are found at more than 10 m depths. They are characterized by a higher solidity compared to that of the other three deposits.
Hoekstra (1993) noted that the northern shoreline of Java has changed considerably in the last 5,000 6,000 years, since its establishment. He found that in many places along the coast significant coastal progradation has occurred as a result of sediment flux from the hinterland. The layer of 1 m of flood plain deposits found in the Surabaya side is an indication of coastal progradation due to these deposits.
No such classification is available for the Madura coastal area, although clayey and sandy materials with contents of mollusk are found there. The submerged lithology in Madura is distinguished by a high content of rock layers. Clayey, silty and sandy rocks that are frequently composed of limestone are typically found below the upper layer sediments. Also, the composition of rocks in some locations indicates the presence of a fault.
Similar to the Madura and Surabaya areas, the textural classification of Teluk Waru profile sediments is depicted in Figure 2.8, also based on a grain size analysis of surficial samples taken at 19 different sampling stations (see Tables A2 and A3 in Appendix A). As a result of the grain size analysis, it was reported (Anantasena et al., 1994) that fine-grained sediment, with a grain size of 7.53 to 8.20 phi (0.0034 to 0.0054 mm), covers 80% of the surveyed area. However, the sediment distribution has two distinct clusters. As shown in Figure 2.8, the larger cluster featuring a mixture of sand, silt and clay is skewed toward the fine-grained size range.




2.4 Beach Profiles
Beach profiles were taken from the bathymetric maps of the study areas surveyed under supervision of Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPP Teknologi). BPP Teknologi, the Subproject of Study Tri Nusa Bima Sakti covered the Madura-Surabaya area, and BPP Teknologi, Directorate of Technology of Natural Resources Inventory, covered the Teluk Waru area. The bathymetric maps were digitized from the shoreline to selected offshore contours for determining the profiles. Linear interpolation was made between contours whenever necessary. For most profiles, the deepest offshore depth selected was 5 m. For Pantai Madura, 21 profiles were chosen approximately 150 m apart and designated as M1-00, MI-01 to MI-09, and M7-10, M7-11 to M7-20. With the same spacing, 20 profiles were chosen for Pantai Surabaya, designated as S 1-01 to S 1-09, and S4-10 to S4-20. For Teluk Waru, 10 profiles approximately 250 m apart were designated as TW-01, TW-02 to TWI0. All the profiles are presented in Appendix C. Figures 2.9 and 2.10 sketch the area maps with numbered profiles for the Madura-Surabaya area and the Teluk Waru area, respectively.
In general, the bottom topographic contours at all the three areas have a tendency to be parallel to the shoreline, and most of the profiles taken have mild slopes and convexupward profiles. However, in the Madura area, the irregularity of the bottom topography is marked, most likely due to the presence of a rocky substrate. Also, on the Surabaya side of Madura Strait the slope of the profiles markedly increases toward the west (the head of the




bay of Madura Strait). While in Teluk Waru, an increase in slope of the mud profiles is due to the increasing fraction of sand. A more detailed discussion regarding the profiles is given in Chapter 3.

100% clay

75
100%0 sand

100% Silt

Figure 2.7: Textural classification of sediment for beach profiles from Madura and Surabaya. Data points represent median particle size. Circles are for samples from Surabaya, and rectangular points are from Madura. Data points for both areas are clustered by open ovals, indicating that the sediment can be classified in two dominant size ranges.




100% clay

100% sand

100% silt

Figure 2.8 : Textural classification of sediment for beach profiles from Teluk Waru. Circles represent the median particle size. Two open ovals cluster the data points into two dominant size ranges.




22
Pantai Madura

i-
M1-0 M0
M1-02 M1-04

0 500m Madura Strait

$4-05
S4-07

S4-01

S4-03

N
Pantai Surabay
0 500 m

Madura
Q+ ;*LI

S4,09
S4-11
S5 -13 i ...... -...... ........ 5 =15
..... ...... ....SS5 17

S519

Figures 2.9: Sketch showing beach profile lines at Madura and Surabaya. Dashed lines from the shoreline toward offshore represent profiles. Lengths of profiles depicted do not reflect the actual lengths digitized. Numbers 1 and 7 following letter M for Madura profiles, and 4 and 5 following letter S for Surabaya profiles are associated with the sheet numbers of the bathymetric maps.

M7-20

ra




TW-10

TW-09

TW-03

TW-08....

TW -07 -----------TW-04
TW-05
TW-Q6
" A;';\\

TW-02

TELUK
WARU
500 m

TW-01

Figure 2.10: Sketch showing Teluk Waru profile lines. Dashed lines from shoreline toward offshore represent the profiles. Lengths of profiles do not in general reflect their actual lengths digitized.




CHAPTER 3
PROFILE ANALYSIS
3.1 Introduction
The understanding of the dynamics of natural beach profile fluctuations suffers from the complexity of the interaction between sedimentary materials constituting the profiles and the forces acting on them. Nevertheless, the concept of an equilibrium beach profile has been proven to be a useful tool in examining profile changes due to wave action. Under the premise of a balance of the forces acting on the profile, it is considered that an equilibrium shape of the profile will be achieved. Since in nature the profile responds continuously to the changing nearshore forces, the equilibrium profile should be considered to be a dynamic quantity (Dean and Dalrymple, 1995).
y
(0,
y)
(ho yo)
Figure 3. 1: Two-dimensional beach profile showing the coordinates adopted. Point (0,0) is the shoreline position, and (hi, y) is a profile point denoting an arbitrary position with depth hi and distance y, from the shoreline. Point (h, yo) is the offshore terminus beyond which the profile does not change significantly.




As far as the study of equilibrium beach profiles is concerned, natural profiles may be classified as: 1) coarse-grained profiles and 2) fine-grained profiles. Coarse grained profiles are typically sand (cohesionless) dominated, with size of sand ranging from fine to coarse sand. On the other hand, fine-grained profiles are typically mud dominated in size, ranging from silt to clay. The two types of profiles can be disthinguised not only from their different sedimentary characteristics, but also from their mechanics of sediment transport, which result in different profile responses to the prevailing hydrodynamic forces.
The shore-normal beach profile depicted in Figure 3.1 can be expressed as
h = h(y) (3.1)
where h is the water depth and y is the offshore distance from the shoreline. Intuitively, if h(y) in Equation 3.1 is a representative model of the profile geometry of the actual profile, it should involve one (or more) physical parameter(s) that represent the physical processes which mold the profile. Many investigators have proposed various expressions of profile models, ranging from the most simplistic linear relationship to complicated empirical and/or theoretical relationships; some of them are mentioned by Bodge (1992). Lee (1995) tabulated many of the profile equations in terms of the forms of the equations (power, exponential and logarithmic), sediment size (sand and rock), the development basis (theoretical, laboratory and field), and the investigators.




26
3.2 Coarse-Grained Profile Equation
A well known coarse-grained profile equation was proposed by Bruun (1954) and Dean (1977), and has the power form
h =Ay' (3.2)
where A is a profile scale parameter and n is an empirical exponent. Bruun (1954) examined beach profiles from the Danish North Sea coast and from Monterey Bay in California, and found that n has a central value of 2/3. Dean (1977) applied Equation 3.2 to 504 beach profiles collected by Hayden et al. (1975) along the U.S. east coast and the Gulf of Mexico, and also concluded that n is centered at 2/3. Most recently, Charles (1994) investigated Equation 3.2 using 207 profiles from Florida's east coast, and found that n = 0.67 is a good representative value for the profiles.
Dean (1977) further found that Equation 3.2 would result from considering the equilibrium state of (constructive and destructive) forces through a uniform wave energy dissipation argument. In fact, the central value of n = 2/3 is in agreement with the equilibrium beach profile resulting from uniform wave energy dissipation per unit volume Deq expressed as
D eq =dF (3.3)
h dy
where .F is the wave energy flux. It is important to note that the concept behind this development is based on the assumption that the turbulence in the surf zone created by breaking waves is responsible for the wave energy dissipation. Using shallow water linear




27
wave theory (Dean and Dalrymple, 1984) for energy flux, i.e., TF -pgH2/g7i, and
8
assuming a spilling breaker in terms of wave height H and breaking index K, i.e., H = K h, it can be shown that Equation 3.3 is simplified to: h = A y 2/3 (3.4)
where A is given by
A ( p3/2i) 2 (3.5)
with g and p representing gravitational acceleration and the density of the water, respectively. Furthermore, Dq has the form
Deq 5P Lg32 K2 1 h"12- (3.6)
16 dy
which indicates that wave energy dissipation is related to the slope of the profile dh/dy, which thereby indirectly relates to the grain size of the beach profile. Dean (1990) postulated that Deq represents wave energy dissipation rate per unit water volume under which a sediment particle of a given size is stable. Therefore A can be expected to be related to the grain size. In this respect, Moore (1982) developed an empirical relationship between A and grain size. As a consequence, Equation 3.4 can be considered to mean that for a beach profile composed of a given sediment size there should be a corresponding A, and that the water depth should be proportional to the distance offshore to the two-thirds power, thus forming a concaveupward curve.




28
For the purpose of examining the relationship between the shape of field profiles and the sedimentary environment described in Chapter 2, Equation 3.2 is used instead of Equation 3.4. Whether field profiles have concavity characteristic of sandy shores is a matter of interest here. Note that the profile shape exhibited by Equation 3.2 can be concave upward when n < 1, convex upward when n > 1, and linear when n = 1.
Two methods of profile fitting based on the least squares principle are used in this study in order to determine the n and A parameters that provide the best approximations to the measured profiles. The first method, which may be called the log-log method, is performed by first linearizing Equation 3.2, i.e., taking the logarithm of each side of the Equation 3.2:
/nh = InA + n mny (3.7)
Substituting X = Inh, B = mnA and Y = mny, Equation 3.7 can be rewritten as a linear equation
X-=nY +B (3.8)
Applying the least squares method, i.e., minimizing the objective error Eob given by Eob (X1. n Y.- B)2 (3.9)

the best (least squares) fit of n and B can be established from




N
n =)(3.10)
N
B = -nY (3.11)
where M= number of data points, X 1,X, and Z = EY. The scale parameter A
N N
is then obtained from Equation 3.11, i.e.,
A = e B (3.12)
It is necessary to note that the expression of the summation of the square errors E for Equation 3.2 is different from the objective error Eob expressed in Equation 3.9. The quantity F is given by
E= (h, A y n)2 (3.13)
where hi denotes the measured water depth at the position y,.
The second method, which may be called the iteration method, is similar to the Newton-Raphson method for calculating the roots of equations. Using Taylor Series expansion, Equation 3.2. can be rewritten as h = A y" + _h AA+ ah- An (3.14)
h 4 an




30
Similar to Equation 3.9, the objective error Cob is given by
ah. Sh
Cob = (h A y AA a' An) (3.15)
ah
Applying the least squares method, i.e., minimizing Cob, and substituting yin and BA
Bh.
' h, Iny1, leads to
an
b= (-h, + Ay,'n) yin + AA n (yn)2 + An yin (h, Iny) = 0 (3.16A)
aAA
C b = (-h, + Ayn) yl + AA Zy n (h, Iny) + An (y n)2= 0 (3. 16B)
aAn
which are linear, and solvable for the two unknowns An and AA with given initial values of n and A. Equations 3.16A and 3.16B are then iterated with improved values of A and n which can be expressed as
A k+1 = Ak + AAk (3.17A)
nk+ = n k + Ank (3.17B)
where superscripts k and k+1 denote values at the kth iteration and (k+1)th iteration, respectively. This iterative procedure will converge to a minimum value of E given by Equation 3.13, at which the best fit values of A and n are obtained.




31
3.3 Fine-Grained Profile Equation
As mentioned earlier in this chapter, fine-grained profile response to hydrodynamic forces is different from that of coarse-grained profiles. There have been few systematic studies examining the behavior of natural fine-grained profiles. In fact, the manner in which fine-grained profiles respond to wave forcing is not well understood, and is just beginning to be dealt with in analytic terms (Lee and Mehta, 1996). In the present study, the mud profile geometry due to Lee (1995) is used as the counterpart of the power form (Equation 3.2) for sandy proifies.
Lee (1995) argued that wave breaking is not always the primary energy sink within the surf zone for mud profiles, and postulated that instead it is the viscous effects in mud that mainly dissipate the wave energy. Hence, he developed a mud profile geometry by first stating wave energy dissipation in terms of the well known exponential decay law for wave height due to viscous effects as
H(y) = H0 e -k,(vo -v) (3.18)
where H0 is the incident wave height at y = yo, k, is the wave attenuation coefficient and yo is the seaward end of the active profile length (Figure 3. 1). Next, similar to the development of Equation 3.4, this decay law is substituted into the expression for uniform wave energy dissipation per unit area Eeq (as opposed to unit volume)
E eq = F(3.19) dy




leading to

1pg 3/2HO2 _e 2kiyo -Y)h 1/2) = Eeq
8 dy
or
(e 2k,(yo -')h 1/2) 8Eeq dy Pg 3/2HO2
Integration of Equation 3.21 yields
2k( )8Eq
-2ki(vo Y) h1/2 8Eeq g3/2Ho2Y

(3.20)

(3.21)

(3.22)

Lee (1995) pointed out that k, may vary withy across the profile, and defined a representative average value ki, corresponding to the equilibrium value of energy dissipation Equation 3.22 can then be rewritten as

e -2(yo ) h 1/2] 8Eeq
93/2HO2

(3.23)

At the offshore terminus (ho, yo), Equation 3.23 can be expressed as

H2 8Eq YO
pg3/2 1/2
Pg ho

(3.24)




33
Eliminating H02 between Equation 3.24 and Equation 3.23 yields the profile geometry
h = ho e (3.25)
Yo
which can be conveniently non-dimensionalized according to h = e4K(1 J) 32 (3.26)
where 9 y/yo, h h/ho, and K = Y0 is a non-dimensional wave attenuation parameter, which scales k, by the length of the profile, yo.
Lee (1995) found that Equation 3.25 did not fit field data well in the nearshore portion of profiles, and indicated that wave dissipation mechanisms other than those arising from wave energy absorption by mud, e.g., turbulence due to wave breaking, were responsible for the discrepancy. To cope with this problem, Lee (1995) added an empirical nearshore depth correction term, CN
CN = Fye-Py (3.27)
to Equation 3.25 resulting in a modified profile geometry
h = Fye -Py + ho e (Y)2 (3.28)
'Y0
where F = the bottom slope at the shoreline and 13 = the offshore extent of the combined influences of the slope at the shoreline and scour due to wave breaking. Ultimately, in order




34
to consistently retain the boundary condition at offshore terminus, i.e., h = ho at y =y0, Lee (1995) obtained the final form of the mud profile geometry h= Fye 1j + (ho- Fye -Y) e4T(yk Y) (y()2
yo, (3.29)
He concluded that this geometry still retains the analytic nature of the model expressed by Equation 3.25.
The least squares method can be used to obtain the best-fit parameter values of f3, k, and F. If hi denotes the measured water depth at the position y,, and h(y) denotes the predicted depth at the same position y,, then the summation of the squares of errors, c, is
E = E [ hi h(y) ]2 (3.30)
which is identical to Equation 3.13, except that here the predicted depth h(y) is given by
h(y) = Fye _Y' + (ho- Fye PY ) e4kj'- y,) (I) 2
yo (3.31)
Due to the difficulty in linearizing Equation 3.31 to obtain analytic expressions for the best-fit parameters, a trial and error method is used. The method involves the computation of the sum of the square errors in the P, k., and F values, and then locates the minimum value of Eat which the three parameters provide the best-fit for the profile data.




The root-mean-square error, e ...., for each profile fitted is determined by
Nim 11/2 (3.32)
where E is given by Equation 3.13 with respect to the power form of Equation 3.2 for sandy profiles, or Equation 3.30 for the mud profile geometry given by Equation 3.29.
It is necessary to note that for the purpose of profile fitting, not all of the data points digitized in a particular profile line are used. The end of the offshore point should be taken as the offshore terminus beyond which there are no significant temporal profile changes. Judgement is required in selecting the terminal depth h, of the profiles examined. Often this terminal depth is selected at the point where a sudden change in a profile occurs. This is illustrated in Figure 3.2, which shows a profile from Pantai Madura. As seen the total number of data points in the profile designated as M7-14 is 38, but the number of data points used for profile fitting is only 16, because the terminal depth is located (3.5 0 m 400 m) where an abrupt change in the profile curve begins to occurs and forms a mound before sinking into greater depths off-shore. This bar-like formation, which can also be found in the other profiles in the east part of the study area (M7- 13 to M7-2 1), is possibly due to the presence of a rocky substrate in Pantai Madura.




Plotting of Field Profile
Pantai Madura, M7-14

Offshore terminus
0 100 10 200 25030 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 9M 950 1000
Offshore Distance (n)

Figure 3.2: Plot of profile M7-14 from Pantai Madura, showing the selected location of the offshore terminus. All the field profiles from the three areas are given in Appendix C.




37
3.4 Field Profile Analysis
Fifty one field profiles were examined in the present study. They are 21 profiles from Pantai Madura, 20 profiles from Pantai Surabaya, and 10 profiles from Teluk Waru, as described in Section 2.4. Equations 3.2 and 3.29 were fitted to all of the profiles to inspect the ranges of the values of the respective parameters involved in the equations, and to assist in the interpretation of the nature of the profiles. Examples of the best-fit from each location are shown in Figures 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. Results for all the profiles are given in Tables B.1I through B.6 in Appendix B, while the distributions ofA and n values of Equation 3.2 for each location are given as histograms in Figures 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, and in Figure 3.9 for all profiles from the three areas.
Figure 3.6 shows the n and A histograms for the Madura profiles. It is seen that the n and A have average values of 0.98 and 1.87 x 1 0', respectively, while n ranges from 0.50 to 1.55 and A from 1.50 x 10-4~ to 1.13 x 10-1. Although not quite distinct, the n distribution has a tendency toward a bell-shape, consistent with what is normally found by others (e.g., Lee, 1995; Dean, 1977). This distribution is roughly centered at n = 1, more or less demarcating the distributions of n >1 and n < 1. On the other hand, the highest frequency of occurrence of A is found at A < 0.01. It is observed that higher values of n (>0.80) are typically accompanied by smaller values A (<0.02), and when n > 1 the profile (see Figure 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5) is notably convex, suggesting stable, accretionary fine-grained dominated beaches (Lee, 1995). In addition, it is noted that the overall slope of the profiles from Madura tends to increase slightly in the westerly direction (toward the head of the bay of Madura Strait).




.. . .. . .. .. ... .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .......
- a. m
.......... .......................................................... ........ 2 m ..
...... ..... ...... ..... ...... .....

100 200

3 4O00 500 Soo 700 "o WO0 1000 1100
Ofshoru Distance (m)
i .. .. ... .........

Log-log Method: A = 2.54 x 10-2, n 0.71, e_ = 0.28 m Iteration method: A= 4.69x102 n = 0.53, e_ = 0.98 m Mud Profile Eq.:T=1.l0xlO-'m -' F=0.007, P=0.001, e, 0.17m

0 .5 ........................... .. ........... ................... I ................. ..........,
0.15 t. ........
-2 ...........
C-3
-3 U
Offthore Distance (m)
Log-log Method: A = 4.80x103 n = 0.98, e_=0.26 m Iteraton Method: A= 3.31x10-4 n =1.31, e-= 0.91 m MudProfile Eq.:k=3.31xl04m-', F=0.009, 0=0.011, e _0.13m

Figure 3.3: Two examples of fitting Equation 3.2 and Equation 3.29 to Madura profiles. Solid line represents Equation 3.2 using the log-log method, while the dashed line is for the iteration method. The log-log method is found to fit the profiles better than the iteration method for all Madura profiles. Equation 3.29 is shown by a dotted line.

..............I......... ...........
I. .......... ... ......
4
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 22 24 2M 25 30 32 3 30 40 42
Offshore Distance (meter)
O -- t
Log-log Method: A 4.61x 10 n= 1.22, es = 0. 10 m Iteration method: A= 2.79x10 2, n= 1.37 e., = 0.20 m Mud Profile Eq.:k=3.07xl04m -' ,F=0.080, P=0.041, e =0.03m

0 0 100 100 20 200 3 0 4 00 00 6 00W 60 O 700 70 0O Offshore Distance (meter)
S daft-Lo.9 t...
Log-log Method: A 7.70x10- n =1.19, e,=0.08 m Iteration Method: A= 2.70x10 n= 0.78, e_,=0.91 m MudProfile Eq.:jF,5.70x0-4m-', F=0.008, fI0.031, e,,, -0.16m

Figure 3.4: Two examples of fitting Equation 3.2 and Equation 3.29 to Surabaya profiles. Solid line represents Equation 3.2 using the log-log method, while the dashed line is for the iteration method. For profile S4-0, the log-log method gives a better fit, but not for profile S5-20. However, most of the Surabaya profiles are better fitted by log-log method than by the iteration method. Equation 3.29 (mud profile equation) is shown by a dotted line.




- 4. .. . ... . . ...............................
SS
-5 1.. .. .... ...
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 5 55 65 70
OffhoreDistance(meter) 0 5 10 15 20 30 35 4 5505 60 070 75 85
Offshore Distance (meter)
S c~a- Lg--ft Mdln cbta- Log-- ft Log-log Method: A = 4.61x 10', n= 1.22, e_ = 0.20 m Log-log Method: A 7.70x104, n =119, e, 0.11 in Iteration method: A= 2.79x10 n=1.37, e_, = 0.14 m Iteration Method: A= 2.70x10-3, n=0.78, em,=0.10 n Mud Profile Eq.:k=l.76x1-3m -1 ,F=0.169. 0=0.031, e,,, =0.08m Mud Profile Eq.:k=l.01xl03-m -', F=0.053, P=0.021, e, =0.09m
Figure 3.5: Two examples of fitting Equation 3.2 and Equation 3.29 to Waru profiles. Solid line represents Equation 3.2 using the log-log method, while the dashed line is for the iteration method. Unlike for the other two areas, the iteration method fits all of the Waru profiles better than the log-log method does. Fitting of Equation 3.29 (mud profile equation) is presented by dotted line.
Figure 3.7 shows n and A distributions for the Surabaya profiles. It appears that the distributions are wider than those for Madura profiles. The range value of n is 0.13 to 1.60 with average n = 0.97, while the range value ofA is 4.88 x 10-4 to 3.83 x 10-1 with an average A = 6.89 x 102. Unlike the Madura data, the n-distribution does not seem to have a bell-shaped tendency, and is skewed toward higher values of n (>0.80). This implies that the majority of the profiles are convex, indicated by n approaching (or greater) than 1, and accompanied by relatively low values ofA (<0.02). It should be noted that two profiles (S510 and S5-12) gave unusually small values of n, accompanied by unusual large values of A. This anomaly probably reflects the complexity of the sedimentary environment and of the bottom topography of the study area.




40
0.25
Average n =0.98
LA.
.
Avrg 1 7x1. 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
~0 5. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.305 0.415 0.55 0.65 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 7.5 .5 .5 01.45 0155 0165
A (for Madura)
Figue 36: istgras o paameersA ad nfoAve ra profiles-




41
0.4
Average n = 0.97
0.3 5 .........................................................................................
t 0.3 .................................. .........................................
0.25 . . . . . . . . . .. .........................................
0
0 0 .2 ... . . . . . . . . . ...................................
h .
41015............................................ .......... ....................
(3.
LL 0.1 ................................ .........................
005....................................................... .....
0.05 0.15 0.25 0.35 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.55 1.65
n (for Surabaya)
0.5
Average A 689 x 10-2
0.4 5 ...............................................................................................
0
0 0 .4 ..............................................................................................
b % 3 5 .............................................................................................
() 0 .3 ..............................................................................................
0 o.25 ..............................................................................................
t: 0 .2 ...............................................................................................
~0.1 5
0.05
,i .,25 L I..s LES 4l6 0MS *.4 M.145 0.1 S LMS L US &25 LS O L eS L 42.S M.3S *.I, LIEs
A (for Surabaya)

Figure 3.7: Histograms of parameters A and n for Surabaya profiles




42
0.35
Average n = 0.90
0 .3 .. . . . .. . . . ........................................
. 25 . . . . . . . .........................................
0 0 .2 ......................................................................
0.35
0
0.2
0,3
0D .3 . . .. ..................... .. . . . .........................................
0 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . ..
LL
S0 .0 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.1 1
0.05 .
0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.35
n (for Waru)
0.35
Average A =8.42 x10'
0.3..............................................................................
.................................................................................
.................................................................................
~0.05-- ... ............ .................... ............................ ...
0
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24
A (for Wary)
Figure 3.8: Histograms of parameters A and n for Teluk Waru profiles




43
It is observed that Surabaya profiles have a noteworthy tendency of increasing overall slope in the westerly direction. At the eastern end of the study area, the overall slope is very mild, on the order of 0.002, while at the west end area it rises to the order of 0. 1. This rise in slope is indicated by higher values of A, and is most likely due to the higher current along the narrower width of Madura Strait toward the head of the bay.
Figure 3.8 shows n and A distributions for Teluk Waru profiles. These profiles have the narrowest distributions of n and A of the three. The range of n is between 0.63 to 1.20 with an average n = 0.90, while the range of A is between 2.52 x 102' and 1. 10 x 10' with an average A = 8.42 x 10'. It should be pointed out that these narrow distributions are likely to be reflective of the narrow sediment size distribution covering the profiles and of the relatively less complex bottom topography of the area. From the distributions of n and A and the sedimentary properties, it is deemed that Teluk Waru profiles exhibit the characteristics of mildly convex, fine-grain dominated profiles with a tendency toward accretion. In addition, unlike the profiles from Madura and Surabaya, the iteration method for A and n for least squares fit gives better results than the log-log method for all Teluk Warn profiles, in terms of giving the smallest root-mean-square errors.
The average values of n for the three areas do not fall into the range normally found for sandy profiles. The values are higher than 2/3 as indicated by Equation 3.4, and also higher than 0.82 found by Kaihatu (1990) and 0.83 by Kotvojs and Fried (1991) for dissipative beaches, respectively. This indicates that in general the shape of profiles examined are characteristically different from the common shapes of sandy profiles.




44
0.3
Average n = 0. 96
0.25 ............ .............................................................................
Z 0 .2 ............................................. ........................................
0
0 0.15 ...............................................................................
0.1. ....................................... .......... .........................
0
h."
0.
0.05 0.15 0.25 0.35 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.35 1.45 1.55 .5 1.75
n (for all profiles)
Average A = 5.12 x0-2
0 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................................................
LL0.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
& il
0.0 .2 .4 00500;U1 0.2 '1 O1iig .0 .2 .4 :6 O2bO3id3iOM 035OM
A0fral rfis
Fiue39:Hsorm fprmeesAad o llpoie




45
The combined distributions of A and n for all of the profiles fitted are shown in Figure 3.9. Average values of n and A are 0.96 and 5.12 x 10-2, respectively. These values are consistent with the fact that the majority of the profiles have mild slopes and are linear to convex. From these distributions, it is tentatively concluded that the profiles are relatively stable and have a tendency toward accretion rather than erosion. Lee (1995) observed that convex profiles (n >1) do occur on both coarse-grained and muddy shorelines; however his average values of n for mud profiles were in the range of 0.5 0.6 (with a mean of 0.54). This lower value of n may represent the eroding profiles he fitted, e.g., from the western Louisiana coast, and from the western coast of peninsular Malaysia.
The average values ofA and n for each location and for all profiles are quite different from the 2/3 value in Equation 3.4. It is not possible from the present study to determine whether this difference is due to profile disequilibrium, or due to failure of Equation 3.4 in describing the profiles. Nevertheless, some rational arguments can be advanced as follows: a) The majority of the profiles fitted have convex-upward shapes. In contrast, a basic feature of beach profiles on which Equation 3.2 is originally based is that the profiles tend to be concave-upward (Dean and Charles, 1994).
b) The sedimentary environment and bottom topography of the study sites (Pantai Madura and Surabaya) are very complex, with fine-grained material dominating the sediment distribution. On the other hand, most applications and evaluations of Equation 3.4 have been for sandy profiles by considering a single representative sediment size across the profiles. Although attempts have been made to include the natural, cross-shore variation in sediment size along the profile (e.g., Larson, 199 1; Work and Dean, 199 1; Dean et al., 1993), it is not




46
feasible in the present study to consider such sediment variations due to the limited data available.
c) The profiles examined feature very gentle slopes upward from a moderate depth (3 to 5 m) to the shoreline so that there is a high probability that most of the time the wave energy approaching the shoreline dissipates gradually (most likely due to viscous effect), and that waves disappear without any significant breaking (Keulegan and Krumbein, 1949). Moreover, the relatively protected situations of the coastal waters make the areas rarely subject to large waves. On the other hand, Equation 3.4 is valid for the breaking wave regime.
d) The simple equilibrium beach profile used here is not sufficient to represent the complex nearshore hydrography of the selected coastal areas. As mentioned in Section 2.2, tidal and estuarine processes play a significant role in the coastal dynamics of the study sites. Dean and Charles (1994) noted that the equilibrium beach profile concept (represented by Equation 3.4) is not applicable to three-dimensional situations or where extraneous influences occur, such as near inlets where other agents (beside waves) are operative or where rock outcrops and reefs are present.
e) The method of profile data collection by digitizing bathymetric maps probably does not give an accurate picture of the actual profiles, because some details of profile shape may have been overlooked by the interpolation method used to estimate depths between contour lines (or points).
1) As observed by Lee (1995), the settling velocity, w, of the fine-grained material is so low that it is beyond the range of the empirical relationship parameter A versus w~, formulated by




Dean (1987) as

0.44
A =0.067 W,

(3.33)

Figure 3.10 based on the overall range of average A-values found in this study illustrates the relationship ofA and w,. It is observed that this relationship is not unequivocal, and therefore is not predictable by Equation 3.33.

0.01

1.00 10.00 100.00
Sediment Settling Velocity, w. (cm/s)

1000.00

Figure 3.10: Profile scale parameter, A, as a function of sediment settling velocity, w,. Box shows the domain of values obtained for field mud profiles analyzed by Lee (1995) and of mean values in the present study.

0 Data compiled by Dean (1987) 0
Equation 3.33 0'
00
0
0
.7"'0
0Y
0




48
From Figures 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5, it is evident that Equation 3.29 fits the profiles better than Equation 3.2. In fact, the root mean square error (erms) given by fitting of Equation 3.29 yields a smaller values than Equation 3.2, for most of the profiles fitted. Hence, it is concluded that Equation 3.29 better represents the profiles examined in this study, and this appears to be consistent with the sedimentary environment, which is dominated by finegrained material.
Geometrically, it can be observed that the difficulty of fitting Equation 3.2 to profiles is primarily due to the inability of this equation in simulating the nearshore part of the profile, which tends to be irregular. Dean (1990) applied a correction for this problem by reconfiguring Equation 3.3 with an added gravity term leading to
D eq Adh dF =D
Fs dy hd eq (3.34)
where Fs is the beach slope. Equation 3.34 can be integrated to yield y = hL + 1 h 3/2 (3.35)
Fs A 3/2
Referring to Equation 3.2 as the basic form of the beach profile, Equation 3.35 by analogy is
h I
y + n(3.36)




49
Equation 3.36 seems to be comparable with Equation 3.29 because it has three parameters to be fitted. However, unlike Equation 3.29, Equation 3.36 does not satisfy the boundary condition at the offshore terminus. Thus, comparing Equations 3.2, 3.29, and 3.36, Equation 3.29 has the advantage in fitting the profiles because it has the nearshore depth correction and also satisfies the offshore terminus condition. Furthermore, Equation 3.29 is physically based on the concept of wave energy absorption by mud, which is realistic for the present case.
Table 3.1 gives the average values of the three parameters including in Equation 3.29. Lee (1995) reported that convex and accretionary profiles are observed in the range of 0 < K< 0.2, and concave and erosional profiles in the range of 0.3 < K < 0.5. In the range 0.2



0.7 0.6
0
0.5 .....................................................................................
t 0 .4 ...................................................................................
r 0 .3 ...................................................................................
0O.1
0000 0.0009 0.0015 0.0021 0.0027 0.0033 0.0039 0.0045 0.0051 0.0057 O.OOM3 0.0049 0.0075 0,0061
k, (for all profiles)
0.5
0.4
0 0 .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
0.2
0.1
0
0.05 0. 5 0.25 0.0. 0.0. 0. 5 0.05 0.5 0.05 1.05 0.15
K (for all profiles)

Figure 3.11: Histograms of k1 and K for all field profiles examined




0.4
r 0 .3 ............. ........ ... . . ... ........... .................. . .. ...... ... ...................
:b0.2 ...... .....................................................................
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O MIS OA1 i.25 0.025 O.4S 0.055 KOSS ".75 e#OAS $ &M LM 0.115 6.125 0.125 &,U1S 0.155 .Lis 0.175
F (for all profiles)
0.3
z 0 .2 ....... ....... ............. ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................
U
U
0
& 0 .1 ..................................... .............. ....................
E
o
0
0.005 0.015 0.025 0.5 03 0.046 0.055 MM.06 0.075 0 *.8 0 5 0.105 0.115 0.125
Bet (for all profiles)

Figure 3.12: Histograms of F and 3 for all field profiles examined




Table 3. 1: Mean values of the three parameters in Equation 3.29 for each study area
Area Mean Ma Mean Mean Mea
___________ ~ k, (i/m) j1 K j F ______~ (n
Pantai Madura 4.12 x 104 0.22 0.010 0.016 0.21
Pantai Surabaya 1.07 x 10-3 0.20 0.058 0.041 0.13
Teluk Waru 2.00 x 10-3 0.26 0.073 0.037 1 0.05

Figure 3.11 shows the distributions of k, and K, and Figure 3.12 shows the distributions of F and P3, for all profiles. For each area, the histograms of the parameters are given in Figure B. 1 through Figure B.6 in Appendix B. The histograms in Figure 3.11 and Figure 3.12 are skewed toward smaller values. This feature is probably reflective of the mildly convex shapes of the profiles. It is noted that thirty-two profiles are scattered over the convex to transition ranges (K < 30). However, if the distributions are split into two categories by K = 0. 15, as done by Lee (1995), i.e., accretionary profiles for K < 0. 15 and erosional profiles for K > 0. 15, then twenty four profiles are in the accretionary state, and twenty-seven in erosional state. Table 3.2 summarizes this division in terms of the mean and standard deviations of the parameters in Equation 3.29. For comparison, Table 3.3 shows the results of Lee (1995) using 96 field profiles from six different coastal areas.




53
Table 3.2: Values of parameters in Equation 3.29 for erosional and accretionary profile configurations using K = 0.15 as the demarcation value
Profile F K _ (l/m)
State Mean J Std. dev. Mean Std. dev. Mean Std. dev. Mean Std. dev.
Accretionary
(24) 0.059 0.055 0.026 0.028 0.04 0.04 0.00034 0.00047
Erosional
(27) 0.025 0.023 0.034 0.032 0.39 0.19 0.0016 0.0019
a Numbers in parentheses denote number of profiles.

Table 3.3: Results of profile divisions into erosional and accretionary configurations (after Lee, 1995) using K = 0.15 as the demarcating value
Profile F _K
State' Mean Std. dev. Mean Std. dev. Mean JStd. dev.
Accretionary
(15) 0.026 0.019 0.015 0.008 0.02 0.03
Erosional
(81) 0.059 0.083 0.046 0.054 0.42 0.13
aNumbers in parentheses denote number of profiles.

It should be be noted that, in general, F and 3 (in addition to k,) play important roles in characterizing the profile. In other words, changing the values of F or P for a constant ki can change the profile shape significantly, or at least modify the profile from the original shape. The effects ofF and [3 become more apparent when the length of the profile




54
is relatively short. However, it is difficult to extract general characteristics of F and 1 associated with concave and convex profiles, because a concave profile may have a range of values of F and P3. At the same time, an increase in F can be identified by a decrease in profile length. From Table 3.1 it is seen that an increase in the (mean) value of F from Madura to Waru may be explained by a decrease in profile length from Madura to Waru. Also, the decreasing length of Surabaya profiles in the westerly direction is matched by increasing values of F. This effect of F can be explained as the result of the significance of F as accounting for the influence of bottom scour due to wave breaking in the nearshore portion of the profile. Hence, the longer the profile the smaller the relative contribution of F.
Some of the tendencies characteristic of these parameters in shaping a profile are outlined in the following:
a) A larger kis associated with a more concave-upward profile. Conversely, lower Iis associated with a more convex-upward profile. A concave-upward profile is identified by a steep slope over the nearshore part of the profile, indicating an erosional situation due to a larger wave height that is reduced by dissipation due to fluid mud generated by erosion, and reflected by a comparatively high ic,. Tfhe opposite is the case for a convex-upward profile. b) A larger P3 tends to raise the nearshore part of the profile, while a smaller P~ tends to lower it. The effect of this parameter seems to be in opposition to that of F. c) A larger F corresponds to an increase in the nearshore slope of the profile, while a smaller F decreases it.




CHAPTER 4
LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS
4.1 Introduction
To further assess the characteristics of profile response to wave action, and the role of sediment supply in accreting the profile, laboratory experiments were conducted using sand and mud as sediment. The experiments were intended to give detailed information on: 1) time-dependent profile change, 2) wave attenuation coefficient obtained from wave measurements, 3) differences in profile changes, if any, between muddy and sandy profiles, and 4) the effect of covering the mud profile with a layer of fluid mud. Based on this information, the temporal behavior of the profiles and the characteristics of the equations used to fit the field profiles were further examined.
The experiments were conducted in a wave flume in the Coastal Engineering Laboratory at the University of Florida. This flume has been divided into four subflumes. The same flume was used by Lee (1995) previously, except that in the present study only two of the four subflumes were used. In these subflumes sand and mud profiles were formed. Fluid mud was poured over the mud profile to magnify the viscous effect of wave energy dissipation, and to study the role of external sediment supply in changing profile geometry.




56
The equipment and procedures for data acquisition, in general, followed those used by Lee (1995). The experimental equipment, procedure, test conditions, results and discussions are given in the following sections.
4.2 Equipment
The experimental equipment included: 1) wave Flume, 2) measuring carriage, 3) sediment coring device, and 4) other apparatuses.
Wave Flume
The wave flume was 3.1 m wide, 0.9 m deep, and 33.5 m long and was divided into four subflumes (see Figures 4.1 and 4.2). Each subflume, partitioned by concrete brickwalls, had a width of 0.16 m and spanned about 3/4 length of the main flume (from the end of the shore portion of the main flume at 0.00 m to the end of the subflume partitions at 23 m). The two subflumes used are indicated by letters A and B in Figure 4.1.
At the offshore end of the main flume, a wave board actuated by a piston driven by a 7-HP motor generated monochromatic waves. Wave conditions could be adjusted by changing the wave stroke position (for wave height) and the periodicity of the stroke (for wave period).
Measuring Carriage
The measuring carriage was a moving conveyance made of steel, and could carry wave gages and point gages so that measurements of profile changes and wave height




57
envelope along the subflumes could be made. With a wheel base, the carriage was moveable on iron rails placed atop both sides of the main flume walls. Two capacitance-type wave gages were fixed on the wave-generator side of the carriage, and two point gages on the opposite side, one pair (wave gage and point gage) for each subflume (see Figure 4.1).

Top View

35 m

Piston type wave maker
-.4 0

Plan View
0.91 m

Not drawn to scale

Figure 4.1 : Schematic of the flume. The two subflumes used were A and B.




A B

Figure 4.2: Photograph of the flume with the wavemaker at the end of seaward portion of subflumes A and B




59
The point gages were equipped with graduated scales with verniers capable of measuring height changes to the nearest 0. 1 mm. Bottom profile measurement was carried out under muddy water conditions when visual observation of the profile bottom was not possible. Therefore, to help determine the bottom elevation, the point gages were equipped with expanded tips made of 2 cm by 8 cm steel strips that augmented the "feel" of profile bottom during measurement.
Surface waves were measured by capacitance-type wave gages. The wave signals produced were then recorded and digitized by an integrated data acquisition system comprising a signal amplifier, a digitizing interface card and a personal computer with Global Lab software. The wave gages were calibrated by changing the vertical position of the gages at fixed water levels in the flume. Given digitized data sets consisting of voltage outputs corresponding to known water levels, the calibration constant was easily determined using linear regression.
Sediment Coring Device
For density measurement, the sediment coring device consisted of two 76 cm long concentric tubes: the inner tube of a 1.5 cm diameter made of metal and open at both bottom and top, and the outer cylinder of 8 cm diameter made of PVC. These two tubes formed an annular space between them which was closed at the bottom and open at the top (see Figure
4.3).
During measurement, a plastic tube of 1.30 cm diameter was enclosed in the inner cylinder and embedded in the soft mud bottom for about 15 minutes, while the annular space




60
was filled with a mixture of dry ice and denatured alcohol to freeze the soft mud contained in the plastic tube. The density of the sediment core retrieved from the plastic tube was then determined as the weight of the core divided by the volume occupied by it in the plastic tube.
Inner tube 8 cm
Outer tube Plastic tube
T F'LMetal cylinder

76 cm

1.5 cm

PVC cylinder
Annular space
filled with mixture
of dry ice and
denatured alcohol
____Sediment core
Not drawn to scale

Figure 4.3: Schematic of sediment coring device




Other Apparatuses
Other apparatuses were those required to facilitate the operation of the equipment described and running the experiments. Examples are a water pump, a wooden board, 40gallon plastic containers, etc.
4.3 Sediments
The selected sediments for subflumes A and B were an artificial clay mixture and a fine sand, respectively. The clay mixture was an equal proportion (by weight) of an attapulgite and a kaolinite. The atapulgite was obtained from Floridian Company, in Quincy, FL, and the kaolinite from Feldspar Corporation, in Edgar, FL. The median sizes of attapulgite and kaolinite were approximately 1.5 gm. The clay mixture was prepared by mixing the dry mixture with well water, resulting in a cohesive mud with density ranging from 1,350 kg/m3 to 1,450 kg/m3, which could be sustained in a sloping configuration. Detailed information on the physical and the chemical properties of this mixture can be found in Feng (1992), Jiang (1993) and Lee (1995). The fine sand consisted of quartz from WHIBCO, Inc., in New York, NY. Its median size was around 85 pm.
4.4 Test Conditions
Five runs with different combinations of initial profile slope, wave height, wave period, and test duration were conducted. Table 4.1 summarizes the test conditions for each run. The test number sequence is in chronological order. For each run, wave period was




measured by timing the passage of a given number of waves passsing a mark on the side of the flume before the waves entered the subflumes.
Table 4. 1: Summary of test conditions
Inital SopeIncident Wave
Run ItalSoe Wave Height (cm) Water Test
N.Period Depth Duration Notes for Mud Proiles
No Mud Sand (s) Mud Sand (cm) (hr)
Profiles Profiles Profile Profile
1 0.010 0.019 1.4 9 9 20 48 fluid mud
2 0.017 0.015 1.2 14 14 30 53 fluid mud
3 0.017 0.015 1.2 6 14 30 72 wave damper &fluid mud
4 0.008 0.014 1.2 5 13 24 94 wave damper
5 0.007 0.016 1.2 5 13 24 64 wave damper &fluid mud

For mud profiles two features were included: 1) a fluid mud blanket, and 2) a wave damper. Fluid mud (density 1, 120 kg/in) was prepared in 40-gallon plastic containers and poured over the pre-placed mud profile of higher density, with the objective of enhancing wave absorption and determining whether fluid mud would be retained or eroded under given incident wave conditions. This method of fluid mud placement had to be adopted because fluid mud could not be generated rapidly enough in-situ, due to limitations of flume size, wave action and design test durations. The wave damper was a floating wooden board that was 1.5 m long, 0.5 m wide and 3 cm thick. It was placed on the water surface at the seaward end of the mud profile (Figure 4. 1). Its purpose was to reduce the incident wave height for




63
the mud profile. As a result, the effective incident wave height acting on the mud profile was smaller than that for the sand profile.
For subflume A containing mud, the initial profiles of Runs 1 through 3 were shaped with an approximately uniform slope. The initial profile of Run 4 was the continuation of the final profile of Run 3, with a lower water depth. The initial profile of Run 5 was the continuation of the final profile of Run 4, with fluid mud added. Table 4.1 gives the initial mean slope values for all the tests.
4.5 Experimental Procedure
The experimental procedure can be described in five categories: 1) profile preparation, 2) fluid mud preparation, 3) wave measurement, 4) profile measurement and 5) density measurement, as follows.
Profile preparations
Profile preparation (for Runs 1, 2 and 3) was done by first draining out water from the main flume using a water pump. Then, building of the profiles was done iteratively using a spade to obtain the desired slope. Point gages were used to help measure the slopes. It was difficult to achieve a truly uniform slope, especially for the mud profile, because the subfiumes were narrow, and the muddy bottom was so soft that it was difficult to define the exact depth at a particular position. In any event, after profile preparation, water was pumped to the desired level to submerge the profiles, which were then left undisturbed for at least 24 hours before a particular run was initiated.




Fluid mud preparation
Like the bottom sediment used for the mud profile, the fluid mud was an equal proportion of attapulgite and kaolinite clays. The required amounts of attapulgite and kaolonite were first dry-mixed in 40 gallon plastic containers. Well water was then added to achieve the required fluid mud density, pfm, which was 1,120 kg/i3 based on the following formula:
Pd
Pfi= (P, P,) + Pw (4.1)
PS
where pf, = fluid mud density, p= sediment granular density (2,650 kg/i3), p",= density of water (1,000 kg/m) and Pd = dry density of the slurry determined from the known weight of dry sediment used and the total volume of the slurry in the container. The slurry was mechanically agitated by a rod with vanes. The resulting density was checked by a density meter (PAAR DMA35). The amount of fluid mud prepared was sufficient to cover the entire profile with an approximate thickness of 3 cm.
Profile Measurement
Profile depth was measured along the center line of each subflume at 0.3 m intervals. The depth measurement was conducted by lowering the point gage until its expanded tip just touched the bottom. Using the moving carriage, profile measurement commenced from the profile end toward the wave generator, so that one sequence of measurements resulted in a




snapshot of the profile at each selected time. Wave (envelope) measurements were performed immediately after profile measurement so that the two sets of measurements could be considered to correspond with each other.
Wave Measurement
Wave height was measured by the (capacitance-type) wave gages affixed to the carriage which moved longitudinally on rails. Wave height was determined at different locations at intervals of 0.6 m. At each location, a time series of elevation of about 20 s duration was obtained. The measurements were conducted along the center line of each subflume. During measurement, wave breaking locations were identified for later analysis. The arithmetic mean wave height at each location was taken to represent the wave height at that location, and a longitudinal distribution of wave envelope was developed by joining wave heights at different locations along the subflumes.
Density Measurement
In-situ mud density for the mud profile was measured using the coring apparatus described earlier. As noted, a transparent plastic tube of a 1.30 cm inner diameter was inserted into the inner cylinder, while the annular space was filled with dry ice pieces. The PVC canister, including the plastic tube and dry ice, was then pressed into the mud bottom. Since the depth of mud was less than 20 cm everywhere, the depth of penetration was typically 15 cm or less. Once embedded, the annular space was the filled with commercial grade




denatured alcohol to accelerate the freezing process. In about 15 minutes the PVC canister was withdrawn along with the frozen core within the plastic tube.
The canister was then cleared of dry ice using tap water, and the plastic tube was taken out of the inner tube. The plastic tube was then refrozen by placing it into another similar apparatus 15 cm high, previously used by Parchure (1980). After refreezing, the plastic tube was laid horizontally and was ready to be cut into segments using a hack-saw. Each cut segment was weighed and the plastic piece alone was weighed again after the sample was removed. The difference in the two weights gave the weight of the sample. The density of each segment was then determined as the weight of the sediment divided by the volume of the sample.
Results of density measurement are given in Table 4.2. They describe the trend in mud density change due to mud fluidization or consolidation. It is observed that the density of mud bottom in Run 2 tended to decrease slightly, as a result of mud fluidization due to profile erosion in this test. On the other hand, as observed in Run 5, the typically low mud density at test initiation (due to the poured fluid mud) tended to increase toward the end of the test. This consolidation corresponded with mud deposition as shown by mud profile change in Figure 4.11.
However, caution must be exercised with respect to the accuracy of this simple method due to: a) the tendency of the sediment sample to increase in length in the tube while being frozen, b) the difficulty of making an even cut by the saw resulting in errors in volumetric determination, and c) the tendency for some mass loss during retrieval and




67
sawing. Because of these reasons, Table 4.2 should be regarded as providing a qualitative description of density variation with time and depth.

Table 4.2 : Results of mud density measurement
Run No. 1 2 5 I
@12 hrs @29 hrs @test initiation
1,310 @ 1.5 cm 1,320 @ 1.5 cm 1,140 @ 1.5 cm 1,390 @ 4.5 cm 1,490 @ 4.5 cm 1,370 @ 4.5 cm Mud density 1,400 @ 7.0 cm 1,520 @ 7.0 cm 1,380 @ 7.5 cm
(kg/m3) 1,700 @ 10.5cm
@ Depth &end of test & 45 hrs &end of test
below 1,230 @ 1.5 cm 1,300 @ 1.5 cm 1,330 @ 1.5 cm
profile surface 1,360 @ 4.5 cm 1,320 @ 4.5 cm 1,510 @ 4.5 cm
1,480 @ 7.5 cm 1,460 @ 7.0 cm 1,500 @ 7.5 cm
1,700 @ 10.5cm 1,520 @ 10.5cm 1,700 @ 10.5cm

4.6 Corrections for Wave Data The raw wave height data were subjected to corrections for side-wall friction and shoaling as described next.
Correction for Side-Wall Friction
The common criterion used for determining the presence of various oscillatory boundary layer structures, i.e., laminar (viscous), transitional and turbulent, is the wave Reynolds number defined as




68
U a
Re,, = (4.2)
V
14'
where U, = maximum orbital velocity just outside the boundary layer, a. = orbital amplitude just outside the boundary layer, and v. = kinematic viscosity of water. From linear wave theory U6 and a. can be defined as U8 a.o (4.3)
H
a,- l(4.4) 2sihkh
where h = water depth, H = wave height, o = wave frequency, kr = wave number obtained from linear dispersion relation. Then Re, can be rewritten as
Re,1, H 2(y (4.5)
4v sinh2k h
The wave Reynolds numbers for the test conditions given in Table 4.1 were in the range of 2.9x1 03 to 1.4x104, which is considered to be within the limit of the existence of a viscous boundary layer (Collins, 1963; Kamphuis, 1975). Therefore, the approach of Hunt (1959) was considered adequate for calculating the correction for flume side-wall friction. This correction was applied between two adjacent measurement locations based on the




expression:
HC = HI + (1 e )Hi (4.6)
where k,,, is the wave attenuation coefficient due to side-wall friction and is expressed by 2kr ( vw1 sinh2kh
k r 12k/ s kr t 47
" b 20 2k h + sinh2kh (4.7)
r T
Note that, the indices i-1 and i denote adjacent spatial locations increasing in the wave propagation direction, superscript c denotes the corrected value, Ay = distance between two adjacent locations of wave measurement, b = width of subflume, and h = average water depth between two measurement locations. See Lee (1995) for further details.
Correction for Shoaling
The wave height corrected for side-wall friction was further corrected for shoaling based on the linear wave theory. This correction was applied between two adjacent measurement locations using the expression: Hc = H (k 1)H1 (4.8)
with k, is the shoaling coefficient given by S1o(1/2 (2(k h). + sinh2(k h). ) cosh2(k h) (49)
(2(krh) + sinh2(krh)) cosh2(krh)j




70
Similar to index i in Equation 4.6, index] increases in the direction of wave propagation. See Lee (1995) for further details.
4.7 Profile Change Data and Discussion
As examples of time-evolving profiles, Figures 4.4 and 4.5 show mud and sand profiles at different times for Run 1. For further analysis, only the initial and final profiles were considered.
Figures 4.6 to 4.11 (except Figure 4.9) show initial and final configurations of sand and mud profiles for Runs I through 5. Two major features of sand profiles that are identifiable from these figures and not found in mud profiles are bar and trough formations. Bars were typically found in the vicinity of the subfiume ends, and shoreward of that region noteworthy changes in the sand profile took place. On the other hand, trough formation was typically found in the nearshore part of the profiles in the proximity of the swash zone. The presence of two bars close to each other in the sand profiles, as shown in Figures 4.7 and 4.8, is an interesting phenomenon which is also found in natural profiles (see Figure 4.9). Dolan and Dean (1985) indicated that multiple bar formation they observed was related to the multiple wave break-point mechanism. In the present study, it was also observed that the positions of these major features (bar and trough) were at the localities of wave breaking. The locations of the two bars in the Figures 4.7 and 4.8 was related to two positions of waves breaking (almost simultaneously).
A characteristic behavior associated with sandy profiles is their tendency of maintaining a volumetric sedimentary balance over the length of the active profile. Bottom




71
scour yields sediment resulting in trough formation in some part of the profile, and the eroded sediment is deposited seaward resulting in bar formation over that portion of the profile. Thus in Runs 4 and 5 (Figures 4.10 and 4.11, respectively), the breaker positions and the resulting bars migrated offshore beyond the end of the subflume.
Unfortunately, a volumetric balance could not be fully established in the experiments. Two major factors that significantly affected the results were: 1) the length of the active profile spanned beyond the sandy subflume, so that the profile measured could not include the entire active profile, and 2) some sediment mixing occurred between the subflumes, as evidenced from the top layer of the sand profile becoming soft and slurry-like due to mud that entered the sand subflume from the other subflume via the common flume region located beyond the subflumes.
The mud profiles did not exhibit any trend toward a volumetric balance, but in fact demonstrated the contrary trend, i.e., a volume imbalance in profile change between erosion and deposition, as can be seen from the spatial profile changes shown in Figures 4.12 and 4.13. The eroded mud was suspended and most likely spread throughout the entire flume, as observed from the uniformly muddy and turbid water all over the flumes during experiments. The common flume area beyond the ends of partitioned walls of the subflumes was where the eroded material was stored. Lee (1995) also found in his experiments that significant differences between the erosion and deposition volumes occurred for fine sediment profiles.




0.05
0.03 -0.01 water level
:0.01
m
C.0.03
e
o-0.05
C-0.07
C
"q0.09 0.11 LU
-0.13
-0.15
.0.17
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Distance along Flume (m)
-- initial 2 hrs -w- 8 hrs -- 21 hrs
--- 27 hrs -e- 34 hrs 43hrs final (48 hrs)

Figure 4.4: Time-evolving profiles for mud bottom of Run 1




0.05
0.03
0.01 water level
g0.01
0.03
-0.05
:b
0.0.07
-0.09
00.11
G0.13
-0.15
-0.17
-0.19
-0.21
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Distance along Flume (m)

Figure 4.5: Time-evolving profiles for sand bottom of Run 1

initial 2 hrs 8 hrs 21 hrs
27 hrs 34 hrs 43 hrs final (48 hrs)




74
Mud Profile Change
Initial and Final Profiles for Run-1

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Distance along Flume (M)
initial .... fluid mud final - '-&cprofk lvel unkn

Sand Profile Change Initial and Final Profiles for Run I

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Distance along Flume (M) I-- initial -final

Figure 4.6: Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 1




Mud Profile Change
Initial and Final Profiles for Run-2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Distance along Flume (m)

-- initial I... fluid mud final

Sand Profile Change
Initial and Final Profiles for Run-2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Distance along Flume (m) initial inai

19 20 21 22 23 24

Figure 4.7: Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 2




76
Mud Profile Change Initial and Final Profiles for Run-3
0.04
0.02
0 wer vel
9002
-0 04 io. 06..
S-0.18
0.12
M-.14
&0.16
1018 .e-0.2
-0.24
-0.26
-0.28
-0.3 I I I I l I '
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Distance along Flume (m)
--initial fluid mud final
Sand Profile Change Initial and Final Profiles for Run-3
0.04 0.02"
-10 08
I
-0.02
0.0.1
00.12
4LO.14
&r0.16 t 0.18 a -0.2 LI 022
-0.24 --0.26
-0.28 "
-0 .3 1 I I : I I : I : I : I : : I : : I II I I II I I I
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Distance along Flume (m)
Initial -final

Figure 4.8: Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 3




VERYFINESANDS I FNESANDS N
Corophium - - ... - - Arenicola -. .- -. - -- Lanice -.
Schrm High dl
Sch at Sand flat N..F
- canneland
lateral levees Sandy banks
.....\ Sabedlarla contruellons

"Tangue" and mud
Fine or very fine sand
Medium sand
SCoarse and medium sand

SCherrueix: La Saline Section D La Chapelle Ste Anne Section

Figure 4.9: Schematic section showing the sedimentary formations of multiple bars of sandy banks and of the flatness of mud deposits in the western part of the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel (after Caline, 1994)




78
Mud Profile Change
Initial and Final Profiles for Run-4

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Distance along Flume (m)
I- initial -final
Sand Profile Change
Initial and Final Profiles for Run-4

0.08
0.06
-0.04
0.02 E-O.04
*10.2
a06
~-0.18
JLO.12
0.
-0.26
-0.28
-0.24-0.3 1 1 1 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Distance along Flume (m)
S-* initial -- final

19 20 21 22 23

Figure 4.10: Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 4




79
Mud Profile Change
Initial and Final Profiles for Run-5

Distance along Flume (m)

S initial fluid mud -final

Sand Profile Change
Initial and Final Profiles for Run-5

0.06
0.04
S0.02
o-0.02 W.0 -0. ,+,
-0.12
K.0.14 16 -
-0.2
-0.24
-0.26
-0.28
-0.3
-0 .: : : ; I I I I I I i
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Distance along Flume (m)
initial final

Figure 4.11: Initial and final profiles of mud and sand bottoms of Run 5




0.05
0.04 0.03
O0 0.o01
to
0
0.02
-0.03
-0.04

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Distance along Flume (m)
5 hrs 27hrs 48 hrs

001 0
10 01
-0.02
.-O03 -:"
0
h.
0-0.04W0.05
-0.07
-0.08-0o.o09 Runl-Sand Bottom
-0.1 lIli
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 15 19 20 21 22 23 Distance along Flume (m)

I --5hrs .... 27hrs -48hrsI

Figure 4.12: Spatial changes between surveys, for mud and sand profiles of Run 1




0.04 0.03

0
C
-C
0
2
A.
0 '8
a
8

a0. 0.0
0.0
C
C

0.02 0.01-

0
.00
-0.03-0.04-0.05 I I l-l l1f 1 I
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Distance along Flume (m)
2 hrs 25hrs 53 hrs
)8
- Erosion
0 + Accretion
02
n. "- 1-- -

0.0
-oRun 2 -Sand Bottom
I0.0l lI l I I I I-

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Distance along Flume (m)

- 2 hrs 25 hrs -53 hrs

Figure 4.13: Spatial changes between surveys, for mud and sand profiles of Run 2

- Erosion + Accretion

Run 2 Mud Bottom

A /




In Figure 4.14, the total change in sediment mass with time calculated from successive profile measurements is plotted. This mass was obtained from the total area of the spatial profile change, the width of the flume and the density of profile bed (1,300 kg/M 3 for mud and 1,500 k g/M 3 for sand). It is seen that for mud bottom, overall erosion was exhibited only in Run 2. In this run, the initially poured fluid mud did not remain there due to the relatively large wave height. In Run 4, although no fluid mud was added at the beginning of the run, the wave conditions were favorable for consolidation. Hence, fluid mud, which had not hardened from the previous experiments, coupled with some shoreward transport of sediment from the pool of mixed (mud and sand) sediment from the common area of the flume settled down and accumulated over the active profile, thus forming a new bed. It should be noted that the amount of fluid mud poured at the beginning of each run (except Run 4) was approximately 350 kg. If this amount is compared with the weight gained at the end of Runs 1, 3, and 5, it is realized that there still was some fluid mud loss, corresponding to the mass not retained through consolidation. This lost fluid mud either remained in suspension over the mud profile, spread out over the entire flume, or deposited in the common flume. Therefore, it is evident that profile development toward an accretionary state was a result of sediment supply (fluid mud) from poured fluid mud and, to a much lesser extent, from the "offshore" source, as described earlier.
A noteworthy feature in Figure 4.11 is the "exponential" trend in volume change with time. As observed, significant profile changes typically occurred within the first 24 hours. Later changes were relatively smaller, indicating an approach to equilibrium. The final