• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Module 4: Leadership, motivation,...
 Session 2: Motivation
 Session 3: Team building
 Session 4: Case study: IRRI...
 Session 5: Conflict management
 Session 6: Conflict management...
 Annex 1
 Back Cover














Group Title: Management of agricultural research : a training manual
Title: Management of agricultural research
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084651/00005
 Material Information
Title: Management of agricultural research a training manual
Physical Description: 11 v. : ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Asopa, V. N
Beye, Gora
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1997
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Management -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural research managers -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by V.N. Asopa and G. Beye.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084651
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 39160428
lccn - 98210567
isbn - 9251040915 (module 1)

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Module 4: Leadership, motivation, team building, and conflict management
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Session 1: Leadership
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Session guide
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Exhibits
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Reading note
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
    Session 2: Motivation
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Session guide
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Exhibits
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Reading note
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
    Session 3: Team building
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Session guide
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Exhibits
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Reading note
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
    Session 4: Case study: IRRI management
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Session guide
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Case study
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
    Session 5: Conflict management
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Session guide
            Page 101
            Page 102
        Exhibits
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
        Reading note
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
    Session 6: Conflict management case study
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Session guide
            Page 127
            Page 128
        Case study
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
    Annex 1
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Back Cover
        Page 140
Full Text














M Module
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Food
and
Agriculture
Organization
of
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United
Nations


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Prepared by
V.N. Asopa
Indian Institute of Management
and
G. Beye
Research and Technology Development Service
Research, Extension and Training Division, FAO
























FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 1997






















































M-67
ISBN 92-5-104094-X








All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the
copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the
purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director,
Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale
delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.


FAO 1997


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever
on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or
area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.









FOREWORD


There has been a tremendous development of agricultural research in developing countries
over the past few decades, during which time investment in agricultural research from both
national resources and international assistance has increased markedly. However, agricultural
research institutions are generally managed by veteran agricultural research workers promoted
for seniority rather than for management training and skills. Further, there are few courses
available on the management of agricultural research, and solutions and models used in the
developed world may not be appropriate for developing countries.
FAO has actively participated in strengthening the national agricultural research
systems of developing countries, and has stressed the importance of effective organization and
management for efficient research systems. The need for training in this area is great, and
resources particularly trained human resources are limited. FAO has therefore developed
a training programme on agricultural research management to support the training of trainers,
with the expectation of a multiplier effect, and to facilitate a common perception of the
structure and terminology of management, thus enhancing communication and understanding
among agricultural research managers in discussing management problems, solutions and
opportunities.
This training manual has been prepared as a basic reference resource for national
trainers, to help them structure and conduct their own courses on management at the institute
level. A separate manual will cover project and programme management. This manual is
based on the four structural functions of management: planning, organizing, monitoring and
controlling, and evaluating, each of which is covered in individual modules. Within each
module, the manual addresses pervasive management functions, including motivating,
leading, directing, priority setting, communicating and delegating, which are at all times a
concern to all managers. Topics such as leadership, motivation, human resources
management, policies and procedures are treated separately in individual sessions.
This manual as been designed for participatory learning through case studies, group
exercises, presentations by the participants and participatory lectures. Throughout the
manual, particular effort has been made to use the cases studied to capture the unique and
rich experience of developing country research managers in tackling policy, programme and
the day-to-day problems of managing research institutions and systems.
This publication is intended primarily for managers of agricultural research institutes
in developing countries and for higher education institutions interested in launching in-service
training courses on research management. However, it is hoped that agricultural research
managers everywhere will also find it useful. The manual provides a course structure with
contents that can be built upon and enriched. Users are therefore encouraged to send
suggestions for its improvement.



Louise O. Fresco

Director


Research, Extension and Training Division







Module 4 Leadership, motivation, team building and conflict management


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



The task of preparing a training manual on Agricultural Research Institute Management began
with the FAO Expert Consultation on Strategies for Research Management Training in
Africa, held at the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,
12-16 December 1983. Following the recommendations of the consultation, and on the basis
of the curriculum design adopted, FAO embarked upon the preparation of this manual. In
the process of its preparation, many agricultural research managers and management
specialists have contributed. Besides the two main consultants, namely Dr Ronald P. Black,
Denver Research Institute, University of Denver, USA, who prepared the first draft, and Dr
V.N. Asopa, Professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India, who
prepared the current version of the manual, the contribution of the following specialists in
various fields must be singled out: Ramesh Bhat, J. Casas, A.K. Jain, F.S. Kanwar,
V. Martinson, Gopal Naik, P. Nath, R.K. Patel, T.P. Rama Rao, S.K. Sharma,
E.S. Tayengco, and J.S. Woolston. FAO expresses its gratitude to them all.


Special thanks are due to the International Service for National Agricultural Research
(ISNAR), which has willingly made available its valuable experience and relevant materials
throughout the preparation of the manual.


FAO also thanks all those authors and publishers who have allowed the use of
copyright material from their publications, even though the courtesy is recognized in each
case.


This manual has been prepared under the responsibility of the Research Development
Centre, Research and Technology Development Division, FAO, with the guidance of:
Mohamed S. Zehni, former Director; and J.H. Monyo, E. Venezian, B. Mtiller-Haye and
Mohamed S. Zehni, past Chiefs of the Research Development Centre. Scientific supervision
was provided by G. Beye, Senior Officer, now Chief, Research and Technology
Development Service.







Training manual for institute management v






TABLE OF CONTENTS



Previous Modules were:

INTRODUCTORY MODULE
INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL AND ITS PURPOSE
Appendix 1 Management orientation and decision making
Appendix 2 Case method
Appendix 3 Summary of course contents
Appendix 4 Illustrative schedule for a workshop on agricultural research institute
management
Appendix 5 Management training
Appendix 6 Planning and management of short-duration, executive development
programmes

Module 1 INSTITUTIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH:
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
Session 1. MANAGEMENT: THOUGHT AND PROCESS
Session 2. OBJECTIVES AND ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Session 3. ORGANIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
Session 4. ORGANIZATION OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS

Module 2 RESEARCH PLANNING
Session 1. PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH PLANNING
Session 2. THE INSTITUTE-LEVEL PLANNING PROCESS
Session 3. SETTING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Session 4. FROM OBJECTIVES TO AN OPERATIONAL PLAN
Session 5. PARTICIPATORY PLANNING EXERCISE
Session 6. CASE STUDY: PLANNING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN MUGHAL
SULTANATE

Module 3 ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
Session 1. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES
Session 2. STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION
Session 3. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND CHANGE
Session 4. CASE STUDY: ESTABLISHMENT OF A DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH AT
SORONNO UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
Session 5. CASE STUDY: ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AT SAMARU, NIGERIA







vi Module 4 Leadership, motivation, team building and conflict management


This Module is:

Module 4 LEADERSHIP, MOTIVATION, TEAM BUILDING AND
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Page

Session 1. LEADERSHIP 3
Session guide: Leadership 5
Reading note: Leadership 13
Leadership theories 14
Trait approach 14
Behavioural approach 14
Theory X and Theory Y 15
Managerial grid approach 16
Likert's four systems 16
Situational approach 17
Functions of leaders 17
Characteristics of leaders 19
References 20


Session 2. MOTIVATION 21
Session guide: Motivation 23
Reading note: Motivation 47
Theories of motivation 47
Motivation techniques 49
Laws of motivation 52
References 53

Session 3. TEAM BUILDING 55
Session guide: Team building 57
Reading note: Team building 73
Groups 73
Teams 76
Team building in agricultural research organizations 80
References 81

Session 4. THE IRRI AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT PROGRAMME CASE STUDY: IRRI
MANAGEMENT COMPARES IRRI WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRY RESEARCH
INSTITUTES 83
Session guide: Case study IRRI management compares IRRI with LDE
research institutes 85






Training manual for institute management vii


Case study: IRRI management compares IRRI with LDE research institutes 87
Discussions with Dr Amir U. Khan 87
Discussions with Dr. Bart Duff 91
The IRRI Agricultural Equipment Programme 94

Session 5. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 99
Session guide: Conflict management 101
Reading note: Conflict management 115
Why conflicts arise 115
Conditions creating conflicts 116
Conflict as a process 117
Effects of conflicts 118
Elements of a conflict 118
Theory of conflict management 119
Response styles 119
Dealing with conflict 120
Ways to resolve conflict 121
Conflict resolution behaviour 121
Strategies for managing conflict 122
Conflicts in research organizations 122
Summing up 123
References 124

Session 6. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY: DR AGADIR 125
Session guide: Dr Agadir 127
Case study: Dr Agadir 129
The third cocoa project 130
Dr Agadir 131
Dr Swanson's dilemma 134
Annex 1: The Cocoa Research Institute of Savana






viii Module 4 Leadership, motivation, team building and conflict management


The other Modules are:

Module 5 MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES
Session 1. RECRUITING AND MAINTAINING STAFF IN THE RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT
Session 2. THE PROFESSIONAL STAFF
Session 3. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT EXERCISE
Session 4. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Session 5. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CASE STUDY: SUZENE KOPEC
Session 6. EXERCISE IN DESIGNING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FORMATS

Module 6 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS, COMPUTERS AND
NETWORK TECHNIQUES
Session 1. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS)
Session 2. MIS EXERCISE
Session 3. COMPUTERS AS MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Session 4. NETWORK TECHNIQUES
Session 5. PERT AND CPM EXERCISE

Module 7 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Session 1. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 1: COMPONENTS AND INFORMATION NEEDS
Session 2. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 2: PLANNING AND BUDGETING
Session 3. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 3: PROJECT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
Session 4. CASE STUDY: FARO ARROYA
Session 5. GENERATING FUNDS THROUGH CONSULTING AS AN INSTITUTIONAL
ACTIVITY. CASE STUDY: FOOD TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF
DONGAL

Module 8 RESEARCH-EXTENSION LINKAGE
Single Session: RESEARCH-EXTENSION LINKAGE

Module 9 INFORMATION SERVICES AND DOCUMENTATION
Session 1. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION IN A DEVELOPING-COUNTRY
RESEARCH INSTITUTION
Session 2: INFORMATION AS AN INPUT TO RESEARCH
Session 3: INFORMATION AS AN OUTPUT OF RESEARCH
Session 4: COOPERATION IN NATIONAL PROGRAMMES
Session 5: EXERCISE ON BARRIERS TO THE FLOW OF INFORMATION

Module 10 INSTITUTE EVALUATION
Single Session: INSTITUTE EVALUATION






Training manual for institute management 1


This module consists of six sessions:


1. LEADERSHIP
2. MOTIVATION
3. TEAM BUILDING
4. THE IRRI AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT PROGRAMME CASE STUDY: IRRI
MANAGEMENT COMPARES IRRI WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRY RESEARCH INSTITUTES
5. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
6. DR AGADIR (CASE STUDY)


The issues discussed in the reading notes on leadership, motivation and team building provide
the required conceptual background for discussing the IRRI case study. The resource person
may wish to first conduct three separate sessions on leadership, on motivation and on team
building, followed by a case analysis session. If time is limited, it might be more appropriate
to cover leadership, motivation and team building as integral elements of the case discussion.
In that case, participants would be expected to come prepared for the class. Discussion
would then focus on the case, using the conceptual knowledge gained from the reading notes.
The reading note on conflict management is intended to provide the conceptual basis for
discussing the Dr Agadir case study. Here again, the resource person might wish to conduct
a session on conflict management around the reading note, and then discuss the case in
another session. Alternatively, the case could be discussed in a plenary session, using the
conceptual framework from the reading note. The resource person handling the issues of
leadership, motivation and conflict management should be fully conversant with the latest
theoretical developments in these areas.


MODULE 4


LEADERSHIP, MOTIVATION,
TEAM BUILDING AND
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT









Training manual for institute management


DATE


TIME


FORMAT


TRAINER


Plenary participatory lecture


OBJECTIVES

At the end of this session, participants should be able to understand and appreciate:
1. The concept of leadership.
2. Different theories of leadership and leadership styles.
3. Task and maintenance functions of a leader.
4. Important characteristics of a leader.


Module 4 Session 1


Leadership







4 Module 4 Session 1 Leadership


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Exhibit 1 Leadership
Exhibit 2 Leadership theories
Exhibit 3 Theory X
Exhibit 4 Theory Y
Exhibit 5 Functions of a leader
Exhibit 6 Characteristics of a leader



REQUIRED READING

Reading note: Leadership




BACKGROUND READING

Arnon, I., 1968. Organization and Administration of Agricultural Research.
Amsterdam: Elsevier. See pp. 161-205.




SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS

Overhead projector and chalkboard






Training manual for institute management 5


LEADERSHIP


Begin this session by asking participants how they feel about their superiors and how they
think their superiors feel about them. The purpose of this discussion should be to emphasize
the differences in perspectives. Emphasize that leadership and cooperation go hand in hand
to motivate researchers. A person does not need to be a leader or a manager to feel this
way. As a leader or manager, however, one should realize that although he or she may feel
that they are pulling everyone else's weight in the organization, it is likely that the person's
co-workers see things very differently. Regardless of the reality of this situation, it is
important that co-workers at least perceive that management and staff are members of the
same team. Being a good leader is important to research management but, to determine how
to be a good leader, one must first understand the concept of leadership and its importance.
Ask participants what they understand by 'leadership,' and why is it important? Show
EXHIBIT 1 and define leadership. Leadership is the effort to influence the behaviour of
individuals or group members to achieve set goals. It establishes a feeling of mutuality.
Discuss the various leadership theories listed in EXHIBIT 2. The traditional concept has
been that effective leaders have a distinct set of personality traits. These may be capacity,
achievements, responsibility, participation or socio-economic status. Based on how a leader
behaves, the behaviourial approach classifies leaders as autocratic, democratic, participative
or laissez-faire. Discuss each of these types of leaders, provoking participants to provide
examples from their experiences. The Ohio State University studies identified four leadership
styles based on initiating structure and consideration as important determinants of successful
leadership behaviour. Show EXHIBIT 3 and discuss the assumptions underlying Theory X.
Show EXHIBIT 4 and discuss the conceptual basis of Theory Y. Discuss leadership roles for
each of these types and how they influence performance. Theory X and Theory Y represent
two different types of leadership styles. In this context, participants might wish to assess
their own leadership style and that of their supervisors. The managerial grid approach
considers people and production, and evolves five types of leadership styles. Likert's four
systems identify leadership styles which can either be job centred or employee centred. The
job-centred leadership style may be exploitative or benevolent. The employee-centred style


Module 4 Session 1

Session guide


0







Module 4 Session 1 Leadership


is consultative and participative. The situational approach has identified leadership styles as
relationship motivated and task motivated. Tannenbaum and Schmidt's situation theory
considers leadership style on the basis of the leader, the follower and the situation.
Initiate discussion on the functions of a leader. The basic function of a leader is to
ensure that the group achieves its goal. This is done through various steps. Broadly
speaking, managerial functions can be defined in terms of task and of maintenance. The task
functions are activities performed to achieve organizational goals. The maintenance functions
are activities that help in satisfying the needs of group members. Show EXHIBIT 5 and
discuss the important task and maintenance functions of a leader.
Ask participants to write down the ten most important qualities a leader of agricultural
research should have. Ask each participant to give what they consider to be the two most
important qualities identified. As they list them, write them on the board. By the time you
have listed the opinions of each participant, you may very well have covered all participants'
ten qualities, as many of the participants will probably have listed the same qualities as
others. If not, then go around the room again asking for additional qualities not already
written on the board. As particularly interesting qualities are mentioned by participants, you
might discuss them with the group as a whole.
Finally, show EXHIBIT 6 and compare the qualities listed there with those listed on the
board. Consider each quality and discuss why it is important, inviting individuals to consider
which qualities are most important to them personally. As the discussion progresses, it will
possess all these characteristics.
Conclude the session with a discussion on leadership in research organizations. Observe
that a research manager is required to assimilate various leadership styles and functions in
order to effectively, efficiently and successfully manage research activities. Scientists are
highly skilled, with various specializations. Creativity is the core of their performance.
Therefore, the research manager has to use a participative approach in conjunction with other
approaches.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 1


EXHIBIT 1


LEADERSHIP


Leadership is the effort to influence
the behaviour of individuals or
members of a group in order to
accomplish organizational, individual
or personal goals


L







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 1


EXHIBIT 2


LEADERSHIP THEORIES



Trait approach

Capacity
Achievements
Responsibility
Participation



Behavioural approach

Autocratic
Democratic
Laissez-faire

Theory X and Theory Y

Managerial grid

Lickert's four systems:
Job centred
Exploitive authoritarian
Benevolent authoritarian
Employee centred
Consultative
Participative


Situational approach

Fiedler's Situational theory
Relationship-motivated style
Task-motivated style

Tannenbaum and Schmidt's Situation theory







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 1


EXHIBIT 3


THEORY X




Assumptions

1. Man is inherently lazy, dislikes work and
avoids it whenever possible.
2. As a result, leaders must use strong
measures to control the behaviour of
subordinates, so that they work toward
organizational goals.
3. Most human beings are incapable of self-
direction and control. They prefer to
respond to orders rather than to accept
responsibility for their own actions.




Managerial styles

Management assumes complete responsibility
for organizing, planning, important decision
making, directing and motivating people.
Employees are not trusted with important
decisions.


Source: McGregor, 1960







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 1


EXHIBIT 4


THEORY Y




Assumptions

1. Work can be enjoyable.
2. People will work hard and assume
responsibility if they have the opportunity to
satisfy their personal needs while simultan-
eously achieving organizational goals.
3. People have a great deal more ability and
potential for imagination and creativity than
credit is given to them.
4. Given proper conditions, individuals want to
do a good job and will work hard to do so.
5. Performance of an individual is actually
based on internal rather than external
controls.




Managerial styles


Source: McGregor, 1960.


Management trusts employees, and delegates
important decisions to lower levels. It fosters
an environment conducive to the growth of
both organization and subordinate. This makes
work inherently satisfying and invokes
participation.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 5
EXHIBIT 5
Module 4 Session 1





FUNCTIONS OF A LEADER




Task functions


A policy-maker
A planner
An executive
An expert
A group representative
A controller
A purveyor of rewards and
punishments




Maintenance functions

An arbitrator and mediator
An ideal
A symbol of the group
A surrogate for individual
responsibility
An ideologist
A father
A scapegoat


Source: Kretch and Cretchfield, 1948.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 1


EXHIBIT 6


Sources: Fiedler, Chemers and Mahar, 1977;
Stodgill, 1948; Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.


CHARACTERISTICS OF A LEADER


Organized
Fearless
Respects the work of others
Induces a feeling of satisfaction
Promotes the interests of subordinates
Frank
Respects individuals
Knowledgeable
Predictable
Understanding
Honest and transparent
Accessible
Provides opportunities
Guides
Willing to listen
Genuine
Discrete
Informed
Graceful
Has authority
People-oriented
Personality traits







Training manual for institute management 13


LEADERSHIP


Leadership is an effective instrument by which a manager can establish a feeling of mutual
objectives and unity in a group, thereby ensuring maximum efficiency of the group. To
achieve this, a manager has to have special skills in understanding impersonal and group
behaviour, establishing interactions and communication, and promoting cooperation. The
quality of leadership determines the success or failure of an organization. Leadership can
be defined here as the effort to influence the behaviour of individuals or group members in
order to accomplish organizational, individual or personal goals. It is an essential component
of organizational effectiveness. A leader has to possess one or more forms of powers to
orient others to the desired direction (French and Raven, 1959): charisma, a position of
authority, expert knowledge, and power of reward and punishment.
The powers of authority, reward and punishment are primary powers, which add strength
to leadership quality and influence. These are powers which are delegated to a manager by
the organization.
Expert knowledge and charisma power are personal, intrinsic to the leader, and add to
his or her strength.
To be effective, a manager should have a good understanding of leadership, of
motivating factors, of how people think and act, and should adopt a personal and active
attitude towards designated goals.
Leadership should be both effective and successful. While successful leadership draws
a response from individuals or group members on the basis of rewards and punishments,
effective leadership is based on mutual understanding and social exchange. An effective
leader makes the individual or group members understand the problem and reasons for any
actions or for changes needed in their own perceptual terms, and then makes a well reasoned
decision.
More recently, the concept of the super leader has been developed. A super leader is
one who leads others to lead themselves. Super leadership inspires, stimulates and supports
self-leadership in subordinates. It recognizes self-influence as a "powerful opportunity for
achieving excellence, rather than as a threat to external control and authority" (Manz and


Module 4 Session 1

Reading note







14 Module 4 Session 1 Leadership


Sims, 1987). Strategies for self-leadership include: (i) effective behaviour and action, (ii)
strategies focused on behaviour, and (iii) cognitive focused effective thinking and feeling .


LEADERSHIP THEORIES


Leadership is influenced by numerous factors relating to traits, behaviour and situation. It
is the outcome of a complex relationship between leaders, subordinates, the organization,
social values and economic and political conditions. The concept of leadership is understood
mainly through three theories, based on trait, behaviour and situation.


TRAIT APPROACH
The traditional concept is that effective leaders have personality traits which distinguish them
from the common herd. Leadership effectiveness has been found to be associated with age,
height, intelligence, academic achievements, judgmental ability and insight. However, none
of these have been correlated with leadership in all situations. The willingness to lead
transcends all these traits. The trait approach has been popular, but controversial.
Stogdill (1974) identified several general factors which differentiate leaders from non-leaders:
Capacity refers to problem solving capabilities, making judgments and working hard.
Achievements relate to accomplishments such as academic record, knowledge and sports.
Responsibility refers to dependability, reliability, self-drive, perseverance, aggressiveness
and self-confidence.
Participation and involvement mean highly developed social interaction, popularity, swift
adaptation to changing situations, and easier cooperation compared to non-leaders.
Socio-economic status, i.e., effective leaders usually belong to higher socio-economic
classes.


BEHAVIOURIAL APPROACH
The behaviourial approach to leadership is based on the concept of how a leader behaves and
what actually is done to achieve leadership effectiveness. Depending on participation and
sharing in decision making, leaders have been classified (Lewin, Lipit and White, 1939,
quoted in Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986) as:
Autocratic leaders, who exclude subordinates from the process of decision making. They
assign work without consulting subordinates or knowing their inclinations and desires.
Democratic or participative leaders are effective and more productive becaL-se they
consult subordinates on various matters and include them in the process of decision
making. Tasks are assigned on the basis of interests and preferences of subordinates.
Laissez-faire leaders have little or no self-confidence in their leadership ability, do not
set goals for the group, and do not enhance group interaction and communication. In
fact, the laissez-faire type of leader do little supervision. Consequently, the group has
to make many on-the-job decisions.







Training manual for institute management


Studies at Ohio State University focused on task and social behaviour of leaders, and
identified initiating structure and consideration as two important determinants of successful
leadership behaviour. The studies observed the effect of various leadership styles on group
performance and job satisfaction (Stogdill, 1974). Initiating structure is the extent to which
a leader conceptualizes the roles of both the leader and the subordinates towards goal
achievements. It relates to organizational structure, communication channels and evaluation
of group output. Consideration is the degree to which job relationships are associated with
mutual trust, faith, respect, friendship, support from subordinates and informal
communication. On the basis of these dimensions, four leadership styles have been
identified, namely low structure low consideration; low structure high consideration; high
structure high consideration; and high structure low consideration. The high structure
- high consideration style of leadership has been found to be most effective (Stogdill, 1974).


THEORY X AND THEORY Y
There are two basic classes of people: those who want to lead and take responsibility, i.e.,
the leaders and managers; and those who want to be directed and do not want to take
responsibilities. On this basis, McGregor (1960) classified leadership as either an
authoritarian style (Theory X), or a more egalitarian style (Theory Y).
Theory X
Theory X assumes that:
man is inherently lazy, dislikes work and avoids it whenever possible;
as a result, leaders must use strong measures to control the behaviour of subordinates and
properly control them so that they work towards organizational goals; and
most human beings are incapable of self-direction and control, preferring to respond to
direct orders rather than assume responsibility for their own actions.
According to Theory X, management does not trust employees with important decisions.
They are altogether excluded from the decision making process. Management assumes
complete responsibility for organizing, planning, making important decisions, directing and
motivating people. If management does not act, employees will do little or nothing.
Theory Y
The Theory Y style of leadership is based on Maslow's concept of self-actualization. It
considers that:
work can be enjoyable,
people will work hard and assume responsibility if they have the opportunity to satisfy
their personal needs while at the same time achieving organizational goals,
people have a great deal more capability and potential for imagination and creativity than
they are given credit for,
given proper conditions, individuals will work hard to do a good job, and
an individual's performance is actually based on innate rather than external controls.
Implementing a Theory Y approach, a manager nurtures an environment which is favourable
to the growth of both organization and subordinates. The theory recognizes that employees







16 Module 4 Session 1 Leadership


have the capability to be high performers, to develop and assume responsibility, and to be
self-motivated. Therefore management only has to ensure the appropriate working conditions
to bring out all these abilities. With the right kind of leadership, employees will not be
inactive and resistive. On the contrary, management can trust employees and assign
responsibility for taking important decisions to lower levels. The overall effect is to make
work inherently satisfying to the employee.


MANAGERIAL GRID APPROACH
The managerial grid approach utilizes with modifications the consideration and initiating
structure dimensions of leadership. As discussed earlier, these dimensions are directed
towards people and production respectively (Blake and Mouton, 1969). Using this approach,
five types of leadership styles have been identified:
The improvised or extempore style, which considers neither people nor production. It is
an ineffective style of leadership.
The country club style of leadership is oriented towards people, but has the least concern
for production.
The autocratic type of leadership is oriented towards production. It has most concern for
production and least concern for people.
The middle-of-the-road type of leader maintains a balanced between production and
people.
The team type of leadership style influences group members into a vibrant, effective,
problem solving and decision making team, which is essential for organizational
effectiveness. This is the most effective style of leadership, since it has concern for both
production and people.


LIKERT'S FOUR SYSTEMS
According to Likert (1961), optimal performance can only be achieved if attention is paid to
the human aspects of subordinates' problems and behaviourial aspects, such as motivating
forces, communication processes, interaction-influence processes, decision making processes,
goal setting processes, control processes, and performance characteristics. Based on these
considerations, leadership styles could be either job centred or employee centred, and then
further classified as follows:
Job centred
Exploitive-authoritative type of leadership, which is similar to the high structure-low
consideration type discussed earlier. It is manipulative and results in low productivity.

Benevolent-authoritative style of leadership, which is a slight improvement on the
exploitive-authoritative type of leadership. It produces average results.
Employee centred
An employee-centred leadership style can either be consultative or participative.







Training manual for institute management 17




A consultative style of leadership is ideal. Although control is basically with top
management, it is shared with managers at middle and lower levels. Overall productivity
is good.
A participative group style maximizes the quantity and quality of performance, and is thus
an ideal approach.


SITUATIONAL APPROACH
A situational approach to leadership is based on the premise that environmental factors affect
a leader's style and effectiveness. Consequently, effective and successful leadership depends
on the relationship between organizational situations and leadership styles.
Fiedler's situational theory identifies effective leadership styles under changing situations
(Fiedler, Chemers and Mahar, 1977). These can be either relationship motivated or task
motivated.
A relationship-motivated leadership style relies on good personal relations and group
participation to accomplish tasks. Leade's with this style perform most effectively in
modest control situations which present mixed problems related to task, group members
and authority. The relationship-motivated leader gets cooperation from the group by
being sensitive, diplomatic and tactful.
Task-motivated leaders prefer clear guidelines and standardized or patterned work
methods to complete successfully the task they have accepted. They have strong task
orientation and perform best in high-control or low-control situations. The high-control
situations are those where leaders get support from group members and the tasks are
clearly specified. In addition, leaders have high authority, which enables them to use
their powers of reward and punishment appropriately. Low-control situations the
opposite of high-control situations are relatively difficult, challenging and straining.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt's situation theory contends that the most effective leadership style
depends on forces in the leader, the follower and the situation. A leader chooses his or her
leadership style based on the interactions and prevalence of these forces for optimizing
organizational productivity (Tannenbaum and Schmidt, 1958).


FUNCTIONS OF LEADERS


The basic objective of leaders is to ensure that the group accomplishes its goals. Leaders'
functions depend on the group being led, with actions adjusted to different situations.
Therefore, they have to
develop a feeling of mutual interest among the group members,
promote cooperation and effective communication to ensure maximum efficiency of the
group,
foster a feeling of team spirit among the group members, and
manage strife and dissension efficiently and constructively.







18 Module 4 Session 1 Leadership


Broadly speaking, managers perform task and maintenance functions (Krech, 1948),
depending upon different positions and situations.
Task functions
Task functions are the activities which are performed to realize organizational goals. They
concern leaders as:
Policy-makers. The primary function of leaders is to establish group goals and policies
in accordance with broader policies and organizational goals.
Planners. Leaders plan with a time perspective and develop a methodology for
implementation, including use of human and physical resources. Participation of team
members in the planning process facilitates smooth implementation.
Executives. An important responsibility of leaders is to coordinate the activities of the
various groups and individuals in their team.
Experts. Leaders are expected to be experts in their areas of specialization and their job,
so as to enhance the ability and effectiveness of group members.
Group representatives. Leaders represent their groups and expound group demands,
achievements and constraints to superiors. This is the 'gate-keeping' function.
Controllers. Leaders control group activities and interpersonal relations within the group
so that the goals of the organization can be achieved effectively.
Purveyors of rewards and punishments. Leaders have powers of reward and of
punishment, by virtue of the authority they enjoy. These powers can be used for
disciplining, motivating and controlling.
Maintenance functions
Maintenance functions are those activities that help in gratifying the needs of group members.
These relate to leaders as:
Arbitrators and mediators. Leaders act as arbitrator-negotiators and as mediators in
resolving intergroup conflicts and re-establishing good group relations.
Ideal role models. Depending on the situation, leaders sometimes have to portray
themselves as ideal role models for the group members to follow.
Group symbols. Leaders have to augment, reinforce and maintain a sense of belonging
and involvement within the group. They therefore have to have a strong sense of
identity with their groups. Only then can they properly represent the group.
Surrogates for individual responsibility. Leaders have to assume responsibility for
decision making when group members do not want to be involved in the process and
prefer to escape from responsibility.
Ideologists. Influential and effective leaders are a source of beliefs and basic tenets for
group members, who start accepting the leader's ideas and thinking.
Father figures. Leaders serve as a perfect focus for the positive emotional feelings of
individuals in the group. They are considered ideal for identification, transference and
feelings of submissiveness.
Scapegoats. Leaders are an obvious target for the hostility and onslaught of frustrated,
disappointed or disenchanted group members. Since leaders are responsible for group
activities and achievement, they have to accept the blame for failure.







Training manual for institute management 19


CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS


From the viewpoint of a follower, the characteristics of leaders are:
Organization. Subordinates like leaders who plan and are well organized. They should
follow the chain of command in issuing instructions. They should also delegate authority
as necessary.
Fearlessness. Leaders should not be afraid for their positions, nor afraid of their
superiors, the toughness of a job, colleagues or the honest mistakes of their staff.
Respect for the work of others. Leaders should recognize that the work of their
teammates is as important as their own work, and deserves equal recognition. While
they should be excited about their own work, leaders should simultaneously cultivate the
right climate so that their teammates can also be enthused about their work.
Satisfaction. Leaders should have a feeling of satisfaction and gratification when a
teammate achieves something which they themselves thought would be impossible.
Promotion of the interests of subordinates. If leaders believe that their subordinates are
right, they should fight for them no matter what the odds and the situation.
Frankness. Leaders should talk to subordinates directly and inform and explain without
losing tempers or creating stress. They should be candid and criticize constructively.
Respect for the individual. Subordinates prefer leaders who respects an individual's
identity and experience. Leaders should never show bias.
Knowledge. Subordinates want leaders who are knowledgeable and know most of the
answers. At the same time, leaders should admit ignorance when they do not know the
answer to a problem, and be willing to seek help from other sources. They should also
be willing to learn from others. In fact, they should never stop learning.
Predictability. Leaders should be predictable, usually the same all the time and not
enigmatic.
Tolerance. Leaders should be tolerant of small mistakes which teammates may
occasionally make.
Understanding. Subordinates should perceive their leaders to be humane and
understanding, and should not be afraid to go to them if they have committed a foolish
mistake, are ashamed or are proud and satisfied. Leaders should create confidence and
should be neither hasty nor rude.
Honesty and transparency. Subordinates wants leaders who are transparent in their
dealings and cannot be bribed by anyone. Leaders should be able to see through
perfidious designs in any form, and should cultivate strong moral fibre and earn the
respect of their teammates. Leaders should always be committed to good moral
principles.
Accessibility. Leaders should be easily approachable when needed, and subordinates
should be able to get away from their leader when their business is settled.
Providing opportunities. Leaders should be willing to provide new opportunities and
chance for work even if it is something new and the subordinate may not have
experience in that work.
Guidance. Leaders should lead by training others. They should be able to show their
subordinates how to do a job, but, in doing so, they must not show off. Subordinates







20 Module 4 Session 1 Leadership


like people who grow out of their own job to become leaders. Leaders should try to
match people and jobs.
Willingness to listen. Leaders should be willing to listen when a subordinate has
something to say, but should be able to end the conversation gracefully if necessary.
Genuineness. Subordinates should believe that their leaders sincerely wants them to
succeed and will be proud of them when they do.
Discretion. Leaders should respect the privacy of their teammates. They should not
admonish them in the presence of others, nor gossip about them. At the same time,
leaders should give credit to and acclaim their people publicly when appropriate.
Informed. Leaders should be well informed about what is happening around them. They
should not give credence to gossip.
Grace. Leaders should neither denigrate nor undermine a teammate for any reason.
Authority. Leaders should have authority to mete out rewards and punishment as
necessary.
People orientation. Leaders should like people, be cooperative and inspire their
teammates.
Positive personality. Subordinates like leaders who are active, humble, gracious,
thoughtful and confident. Leaders should be firm but fair to everybody, and, if
necessary, should be able to compromise, but should not placate.
Good communication. Subordinates like to be informed of the actions of their leader and
the reasons for them. Good leaders have to be good communicators and should not
cover themselves in an unnecessary veil of secrecy.

REFERENCES

Blake, R.R., & Mouton, J.S. 1969. Building a Dynamic Corporation through Grid
Organization Development. Reading, USA: Addison Wesley.
Fielder, F.E., Chemers, M.M., & Mahar, L. 1977. Improving Leadership Effectiveness.
New York, NY: John Wiley.
Kretch, D., Crutchfield, R.A., & Ballachey, E.I. 1962. Individual in Society. New York,
NY: McGraw-Hill.
Kretch, D., & Cretchfield, R.A. 1948. Theory and Problems of Social Psychology. New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Likert, R. 1961. New Patterns of Management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Manz, C.C., & Sims, H.P., Jr. 1987. Superleadership Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Maslow, A.H. 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50: 370-396.
McGregor, D. 1960. The Human Side of Enterprise New York, NY: McGraw-Iill.
Stogdill, R. 1974. Personal factors associated with leadership. Journal of Ap;:ied
Psychology, January: 35-71.
Terry, G.R., & Franklin, S.G. 1987. Principles of Management. New Delhi: All India
Traveller Bookseller.
Tosi, H.L., Rizzo, J.R., & Carroll, S.J. 1986. Managing Organizational Behaviour. New
York, NY: Pitman. See pp. 454-456.






Training manual for institute management


DATE


TIME


FORMAT


TRAINER


Plenary participatory lecture


OBJECTIVES

At the end of this session, participants should be able to understand and appreciate:
1. The concept and importance of motivation
2. Various theories of motivation
3. Motivation techniques and their organizational application


Module 4 Session 2


Motivation







Module 4 Session 2 Motivation


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS


Exhibit 1
Exhibit 2
Exhibit 3
Exhibit 4
Exhibit 5
Exhibit 6
Exhibit 7
Exhibit 8
Exhibit 9
Exhibit 10
Exhibit 11
Exhibit 12
Exhibit 13
Exhibit 14
Exhibit 15
Exhibit 16
Exhibit 17
Exhibit 18
Exhibit 19
Exhibit 20
Exhibit 21


Motivation
Theories of motivation
The goal setting process
Motivation techniques
Job enrichment techniques for motivation
Strategies for enriching jobs
Achievement power training for motivation
Steps in positive reinforcement programmes
Ways of positive reinforcement
First Dynamic Law of Motivation
Second Dynamic Law of Motivation
Third Dynamic Law of Motivation
Fourth Dynamic Law of Motivation
Fifth Dynamic Law of Motivation
Sixth Dynamic Law of Motivation
Seventh Dynamic Law of Motivation
Eighth Dynamic Law of Motivation
Ninth Dynamic Law of Motivation
Tenth Dynamic Law of Motivation
Eleventh Dynamic Law of Motivation
Twelfth Dynamic Law of Motivation


REQUIRED READING

Reading note: Motivation



BACKGROUND READING

None.



SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS

Overhead projector and chalkboard







Training manual for institute management 23


MOTIVATION


Ask participants what they understand by motivation and by de-motivation. What motivates
them and what de-motivates? After a brief discussion, define motivation as an internal force
which arouses, regulates and sustains a person's more important actions (EXHIBIT 1).
Observe that people possess potential for development, have capacity for assuming
responsibility, and are ready to direct their behaviour towards organizational goals provided
a congenial environment is created. Thus it is very important for a manager to understand
factors which influence motivation.
Next show EXHIBIT 2 and discuss content and process theories of motivation.
Content theories consider behaviour in the context of psychological, safety, social,
esteem and self-actualization needs of an individual. Maslow's need theory considers
behaviour in the context of the strongest needs prevailing at a particular time. The needs
keep changing in importance as they are satisfied. Once a need is satisfied, the individual
is concerned with the next level of need in the hierarchy. Alderfer has regrouped Maslow's
five basic needs into three groups: existence, relatedness and growth (ERG theory).
McClelland identified need for achievement, need for power and need for affiliation as
important needs of an individual. The two-factor theory emphasizes the importance of
hygiene and motivating factors in determining productivity. Hygiene factors are job
contextual. They are satisfiers but not motivators. Their absence creates dissatisfaction.
Motivating factors relate to job content, and their presence is satisfying and motivating.
Process theories identify the variables that go into motivation, and their
interrelationship. Expectancy theory considers performance as determined by motivational
levels, ability, traits and pride perceptions. Vroom has considered the level of performance
as a multiplicative function of ability and motivation. Reinforcement theory is based on the
premise that the sum of external environment and not internal needs determines individual
behaviour. Desired responses can be elicited through appropriate use of positive or negative
reinforcements. Goal-setting theory is based on the premise that performance is a result of
a person's intention to perform, and that setting goals results in better performance
(EXHIBIT 3).


Module 4 Session 2

Session guide







24 Module 4 Session 2 Motivation


Now shift the discussion towards the techniques of motivation which help in raising the
level of personal motivation (EXHIBIT 4). These techniques include job enrichment;
achievement-cum-power training; management by objectives; positive reinforcement
programmes; and different laws of motivation.
The job enrichment technique uses a design approach. The nature of the job is changed
to provide variety and create excitement. This results in better performance. Show
EXHIBIT 5 and discuss the job characteristics model, which includes work outcome, critical
psychological stage, core job dimensions, and growth need strength. Strategies for enriching
jobs include combining tasks, forming natural work units, establishing client relationships,
vertical loading, and opening feedback channels (EXHIBIT 6).
The achievement-cum-power training approach uses a training programme involving
five steps. Show EXHIBIT 7 and discuss each of these steps.
In the management-by-objectives approach, common goals are identified and all efforts
are oriented towards achieving them.
Show EXHIBIT 8 and discuss steps involved in a positive reinforcement programme.
Using EXHIBIT 9, discuss six ways of positive reinforcement to motivate employees.
Finally, discuss the twelve dynamic laws of motivation, using EXHIBITS 10 to 21.
The first law (EXHIBIT 10) of motivation is that the leader should be proficient both
technically and professionally. Managers who know their job well gain the respect,
confidence, willing obedience, loyal cooperation and full support of employees. The
managers are then able to encourage the team members to work just as hard as they
themselves do.
The second law (EXHIBIT 11) is that managers should be honest with themselves if they
want to improve. Honest and forthright self-evaluations can allow managers to recognize
their strengths and weaknesses, and thus their limitations and shortcomings both compared
with other managers as well as with subordinate supervisory staff.
The third law (EXHIBIT 12) is that managers should know their staff and look out for
their welfare. This helps to create more positive feeling towards the organization and the
managers, and increases the work output of everyone.
The fourth law (EXHIBIT 13) is that managers should always keep their staff informed.
This helps to encourage initiative and enthusiasm, and improves team work and morale. It
helps to eliminate rumours and make subordinates more effective.
The fifth law (EXHIBIT 14) is to ensure that the task is understood, supervised and
accomplished. By emphasizing results rather than methods, a manager can develop individual
initiative and ingenuity in subordinates.
The sixth law (EXHIBIT 15) is that managers should train their staff as a team. This
imbues them with a sense of being needed and wanted, and also develops a feeling of
belonging to the team and the organization. Team spirit will (i) induce better spirit and
morale, (ii) enthuse the team members to vigorously pursue common goals, and (iii) increase
individual proficiency, leading to improved organizational efficiency.
The seventh law (EXHIBIT 16) is about sound and timely decision making, which
develops confidence in subordinates and motivates them to do their best.







Training manual for institute management 25




The eighth law (EXHIBIT 17) is to develop a sense of responsibility in subordinates and
show faith in them. That encourages mutual confidence and respect between subordinates
and their superiors. It also encourages initiative and cooperation towards team activities.
In these conditions, managers can expect better performance from subordinates.
The ninth law (EXHIBIT 18) is that a manager should seek responsibility and be
responsible for his actions. When managers seek responsibility, they take the initiative
without direct orders, develop leadership abilities, and earn the respect and confidence of
subordinates.
The tenth law (EXHIBIT 19) is that managers should always set examples as role models.
It helps subordinates to use managers' actions to determine their own standards of conduct
and efficiency.
The eleventh law (EXHIBIT 20) is to motivate every single member of the team to feel
important to themselves. Managers can get maximum output from employees by making
them feel that they are needed, wanted and that their work is appreciated.
Finally, the twelfth law (EXHIBIT 21) of motivation: 'Put the first eleven into action and
make them work.' It is not sufficient to simply know the laws of motivation. Observe that
these laws also describe qualities and functions of a leader, many of which were discussed
in the previous session on leadership. It should be recognized that there are three elements
which influence the process of motivation: the situation, the motivated and the motivator.
Managers should understand each of their subordinates, as each individual differs from
another. This understanding is necessary to develop a group into a team and achieve
maximum output.








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 2


EXHIBIT 1


MOTIVATION




Motivation is "an internal force which arouses,
regulates and sustains a person's more
important actions. Its existence and nature is
inferred from observation and experience of
behaviour."

"Motivation is the need or drive within an
individual that drives them towards goal-
oriented action."


Source: Terry and Franklin, 1987.










TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 2


THEORIES OF MOTIVATION




Content theories

* Need theories
* Maslow's need theory
* ERG theory
* Need and achievement theory
* Two-factor theory:
Hygiene factors
Motivating factors




Process theories

* Expectancy theory
* Reinforcement theory
* Goal-setting theory


EXHIBIT 21







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT E T
Module 4 Session 2













THE GOAL-SETTING PROCESS




EVENT (A situation in the environment)

COGNITION (Awareness of the incentives)

EVALUATION (Worth of the task)

GOAL SETTING (Intention to act)

PERFORMANCE


Source: Locke, 1968.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 4
Module 4 Session 2















MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES




Job enrichment

Achievement-cum-power training

Management by objectives

Positive reinforcement programmes






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIT
EXHIBIT 5
Module 4 Session 2








JOB ENRICHMENT TECHNIQUES
FOR MOTIVATION




Job enrichment

Work outcome
Internal work motivation
Quality of work performance
Job satisfaction
Absenteeism and turnover

Critical psychological stage

Core job dimensions
Skill variety
Task identification
Task significance
Autonomy
Feedback

Growth need strength






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EIIT 6
Module 4 Session 2













STRATEGIES FOR ENRICHING JOBS




Combining tasks

Forming natural work units


Establishing client relationship

Vertical loading

Opening feedback channels


Source: Hackman et al., 1975.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 7
Module 4 Session 2










ACHIEVEMENT-CUM-POWER TRAINING
FOR MOTIVATION




Create confidence so that motives can be
changed

Convince participants thit developing the
strength of the achievement motives is in
consonance with their environmental needs

Teach how to act in a high achievement way

Record participants' achievement- or power-
oriented behaviour

Each participant sets goals, formulates action
plan, and develops a basis for self-appraisal


Based on: McClelland, 1962.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 2


EXHIBIT 8 1


Source: Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.


Identification of specific behaviour problems

Determination of the links between the
antecedents, the behaviour and the
consequences

Development and setting of specific
behavioral goals for each person and the
target behaviour

Recording the progress towards the goal

Application of appropriate consequences
(namely rewards, punishment or extinction)







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 2


Sources: Hamner and Hamner, 1976;
Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.


EXHIBIT 9


Do not reward all employees equally

.Failure to reinforce also modifies behaviour,
although in a negative direction

Inform employees what they can do to get
reinforcement. This can be done by setting
goals and monitoring performance to get timely
feedback

Tell employees through appropriately timed
communication when and what they are doing
wrong. Through such communication and
other needed help from the manager, an
employee can improve her or his performance
and that would act as a positive reinforcement.
Lack of communication creates confusion and
a feeling of manipulation

Do not reprove or punish a subordinate in the
presence of others.

Be fair and impartial







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 2 EXHIBIT 10











FIRST DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION





Develop yourself technically and professionally


1. Seek and gain a well-rounded education for your
chosen profession.
2. Broaden your professional and technical
knowledge.
3. Look for opportunities to use your knowledge in a
practical manner and thus motivate others to do
your wishes.
4. Keep abreast of current business and industrial
developments and trends.
5. Associate with well qualified people.
6. Know and understand the capabilities and the
limitations of your own organization.
7. Take advantage of every opportunity to prepare
yourself for a higher position in your organization.
8. Understand fully and apply properly the principles
of sound management of human resources, time,
physical resources and money.


Source: Fleet, 1967.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 2


EXHIBIT 11


If you want to improve, be
yourself.


honest with


1. Analyse yourself objectively and
realistically.
2. Seek advice and the opinions of others who
can help improve your executive qualities
and abilities.
3. Try to profit by the experiences of others.
4. Develop a deep and genuine interest in
people. Learn to treat people as human
beings.
5. Master the art of effective writing and
speaking.
6. Be friendly with others already successful in
your particular profession, as well as in
allied professions.
7. Develop your own philosophy of life as
soon as you can, while you are still young.
8. Never give up.


Source: Fleet, 1967.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT E T
Module 4 Session 2







THIRD DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Know your staff and look out for their welfare

1. See the members of your organization as often
as possible and let them see you.
2. Know each of your employees by name.
3. Develop an intimate knowledge of your staff
through personal contacts with them.
4. Be concerned about the personal living
conditions of your employees if it affects their
job performance.
5. Give personal attention to subordinates pay as
well as to their personal problems.
6. Provide good working conditions and thus
protect the health of your staff.
7. Actively support safety programmes.
8. Know the state of your subordinates' morale.
9. Administer justice impartially and swiftly.
10. Distribute equally and fairly both privileges and
distasteful tasks.
11. Provide recreational facilities for the staff.
1 2. Share their problems.


Source: Fleet, 1967.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 13
EXHIBIT 13
Module 4 Session 2




FOURTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Always keep your staff informed.

1. Praise the successes of your staff and of
your organization. This will build up their
morale and motivate to do their best for
you.
2. Explain to your key subordinates why a
specific task must be done and how you
propose to do it.
3. Ensure, through frequent visits, that your
subordinate supervisors are passing on the
necessary information and the required
orders to the staff.
4. Always keep your principal subordinate
supervisors informed of future plans and
operations.
5. Pass on all information to your staff about
rival companies and competing products.
6. Be alert concerning false rumours. Replace
rumours by truth.
7. Keep staff informed about current
legislation and laws which could affect
them, and about any changes proposed in
the policies of the organization.
8. Be sure that everyone knows what their job
is, what their duties are and who is their
immediate supervisor.


Source: Fleet, 1967.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT T
Module 4 Session 2



FIFTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Make sure that the task is understood,
supervised and accomplished

1. Before giving an order, be sure that the
order you are about to give is actually
needed.
2. Learn to properly assess a situation.
3. Develop the ability to issue clear, concise,
complete, correct and positive orders.
4. Always use the established chain of
authority in issuing orders.
5. Encourage subordinates to seek clarification
of orders they do not fully understand.
6. Orders given orally should always be
repeated back to ensure that they have
been properly understood.
7. Supervise the execution of your orders.
8. If you personally supervise the execution of
your orders, do not use the established
chain of authority.
9. Vary your routine during your supervisory
inspections.
10. Always exercise thorough care in the
supervision of your staff.
11. Give personal attention and assistance to
your subordinates when required.
12. Responsibility for action is not relieved by
not giving an action


Source: Fleet, 1967.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EX T
Module 4 Session 2X




SIXTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Train your staff as a team.

1. Supervise to ensure that the primary
mission of your organization is being
pursued by your staff.
2. Make sure that the facilities and materials
required for accomplishing the primary
mission are available and are being properly
used.
3. Ensure that activities of your organization
are meaningful, fruitful and profitable for
the personnel.
4. Eliminate any duplication of efforts, jobs
and human resources.
5. Everyone must know the jobs of those with
whom they normally work. This facilitates
team-work.
6. Everyone must know the functions,
requirements, capabilities and limitations of
all other units in the organization. This will
stimulate proper cooperation and team-
work.
7. Promote team-work by encouraging
initiative.
8. Your own enthusiasm can provide the spark
of motivation necessary for real team-work.


Source: Fleet, 1967.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT E IIT 1
Module 4 Session 2





SEVENTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Make sound and timely decisions.


Source: Fleet, 1967.


1. Assess the situation objectively and then
make sound and timely decisions for
problem solving.
2. Plan for the future as best as possible
within the constraints of time and foresight.
3. Enhance your judgement by acquiring
technical and professional qualifications.
4. Give measured consideration to the advice
and suggestions of your subordinates
before making your decisions.
5. Announce your decisions well in advance,
giving sufficient lead time to your
subordinates to make the necessary plans.
6. Be decisive. Decisiveness is primarily a
matter of practice and experience.
7. Encourage your subordinate supervisors to
continually assess the situation.
8. Ensure that your staff at all levels know
what your current plans and policies are.
9. Give careful consideration to the likely
effects of your decisions on your staff at
different levels.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 17
EXHIBIT 17
Module 4 Session 2


EIGHTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Develop a sense of responsibility in your
subordinates

1. Your orders and directives should be issued
through the established chain of command.
2. Use mission-type orders to the greatest
extent possible.
3. Assign responsibility together with proper
authority.
4. Give subordinates opportunities wherever
possible to perform the duties of the next-
higher position in your management
hierarchy.
5. Be sensitive and tactful in correcting errors
in judgement, initiative or ingenuity by your
staff. This will continuously encourage
development of their personal qualities.
6. Be quick to recognize the successful
accomplishments e.g., initiative,
resourcefulness of your subordinates.
7. Give advice freely when asked to do so.
8. Try to match jobs with the previous
experience, demonstrated competence or
potential abilities of your staff.
9. Have faith in every subordinate. Be prompt
and fair in backing them to the limit.
10. Always accept responsibility, and insist
that your subordinate supervisors also
accept responsibility as necessary.


Source: Fleet, 1967.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT T
Module 4 Session 2



NINTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION





Seek responsibility and be responsible for your
actions.


1. You must learn your profession as you develop your
capacity for higher responsibilities in the future.
2. Learn well the duties of your immediate superior. Be
prepared to take on his or her responsibilities at a
moment's notice.
3. You should be physically, mentally and psychologically
fit to should heavy responsibilities.
4. Always seek diversified management assignments. In
this way you will develop broad experience and
capabilities for higher responsibilities.
5. Take full advantage of every opportunity that offers you
an increased responsibility.
6. Perform every task large or small to the best of your
ability.
7. Accept just and honest criticism, and admit to your
mistakes.
8. Have the courage of your convictions. Stick to what
you think is right.
9. You must assume full responsibility for the failures of
those who work for you.
10. Carefully study, analyse and evaluate a subordinate's
failure before taking any corrective action.
11. Assume complete responsibility for your own actions.
12. Assuming responsibility for what you fail to do is just
as important as assuming responsibility for what you
do do.
13. In the absence of any standing orders, seize the
initiative and take the action you believe that your
superior would have taken in the circumstances.


Source: Fleet, 1967.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENTIBIT
Module 4 Session 2










TENTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Always set an example.

1. You must at all times be physically fit,
mentally alert, morally correct, well
groomed and properly dressed.
2. You must learn to master your emotions
completely.
3. Always keep a cheerful and optimistic
outlook and attitude.
4. Conduct yourself such that your personal
habits are not open to criticism or censure
from anyone.
5. Set an example by being factual and
courteous.
6. Your word must be your bond.


Source: Fleet, 1967.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 20
EXHIBIT 20
Module 4 Session 2



ELEVENTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION




Motivate every single staff member to feel
important to themselves

Motivate your staff by:
appealing to their hearts and not their heads
being genuinely interested in them and
what they do
talking to them in terms of their interests
giving individuals an identity in the
organization
remembering their names
using them primarily for tasks for which
they have been trained
giving them a personal need and a desire to
learn
keeping them well informed about their
individual progress within the organization
reinforcing their self-esteem by
asking for their advice and help
giving them an opportunity to set their
own goals within their job
showing them how essential their
individual efforts are and where they fit
into the whole picture
putting the personal into personnel
rewarding appropriately for successes
gained in competitions with their
associates


Source: Fleet, 1967.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 2


EXHIBIT 21


TWELFTH DYNAMIC LAW OF MOTIVATION


Source: Fleet, 1967.


PUT THE FIRST ELEVEN INTO ACTION

and


MAKE THEM WORK


I






Training manual for institute management 47


MOTIVATION


Motivation means 'to move' and is derived from the Latin word rrovere. It is "the state of
an individual's perspective which represents the strength of his or her propensity to exert
toward some particular behaviour" (Gibson, 1980). Motivation is an internal force which
stimulates, regulates and upholds a person's more important actions. Its existence and nature
is deduced from observation and experience of behaviour. By using motivation as a tool, a
manager can effectively blend organizational and individual goals. Terry and Franklin (1987)
explained motivation as "the need or drive within an individual that drives him or her toward
goal-oriented action." It helps in identifying what is done and what can be done.
Scientific management assumes that an employee is an emotional being and emphasizes
the importance of encouraging cohesive work groups in which each worker has a sense of
belonging. It is recognized that people possess (i) potential for development, (ii) capacity for
assuming responsibility, and (iii) readiness to direct behaviour towards organizational goals.
It is therefore the basic function of a manager to create an environment which helps people
recognize and develop these human characteristics through motivation. A manager is
required to comprehend human behaviour in order to utilize motivation as an instrument to
increase organizational productivity.


THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
There are broadly two types of motivation theories. These are content theories and process
theories. Content theories explain the 'why' of human behaviour. Maslow's need hierarchy,
Herzberg's two-factor theory and McClelland's need for achievement theory are included in
this category. Process theories recognize variables that go into -motivation, and their
interrelationship.


Content theories
Content theories consider need existence, relatedness, growth, achievement, hygiene and
motivating factors.


Module 4 Session 2

Reading note







48 Module 4 Session 2 Motivation


Need theories
Need theories give importance to psychological factors responsible for particular behaviour
aimed at satisfying the needs of individuals. Maslow (1943) propounded a need theory based
on the fact that man is a wanting animal, and as soon as one of his needs is satisfied, another
appears in its place. The satisfied need ceases to be the motivator of human behaviour. It
is the emerging, yet-to-be-satisfied need which influences one's behaviour. The behaviour
of an individual, at a particular moment, is usually determined by his or her strongest need.
These needs are not necessarily deliberately identified by an individual but may be
subliminal. It is therefore essential that needs of the individuals are given importance and
that the manager is able to perceive the most important need at any particular moment.
Maslow (1943) classified human needs into five main groups: psychological, safety, social,
esteem and self-actualization. These five basic needs of an individual form a hierarchy. The
higher-level needs are not considered important by an individual until the lower-level needs
are satisfied at least partially. Once a need is satisfied, the person is concerned with the next
level of need in their personal hierarchy.
ERG Theory
Maslow's five basic needs have been regrouped by Alderfer (1969) into three categories:
existence, relatedness and growth (ERG). Alderfer's first level of needs, existence, includes
physiological and safety needs. The second need category, relatedness, consists of social and
esteem needs. The third category, growth, includes the individual's desire to be
self-confident, creative and productive. Alderfer's need theory is based on the assumption
that higher-order needs could emerge even before the lower-level needs are fully satisfied.
Need and achievement theory
Propounding an achievement and power theory, McClelland (1962) identified three basic
needs within individuals. They are need for achievement, need for power, and need for
affiliation. McClelland's need for achievement and affiliation are similar to Maslow's social
and esteem needs. Need for power has not been mentioned in Maslow's theory. The
strengths of these needs can be identified by administering a Thematic Appreciation Test.
Based on his or her understanding, a manager can create a climate to elicit the desired
performance from the employee while also providing employee satisfaction and growth.
Two-factor theory
Maslow's need theory is insufficient and has practical limitations in translating needs into
something operational, since the criteria for satisfying social needs differ from individual to
individual. Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1962) developed a two-factor theory to
provide some direction for managers in resolving motivational problems. Arguing that there
is little or no relationship between productivity and morale, Herzberg, Mausner and
Snyderman's theory is based on the concept of job content (hygiene factors) and job context
(motivating factors). Job content refers to the job or work itself, and emerges from the work
and employee relationship. Therefore these factors are innate and work in different ways.
Hygiene factors include "technical supervision, interpersonal relationship with peers, salary,
working conditions, status, company policy, job security and interpersonal relations
with superiors" (Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986). All of these factors are job contextual
and also include maintenance factors. These are consider'! extrinsic, as they are out
of the limit of work and employees. Hygiene factors are satisfiers to the extent that







Training manual for institute management 49


they produce dissatisfaction if absent. However, they are not motivators for better
performance.
Motivating factors relate to job content and are concerned with increased satisfaction and the
desire to work harder. While their presence provides satisfaction and motivates
towards more effort and better performance, their absence does not produce
dissatisfaction. Some of the motivating factors are "advancement, the work itself,
recognition, and the possibility of growth" (Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986).


Process theories
Expectancy theory
Expectancy theory attempts to identify the relationship among dynamic variables which
influence the behaviour of individuals. It is based on the premise that performance is
determined by interactive effects of motivational levels, ability, traits and pride perceptions.
Vroom's expectancy theory (1964) is based on the concept that the level of performance
is a multi licative function of ability and motivation. To get performance, both factors must
be present, and if one of these is absent there will be no performance.
Reinforcement theory
Reinforcement theory is based on the assumption that employees can be motivated in a
properly designed work environment with acclaim for desirable performance (Skinner, 1953).
It contends that the sum of external environment and not internal needs, wants or desires -
determines individual behaviour. In order to improve the performance of employees,
managers have to identify powerful reinforcements, such as interesting job assignments, fair
pay, promotion and participation in decision making. A reinforcement can be positive or
negative, depending upon the situation. Positive impetus strengthens the probability of a
desired response, which leads to positive results and repeated desired behaviour. Sometimes
negative stimulus can be used to deter undesirable behaviour, but use of positive stimulus is
more desirable. Negative reinforcement can be punishment or extinction. Extinction means
eliminating an existing reinforcer which has caused a particular behaviour.
Goal-setting theory
Goal-setting theory is based on the premise that performance is the result of a person's
intentions to perform (Locke, 1968). People will do what they are trying to do and setting
goals will improve their performance. Goals are tasks which a person tries to accomplish.
The theory argues that (i) better results are achieved by setting difficult goals rather than easy
goals, (ii) specific goals result in better performance than general goals, and (iii) participation
in setting goals does not necessarily improve performance. The stages through which the
goal-setting process goes through are: (i) event (situation in the environment), (ii) cognition
(awareness of the incentives), (iii) evaluation (of the worth of the task), (iv) goal setting
(intention to act), and (v) performance.


MOTIVATION TECHNIQUES
With an understanding of human needs, behaviour and expectations, a manager should be
able to create an environment where employees feel content and satisfied, so as to best
achieve organizational goals. Motivational methods help in raising the level of personal







50 Module 4 Session 2 Motivation


motivation so that each person uses more of their capabilities. Techniques for motivation can
either be intrinsic (related to job content) or extrinsic (related to job context). A motivated
work effort increases the person's drive to perform better, which results in improved
performance, higher quality of work and increased satisfaction. Quality of work life is quite
important in improving productivity and achieving integration. Some of the important
methods for improving performance through increased motivation are described below.


Job enrichment
Using a work design approach, the nature of the job can be changed with a view to reducing
or eliminating the dreariness of repetitive activities. Through re-design aimed at job
enrichment, a person does a variety of tasks rather than a few routine activities. This results
in doing more of the job; the person also has some autonomy as to how to do these tasks, and
assumes responsibility for quality of performance (Aldag and Brief, 1979). This is vertical
job loading, the concept having been based on the two-factor theory of Herzberg, Mausner
and Snyderman (1962). The premise is that a job with high growth opportunity, challenge
and potential for recognition elicits greater willingness to work.


Job characteristics model
Hackman and Oldham (1976) have developed a job characteristics model which has four
variables.
(i) Work outcome, which can be of four types:
(a) Internal work motivation is the degree to which people are swayed by the work in
which they are engaged. Internal work motivation is not influenced by pay and other
such factors.
(b) Quality of work performance. Productivity can be increased if level of output is
maintained while concurrently improving quality.
(c) Job satisfaction is an outcome of the employee's attitude towards work.
(d) Absenteeism and turnover. Productivity is low where absenteeism and employee
turnover are high.
(ii) Critical psychological states comprise experienced meaningfulness, experienced
responsibility and knowledge of results. When performance is good, critical
psychological states keep motivating the person to continue doing well.
(iii) Core job dimensions are interrelated with critical psychological states. They include:
(a) Skill variety: the number of different abilities required to perform the task.
(b) Task identity: the degree to which a person feels responsible for the task.
(c) Task significance: the effect of the task on others.
(d) Autonomy: the degree of freedom which a person has in doing the task.
(e) Feedback: the amount of information that a person gets about the task and how
effective performance has been.
(iv) Growth-need strength is the degree to which a person desires to achieve and advance.







Training manual for institute management 51


Strategies for enriching jobs
Hackman et al. (1975) described five basic strategies for enriching jobs:
(i) Combining tasks so as to increase types of task and different skills required to perform
them. Smaller tasks could be combined together into a large complex task which can
be assigned to a team. Such a team will be composed of people possessing different
skills.
(ii) Forming natural work units to enhance task identity and task significance.
(iii) Establishing a client relationship to improve skill variety, autonomy and feedback.
(iv) Vertical loading to increase the sense of responsibility. Vertical loading is done by
adding higher-level (vertical) tasks rather than more from the same (horizontal) level.
(v) Opening feedback channels to improve feedback. This results in better or more precise
performance.


Achievement-cum-power training
Based on McClelland's need and achievement theory (1962), this technique involves a
training programme for groups of about ten to twenty-five people. The same process is
followed for both achievement and power motives. Training is usually conducted by a trainer
and involves the following steps:
(i) Create conviction and confidence that motives can be changed.
(ii) Convince participants that developing the strength of achievement motives is in
conformity with their environmental needs.
(iii) Teach participants how to act with a high-achievement orientation. Discuss case
studies and participants' experiences.
(iv) Record participants' achievement- or power-oriented behaviour and present them to
participants so that they can analyse and assess how their actions deviate from high-
achievement behaviour.
(v) Each participant sets personal goals, formulates their own action plan, and develops
criteria and benchmark for appraising their personal performance.


Management by objectives
Based on goal-setting theory, management by objectives is "a process in which members of
the organization work together to identify common goals and then integrate all their efforts
in achieving those goals" (Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986). Specific goals are derived from
general, interrelated objectives. The success of management by objectives depends upon how
well objectives and action plans are defined, communicated and accepted.
Positive reinforcement programmes
Derived from reinforcement theory, positive reinforcement programmes involve the following
steps, as illustrated by Hamner and Hamner (1976) and Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, (1986):
(i) Identification of specific behaviour problems.







52 Module 4 Session 2 Motivation


(ii) Determination of the links between antecedents, behaviour and consequences.
(iii) Development and setting of specific behaviourial goals for each person and target
behaviour.
(iv) Recording progress toward the goal.
(v) Application of appropriate consequences (rewards, punishment or extinction).
Six ways of positive reinforcement have been identified to motivate employees (Hamner and
Hamner, 1976). These are:
(i) Do not reward all employees equally. Rewards must be deserved and valued.
(ii) Failure to reinforce could modify behaviour usually in a negative direction.
(iii) Employees should be informed as to what they should do to get reinforcement. This
can be done by setting goals and monitoring performance to get timely feedback.
(iv) Employees should be informed through appropriate and timely communication as and
when they are doing wrong. Through such communication and other needed help
from the manager, employees can improve their performance. Contrary to general
belief, timely feedback through such communications acts as positive reinforcement.
Lack of communication creates confusion and a feeling of manipulation.
(v) Do not admonish or punish a subordinate in the presence of others.
(vi) Be fair and impartial.


LAWS OF MOTIVATION
Motives are the primary energizers of human behaviour. However, they are not the only
determinants of the performance of individuals. Human performance is basically a function
of habits and skills that are acquired through learning and teaching. Motivation may give
desired results only when employees are properly recruited, selected, placed, inducted and
trained. Fleet (1967) has suggested eleven dynamic laws which managers can follow to
improve motivation among their subordinates:
(i) Develop yourself technically and professionally.
(ii) Be honest with yourself.
(iii) Know your staff and look out for their welfare.
(iv) Always keep your staff informed.
(v) Make sure the task is understood, supervised and accomplished.
(vi) Train your personnel as a team.
(vii) Make sound and timely decisions.
(viii) Develop a sense of responsibility in your subordinates.
(ix) Seek responsibility and be responsible for your actions.
(x) Always set an example.
(xi) Motivate every single person to feel important to themselves.
(xii) Put the first eleven laws into action, and make them work.






Training manual for institute management 53


REFERENCES


Aldag, R., & Brief, A. 1979. Task Design and Employee Motivation. Glenview MD:
Scott, Foresman.
Alderfer, C.P. 1969. An empirical test of a new theory of human needs. Organizational
Behavior and Human Performance, 4(2): 142-175.
Fleet, J.K.V. 1967. The Dynamics of Motivation. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Gibson, F. 1980. Managing Organizational Behaviour. Homewood IL: Irwin.
Hackman, J.R., & Oldham, G.R. 1976. Motivation through the design of work: test of a
theory. Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2): 250-279.
Hackman, J.R., Oldham, G.R., Jenson, R., & Purdy, K. 1975. A new strategy for job
enrichment. California Management Review, 17: 57-71.
Hamner, W.C., & Hamner, E.P. 1976. Behavior modification on the bottom line.
Organization Dynamics, 4(8): 8-21.
Herzberg, F.A., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. 1962. The Motivation to Work. New
York, NY: John Wiley.
Locke, E.A. 1968. Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organization
Behavior and Human Performance, 3(1): 152-189.
Maslow, A.H. 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50: 370-396.
McClelland, D. 1962. Business drive and national achievement. Harvard Business Review,
40(4): 99-112.
Skinner, B.F. 1953. Science and Human Behaviour. New York, NY: Free Press.
Terry, G.R., & Franklin, S.G. 1987. Principles of Management. New Delhi: All India
Traveller Bookseller.
Tosi, L.H., Rizzo, R.J. & Carroll, S.J. 1986. Managing Organizational Behaviour: The
Leadership Role in Group Decision Making. New York, NY: Pitman.
Vroom, V.H. 1964. Work and Motivation. New York, NY: John Wiley.










Training manual for institute management 55


DATE


TIME


FORMAT Plenary participatory lecture


TRAINER




OBJECTIVES
At the end of this session, participants should be able to understand and appreciate:
1. The concept and importance of team building.
2. Factors which influence group formation, dynamics, influence and cohesion.
3. Team building: conditions necessary for; stages in; and theoretical approaches.
4. Team building and management in agricultural research organizations.


Module 4 Session 3


Team building







56 Module 4 Session 3 Team building


INSTRUCTION MATERIALS


Exhibit 1
Exhibit 2
Exhibit 3
Exhibit 4
Exhibit 5
Exhibit 6
Exhibit 7.
Exhibit 8
Exhibit 9
Exhibit 10
Exhibit 11
Exhibit 12
Exhibit 13


Team building
Group
Factors influencing behaviour
Factors influencing group cohesion
Increasing group cohesiveness
Encouraging work groups
Conditions necessary for building a team
Stages in team building
Approaches to team building
Components of team building
Team management
Team meeting structure
Improving team efficiency


REQUIRED READING

Reading note: Team Building.





BACKGROUND READING

None.





SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS

Overhead projector and chalkboard






Training manual for institute management 57


TEAM BUILDING


Initiate discussion by asking participants "What is a team?" Why should a team be formed,
particularly in a research institution? Show EXHIBIT 1 and discuss the concept of team
building. A team is collection of people who interact with each other regularly and are
dependent on each other for attainment of common goals. A team brings together people
with different expertise and thus enables application of specialized knowledge in solving
problems. Team building helps in improving organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Elicit examples of various teams in the organizations to which the participants belong, and
enquire what functions the teams perform. Ask "Are they effective?" If so, in what way?
Groups and group dynamics underlie the concept of team building and management.
Show EXHIBIT 2 and discuss important considerations which influence group formation.
These are:
personal characteristics,
interest and goals,
influence,
opportunity for interaction, and
other related factors.
Continue referring to EXHIBIT 2 and discuss the concept of group dynamics and group
influence.
Now discuss behaviour (EXHIBIT 3). The important factors which lead to variations in
behaviour are compliance, identification, internalization and social facilitation. Ask
participants why people differ in their natural tendency to help others. Discuss and
distinguish between cooperation and competition. Group cohesion is important in bringing
members together towards a common goal and generating team spirit. Show EXHIBIT 4 and
5, and discuss factors which could enhance group cohesion, and ways and means of
improving it. Show EXHIBIT 6 and discuss steps in fostering group productivity, satisfaction,
cohesion and learning, which together encourage work groups.


Module 4 Session 3

Session guide






Module 4 Session 3 Team building


Now start discussing team building and management issues. To begin with, ask
participants how teams are useful in achieving organizational goals. What are the conditions
necessary when building a team? Show EXHIBIT 7 and discuss these conditions. Encourage
participants to share their experience with respect to each of these conditions.
Various stages in the team-building process are forming, storming, norming, performing
and adjourning. Show EXHIBIT 8 and briefly discuss each of these stages.
There are many approaches to team building. Some time could be devoted to a
discussion of each of these approaches, as illustrated in EXHIBIT 9. Observe that goal setting
creates commitment and a feeling of involvement. The inter-personal approach develops
mutual trust and confidence among group members, and creates an environment where
decision making involves group consensus, problems being solved efficiently, and conflicts
resolved easily. The managerial grid approach aims at productive and cohesive team-work
and involves four steps. The role model considers 'team' as a series of overlapping roles.
The components of team building are: developing the individual, achievement of the task,
and building and maintaining the team. Show EXHIBIT 10 and discuss each of these
components and how they interlock with each other.
Now initiate discussion on team management. Team management could be either
authoritarian or democratic. Authoritarian styles are task and achievement oriented, while
democratic styles use a participative approach. Show EXHIBIT 11 and discuss the two styles
briefly.
Discuss the six sequential team meeting steps (EXHIBIT 12). Participants could be asked
whether, in their experience, team meetings are along those lines, or otherwise.
There are methods available for managing teams efficiently and effectively. Show
EXHIBIT 13 and discuss these methods. They include setting effective norms, providing the
necessary technology, ensuring high skill levels, and providing effective extrinsic and
intrinsic rewards.
The session could be concluded by a brief discussion of team building and management
in research organizations, and increasing trends in this direction. Team building is essential
for multidisciplinary research.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


EXHIBIT 1


TEAM BUILDING


* A team is a collection of people who
interact with each other regularly and are
dependent on each other for the
attainment of common goals.

* Team building removes hindrances and
enhances organizational effectiveness
and efficiency.

* The key elements of a team are goal
sharing, interdependence, commitment
and accountability.


Source: Shaw, 1981.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT E IIT 2
Module 4 Session 3B


GROUP




Definition
Two or more people who interact and
influence one another

Formation
Personal characteristics
Interests and goals
Influence
Opportunity for interaction
Other factors

Group dynamics
How group members are influenced
Factors in helping, cooperating and
competing
Group cohesion and satisfaction, and
productivity of group members
Maintaining external linkages
Increasing effectiveness of task groups

Group influence


Source: Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


Source: Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.


Compliance

Identification

Internalization

Social facilitation


IEXHIBIT 3 1






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT E T
Module 4 Session 3B












FACTORS ENHANCING GROUP COHESION




group formation factors
group development factors
difficulty of entry
status congruence
reward allocation
success
stability of membership
external threat
group size


Source: Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


Source: Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.


EXHIBIT 5


* communicating with the subordinates as
a group
* emphasizing and promoting competition
with other groups
* rewarding cooperation
* managing conflicting within the group
* setting achievement goals for the group
rather than for individuals
* treating everyone equitably and not
playing favourites
* encouraging social interaction among
group members






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


EXHIBIT 6


ENCOURAGING WORK GROUPS




* treat employees as social beings and not
as mere numbers
* establish a manageable group size
* encourage group members to select the
other members whenever possible
* assist groups to develop and mature
* encourage group productivity norms
* deal with group situations where
cohesion is based on norms harmful to
the organization
* support groups to develop good
productivity goals, encouraging
participation of individual members
* cautious use of competition to encourage
group productivity
* provide opportunities for success


Source: Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 7
Module 4 Session 3











CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR TEAM
BUILDING




clear objectives and agreed goals
openness and confrontation
support and trust
cooperation and conflict
sound procedures
appropriate leadership
regular review
individual development
sound intergroup relations


Source: Woodcock, 1986.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


STAGES IN TEAM BUILDING


Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Adjourning


Sources: Adair, 1987; Kormanski and Mozenter, 1987.


I EXHIBIT 8 1






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIB
Module 4 Session 3











APPROACHES TO TEAM BUILDING






Goal-setting approach
Inter-personal approach
Managerial grid model
Self-evaluation
Perceptions about mode of functioning
New behaviour and performance goals
New styles of team-work
Individual behaviour
Role model



Sources: Beer, 1976; Argyris, 1966;
Blake and Mouton, 1969.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


EXHIBIT 10


COMPONENTS OF TEAM BUILDING




Developing the individual


Achievement of the task


Building and maintaining the team


Source: Adair, 1987.


--I







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


EXHIBIT 11


TEAM MANAGEMENT





Authoritarian style


vs


Democratic or participative style


Source: Tarkenton and Tuleja, 1986.


I






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EX T
Module 4 Session 3X












TEAM MEETING STRUCTURE




Follow up

Review performance data

Reinforce

Solve problems

Plan action

Communicate


Source: Tarkenton and Tuleja, 1986.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 4 Session 3


EXHIBIT 13


IMPROVING TEAM EFFICIENCY




Set effective norms
* Informal and relaxed atmosphere
* Participative discussion regarding tasks
* Clear understanding and acceptance of
objectives
* Free expression and tolerance of other's
views
* Recognition and resolution of disagreements
* Decision making by consensus
* Criticism frequent but not personal
* Clear responsibilities
* No dominance of team leader and no power
struggle
* Self-awareness of group about its operations

Provide the necessary technology

Ensure high skill levels

Provide effective extrinsic rewards
* Meaningful, clearly defined tasks with
identifiable ends
* Each member skilled in completing the job
* Autonomy in working methods, planning and
assignment of responsibilities in the group


Source: Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986.









Training manual for institute management 73


TEAM BUILDING


Team building is an approach towards enhancing organizational effectiveness and proficiency.
A team is 'a collection of people who interact with each other regularly and are dependent
on each other for the attainment of common goals.' The objective of team development is
the removal of impediments to improving group effectiveness. The key elements of a team
are goal sharing, interdependence, commitment and accountability.


GROUPS
A clear understanding of groups and their formation and dynamics is essential before
discussing team building and management. 'Group' is defined as consisting of two or more
people who interact and influence one another (Shaw, 1981). According to their numerical
size, groups can be dyads (group of two members), triads (group of three), small (four to
nine members) or large (ten or more).


Group formation
Important variables (Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986) which influence group formation include:
Personal characteristics, which include shared beliefs, values, attitudes, security needs
and affiliation needs.
Interests and goals in common.
Influence, since a group can exert more power and influence to get proper attention and
action.
Opportunity for interaction, which helps in developing affinities and relationships.
Other factors are similar functional departments, cooperative physical activities,
intellectual pursuits, emotional needs or protection, and attention and friendship.


Module 4 Session 3

Reading note







74 Module 4 Session 3 Team building


Group dynamics
Understanding group dynamics is essential for a manager in order to encourage effective
team-work. Group dynamics can be understood by exploring (Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll,
1986):
how group members are influenced,
factors in helping, cooperating and competing,
the way group cohesion relates to satisfaction and productivity of group members,
maintaining external linkages, and
how to make task groups more effective.


Group influence
The process of influence and obedience in groups is important for group dynamics. How
people influence each other in a group is the process of group influence. This process
prevails in all types of human interaction and interdependence. Obedience or conformity
involves direct influence of the group on the behaviour of individuals such that their
behaviour outside the group will be different.


Behaviour
People differ in their vulnerability to pressures, yet most people can be influenced to behave
in a particular manner. Compliance, identification, internalization and social facilitation are
some of the important factors which could play a crucial role in influencing people to behave
differently.
Compliance is when people agree in spite of their own beliefs and preferences. This is
obedience.
Identification refers to agreements when people respect or are attracted to others.
Internalization refers to the change in behaviour manifested when people accept requests
or orders because either they are consistent with their own beliefs and values or they
expect the desired behaviour to be rewarding to them.
Social facilitation occurs as a result of the influence exerted by the mere presence of
someone.


Helping behaviour
People's penchant to help others differ. Some people care, and are willing to take more risk
to help others. There are several factors that reduce or facilitate helping, and they can be
important to the success of a group or organization.
Cooperation and competition are also crucial for an organization. Cooperation is more
than mere helping: it encompasses giving support to others and contributing time and effort
in situations where people can work together towards the same goals. In competition, people
are more concerned with personal or group interests.







Training manual for institute management 75


Group cohesion
Group cohesion refers to the degree to which group members are attracted to each other and
to group membership. Cohesiveness brings group members towards a common goal and
creates team spirit. According to Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll (1986), some of the important
factors which can enhance group cohesion concern:
group formation,
group development,
difficulty of entry,
status congruence,
reward allocation,
success,
stability of membership,
external threat, and
group size.
A manager can boost group cohesion by:
communicating with the subordinates as a group,
emphasizing and promoting competition with other groups,
rewarding cooperation,
managing conflict situations within the group,
setting achievement goals for the group rather than for individuals,
treating everyone in the group equitably without favouritism, and
encouraging social interaction among group members.


External linkages
A group comprises members representing various areas, skills or backgrounds. Good,
balanced representation can facilitate acceptance of a group's work.


Encouraging work groups
Group efficiency and effectiveness can be increased by fostering group productivity,
satisfaction, cohesion and learning. This can be achieved by various measures, including
(Tosi, Rizzo and Carroll, 1986):
Treating employees as social beings and not as mere numbers.
Taking care when establishing group size so as to establish neither too small nor too large
a group.
Encouraging group members to select other members whenever possible. This improves
inter-personal relations in the group, which in turn generates cohesion and cooperation.
Supporting groups to develop and mature. It helps in settling tensions and other
difficulties in the group.
Encouraging group productivity norms in congruence with organizational goals.
Dealing with group situations where cohesion is based on norms that are harmful to the
organization.







Module 4 Session 3 Team building


Supporting groups to develop good productivity goals. Encouraging participation of
individual members' in the group task so as to avoid the ill effects of social loafing.
Social loafing occurs when in a group an individual does not do his share of work,
expecting that the work will get done anyway since other members of the group are
working towards the same goal.
Exercising care and discretion in utilizing competition to encourage group productivity.
Providing groups with opportunities for success.


TEAMS
A team can
make important contributions to the development of the organization,
wield strong influence on individual work attitudes and behaviour, and
gain the commitment of its members by being participative and consequently facilitating
implementation.


Building a team
The building blocks of effective teams, as identified by Woodcock (1986) are:
clear objectives and agreed goals,
openness and confrontation,
support and trust,
cooperation and conflict,
sound procedures,
appropriate leadership,
regular review,
individual development, and
sound intergroup relations.

Stages in team building
To make teams efficient and effective, a research manager should use:
managing talents to successfully guide teams through various stages of development, and
leading skills, which would kindle team members to achieve their full potential at every
stage of team development.
There are five sequential steps involved in the team building process (Kormanski and
Mozenter, 1987; Adair, 1987):
(i) Forming refers to awareness. During this stage, team members are oriented, become
committed, and then accept the goals and programmes.
(ii) Storming refers to resolution and development of a feeling of belonging.
(iii) Norming refers to cooperation and collaboration in which communication is
promoted. This results in a feeling of enticement and support.







Training manual for institute management


(iv) Performing refers to productivity. During this stage problems are solved and
interdependence fostered, which results in achievements.
(v) Adjourning refers to separation. This does not occur if the previous four stages have
been successful, with no problems encountered.


Approaches to team building
There are several approaches to team building, with differing degrees of group participation,
self-examination, problem confrontation and goal setting. Any of these approaches can be
used for team development. A manager can also blend and integrate different approaches,
depending upon situational requirements.


Goal-setting approach
The goal-setting approach (Beer, 1976) is based on the assumption that a goal influences not
only individual and group behaviour but also direction, coordination and extent of group
efforts. If problems of the group are identified through interviews with group members, they
can be handled by group solutions. Based on these solutions, the group could set goals.
Goal setting creates commitment and a feeling of involvement.


The inter-personal approach
Based on the assumption that an inter-personally congenial team functions more effectively,
the inter-personal approach encourages 'sharing of feelings, psychological support for one
another, and non-evaluative communication' among team members (Argyris, 1966).
Cooperation and better understanding is obtained by developing mutual trust and confidence
among group members. It helps in creating an environment where conflicts are effectively
settled, problems solved efficiently, and decision making is based on group concordance.
This increases the effectiveness and productivity of the team.


The managerial grid model
The managerial grid approach (Blake and Mouton, 1969) aims at productive and cohesive
team-work. It involves four steps. The first step is evaluation. Every team member
evaluates their personal contribution and performance as well as that of others in the group.
This process helps each member to identify what they are doing or not doing to make the
team effective. In the second step, the understanding of group members concerning the
team's functioning is deliberated and examined so as to identify the problems faced by the
team. The third step is to eliminate unacceptable individual and team practices and to replace
them with new behaviour and performance goals. The fourth step involves trying out new
styles of team-work and individual behaviour to overcome problems being faced at that time.
If these steps are successful, the usefulness of the new approaches is proven and will provide
the group members with a model of how they can work together.







78 Module 4 Session 3 Team building


Role model
The role model concept is based on the assumption that 'role is a set of behaviour which an
individual in a particular organizational position feels obliged to perform and which
individuals in other organizational positions expect that person to perform' (Beer, 1976).
Thus, a team is a chain of overlapping roles. Behaviour in a group can be understood in the
context of how individuals understand their roles. If group members correctly perceive their
role and the roles of other members, conflict and vagueness can be eliminated and efficiency
increased. Many types of role and clarification meetings are used for developing effective
teams.


Components of team building
There are three interlocking components in team building (Adair, 1987). They are:
Developing the individual Individuals come to groups with their own needs. They work
in groups to accomplish group tasks while simultaneously expecting that group
membership will fulfil some of their individual needs.
Task achievement This is the need to achieve something. It is the task on which the
group is working.
Building and maintaining the team The need to develop and sustain working relationships
among members is necessary for the accomplishing of group tasks. This is the
maintenance need of the group.


Team management
There are two approaches to managing a team effectively (Tarkenton and Tuleja, 1986). One
is the traditional approach, based on an authoritarian style. The other is a democratic or
participative approach.
The authoritarian style of team management relies on the manager being in full
command. Involvement of group members in decision making is discouraged. The
democratic or participative style of team management encourages group members to talk,
express their opinions, and involves them in the decision making process and in problem
solving. Through this process, group results are optimized.
By relying more on task and achievement-orientation, an authoritarian-style manager can
perhaps ensure obedience without motivation and involvement, but that would not generate
the best performance in the long term, whereas a participative style usually promotes that.
To promote team-work, a manager should act as an educator or a facilitator rather than as
a dictator or autocratic boss.


Team meetings
Tarkenton and Tuleja (1986) have developed a 'team meeting' structure, consisting of six
sequential steps:
(i) Follow-up Every team meeting should conclude with some plan of action to
implement the decisions made. Similarly, every team meeting should start by







Training manual for institute management 79


objectively reviewing progress in implementing the decisions approved in previous
meetings. Follow-up action is necessary when planning and reviewing.
(ii) Review of performance data The next step is to evaluate progress in team
performance since the last meeting. This is done to ensure that the team is moving
in the right direction.
(iii) Reinforcement After reviewing the implementation or performance, a manager has
to provide reinforcement. Obviously, positive reinforcements are given to those who
have contributed to progress and performed well. Negative reinforcement is for
those who fell short in their performance. In t-ie team setting, positive
reinforcement is effective in encouraging the good performer to continued with good,
or even improved, performance. Simultaneously, it also motivates slow performers
towards better efforts in the hope of receiving positive reinforcement later on, when
they have improved their performance. A manager should use negative
reinforcement only after exhausting other means. Initially, negative reinforcement
should be mild so as not to demotivate poor performers. The aim should be to
motivate towards better performance. Taikenton and Tuleja (1986) observed that:
behaviour resulting from positive reinforcement tends to continue, persist or even
increase,
behaviour that is re-motivated by negative consequences tends to deplete, and
good behaviour which is not reinforced in any manner tends to decline over
time.
(iv) Problem solving During team meetings, appropriate reinforcement aims at solving
problems so as to make group members more productive. An imaginative and
creative problem-solving approach is crucial to good team performance. It provides
an opportunity for positive interactions between team members and is helpful in
increasing team productivity.
(v) Planning action The next step in the team meeting process is to formulate an action
plan and assign specific responsibilities to individual members of the group.
(vi) Communicating The last step of a team meeting is a brief discussion about the
group's current and future concerns and progress. It strengthens team spirit. It
simultaneously reassures team members that they are working jointly to achieve
common goals.


Improving team efficiency
Some useful ways to improve team efficiency are considered below (Beer, 1976; Tosi, Rizzo
and Carroll, 1986; Adair, 1987):
(i) Influence the evolution of effective norms which a team adopts, and depending on
managerial style, a manager can achieve this by defining standards, focusing on
setting goals with the group, reinforcing goals when they are met, and recognizing
good performance. Some important considerations (McGregor, 1960) in setting
norms are noted below.
SThe atmosphere in the group should be informal and relaxed.






80 Module 4 Session 3 Team building


There should be provision for ample discussion regarding tasks, with each member
participating in the discussion and expressing their views.
Objectives should be clearly formulated and understood, and accepted by group
members
Members should listen to each other. They should be able to freely express their
ideas and opinions, including those relating to group performance.
Disagreements should be acknowledged and settled, rather than subdued.
Most decisions should be arrived at through some form of concordance.
Criticism should be frequent, but seldom personal.
Responsibilities should be assigned clearly and without ambivalence.
The team leader should not overshadow the team, and there should be no power
struggle within the group.
The group should be aware of its operation.
(ii) Improve the efficiency of the team, and a manager can do this by efficiently
organizing the work and securing the means necessary, including appropriate
technology, resources, and supporting facilities.
(iii) Ensure high skill levels.
(iv) Ensure that pay, promotions and recognition are related to team performance. The
manager thus demonstrates to subordinates the value of team-work and the value
attached to the contribution of individuals in team-work.
(v) Provide intrinsic rewards, such as challenging work, clear responsibilities and
autonomy in influencing work methods. The manager should ensure not only that
jobs synchronize with the interests of individual members, but also that they find the
job easier in a team setting. For effective intrinsic group rewards, managers should
define tasks completely, purposely and explicitly. A task should have an identifiable
end point. Each group member should have skills required to complete these tasks.
The team should have freedom in deciding on its working methods, planning and
allocation of responsibilities to individual members.


TEAM BUILDING IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS
Increasing specialization in every field has led to the need for a multidisciplinary approach
in research. This necessitates pooling of experience and knowledge of various fields to foster
creativity and efficiency in a research team. Agricultural research organizations consist of
a number of groups. These groups are important because they provide a stimulus for
creativity and innovation. Through synergic effects, they help in tackling multidimensional
and complex research problems which require collaborative inputs from several disciplines.
Team research also puts limited resources to optimal use. It can result in total solutions
covering different dimensions.
Teams can be constituted either vertically or horizontally. Vertically formed teams are
based on fields of production. Horizontal teams comprise departments based on disciplines.
The size and skills of a team should be based on the problem to be solved and its magnitude.
A research manager has to consider the relative merits and drawbacks of alternative






Training manual for institute management 81


approaches in forming the team so as to provide the required capabilities for realizing the
goals set by the organization.
The research manager has a crucial role in facilitating smooth, effective and efficient
functioning of the team which includes highly skilled scientists. The manager has to satisfy
both individual and organizational needs through appropriate managerial interventions and
reinforcements. The effective and efficient functioning of a team can be facilitated if the
objectives of the team are jointly decided and tasks clearly specified. In research
organizations, human factors play a proportionally greater role than in other organizations.
A research organization can be effective only if the special human needs of scientists are
satisfied.
In general in agricultural research organizations, it is desirable to attain a suitable blend
of both vertical and horizontal elements in teams. Examples of discipline-based horizontal
teams are: soil chemistry, soil physics, soil pedology, crop genetics and plant breeding, plant
physiology, plant pathology, irrigation and salinity, animal physiology, agricultural
engineering, agricultural economics, food technology or entomology. Teams based on
production lines (vertical) are: field crops, vegetable crops, horticulture, forestry, animal
husbandry or poultry.
In some organizations, team building may influence individual freedom and creativity,
but not so in an agricultural research organization, where problem solving generally requires
inputs from various disciplines. Research problems are jointly discussed by those constituting
the team, i.e., the scientists of the various disciplines. On the basis of such discussion, goals
are decided. The individual contribution of each scientist is also discussed and planned.
Every scientist then has the freedom to plan their work independently. However, the
scientists meet periodically to exchange experiences, discuss problems and review progress.


REFERENCES


Adair, J. 1987. Effective Team Building. Vermont: Gower Publishing.
Argyris, C. 1966. Inter-personal barriers to decision making. Harvard Business Review,
44: 84-97.
Beer, M. 1976. The technology of organization development, pp. 937-993, in:
Dunned, M.D. (ed) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago
IL: Rand McNally.
Blake, R.R., & Mouton, J.S. 1969. Building a Dynamic Corporation through Grid
Organization Development. Reading AM: Addison Wesley.
Kormanski, C., & Mozenter, A. 1987. A new model of team building: a technology for
today and tomorrow. The Annual Conference: Developing Human Resources.
La Jolla CA: University Associates.
McGregor, D. 1960. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Shaw, M.E. 1981 Group Dynamics: The Psychology of Small Group Behaviour. New
York, NY: McGraw-Hill.






82 Module 4 Session 3 Team building




Tarkenton, F., & Tuleja, T. 1986. How to Motivate People: The Team Strategy for
Success. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Tosi, H.L., Rizzo, J.R., & Carroll, S.J. 1986. Managing Organizational Behaviour. New
York, NY: Pitman.
Woodcock, M. 1986. Team Development Manual. Aldershot: Gower Press.







Training manual for institute management 83


DATE


TIME


Plenary participatory lecture


OBJECTIVES

At the end of this session, participants should be able to apply the concept of leadership
to a research institute situation, understand the motivating factors, and appreciate the
importance of team building.


Module 4 Session 4


Case study: IRRI management


FORMAT


TRAINER







84 Module 4 Session 4 Case study: IRRI management


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

None.


REQUIRED READING

Case study prepared by R. Black: IRRI management compares IRRI with LDE research
institutes.


BACKGROUND READING

(i) The IRRI Agricultural Equipment Programme.
(ii) Reading note on Leadership in Module 4 Session 1.
(iii) Reading note on Motivation in Module 4 Session 2.
(iv) Reading note on Team Building in Module 4 Session 3.





SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS

Overhead projector and chalkboard.







Training manual for institute management 85


CASE STUDY: IRRI MANAGEMENT COMPARES IRRI WITH LDE RESEARCH
INSTITUTES'


It is necessary that participants should have been exposed to the concepts of leadership, of
motivation and of team building, either through the Reading notes and Background readings,
or in separate sessions on each of these topics. This will enable better understanding and
analysis of the case, and improve class participation.
Prior to the plenary session, participants should discuss the case in small groups. In that
way, the case discussion in the plenary session should be comprehensive, organized and
participative.
Initiate the discussion of the case by asking what insights can one gain into the factors
that had led to the Agricultural Engineering Department's success in designing, developing
and commercializing equipment appropriate for less developed countries. Was it the
approach, the team, or leadership?
IRRI adopted a pragmatic, business-like, problem-solving approach in its engineering
design programme. To begin with, the entire effort was devoted to one crop, rice, thus
ensuring concentrated efforts and preventing dissipation of limited resources. The perspective
was need-based, and design efforts were simple and inexpensive. The entire programme was
directed at a particular phase of production. Marketing was the prime consideration and
market analysis was conducted continuously. Design efforts recognized the capabilities of
local industry, so that products could be fabricated or manufactured using easily available
local equipment. Liaison was established with the local metal working industry to ensure that
the product designed could be carried all the way to a commercially saleable form. This
approach facilitated adoption of new, more appropriate machinery. This was possible
because the entire effort was based on the requirements of paddy growers and prevailing
environmental conditions. Note that a machine designed in Japan was not widely adopted,
while the designs of IRRI were usually exploited commercially. Another important
observation is that adaptation of existing knowledge could provide easy solutions to many
problems. One does not have to re-invent the wheel all the time.



1. This case was developed by Dr Ronald Black in 1976, and included in the first draft of the manual as
background reading material. At the time, Dr Black was Assistant Director of the Denver Research
Institute, Denver, Colorado, USA.


Module 4 Session 4

Session guide







86 Module 4 Session 4 Case study: IRRI management


A question that needs deliberation is whether this approach can be replicated in other
research institutions or widely in developing countries.
It is obvious that the success of the programme rested on the leadership of Dr Amir
Khan. What kind of a leader is Dr Khan? A believer in Theory X or in Theory Y? What
are his qualities? Obviously, he has good conceptualization ability, coupled with good
professional knowledge. Note his observation that when a colleague approaches with a
problem, he has to come up with a solution. That is possible only with presence of mind and
application of sound professional knowledge. Dr Khan is practical and does not place undue
value on academic excellence. He is always willing to exploit an opportunity. Although he
leads a team, he firmly believes that team-work should not subordinate individuality, whence
emanates creativity. To him, poor memory is a good medium to unlearn so that new ideas
can be generated. At this point, the case discussion could focus on desirable characteristics
of a leaderand the concept of team building.
What motivated Dr Khan and his colleagues to keep their ears to the ground even though
they belonged to an elite international agricultural research centre. Was it achievement
orientation or intrinsic desire to excel? Or was it the sheer excitement of doing something
new?
What was the goal of Dr Khan and his team? Obviously, setting a clear-cut goal had
helped them. Discuss at this stage the importance and process of goal setting in the success
of a programme.
Finally, are there leaders like Dr Khan? At this stage, the importance of leadership in
the success of a programme could once again be reiterated.
During the discussion, participants will make several observations. The resource person
should attempt to integrate them with conceptual knowledge of leadership, motivation and
team building.







Training manual for institute management 87








Module 4 Session 4

Case study








IRRI MANAGEMENT COMPARES IRRI WITH LDE RESEARCH INSTITUTES


By mid-1975, approximately 50 000 items of intermediate technology farm equipment had
been commercially produced based on designs of the International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI), Manila. The concepts and original designs for this equipment had originated in
IRRI's Agricultural Engineering Department (AED). AED had been headed, since 1967, by
Dr Amir U. Khan, an agricultural engineer. In 1970, he was joined by Dr Bart Duff, an
agricultural economist. During the years they had dominated it, AED/IRRI had gained
worldwide fame.


DISCUSSIONS WITH DR AMIR U. KHAN
Writer: Why is IRRI successful compared with many of the applied research institutions that
one finds in less-developed economies (LDEs)?
Khan: That is a difficult question to answer. My own thinking is that we have a strong
commercial orientation. I have been in the farm machinery business most of my life and on
the commercial side much of the time. We emphasize and keep the commercial approach
always in mind. That is the main thing. Costs, production processes and manufacturing
methods. Once we get a package of the end product, it is usually ready to be manufactured,
and then the manufacturers can't afford to say 'no.' It is almost a ready-for-sale machine and
can usually be produced without adding new production equipment. If you can look at our
manufacturers, very few have added any new production equipment. Most manufacturers,
I believe, are continuously on the lookout for new products. So it is a matter of providing
them with a commercially saleable product. Others are often not successful because they do
not realize that one has to take a product all the way to the commercially saleable form.
They often make an experimental machine and consider that they have completed the design.
That is not so.
Writer: One of the complaints that I have heard from directors of these research institutions
is that they cannot keep the salary scale high enough to attract people who have the
competence to carry out the development process.
Khan: I don't believe that. It is an impediment of a kind but much of it is in the leadership.
Often the leadership does not understand what goes on in a commercial venture because most







88 Module 4 Session 4 Case study: IRRI management


of them are academic people, who come from academic institutions before becoming
directors. They often do not have a clear-cut idea of which way their institution is heading,
and this is a serious problem. You go to any of the agricultural engineering research centres
and find that most engineers are not after new solutions. They are mostly interested in
testing old machines. Sometimes they will buy an idea just for ideas, or they will read in a
magazine that somebody tried an idea and they often work on duplicating it. They seldom
study a need and then deliberately look for answers. Our thinking is that we must find a
need and demand, which we may not do as a formal marketing study. But basically, it is still
done in our minds. We look at the market, make an assessment about the kind of machine
that is needed, and develop that kind of machine. A good case is the axial flow thresher.
We gained experience with some threshers that were not working very well, including some
of our own, and then we went out and designed a new machine, the axial flow thresher,
which has found good market acceptance.
Writer: Do you think that the quality of your local staff is comparable to that in equivalent
industries?
Khan: In a number of cases, yes. The men we used to take, in the early days of the
programme, were fresh graduates. Now they have gained six to seven years of experience.
Most of them had poor grades. In fact, in one case, the head of a department at the
university said he was surprised that we would hire the type of engineer that we had just
hired. One reason is that we are not looking for academic qualifications and excellence. I
look for a practical individual. Most of the practical engineers do not have very good grades.
The group here is a very practical bunch. They know how to fix things; they know how to
play around with tools and with machines, but they are not so good in theory. In fact, this
is becoming a weakness now when our work is becoming more complex and sophisticated.
Writer: What I think you have done here is that you have created a local staff which provides
practical engineering, practical know-how, while you and Bart and some of the international
staff are providing the conceptual framework. Do you think you could find a Filipino who
could play the role that you are playing, let us say?
Khan: It is hard to answer that question. It does not go with nationality. It is the individual.
If you can find an individual in fact I find that you do come across some but still such
people are a rarity.
Writer: But I think .it is specifically a question I am concerned with .and I
understand what you are saying. Leadership is a rare quality anywhere. But it would be
even more difficult, I suggest, to get a Filipino who had these capabilities into a job like this,
because he is already making so much use of his talent. He is already going so far that he
probably would not be satisfied with this type of job. He would be such an asset to some of
the Filipino companies or the government that he would have a very exalted position, and it
would be very difficult for him to take something like this.
Khan: That is very true. If I had been a Filipino, I would have been by now if not a
millionaire, at least close to it. The opportunities are tremendous if you know how.
Writer: So what is an LDE national research organization to do? How do you get that kind
of people?
Khan: Well, we just have to provide this type of individual for leadership. How do you get
them? That is hard, although providing leadership opportunity to the right kind of younger






Training manual for institute management 89


engineers and scientists is important. Salary-wise, most directors are getting sufficient
salaries to attract talented individuals.
Writer: I would disagree with that. For example, I know of the director of one such
institution who is having to rent out his house now just to be able to keep his children in
school.
Khan: Well, they do have considerable side incomes.
Let me give you an example of a young Filipino engineer who works for us, Nester
Navasero. He has been providing many small, simpler machine concepts and programmes.
He is a young engineer who had rather poor grades. In fact, we tried to send him back to
school because our management said he could not be promoted without a Master's degree;
he is already quite high up in salary scale. Well, he could not do well in course work, but
he does provide some good concepts, although he is not as good in engineering knowledge
or design. Still, he has many good ideas.
Many people have ideas; however, commercially successful ideas and mere ideas are
two different things. You have to have a feel for what will sell and what will not. If you
have a lot of ideas, you can afford to discard some of the non-commercial ideas and not feel
sorry. The guy who has only a few ideas tends to hang on to them, with the result that he
tries out every one of his ideas and thus wastes time and energy. Invariably, when I sit down
and think of designing something, I think of, maybe, 15 different approaches before I do
anything further with them. I sit in aeroplanes and draw on napkins, and give the napkins
to the secretaries and they laugh. But after I have gone through that exercise in my mind,
I have eliminated most of the non-commercial possibilities, at least in my own thinking.
I have a capacity that I can visualize a full machine and register it in my mind and retain
it for some time. It will be there. I turn back, move to another part of the machine, then
go back again and do it as if it were a drawing. Sometimes I have to move my hand back
and forth as if I am sketching to put a part in focus. This visualizing capacity is very
important in referring to concepts. You have to be able to eliminate the non-proving
opportunities.
At night I have a pad on my bedside, and often, in the middle of the night, I sit up and
put down an idea or sketch that comes suddenly. There are two important issues. First is
to come up with concepts; second is to be able to evaluate their commercial feasibility in your
mind without really trying out any idea in sketching.
Writer: Before being successful, though, you have got to have some management framework
and direction within which this can take place, don't you?
Khan: Are you talking about manufacturing or institution management?
Writer: I am talking about management of an organization that is coming up with concepts.
Khan: Well, I am talking about individuals. It is an individual's mind which comes up with
an idea. In fact, if you think that a group can develop a machine well, they can
design it, but a group seldom produces the concept; it is always an individual. The group
can design it, yes, but not conceptualize a machine.
Writer: What do you think would be the impact on your ability to get good, practical
engineers, the type of Filipino engineers you want working for you, if you had to pay salaries
half of what industry pays? This is what most LDE research institutions are faced with.
How do your salaries compare with industry salaries?







90 Module 4 Session 4 Case study: IRRI management


Khan: Ours is about the same as industry. Some of our engineers are saying that it is low
right now, and we are hoping to give them a raise this year. But certainly I would say that
our engineers are very well paid in comparison with public-sector organizations. I am sure
that engineers in government institutions in the Philippines, with similar experience, are
drawing less.
However, the engineers that you see working in the public sector are more often a
different breed altogether. They are not the type who could handle this type of work. They
are all right in their own way. They probably come in as fresh graduates, have good grades,
and after joining the institution become part of the government system for most of their lives.
Writer: What about the Singapore Institute of Standard and Industrial Research? That is a
government organization.
Khan: I am impressed with what it has been doing. I think again Lee Cum Tat's leadership
is far more important to that organization than the other individuals working in the Institute.
I do believe that leadership plays the most important role in the service of a research
organization, more so than other types of institutions
If you have a leader who knows what he is doing and can channel the young staff in the
right direction, one can get somewhere. If you don't have that leadership, no matter what
you do, even if you get the best people on your staff, it will be difficult to have a successful
programme. Leadership, to me, is above all, and can make or break an institution. I am not
saying that the rest of the team is not important; the rest of the team is important because the
execution of the projects fall in their laps. But if you look at the research successes,
invariably one finds strong leadership and someone who pushes and inspires the team.
Writer: Let me mention a second factor that a number of the directors of these institutions
suggest inhibits them, and get your reactions. This is that the red tape involved in being in
a government system for example, with respect to accounting practices is most inhibitive.
Is it worse than what you have to face?
Khan: Very much worse. That certainly is an important bottleneck. Let me, however, go
back to the matter of pay. I am not saying that pay for the staff is not an important issue.
I think low pay certainly inhibits getting the best people. What I am trying to say is that if
you get a live-wire individual into a stagnant organization, he can get much more done. The
red tape is a problem but it is still a small factor. You can take some of the engineers in
their institutions and inspire them to the extent that they can do excellent work. It is not so
difficult if you can show and direct them properly. But if the leadership does not understand
what it is looking for, most junior staff will not respect or follow the leadership.
Our engineers come to us and say, 'Today I am not getting anywhere; I have got
problems; can you solve them?' If I can't solve them right away, what does he do? He
hangs around the department doing nothing, wasting his time, complaining. I must come up
with a workable answer. So I say, 'What you are trying is not working; try this other way.'
One has to be sharp enough to come back immediately with a workable solution. These are
some of the things that are important.
What the LDE institution directors complain about are legitimate issues, but they seldom
complain about the lack of leadership. I think the root of the problem in most cases is that
the industrial institution leader often does not fully understand the real needs. They have no
commercial experience, and have little experience in doing the type of job that they have to
do; they are by and large academically oriented. We have hired a few highly academic







Training manual for institute management 91




people in our department and find they just cannot do a damn thing involving new machines.
They can usually conduct tests, and that is about all.
Let me give you one of my final views about creativity. If you find a person who has
a very strong memory, he will remember everything. Many filing clerks I have known are
this way. If you tell them that ten years ago you received a letter, they can tell exactly what
the letter said, where it is kept, and bring it out in a minute. Such persons are extremely
poor in creativity. I believe that when you have a poor memory, you forget past approaches.
Every time you are faced with a problem you think about it fresh and try to find a solution.
You have no ready workable solution to go to immediately, nothing to pull up from the
memory stack. So, I believe, poor memory seems to help creativity.


DISCUSSIONS WITH DR BART DUFF
Writer: Why is IRRI successful compared with many of the applied research institutions that
one finds in LDEs?
Duff: I believe one reason is that we are closely attuned to the problems. We are certainly
working on applied research and development problems here, not basic research. By
focusing on existing problems, we are trying to tailor designs to those needs and by being
field-oriented we can see very quickly whether or not the work is effective. I think our
criterion for success is whether or not the designs are used, and not how many designs we
produce. Using this criterion within a commercial environment, it is considerably more
important for us to be responsive to what farmers need and what is profitable for
manufacturers to produce than it might be to an academic institution or a basic-research-
oriented group.
Writer: Well, the institutions I am talking about are supposed to be neither basic research nor
academically oriented. They are or are at least supposed to be involved with the applied
scientific and technological problems facing their countries. One of their major issues, if not
the major one, is to aid in the industrialization of their countries.
Duff: I can only mention those issues which I feel are important. One, at IRRI we don't have
to run after money 40% of the time. From our perspective, if we had to spend 20% of our
time lobbying for funding, it would certainly seriously cut down the effectiveness of the
programme. Two, there have been few constraints on our selection of design projects.
Those criteria we use are very pragmatic and flexible. Three, we have had access to what
I consider to be excellent staff here to carry out research, design and development work.
Writer: On this point, have you had any trouble retaining your staff? Is there much of a
turnover?
Duff: Yes, there is considerable turnover. We have lost quite a number of good people,
although not usually to local competitors. Many people have emigrated from the Philippines
after being a part of this programme. There are two or three engineers that are in the USA.
In the case of economists, most of whom are young, we encourage them to move up, and the
only way they can do that, of course, is to go on to graduate school or into an institution
where their upward mobility is not constrained as it is here. While our department's turnover
has probably been above average for IRRI as a whole, I still believe we have been able to
maintain an excellent staff.


Writer: Are your salaries commensurate with industry?




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