• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Module 1: Insitutional agricultural...
 Session 2: Objective and organization...
 Session 3: Organization of international...
 Session 4: National agricultural...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Management of agricultural research : a training manual
Title: Management of agricultural research
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084651/00002
 Material Information
Title: Management of agricultural research a training manual
Physical Description: 11 v. : ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Asopa, V. N
Beye, Gora
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1997
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Management -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Agricultural research managers -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by V.N. Asopa and G. Beye.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084651
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 39160428
lccn - 98210567
isbn - 9251040915 (module 1)

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Module 1: Insitutional agricultural research: Organization and management
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Module 1: Insitutional agricultural research: Organization and management
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Session guide
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Exhibits
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Reading note
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Session 2: Objective and organization of agricultural research
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Session guide
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Exhibits
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
    Session 3: Organization of international agricultural research
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Session guide
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Exhibits
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Reading note
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
    Session 4: National agricultural research systems
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Session guide
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
        Exhibits
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
        Reading note
            Page 99
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
    Back Cover
        Page 114
Full Text








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Prepared by
V.N. Asopa
Indian Institute of Management
and
G. Beye
Research and Technology Development Service
Research, Extension and Training Division, FAO























FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 1997





















































M-67
ISBN 92-5-104091-5








All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the
copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the
purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director,
Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale
delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.


FAO 1997


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever
on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or
area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.









FOREWORD


There has been a tremendous development of agricultural research in developing countries
over the past few decades, during which time investment in agricultural research from both
national resources and international assistance has increased markedly. However, agricultural
research institutions are generally managed by veteran agricultural research workers promoted
for seniority rather than for management training and skills. Further, there are few courses
available on the management of agricultural research, and solutions and models used in the
developed world may not be appropriate for developing countries.
FAO has actively participated in strengthening the national agricultural research
systems of developing countries, and has stressed the importance of effective organization and
management for efficient research systems. The need for training in this area is great, and
resources particularly trained human resources are limited. FAO has therefore developed
a training programme on agricultural research management to support the training of trainers,
with the expectation of a multiplier effect, and to facilitate a common perception of the
structure and terminology of management, thus enhancing communication and understanding
among agricultural research managers in discussing management problems, solutions and
opportunities.
This training manual has been prepared as a basic reference resource for national
trainers, to help them structure and conduct their own courses on management at the institute
level. A separate manual will cover project and programme management. This manual is
based on the four structural functions of management: planning, organizing, monitoring and
controlling, and evaluating, each of which is covered in individual modules. Within each
module, the manual addresses pervasive management functions, including motivating,
leading, directing, priority setting, communicating and delegating, which are at all times a
concern to all managers. Topics such as leadership, motivation, human resources
management, policies and procedures are treated separately in individual sessions.
This manual as been designed for participatory learning through case studies, group
exercises, presentations by the participants and participatory lectures. Throughout the
manual, particular effort has been made to use the cases studied to capture the unique and
rich experience of developing country research managers in tackling policy, programme and
the day-to-day problems of managing research institutions and systems.
This publication is intended primarily for managers of agricultural research institutes
in developing countries and for higher education institutions interested in launching in-service
training courses on research management. However, it is hoped that agricultural research
managers everywhere will also find it useful. The manual provides a course structure with
contents that can be built upon and enriched. Users are therefore encouraged to send
suggestions for its improvement.



Louise O. Fresco

Director


Research, Extension and Training Division







iv Module 1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



The task of preparing a training manual on Agricultural Research Institute Management
began with the FAO Expert Consultation on Strategies for Research Management Training
in Africa, held at the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia, 12-16 December 1983. Following the recommendations of the consultation, and
on the basis of the curriculum design adopted, FAO embarked upon the preparation of this
manual. In the process of its preparation, many agricultural research managers and
management specialists have contributed. Besides the two main consultants, namely Dr
Ronald P. Black, Denver Research Institute, University of Denver, USA, who prepared the
first draft, and Dr V.N. Asopa, Professor at the Indian Institute of Management,
Ahmedabad, India, who prepared the current version of the manual, the contribution of the
following specialists in various fields must be singled out: Ramesh Bhat, J. Casas, A.K.
Jain, F.S. Kanwar, V. Martinson, Gopal Naik, P. Nath, R.K. Patel, T.P. Rama Rao, S.K.
Sharma, E.S. Tayengco, and J.S. Woolston. FAO expresses its gratitude to them all.


Special thanks are due to the International Service for National Agricultural Research
(ISNAR), which has willingly made available its valuable experience and relevant materials
throughout the preparation of the manual.


FAO also thanks all those authors and publishers who have allowed the use of
copyright material from their publications, even though the courtesy is recognized in each
case.


This manual has been prepared under the responsibility of the Research Development
Centre, Research and Technology Development Division, FAO, with the guidance of:
Mohamed S. Zehni, former Director; and J.H. Monyo, E. Venezian and B. Miller-Haye,
past Chiefs of the Research Development Centre. Scientific supervision was provided by
G. Beye, Senior Officer, now Chief, Research and Technology Development Service.







Training manual for institute management v





TABLE OF CONTENTS


The previous module is:
INTRODUCTORY MODULE

INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL AND ITS PURPOSE
Appendix 1 Management orientation and decision making
Appendix 2 Case method
Appendix 3 Summary of course contents
Appendix 4 Illustrative schedule for a workshop on agricultural research institute
management
Appendix 5 Management training
Appendix 6 Planning and management of short-duration, executive development
programmes

This module is:

Module 1 INSTITUTIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH:
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
(Four Sessions)
Page
Session 1. MANAGEMENT: THOUGHT AND PROCESS 3
Session guide: Management of research 5
Reading note: Management: Thought and Process 25
Thoughts on management 26
Management as a concept 26
Management as a process 27
Functions of a manager 27
Characteristics of a manager 29
Management of agricultural research 29
References 32
Structural functions 27
Pervasive functions 28

Session 2. OBJECTIVES AND ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 33
Session guide: Objectives of research 35







vi Module 1


Session 3. ORGANIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH 45
Session guide: International agricultural research: organization and
management 47
Reading note: International agricultural research: organization and management 65
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research 65
International agricultural research centres 67
Associated centres 68
Objectives 68
Organization and management 69
Staff 70
Research programmes 70
Organization of research 70
Organization of research projects 71
Networks 71
Review and monitoring system 73
Impact of international agricultural research 74
IARCs' performances 74
Linkages with NARS 74
Agenda for the future 75
References 76

Session 4. ORGANIZATION OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS 77
Session guide: National agricultural research systems: organization and
management
Reading note: NARS: organization and management 99
Organization of NARS 99
The Agricultural Research Council model 102
The NRI model 105
The University of Agriculture model 107
Experiment stations: the basis for research organizations 107
Effectiveness and efficiency of NARS organizations 108
Organizational forms of NARS: comparative perspective
IARCs and NARS 112
The future needs of NARS 113
References








Training manual for institute management vii


The other Modules are:
Module 2 RESEARCH PLANNING
Session 1. PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH PLANNING
Session 2. THE INSTITUTE-LEVEL PLANNING PROCESS
Session 3. SETTING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Session 4. FROM OBJECTIVES TO AN OPERATIONAL PLAN
Session 5. PARTICIPATORY PLANNING EXERCISE
Session 6. CASE STUDY: PLANNING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN MUGHAL
SULTANATE

Module 3 ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND DESIGN
Session 1. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORIES
Session 2. STRUCTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION
Session 3. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND CHANGE
Session 4. CASE STUDY: ESTABLISHMENT OF A DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH AT
SORONNO UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
Session 5. CASE STUDY: ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AT SAMARU, NIGERIA

Module 4 LEADERSHIP, MOTIVATION, TEAM BUILDING AND
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Session 1. LEADERSHIP
Session 2. MOTIVATION
Session 3. TEAM BUILDING
Session 4. THE IRRI AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT PROGRAMME CASE STUDY: IRRI
MANAGEMENT COMPARES IRRI WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRY RESEARCH INSTITUTES
Session 5. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Session 6. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT CASE STUDY: DR AGADIR

Module 5 MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES
Session 1. RECRUITING AND MAINTAINING STAFF IN THE RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT
Session 2. THE PROFESSIONAL STAFF
Session 3. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT EXERCISE
Session 4. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Session 5. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CASE STUDY: SUZENE KOPEC
Session 6. EXERCISE IN DESIGNING PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FORMATS

Module 6 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS, COMPUTERS AND
NETWORK TECHNIQUES
Session 1. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS)
Session 2. MIS EXERCISE
Session 3. COMPUTERS AS MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Session 4. NETWORK TECHNIQUES
Session 5. PERT AND CPM EXERCISE

Module 7 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Session 1. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 1: COMPONENTS AND INFORMATION NEEDS
Session 2. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 2: PLANNING AND BUDGETING
Session 3. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 3: PROJECT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
Session 4. CASE STUDY: FARO ARROYA
Session 5. GENERATING FUNDS THROUGH CONSULTING AS AN INSTITUTIONAL
ACTIVITY. CASE STUDY: FOOD TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF DONGAL







viii Module 1




Module 8 RESEARCH-EXTENSION LINKAGE
Single Session: RESEARCH-EXTENSION LINKAGE

Module 9 INFORMATION SERVICES AND DOCUMENTATION
Session 1. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION IN A DEVELOPING-COUNTRY
RESEARCH INSTITUTION
Session 2: INFORMATION AS AN INPUT TO RESEARCH
Session 3: INFORMATION AS AN OUTPUT OF RESEARCH
Session 4: COOPERATION IN NATIONAL PROGRAMMES
Session 5: EXERCISE ON BARRIERS TO THE FLOW OF INFORMATION

Module 10 INSTITUTE EVALUATION
Single Session: INSTITUTE EVALUATION







Training manual for institute management 1


This module contains four sessions:


Session 1. MANAGEMENT: THOUGHT AND PROCESS
Session 2. OBJECTIVES AND ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
Session 3. ORGANIZATION OF INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
Session 4. ORGANIZATION OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS



The first session introduces participants to the concept of management. Various managerial
functions are described to simulate the management process. The understanding so derived
is applied to agricultural research organizations. The remaining three sessions could be
either combined into a long session or presented individually, depending upon the profile of
the participants in the workshop and the time available.


The issues covered in these sessions are:
What is research and why does one conduct research? Research is conducted to produce
technical change which increases productivity. This leads to a discussion on
productivity-related issues.
Organization and management of international agricultural research.
Organization and management of national agricultural research systems (NARS).


MODULE 1


INSTITUTIONAL
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH:
ORGANIZATION AND
MANAGEMENT










Training manual for institute management 3


DATE

TIME


FORMAT

TRAINER


Plenary participatory lecture


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session participants should be able to:
1. Define management
2. See management it its historical perspective
3. Delineate management functions
4. Understand the unique situation of management within research


Module 1 Session 1

Management:
Thought and Process







4 Module 1 Session 1 Management: Thought and Process


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS


Exhibit 1
Exhibit 2
Exhibit 3
Exhibit 4
Exhibit 5
Exhibit 6
Exhibit 7
Exhibit 8
Exhibit 9
Exhibit 10
Exhibit 11
Exhibit 12
Exhibit 13
Exhibit 14
Exhibit 15
Exhibit 16


Definition of management
Schools of management thought
Disciplinary bases for management
Management theory
Conceptual framework of management
Functions of an agricultural research manager
Delegation of authority
Considerations in delegation
Attitudinal requirements for delegation
Guidelines for effective delegation
Communication skills
Manager's role in fostering good communication
Characteristics of a manager
Research organizations
Authority system within an organization
Management as a profession


BACKGROUND READING

Reading note: Management: Thought and Process




RECOMMENDED READING

1. Arnon, I. 1968. Organization and Administration of Agricultural Research.
Amsterdam: Elsevier. Read pages 1-67.
2. Francis, P.H. 1977. Principles of R&D Management. New York, NY:
Amacom. Read pages 128-30.
3. Massie, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall. Read pages 13-26.




SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS
Overhead projector and chalkboard







Training manual for institute management 5


MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH


This session is designed to give an overview of management thought and process. Use the
Reading note Management: Thought and Process as background reading for this
introduction. Give participants a brief description of management, stressing different
management definitions as a function of one's perspective. EXHIBIT 1 may be used as a
general definition.
Ask participants to give their perception of management. This would help evolve a
detailed description of management, stressing the nebulous nature of management. Note that
management has evolved over time. It is defined uniquely by each person implementing it.
Emphasize that management does not have a unique body of knowledge. Over time it
has adopted new theories and practices. Show EXHIBIT 2. Discuss various schools of
management thought, and again emphasize that management is defined uniquely, depending
upon the disciplinary bias and the task performed. Show EXHIBIT 3 on disciplinary bases
of management. Now discuss some of the important management thoughts. Show
EXHIBIT 4. Discuss management as an activity, a process, and an integrative function. Use
examples from your own organization to illustrate these thoughts.
Ask participants 'What does a manager do?' Answers are likely to be general, as shown
in EXHIBIT 4. Now ask 'What is the process of management?', or stated simply: 'What does
a manager do?' It is a unique process, and consists of
(i) planning
(ii) organizing
(iii) monitoring and controlling, and
(iv) evaluating.
Why this process? Obviously to implement decisions. Decision making is at the core of
management. It involves combining human, physical and capital resources in a skilful
manner to achieve defined objectives. Show EXHIBIT 5, and illustrate what these resources
are in the context of an organization.
Now initiate discussion on the functions of a manager. Show EXHIBIT 6. A manager
performs the structural functions of planning, organizing, monitoring and controlling, and


Module 1 Session 1

Session Guide







6 Module 1 Session I Management: Thought and Process


evaluating. Discuss each of these functions, seeking examples from participants.
Programme and project selection is an important decision in a research organization. How
is this done? Beginning with a decision to achieve an objective, a manager plans to exploit
opportunities within the identified constraints. A plan has to be implemented, and that
necessitates an organization capable of integrating human and physical resources.
Organization involves fixing responsibilities through division of labour. An organization
may be structured on a disciplinary or a programme basis, or the two could be combined in
a matrix organization. Location and distribution of various units within an organization, the
degree of de-centralization in decision making, and relationships between various units are
other important organizational issues.
Ask participants to discuss:
the issue of centralization versus de-centralization, and to identify the factors which
would support each option; and
describe their experience with different organizational structures. Some participants may
also have experience with a matrix organization.
Implementation has to be monitored for control. Feedback is necessary to know that
implementation conforms to plan and deviations are dealt with appropriate managerial
interventions. Monitoring is done through a management information system (MIS). Ask
participants to suggest types of information that an MIS should be able to provide for
management. List these on the chalkboard.
Finally, evaluation. While monitoring is concurrent evaluation, managers also do
ex post evaluation to gather information on how well the implementation has proceeded and
the extent to which the objectives have been fulfilled. Evaluation also provides useful
feedback for future planning. Ask participants to describe their experiences with evaluation.
Managers perform several functions which permeate through all their activities. These
are pervasive functions and include motivating, leadership, directing, prioritizing,
communicating, delegating and systematizing. Discuss these briefly.
Delegation of authority is a much discussed issue. Show EXHIBITS 7, 8, 9, and 10.
Delegation enables accomplishment, and is necessary to achieve full potential. Discuss the
various considerations and attitudinal requirements for delegation. Delegation is a function
most managers have difficulty in implementing, perhaps because of attitudinal constraints.
Currently, there is great emphasis on 'soft' skills that a manager should possess.
Communication is thus quite important.
Research activities rely heavily on the generation and diffusion of technical information
throughout the research community. Certain direct relationships appear to exist linking
research productivity with how well technical information is communicated within an
organization. Any improvement in the way individuals obtain, use and disseminate research
information can have a direct bearing on the efficiency and success of their efforts.
Show EXHIBIT 11, and discuss various models of communication. EXHIBIT 12 describes
the manager's role in fostering good communication. Use this exhibit as an example for
stimulating discussion.
Close the discussion on structural and pervasive functions of a manager by noting that
many of these functions will be discussed in detail later on.







Training manual for institute management 7


Since managers have to play many roles, they have to have certain characteristics.
Show EXHIBIT 13, and discuss each of these characteristics. Discuss distinctive
characteristics that a research manager should have, considering that research places unique
demands on managers. Use examples from your own organization to discuss these
characteristics and how they influence the style of management. Emphasize that managers
must have the ability to define the relationship of their group's activities to overall
organizational goals. They must be sensitive to the legitimate contribution of their efforts
to the organization, as viewed by superiors. They must be aware of new options and
possibilities, and constantly re-assess the results of previous activities in relation to potential
opportunities. Note that managers' skill mix tend to change as they advance within the
management hierarchy.
At this stage, it is useful to reiterate the distinctive features of a research organization.
Show EXHIBIT 14. As key figures in creating the style and effectiveness of the organization,
research managers must constantly be aware of their relationship with the organization.
All managers operate within an organization structure. The structure prevents
individuals from deviating too far from the purpose of the organization and introduces
stability into intra-group relationships by reducing uncertainty. It must be understood that
human behaviour operates around an authority system within an organization. EXHIBIT 15
outlines the manner in which decisions are made and supported within an organization.
Conclude the session with a discussion of management as a profession. Show
EXHIBIT 16. By discussing the function of management in the context of a profession, you
will introduce the concept of level of excellence, established and monitored by a peer group.
This is important, for it gives an isolated manager a sense of community and a standard to
strive for. Give examples of local professional organizations' goals, projects, and products
(journals, seminars, etc.) for the group to understand what a professional association does.










TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 1


DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT



1 *I


The process whereby
a cooperative group
directs actions
towards common goals.








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 2


SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT





1 QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT SCHOOL


EMPIRICAL SCHOOL
2
DECISION THEORY SCHOOL


SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT SCHOOL
3
SOCIAL SCHOOL


BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE SCHOOL
4
OPERATIONAL AND MANAGEMENT PROCESS SCHOOL


5 CONTINGENCY THEORIES








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 3


DISCIPLINARY BASES FOR MANAGEMENT



INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING



FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING



PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION



LAW



STATISTICS



MATHEMATICS



PSYCHOLOGY



SOCIOLOGY



ANTHROPOLOGY


Source: Masse, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall.


_______ ____ _______ ______..._







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 4


MANAGEMENT THEORY




MANAGEMENT THOUGHT

* Activity
* Process
* Integrative function
* Internal to an organization



WHAT DOES MANAGEMENT DO?

* Does thing better
* Optimizes use of finite resources



PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT

* Planning
* Organizing
* Monitoring and Controlling
* Evaluating



CORE OF MANAGEMENT

* Decision making







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 5


CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF
MANAGEMENT






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT


STRUCTURAL


* Planning
* Organizing
* Monitoring and
Controlling
* Evaluating


PERVASIVE


* Motivating
* Leading
* Directing
* Prioritizing
* Communicating
* Delegating
* Systematizing


FUNCTIONS OF AN AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH MANAGER





TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 7


DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY


The primary purpose of delegation is to
make the operation of an institution
possible.
Just as no one person in an institute
can do all the tasks necessary for
accomplishment of a group purpose, so it
is impossible, as an institution grows, for
one person to exercise all the authority
for making decisions.


___ ______~





TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 8


CONSIDERATIONS IN DELEGATION


* The competence to make decisions on
the part of the person to whom
authority is delegated.
* Adequate and reliable information
pertinent to the decision must be
available to the person making the
decision.
* The scope of the impact of a decision
(i.e., How many and which units are
affected by any decision?)






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 9


A WILLINGNESS TO:

* Let go
* Give opportunity to the ideas of others
* Let others make mistakes
* Trust subordinates
* Establish and use broad controls






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


I EXHIBIT 1


GUIDELINES
FOR
EFFECTIVE DELEGATION


' Define assignments and delegate
authority in the light of results
expected
cw Select the person in the light of the
task to be done
ew Maintain open lines of
communication
Ew Establish proper controls
wr Reward effective delegation
ew Reward successful assumption of
authority







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 1 1


COMMUNICATION SKILLS







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


1. A manger should ensure that a good, working
communication system functions within the unit,
promoted by:
regular staff meetings,
briefings,
circulation of memoranda, and
circulation of reports.



2. A manager should strive to identify and develop
those among the staff who have the potential to
be good communicators.



3. A manger should recognize the need to develop
good communication skills among the staff, by:
S providing opportunities for participation in in-
house technical meetings and seminars, as
well as in professional meetings, and
-being a good teacher of effective
communication skills.


A MANAGER'S ROLE IN
FOSTERING GOOD COMMUNICATION


EXHIBIT 12








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 13


T


PROFESSIONAL


+


* Professional excellence
* Analytical ability
* Diagnostic skills
* Planning skills
* Leadership qualities
* Decision making
capabilities
* Tolerance of ambiguity
* Ability to delegate
authority and
responsibility
* Negotiating skills
* Coordination and liaison
ability
* Human relations
management skills
* Conflict management
skills


PERSONAL


* Caring about people
* Commands respect
* Good judgement
* Creative
* Oriented towards
excellence


CHARACTERISTICS OF A MANAGER









TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


Source: Francis, P.H. 1977. Principles of R&D Management. New York,
NY: Amacom. pp. 18-19.


EXHIBIT 14


FIVE BASIC ATTRIBUTES:

* Effectively staffed and people-oriented
* Has high standards
* Operates in a sound manner
* Provides a creative and productive
atmosphere
* Manifests enthusiasm, with a 'can-do'
attitude








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 15


1. The authority system functions within a hierarchical
structure in which a few make decisions for the
relatively many.




2. All decisions in an authority system are
communicated from the executives to their
subordinates.




3. Power, authority and influence are exercised
continuously at all hierarchical levels.
Power The ability to control behaviour.
Authority The formal right to issue orders or
directives by virtue of one's position in
the organizational structure.
Influence The ability to control others by
suggestion or example rather than by
direct command.


AUTHORITY SYSTEM
WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 1


EXHIBIT 16


MANAGEMENT AS A PROFESSION





CRITERIA




1. A profession is based on a proven systematic body
of knowledge, and thus requires intellectual
training.




2. A profession maintains an experimental attitude
towards information, and thus continually searches
for new ideas.




3. A profession emphasizes services to others, and
usually develops a code of ethics that requires that
financial return not be the sole motive.




4. Entrance into a profession is usually restricted by
standards established by an association that
requires that its members be accepted by a peer
group composed of people with common training
and attitude.


Source: Masse, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall. p.10.







Training manual for institute management 25


MANAGEMENT: THOUGHT AND PROCESS


Management has been around as long as there has been a need for decision making. Even
though scientific management began and established itself in the early twentieth century,
references to planning and organization are found in ancient Greek and Biblical literature,
and in histories of the Roman Empire. Imagine building ancient monuments such as the
Great Pyramid, and consider what that would have required in terms of planning, work
allocation, organizing, directing and decision making.
Management does not have a unique body of knowledge. The theories and precepts of
management have been adopted from other disciplines and applied to real life situations, with
a clear focus on performance of managerial roles.
Management has evolved and changed considerably over a period of time. It has
continuously adopted new theories and practices and replaced old ones so as to make
management activity increasingly efficient. The universal theory of management evolved in
the early twentieth century has been replaced by a number of contingency theories currently
in vogue. In the early twentieth century, the focus was on physical factors, viewed from
industrial, engineering and economic perspectives. Subsequently, the focus shifted to
productivity, with an emphasis on human factors.
Managerial accounting and classical concepts of personnel and finance management were
emphasized. Thereafter, many schools of thoughts evolved, each influencing the evolution
of modern management. Some of these are described below.
The quantitative measurement school began with concern for handling uncertainty and
making decisions logically through use of mathematical models and statistical
techniques. Simultaneously, there evolved the decision theory school, which also
stresses managerial decisions, and considers the management process as a series of
decisions that must be made by managers as they confront problems. Subsequently,
computers used with a systems approach became the instruments of sound and logical
decision making. The systems management school considers management as a system
composed of various sub-systems (finance, accounting, production and marketing).
These sub-systems are interconnected in some fashion, and operate to achieve the overall
objective of the organization.
The social school views management as a system of cultural interrelationships. It deals
with identifying various social groups in an organization and integrating these groups


Module 1 Session 1

Reading Note







Module 1 Session 1 Management: Thought and Process


into a complete social system. It recognizes that the organization is not isolated and
must operate within the purview of social organisms in a changing environment.
The behaviourial science school encompasses psychology, sociology and anthropology.
It looks at management as a process of generating active interaction among individuals
in an organization to influence individual or collective behaviour. It considers human
behaviour important and focal to managerial actions. This approach views various
activities in relation to their impact and influence on people, who are the primary
component of management.
Currently, the emphasis is on contingency theories specific to the environmental
situations in which they are applied. The contingency management school attempts to
translate systems theory by assessing the operating factors in any situation and
establishing definite patterns and relationships between those factors, which can then be
used as guides in other, similar situations. Legal aspects, cultural considerations and
public administration issues are also stressed.
In the eyes of the operational or management process school, management is a unique
process, which consists of certain sub-activities (planning, organizing, controlling and
decision making). It considers management as a series of operations and processes
which provide guidelines for successful management. This is similar to the approach
of the empirical school, which considers management from the standpoint of experience
which can be generalized and certain guiding principles derived.


THOUGHTS ON MANAGEMENT
Management is an activity, a process and an integrative function. It evolves as a set of
effective practices by individuals in performance of specific tasks.
Management is dynamic in nature and thus has many definitions depending upon the
disciplinary approach adopted. An empirical definition of management would emerge in the
context of specific managerial roles, which are undoubtedly influenced by a large number
of organizational variables. On this broad canvas, management can be defined as a science
or art for planning, organizing, implementing, controlling and monitoring, and evaluating,
in order to accomplish tasks and organizational goals.. These sub-activities constitute the
unique management process.
Management is internal to an organization. This does not mean that it is confined to the
corporate offices of organizations, but rather that it extends to research laboratories,
producing centres, processing units, consuming masses and other places.


MANAGEMENT AS A CONCEPT
If we consider management as optimizing the use of resources to accomplish goals, then the
managerial functions can be easily discerned. Managers plan, organize, allocate staff, direct
and control resources in an organized group effort to achieve desired objectives. This
approach has many aspects, but the key variables are resources, objectives and efforts.
The objectives may be organizational or individual. For example, the broad objectives
of a research organization may be to carry out innovative or adaptive research. The
objectives of individual scientists in the organization may be to achieve professional growth







Training manual for institute management


and recognition, and even a sense of fulfilment in being associated with the organization.
The role of management is to organize and coordinate so as to fulfil both individual and
organizational objectives in optimal manner.
Human resources management involves getting the persons best suited for particular
tasks, and getting the best out of them. Thus, management is responsible for utilizing the
available skills to ensure the most efficient use of all human resources. Combined together,
all workers should then deliver their best.
Physical resources vary from organization to organization. In a research organization,
physical resources are laboratory equipment and apparatus, plant, machinery and facilities.
The task of a research manager is to ensure the availability of technologically suitable and
advanced apparatus and equipment, within the available financial resources, and to ensure
that they are well maintained. In this way, scientific work should be interrupted as little as
possible, if at all.


MANAGEMENT AS A PROCESS
From the above, it is obvious that management is basically an exercise in doing things
better. Hodge and Johnson (1970) defined management as
"the process of making decisions and issuing commands on behalf of an organization's
membership groups, taking into consideration the complex of objectives, limitations and
standards underlying the production and distribution of values, required to satisfy
memberships' needs."
Management as a process consists of continuous decision making, necessitated by variations
in goals and also the fact that lack of complete knowledge creates risk and uncertainty
associated with decision making. Specific decisions are greatly influenced by the
organizational goals which have to be achieved.


FUNCTIONS OF A MANAGER
Since management is coordination and integration of available resources to accomplish
specific goals, it can be viewed in terms of various managerial functions: planning,
organizing, monitoring and controlling, and evaluating all functions which a manager
performs. These are the structural functions of a manager. In addition, a manager also
directs, leads, motivates, communicates, delegates, priorities and systematizes. These are
the pervasive functions of a manager.

Structural functions
Achievement of goals requires decisions and their implementation. Changing situations give
rise to new problems and hinder implementation. Problem solving necessitates decision
making in various forms. One of the basic functions of a manager is to make decisions.
Problems have to be foreseen, identified and available facts and data analyzed under
appropriate assumptions to generate alternatives. These are then evaluated in the context of
the specific decision to be made and within the overall framework of the organization.
Managers use specified decision making criteria or key variables to assess various
alternatives. That is decision making. In this process, decision making ties together other
functions. Participative decision making is desirable to ensure smooth implementation.







28 Module 1 Session 1 Management: Thought and Process


Decisions have to be implemented through action on the part of other people, and that
requires planning. The plan should:
relate to the objectives;
fix responsibilities;
specify procedures which must be followed;
give a blueprint for communicating the decision to all involved and concerned; and
have provision for participation.
Then follows implementation, and that requires organizing. This involves evolving a formal
structure to facilitate coordination and integration of resources for efficient accomplishment
of both long- and short-term plans. Organizing begins with the concept of division of work
over a series of operating units, each being responsible for a particular element of
implementation. In the process of developing the total organization structure, consideration
has to be given to such issues as the degree of de-centralization, span of control, delegation,
utilization of staff departments and chain of command. Relationships among the various
operating units have to be specified. These relationships may take many forms, including
authority relationships.
Implementation has to be monitored and controlled. It has four phases, namely:
defining standards and objectives,
determining how performance is to be measured;
developing a reporting system, and
taking corrective action when and where needed.
Monitoring facilitates control, to ensure that events conform to plans. Thus, in this context
'control' is concerned with progress in implementation. Through effective monitoring and
control, a manager receives continuous feedback on exactly where the implementation stands
at any given time with respect to achieving the objectives. If objectives are not being
achieved, or if their accomplishment is behind schedule, the manager can use available
information to identify the areas that are causing problems and develop alternatives to
overcome these problems.
Monitoring is concurrent evaluation. However, implementation has to be evaluated as
a whole upon conclusion. This provides:
useful information on the effectiveness of implementation and achievement of goals;
a yardstick for measuring performance; and
feedback for future planning.

Pervasive functions
A manager has to perform several functions which permeate any organization.
Research managers give guidance and direction to scientists under them regarding job
requirements. This involves defining the work and specific role of the scientists,
determining and communicating performance standards, and administering through specific
policies and procedures. This is also the leadership function. After developing an
appreciation of the importance of human motivation, a manager must be concerned about








Training manual for institute management 29


how the human element should be managed. A manager should create a climate where the
needs of the individual are integrated with the needs of the organization. This means
creating a climate in which the individuals can best satisfy their goals by working toward the
goals of the organization. Of particular significance in leadership is the quality of
face-to-face and day-to-day interaction that managers have with their subordinates.
Although many factors are involved in creating a 'result producing' climate,
communication and participation are two key concerns. One of the basic functions of the
manager is to open up better communication channels. It helps the members of the
organization to develop mutual trust and understanding, and to resolve conflicts. The extent
and degree to which managers work with their subordinates in a coaching and counselling
capacity to help them accomplish their specific job objectives and thus perform at their best
- determines how successful they will be in their efforts at directing and leading. Delegation
of authority and responsibility is essential to make the subordinates responsible. In
delegating authority, managers should see that it goes as near to the point of action as
possible.
Prioritizing is essential in the context of limited resources and time-related targets. It
facilitates systematization of the management process.


CHARACTERISTICS OF A MANAGER
Since managers have multifarious activities, Table 1 Characteristics of a manager


they have to have appropriate characteristics
to support performance. Mintzberg (1973)
studied various activities of managers and
identified ten distinct managerial characteris-
tics relating to interpersonal, informational
and decision making qualities. Since then a
host of other desirable characteristics of a
good manager have been identified (Table 1).


MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH
Agricultural research is the most widespread
form of organized research in the world in
which both developed and developing coun-
tries are engaged. As agricultural research


has to be adapted to specific ecological considerations, it does not have universal
applicability. The extent to which a country benefits from the research findings of other
countries also depends on its own research organizations.
In the context of NARS, management broadly involves defining agricultural research
goals and priorities; formulating detailed research programmes in consonance with national
agricultural research strategy; assigning responsibilities to various departments; allocating
financial, human and physical resources to the respective institutions; implementing approved
research programmes; periodically evaluating; obtaining feedback on the impact, strengths
and weakness of new technology, and incorporating them into the technology generation
process; and keeping key policy-makers informed of agricultural research achievements.


Professional Personal
* Professional excellence Caring about
* Analytical abilities people
* Diagnostic skills Commanding
* Planning skills respect
* Resource allocation Good judgment
* Leadership qualities Drive and
* Decision making energy
capabilities Creative
* Tolerance of ambiguity Oriented
* Delegation of authority towards
and responsibility excellence
* Negotiating skills
* Coordinating and liaison
* Human relations manager
* Managing conflicts







30 Module 1 Session 1 Management: Thought and Process


Distinctive features
Agricultural research "requires lumpy investments, involves externalities and is subject to
long gestation lags" (Lele and Goldsmith, 1986). It is because of this that agricultural
research has almost always to be conducted by government research organizations. In
developing country situations, organizations lack vital human skills, material resources and
basic infrastructure. Often, too little funds are allocated, and even they either are reduced
or arrive too late. Despite all these limitations, research organizations strive their utmost
to improve agricultural productivity.
Research organizations have specific, limited and clearly defined targets for their
activities, which impart to them some distinctive features. Creativity is the core of a
research organization. Individuality is the key to creativity in research. Scientists and
technical staff are the most important assets of a research organization. They are the
producers and creators of the organizational output. The main outputs of research are
knowledge and technology, which are too abstract to measure and evaluate on a regular
basis. Because of this, very little evaluation and monitoring is done in a research
organization, particularly during intermediate stages of projects. Administrative interference
and management control are minimized since scientists tend to be highly individualistic.
Activities and staff are organized either according to discipline, or interdisciplinary teams
are constituted, taking a project approach. In a research organization, the degree of
command and direction is minimal, so that a subordinate has to report and be accountable
to only one superior, and not to many. Even though a non-interfering environment
conducive to research is created, conflicts are natural between scientists and technical
personnel on the one hand, and administrative staff on the other.

Management functions
Management of agricultural research in an institution or organization involves four functions.
The first of these functions is planning. The first step of the planning process is to set
goals. If goals are not trivial, there will be constraints to reaching them, as well as
opportunities that an institution may be able to take advantage of. After identifying the
constraints and opportunities, the next step is to establish objectives aimed at overcoming the
constraints or taking advantage of existing opportunities. To achieve the objectives,
management identifies programmes and, within the programme limits, management and staff
can determine staff, equipment, facilities and funds. The summation of all the resources
needed to carry out all of an institute's planned projects is sometimes called the institute's
logistics plan.
Major tasks in the planning process are selecting an institute's programmes and projects.
While some institutes do this on the basis of subjective judgment, many institutes follow
formal models, with established selection criteria.
The second management function is organizing. Once an institute plan exists,
management has the basis for structuring to achieve the plan's goals and objectives, or at
least to examine the existing structure to determine any changes that might be needed. There
are many ways to organize or structure a research institute. A common issue is whether the
institute should be centralized in one location or de-centralized in several regional centres.
There are pros and cons for each option.







Training manual for institute management


Another issue is whether the institute should be organized on a disciplinary or on a
programme basis, again, with pros and cons for each. These approaches may be combined
through a matrix structure.
The third management function is monitoring and controlling. Implementation must be
monitored in accordance with the plan, and any deviations identified brought back under
control to keep the institute focused on achieving the plan's goals and objectives.
Monitoring and controlling is an ongoing activity. To effectively monitor and control,
management needs some form of management information system (MIS).
The fourth management function is evaluating. The main reason for an evaluation is
to assist decision making. If no decision is to be made and no action is to be taken as a
result of the evaluation, one can question 'Why spend the resources to conduct it?'
A secondary but important reason for conducting scheduled evaluations is for the
psychological effect this has on the research management and staff. Knowing that there is
to be an evaluation to measure achievement against an institute's planned goals and
objectives stimulates everyone involved to make extra effort to obtain the desired project and
programme results. Thus, productivity is increased.

Pervasive functions
The functions of an agricultural research manager go beyond the typical functions of a
manager, considered to be planning, coordinating, organizing, controlling and motivating.
Agricultural research is a combination of three sub-systems: disciplinary areas and
commodities; the management process itself; and people, who include policy-makers,
scientists, research personnel, extension workers, producers, processors and consumers. The
agricultural research manager has to integrate and harmonize these various sub-systems to
achieve the desired goals.
Thus the agricultural research manager has to:
clearly define objectives and set priorities. The goals should be action oriented and the
research should be multi-disciplinary;
establish effective means of communication;
synchronize with field-level requirements;
stimulate creativity and innovation;
evolve participatory processes; and
manage the external interfaces with research, extension, clients and user groups,
government and funding agencies.
Obviously, management of agricultural research has to be professionalized in order to
perform the tasks listed above. Professionalization is also vital, considering that research
costs are spiralling, resources particularly human and funds are difficult to mobilize, and
there is an urgent need for properly managing NARS.







32 Module 1 Session 1 Management: Thought and Process


Nickel (1989) has emphasized the creation and maintenance of an institutional value
system, planning human resources needs, motivation for excellence and the cultivation of
attitudes that promote effectiveness, in addition to practical aspects of personnel selection and
evaluation. He writes:
"The essence of research management is the art and science of dealing with people.
Without good and well-motivated staff, the best facilities and most adequate financial
resources remain unproductive. With people who have been carefully selected to do
specific tasks; who have been well informed as to what is expected of them; who are
skilfully coached to do that task; and, above all, who are highly motivated, there is almost
no limit to what can be accomplished, even with less-than-ideal facilities and budgets.
Motivation involves making people know they are doing something important; treating
them as individuals who can be trusted to perform responsibly; recognizing their
achievements; and surrounding them with an environment conducive to creativity and
productivity. A research leader must devote a large portion of his time to this task and
constantly strive to improve his competence in his this vital management skill."





REFERENCES


Arnon, I. 1968. Organization and Administration of Agricultural Research.
Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Burt, K.S. No date. Management: A Short Course for Managers. New York, NY:
John Wiley.
Dalton, G.E. 1982 Managing Agricultural Systems. London: Allied Science Publ.
Francis, P.H. 1977. Principles of R&D Management. New York, NY: AMACOM.
See pages 128-130.
Holt, D.H. 1987. Management: Principles and Practices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
Lele, U., & Goldsmith, A.A. 1986. Building Agricultural Research Capacity: India.
Experience with the Rockefeller Foundation and its Significance for Africa.
Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Massie, J.L. 1979. Essentials of Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Mintzberg, H. 1973. The Nature of Management Work. New York, NY: Harper&Row
Nickel, J.L. 1989. Research Management for Development. San Jose, Costa Rica:
IICA.
Peters, J.J., & Waterman, R.H., Jr. 1982. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from
America's Best-Run Companies. New York, NY: Harper & Row.







Training manual for institute management 33


DATE


TIME


Plenary participatory lecture


OBJECTIVES
At the end of this session, participants should be able to:
1. Develop a perspective of the research process.
2. Appreciate the utility of research, particularly applied research, in the context
of technical change which induces increases in productivity.
3. Understand the reasons for low investment in agricultural research, even
though agricultural research brings to an economy a higher rate of return on
investments than many other investments.


Module 1 Session 2


Objectives and organization
of agricultural research


FORMAT


TRAINER







34 Module 1 Session 2 Objectives and organization of agricultural research


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Exhibit 1 Kinds of research and research objectives
Exhibit 2 Different categories of research
Exhibit 3 Goals of agricultural research in India
Exhibit 4 Factors contributing to underinvestment in agricultural research
Exhibit 5 Factors affecting technical change in agriculture




REQUIRED READING

None.




BACKGROUND READING

1. Arndt, T.M., & Ruttan, V.W. 1977. Valuing the productivity of agricultural
research: problems and issues. pp.3-25, in: Arndt, T.M., Dalrymple, D.G., &
Ruttan, V.M. (eds) Resource Allocation and Productivity in National and
International Agricultural Research. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press.
2. Ruttan, V.W. 1987. Future research evaluation needs, in: Sundquist, W.B. (ed)
Evaluating agricultural research and productivity. Minnesota Agricultural
Experiment Station, Univ. Minnesota, Miscellaneous Publication, No. 52-1987.
3. Schultz, T.W. 1953. The Economic Organization of Agricultural Research. New
York, NY: McGraw Hill.




SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS

Overhead projector and chalkboard.







Training manual for institute management 35


OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH


Initiate the discussion by asking 'What is research?' and 'What are its objectives?' 'Why
should we invest in research?' Show EXHIBIT 1, which describes the objectives of research.
Research may be basic, strategic, applied or adaptive. Show EXHIBIT 2, and discuss
definitions of each of these types of research.
Basic research establishes the boundaries within which innovation is possible.
Strategic research is directed towards specific problems.
Applied research is search for new technology within the limits of existing scientific
knowledge set by basic research.
Adaptive research is use of research in enhancing productivity or solving some problems.
The faster the advance of basic knowledge, the greater is the productivity of applied research.
Static basic research would mean diminishing returns in applied research because of
increasing cost of innovation within the framework of existing knowledge. Eventually,
technical change could stagnate until new knowledge emerges from basic research. Discuss
the evolution of high yielding varieties (HYVs) of crop plants and subsequent stagnation in
applied research. Observe that agricultural research is mostly applied.
The question arises as to the proper mix of basic and applied research that an agricultural
research institute should conduct. This depends on a number of factors, such as the
institute's mandate and the level of economic development of the country. Ask participants
to provide examples of such factors, listing them on the chalkboard. Have participants
suggest proper basic:applied research mixes for their institutions. Ask them for some
arguments that would suggest that the more economically undeveloped a country is, the
smaller the basic:applied research expenditure ratio tends to be.
Research may have a short- or long-term perspective. Short-term research is directed
towards finding solutions to problems of immediate concern. Such problems arise in the
context of the transition of agriculture from subsistence to commercial.


Module 1 Session 2

Session Guide







Module 1 Session 2 Objectives and organization of agricultural research


Long-term research is oriented towards future problems, perceived in the context of
expected economic or biological developments. Long-term research is of two types:
(i) directed to problems of immediately apparent significance in the circumstances prevailing
at the time the decision is made, but the execution of which is expected to be of long
duration, (e.g., tree crop breeding programmes), and
(ii) research that must be initiated in the present in order to be ready for future needs based
on prospects and projections pertaining to population growth, technological change and
economic growth.
Next ask participants: 'What is the objective of agricultural research?' Technical change
which permits substitution of scarce resources (such as land and water) which are inelastic
in supply by a resource like knowledge, which is less expensive and more abundant. As
Arndt and Ruttan (1977) put it, the overall effect of research is to increase agricultural
productivity, variously through:
increased returns to factors of production by reduced costs or increased output,
improved product quality,
introduction of new production, or
lower vulnerability through production control.
Show EXHIBIT 3 and discuss the goals of agricultural research in India. Some of these may
be common to the goals set for the research in which workshop participants are engaged.
Discuss productivity. Some commonly used, but partial, productivity ratios are output
per hectare, or output per unit of labour or other input. Ask participants if they can think
of others. Output per unit of fertilizer applied is one. Another is output per unit of
agricultural research. As agricultural scientists, we naturally hope to see an increase in
agricultural output as a result of our research.
Ask participants if they, from their own experience, have any evidence of the effects of
research on agricultural output. Be ready to provide your own examples. A classic example
is the increase in rice yields resulting from the research by the International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI) which led to the rice cultivar IR-8. Other examples are HYVs of wheat and
maize. List important factors that constrain agricultural research. These would include low
investment, despite the fact that the literature provides selective quantitative evidence that the
internal rate of return on investments in agricultural research is high. A 10 to 15% rate of
return would be considered adequate for most investments. Observe that there are serious
methodological problems in fully assessing the economic impact attributable to research.
Nevertheless procedures have been developed to calculate benefits from research by
measuring shifts in production and supply function,
understanding the non-conventional factors (such as humans, capital, technology, and
infrastructure), and
understanding how technology changes production and productivity.
The resource person should also refer to important methodological approaches such as:
the value of inputs saved (Schultz, 1953),
the economic surplus approach (consumer-producer surplus, cost:benefit, and index
numbers), and








Training manual for institute management 37


the econometric approach (production, profit and supply functions and their derivations).
Since research is exploration of the unknown, with a long gestation period and uncertain
outputs, its financial and economic analysis both ex ante and ex post is difficult. ,The
international funding agencies no longer undertake any such standard project analyses in
relation to investment in agricultural research because of the controversy surrounding the
underlying assumptions, choice of a discount rate and methodology of computation.
Nevertheless, there is ample evidence available establishing the value of returns to investment
in agricultural research. Surplus cereal production in the European Union and food self-
sufficiency in India are just two examples of the effects of new technologies. In both cases,
agriculture was transferred from a state of serious deficit to one generating a surplus.
If evidence indicates that there has been substantial economic benefits from the resources
already invested, why is then that there is not greater investment in agricultural research?
Ask participants for their thoughts. EXHIBIT 4 suggests some possible reasons.
The first of the factors is the competing demand from other sectors, resulting from an
overall lack of resources. Closely related to this is the unenlightened allocations of public
funds, suggesting that policy-makers are unaware of the benefits accruing to society from
agricultural research. While this is likely to be true, one might question how differently
officials responsible for resource allocation would act even if they were well informed about
returns to investment in agriculture. After all, there are many factors other than economic
growth that affect public decisions. You may wvish to discuss some of these with participants.
The second factor noted in EXHIBIT 4 is the spillover characteristic of agricultural
research benefits. It is hard for any individual or narrowly defined group to capture all or
even most of the benefits that result from agricultural research. For example, benefits may
slip from a private entity into the public domain, from producers to consumers, from one
geopolitical region to others. Ask participants for examples.
If we understand better the factors affecting technical change that results from
agricultural research, perhaps we, as managers, will be able to maintain the current high rates
of return as well as encourage greater investment in agricultural research. EXHIBIT 5 lists
three of the major factors: the market, research talent, and management.
Under 'Market' are three issues that agricultural research managers should be aware of.
The first, induced innovation, is a phrase that was coined to suggest that a country's factor
endowments induce innovations, or technical change, to occur in directions which will
conserve scarce factors. For example, in Japan, where labour was abundant and land scarce,
innovation was induced in the direction of land-saving, biological innovations. In the United
States, where land was abundant and labour scarce, the major thrust of technical change was
toward labour-saving, mechanical technology. Ask participants if they can think of examples
within their own research environments where induced innovation has resulted.
The next issue raised in EXHIBIT 5 is whether there are 'fundamental biases' that affect
the direction of technical change resulting from agricultural research. Economic analyses
suggest that technical change may be more easily produced in some directions, e.g.,
labour-saving technology, than in others. Ask participants to suggest reasons why this could
be so. One might be that the fundamental research backing up technological areas may be
more robust for some areas than for others.
Finally, pressure groups are put forth as an issue for discussion, particularly in terms of
their ability to affect the market for technical change in agriculture. Do commercial farmers,







38 Module I Session 2 Objectives and organization of agricultural research


government bureaucrats, agro-industrialists, subsistence farmers, consumers, and other such
interested parties form pressure groups that affect the market for technical change? Ask
participants for their opinion and for examples.
In the context of research talent, discuss the most appropriate mix of scientific skill levels
in agricultural research institutions. We could examine this in terms of the relative
proportion of senior scientists, scientists and technicians. What is the right mix? What are
the factors that influence this? Let participants discuss these questions. Write their
suggestions on the chalkboard.
Technical change and the rate of return on investments in agriculture may be affected by
the quality of management of agricultural research. Management of agricultural research
includes four important management functions for agricultural research institutions. Observe
that these will be discussed in the context of the organization and management of agricultural
research at various levels.
Conclude the session by discussing areas in which agricultural research is required.
Discuss the conceptual framework around the activities, addressing objectives of research,
commodities, resources and the disciplinary input required to conduct that research.






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 2


EXHIBIT 1


KINDS OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES


I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I


Source: Aron, I. 1989. Agricultural Research Technology Transfer. Amsterdam:
Elsevier/Applied Science Publ.








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 2


DEFINITION OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF
RESEARCH


BASIC
RESEARCH






STRATEGIC
RESEARCH






APPLIED
RESEARCH






ADAPTIVE
RESEARCH


Source: Baum, W.C. 1986. Partners against hunger. Washington, DC: World
Bank, for CGIAR


That designed to generate new
understanding (e.g., how the
partitioning of assimilates is
influenced by plant height)




That designed for the solution of
specific research problems (e.g.,
developing a technique for directing
dwarfing genes in wheat seedlings)



That designed to produce new
technology (e.g., breeding new
cultivars of dwarf wheat that can
respond to high levels of nitrogen
without lodging)


That designed to adjust technology
to the needs of a particular set of
environmental conditions (e.g.,
incorporating dwarf wheats into the
farming systems of the rain-fed
pampas areas of Argentina)


SEXHIBIT 2








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EHIIT 3
Module 1 Session 2




GOALS FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH IN INDIA



Increasing agricultural production and productivity, to ensure
food security for the rising population.
Developing areas of untapped potential, thereby correcting
emerging imbalances in growth in eastern, hilly, rain-fed and
drought-prone regions.
Meeting challenges of degradation of land and water
resources, and emerging ecological imbalances, due to
increased biotic pressure on land.
Compensating for diminishing size of land holdings and
fragmentation, leading to restricted management options and
lower income levels.
Addressing problems of under-employment, unemployment
and malnutrition in rural areas through diversification of
agriculture and promotion of horticulture, fisheries, dairy,
livestock, poultry, beekeeping, sericulture, etc.
Value addition in agriculture can only be achieved by a
concerted thrust being made in increasing processing,
marketing and storage facilities. These are imperative for the
development of agro-processing industries, which are the key
areas for development in agriculture.
Revitalizing and democratizing the cooperatives for providing
credit, inputs and extension support as well as enhanced
marketing and processing.
Focusing the agricultural research system to develop
economically viable and location-specific technologies in rain-
fed, drought-prone and irrigated areas, and strengthening
institutional frameworks for farmers' education and training
in improved farm techniques.
Harnessing of scientific research, in frontier areas of science
and technology, for all sections of the farming community.
Addressing technology training and input needs of farm
women, farmers living in tribal areas and other
disadvantaged sections of rural society, with a view to
remove the drudgery and burdens of their lives and
augmenting their income.









Module 1 Session 2 EXHIBIT 3 (Cont.)


* Accelerating the development of rain-fed and irrigated
horticulture, floriculture, aromatic and medicinal plants
production, and plantation crops, with full back-up support
of processing and marketing, both for the domestic market
and for exports.
* Encouraging efficient use of marginal lands and
augmentation of biomass production through agroforestry
and farm forestry.
* Increasing the utilization of irrigation potential and promoting
water conservation and its efficient management.
* Providing improved variety of seeds, agricultural implements
and machinery and other critical inputs to farmers in or near
their village.
* Reviving and strengthening local institutions of the farming
community as legitimate instruments of de-centralized
planning with full participation of the local community.
Increasing the involvement of non-governmental
organizations in agricultural development and village
upliftment programmes.
* Correcting the terms of trade to make them favourable for
agriculture, thereby increasing the flow of resources and
augmenting the rate of capital formation in agriculture
substantially.


Source: Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 2


EXHIBIT 4


Competing
demand for
limited
resources


Unenlightened
allocations of
public funds


Spillover
characteristics of
agricultural
research benefits


FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO
UNDERINVESTMENT
IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 2


EXHIBIT 5


FACTORS AFFECTING TECHNICAL
CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE



THE MARKET
* Induced innovation
* Fundamental biases in technical change
* Pressure groups


RESEARCH TALENT
* Basic versus applied research
* High- versus low-skill-level investment


MANAGEMENT
* Planning
* Organizing
* Monitoring and Controlling
* Evaluating










Training manual for institute management 45


Module 1


- Session 3


Organization of international
agricultural research


DATE

TIME


Plenary participatory lecture


OBJECTIVES
At the end of this session, participants should have:
1. Developed an overview of how international agricultural research is organized
under the umbrella of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural
Research.
2. Acquired an understanding of the organization, financing, and management of
international agricultural research centres.
3. Developed an appreciation for networking arrangements which link
international agricultural research centres with national agricultural research
systems.


FORMAT

TRAINER







46 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research






INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
Exhibit 1 CGIAR Centres and their research focus
Exhibit 2 IARCs Objectives
Exhibit 3 Common features of IARCs
Exhibit 4 Organization of IARCs
Exhibit 5 Qualities of a Centre Director
Exhibit 6 Organization of research
Exhibit 7 Organization of research programmes
Exhibit 8 Research programmes
Exhibit 9 Networking arrangement
Exhibit 10 Review and monitoring
Exhibit 11 Impact of international agricultural research
Exhibit 12 Unique characteristics of IARCs
Exhibit 13 Agenda for the future




BACKGROUND READING
Reading note: International agricultural research: Organization and management




RECOMMENDED READING

1. CGIAR [Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research]. 1991. Review
of CGIAR Priorities and Strategies, Part I.




SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS
Overhead projector and chalkboard







Training manual for institute management 47





Module 1 Session 3

Session Guide








INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH:
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT


Initiate discussion by asking participants whether they are familiar with how international
agricultural research is organized, and with how it is linked with NARS. The Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is the major agency for international
agricultural research. Show EXHIBIT 1 and discuss the establishment of the CGIAR and the
various international agricultural research centres (IARCs) under it.
CGIAR was established in 1971. In its early years it focused on improving the
productivity of crops important in the diets of low-income people in developing countries.
Initially, top priority was given to research on cereals, particularly rice and wheat, which are
the most important food staples. Attention was also given to food legumes and ruminant
livestock for their potential to improve the quality of diets, and to starchy foods for their
potential in terms of energy supply per hectare. Gradually, the commodity base was
broadened. Besides commodity-oriented research, the need for policy research systems was
recognized. Observe that the CGIAR system is only one component in the global agricultural
research system and commands only a fraction of its resources. The CGIAR system has to
be very selective in choosing among the many demands for agricultural research. CGIAR
has played primarily a gap-filling and bridging role in agricultural research. As a publicly
funded, international entity, CGIAR tries to identify themes and opportunities where
individual national programmes have little incentive to make a major commitment, either
because of economies of scale or because the spillover effects are so large that they cannot
be captured by them. The principal role of CGIAR is to strengthen the work of national
programmes by undertaking activities that are complementary and non-competitive.
Show EXHIBIT 2 and discuss the objectives of IARCs. Their aim is to improve
productivity in subsistence agriculture. The specialization and main activities of each of these
research centres should be discussed to demonstrate their wide coverage. The common
features (summarized in EXHIBIT 3) of these centres are:
they aim to fulfil a global or regional mandate through sharply focused research on one
or a few commodities or problems of importance;
they carry out all forms of research, viz. basic (strategic), applied and adaptive;
they aim to have a catalytic effect on NARS;







48 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research


they employ internationally qualified professional staff; and
they are financially supported and monitored by CGIAR, yet exercise full autonomy in
matters of management and organization of research within their overall mandates.
Next discuss the organization and management of IARCs (EXHIBIT 4). Although these
centres have an umbilical cord relationship with CGIAR, their mandate is specific. Their
management is left to either a board of trustees or a governing board. The Director General
(DG) of each Centre is the key person with management responsibilities, and has to possess
several qualities (EXHIBIT 5) in order to efficiently manage a centre. Some centres use
committee mechanisms for functions such as budgeting and finance, programme and research
planning, or technology transfer. Organizational structures vary from Centre to Centre, but
are oriented heavily towards scientific work.
For research programmes, most IARCs with a specific applied crop or animal production
mandate have an experimental station, with research laboratory, library and research support
facilities. Show EXHIBIT 6. Research work is organized either through interdisciplinary
commodity research programmes, in which disciplinary units work as teams, or according
to disciplinary functional considerations, as in single commodity research centres. In
multicommodity IARCs, research is organized into various commodity research programmes,
involving plant breeders, geneticists, agronomists, entomologists, pathologists, etc. Special
services are provided through functional and administrative units.
Next discuss EXHIBITS 7 and 8. Research programmes are organized in the form of
either projects or thrusts. The key to successful research is sharply focused objectives,
supportive organizational structures, resource allocations to achieve goals, and monitoring.
The criteria for project selection are:
scientific significance and feasibility of seeking a solution and its likely effect in other
scientific fields;
originality and technical soundness of the proposal;
availability of facilities and support required; and
professional standing of scientists.
Discuss networking arrangements. Observe that networking is collaboration. It is an
outreach programme of the IARCs with other research institutes, both within the ecological
region and further afield. Show EXHIBIT 9. Networking links individuals or institutions with
a shared purpose into some sort of collaborative effort. Networking is cost effective since
it avoids duplication, makes best use of available resources, and helps focus systematically
on critical research issues.
Discuss the review and monitoring system and its importance in the CGIAR
(EXHIBIT 10). Reviews consist of:
annual consideration of budget and programmes of each centre;
periodic internal reviews by the centre staff;
periodic External Programme Reviews (EPRs) commissioned by the Technical Advisory
Committee (TAC);
periodic External Management Reviews (EMRs) instituted by CGIAR; and
ad hoc studies.







Training manual for institute management 49


As a result of these reviews, there have been significant changes in the organization,
structure, quality, perceptions, administration and research environments of IARCs. The
overall thrust has been towards highly dynamic, professionally sound and efficient
administrative systems.
Show EXHIBIT 11 to discuss the impact of IARCs. Their mission has been to improve
productivity, with emphasis on agricultural food crops in tropical environments. Discuss
their achievement in increasing production by nearly 50 million t/year as a result of the
introduction of dwarf HYVs of wheat and rice. IARCs have a symbiotic relationship with
NARS, complementing their efforts and stimulating them to interdisciplinary teamwork.
More specifically, IARCs have provided contacts, specialized services, genetic material and
breeding technologies. High quality professional association, channels for exchange of
germplasm, provision of genetic materials, broadening the horizon of breeders and
transferring breeding technology to encourage applied research are now well recognized as
important contributions of IARCs.
The success of CGIAR can be attributed to clearly defined, mission-oriented, high
priority .objectives, implemented by professional staff. For instance, the effectiveness of
IARCs in varietal crop improvement programmes has been due to a well-thought-out strategic
approach (EXHIBIT 12). It must be clearly accepted that, in the final analysis, the impact of
IARCs depends mostly on the strengths of the NARS; without strong NARS, IARCs' impacts
would be limited.
Before concluding the session, discuss future trends in international agricultural research
(EXHIBIT 12). The 'Agenda for the Future' should include:
basic strategic research in the commodities of common interest, beyond the cereals;
research into production in unfavourable ecological conditions or stress environments;
second-generation problems;
post-harvest technology for value addition; and
efforts to maximize returns from biological research.











TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 1


THE IARCs OF THE CGIAR AND THEIR FOCUS


IARC


CIAT


FULL TITLE, AND MAIN FOCUS

Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
[International Centre for Tropical Agriculture]


Crop improvement and improving agriculture in the
lowland tropics of Latin America, focusing on
Phaseolus and other beans, rice, cassava, forages and
pastures.

CIFOR Centre for International Forestry Research
Strategic research and related activities in forestry
systems and forestry

CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de MAiz y Trigo
[International Centre for Maize and Wheat
Improvement]
Crop improvement, with a focus on wheat, maize,
barley and triticale.


Centro Internacional de la Papa
[International Potato Centre]
Potato and sweet potato improvement


ICARDA International Centre for Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas
Improvement of farming systems for North Africa and
West Asia, focusing on wheat barley, chick-pea,
lentil, pasture legumes and small ruminants

ICLARM International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources
Management
All aspects of mari- and aquaculture

ICRAF International Centre for Research in Agroforestry
Developing agroforestry systems technologies


DATE FOUNDED'
& HEADQUARTERS
1967
Cali (Colombia)


1992
Bogor
(Indonesia)

1966
El Batan
(Mexico)


1971
Lima (Peru)


1976
Aleppo (Syria)


1977
Manila (the
Philippines)

1978
Nairobi (Kenya)


ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- 1972
Arid Tropics Hyderabad
Crop improvement and cropping systems, focusing on (India)
sorghum, millets, chick-pea, pigeon pea and
groundnut


1. Date originally founded; not necessarily the date of entry into the CGIAR system.








Module 1 Session 3 Exhibit 1 (cont)


International Food Policy Research Institute
Strategies and policies to meet world food needs,
emphasizing policy analysis

International Irrigation Management Institute
Research and information dissemination on improved
irrigation management and irrigation systems

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Crop improvement in humid and semi-humid tropics,
land management and farming systems, focusing on
maize, cassava, cowpea, plantain, soybean and yams


SInternational Livestock Research Institute


Animal-oriented farming systems in sub-Saharan
Africa, focusing on production, marketing and disease
control

INIBAP International Network for the Improvement of
Bananas and Plantain
Promoting scientific cooperation and research in
banana and plantain improvement


International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
Conservation of genepools of useful plants


International Rice Research Institute


Global rice improvement

ISNAR International Service for National Agricultural
Research
Strengthening developing country agricultural
research systems

WARDA West Africa Rice Development Association
Rice improvement in West Africa, focusing on
mangrove, inland valley swamp, upland and rain-fed
farming systems


IFPRI


IIMI


1975
Washington
D.C. (USA)

1984
Colombo (Sri
Lanka)

1967
Ibadan (Nigeria)



1995
Nairobi
(Kenya)/Addis
Ababa (Ethiopia)

1984
Montpellier
(France)


1976
Rome (Italy)

1960
Los Bahos (the
Philippines)

1979
The Hague (the
Netherlands)


1971
Bouak6 (C6te
d'lvoire)


IITA


ILRI


IPGRI


IRRI







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 2


INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH CENTRES (IARCs)


OBJECTIVES


To solve problems of subsistence agriculture
through multidisciplinary scientific research
aimed at increasing agricultural productivity.

This has the effect of:
* increasing farm incomes,
* reducing food production costs, and
* improving human nutrition










TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 3


COMMON FEATURES OF IARCs


BROAD THEMATIC MANDATE


* Autonomous organizations
* Located in ecological zone appropriate to
their mandate, mostly in developing
countries
* Mission oriented
* Qualified international staff
* Professional management
* Effective coordination
* CGIAR-guaranteed core funding
* Emphasis on networking







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 4


THE CGIAR RELATIONSHIP



M
A BOARD OF TRUSTEES
N
A BOARD OF GOVERNORS
G
E DIRECTOR GENERAL
M SCIENTIFIC STAFF
E ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
N
T COMMITTEE MECHANISM






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


I EXHIBIT 5


QUALITIES OF A CENTRE DIRECTOR






SCIENTIFIC LEADER

DIPLOMAT

PUBLIC RELATIONS EXPERT

ENTREPRENEUR

MANAGER







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 6


SPECIAL
SERVICES


DISCIPLINARY OR
FUNCTIONAL
UNITS


ORGANIZATION OF RESEARCH


RESEARCH
MANAGEMENT


ORGANIZATION
OF RESEARCH


COMMODITY
RESEARCH
PROGRAMMES







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 7


REVIEWS


FACTORS AFFECTING
SUCCESS OF RESEARCH


PRIORITIZATION


SHARPLY FOCUSED OBJECTIVES


ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES


RESOURCE ALLOCATION


MONITORING






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 8


* PROJECTS


* THRUSTS


* SELECTION CRITERIA:
Scientific significance
Feasibility of a scientific answer
Opportunities for scientific investigation
Reputation(s) of the scientists)
Availability of facilities and support
Originality and technical soundness
Effects on other scientific fields


RESEARCH PROGRAMMES








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 9


* Linkages with NARS for:
Collaborative research
Location-specific research
Evaluation and adaptation of technology


* Models of networking


* Advantages:
Cost effective
Participative
Collaborative
Flexibility in use of resources


* Difficulty:
Commitment of substantial funds


NETWORKING ARRANGEMENT






TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT E
Module 1 Session 3





REVIEW AND MONITORING





PURPOSE

INTERNAL

Consideration of budget and programme
Staff review

EXTERNAL

Objectives:
monitoring
assessing
improving
Types:
Programme review, with a focus on the
scientific programme
Management review, with a focus on
management systems

EFFECTS

toning up of administration
improvement in research environment
strengthening Donor-Centre-Client
relations
changes in the organization, structure,
quality and perception of the research







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 11


KEY PERFORMANCE VARIABLES FOR IARCs


- Mission orientation
- Sited in eco-zone appropriate to mandate
- Autonomy and flexibility
- Professional management
- Interdisciplinary teamwork
- Core funding support
- International status


LINKAGE WITH NARS


- Flow of germplasm and segregating
material
- Catalytic effects:
streamlining national priorities
services of scientists
professional advice
improved, adapted techniques
professional contacts


IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTRES










TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 12


UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF
CROP-ORIENTED IARCs


* The concentration of an interdisciplinary
team of high scientific standing, with
adequate funds, in a small unit focused
on specific research problems


* The ability to collect international genetic
variability with ease and speed


* The possibility of selecting genetic
material collected, or created by cross-
breeding under a broad range of
ecological conditions


* The possibility of obtaining two
generations in one year by working
alternately in the northern and southern
hemispheres







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 3


EXHIBIT 13


ATTENTION TO NEW COMMODITIES


AGENDA FOR THE FUTURE


RESEARCH FOR
UNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENTS


SOCIO-ECONOMICS, MARKETING, POLICY
AND SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH


ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS


SECOND-GENERATION PROBLEMS


POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGY
AND VALUE ADDITION







Training manual for institute management 65


INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH:
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT



Three outstanding, inter-related, developments of the last three decades are the emergence
of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), the emergence
of the international agricultural research centres (IARCs), and the re-organization and
strengthening of national agricultural research systems (NARS), all of which have
revolutionized agriculture in the developing countries.


CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
The CGIAR the umbrella organization for most international agricultural research is an
informal association of an international group of donors, agencies, eminent agricultural
scientists and institutional administrators from developed and developing countries, which,
as of early 1996, guides and supports 16 IARCs. CGIAR was set up in 1971, co-sponsored
by the World Bank, FAO and UNDP, and later also UNEP. The aim was to get the
international community to:
earmark a small proportion of its concessional aid for agriculture in the developing
countries; and
give sustained support for a well defined and closely monitored programme of research
on food commodities.
CGIAR operates without a formal charter, relying on the consensus deriving from a sense
of common purpose.
The World Bank provides the CGIAR's chairperson and Secretariat, located in
Washington DC, USA. CGIAR is advised by a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC),
whose Secretariat is provided by the co-sponsors and based in FAO, Rome. CGIAR has over
50 Member Countries, of which 34 were donors in 1995, with an overall research
expenditure equivalent to about $US 300 million. The organizational structure of CGIAR is
shown in Figure 1.


Module 1 Session 3

Reading Note








66 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research


Figure 1 The CGIAR System


Cosponsors
FAO
UNDP
The World Bank


Source: ACIAR/AIDAB, 1989







Training manual for institute management 67


INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTRES
Systematic efforts at international agricultural research began long before CGIAR came into
existence. In 1960, the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, with the support of USAID and
a few other international aid agencies, took the initiative of formally establishing the first
international research centre, namely the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), located
at Los Banos, the Philippines, for research on rice, the staple food of Asia. It was followed
by an international centre for research on wheat and maize (CIMMYT) in Mexico; the
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), at Ibadan, Nigeria, and the Centro
International de Agricultural Tropical (CIAT), at Cali, Colombia. These passed under the
aegis of CGIAR when it was formally established.
The first IARC set up under the auspices of CGIAR was the International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), at Hyderabad, India, in 1971.
Today [1996] CGIAR includes 16 centres, including three service centres: the International
Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), based in Rome, Italy; the International Food
Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), based in Washington DC, USA, and the International
Service for National Agriculture Research (ISNAR), based in The Hague, the Netherlands.
Others, such as the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA), can be considered
partly service and partly research. There is one livestock-oriented IARC, the International
Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), co-hosted by both Ethiopia and Kenya, with
Headquarters in Nairobi, established in January 1995 by a merger of the International
Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and the International
Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases (ILRAD), in Nairobi, Kenya. A full list of the
IARCs (as of early 1996) is given as Table 1.




Table 1 IARCs of the CGIAR


IARC FULL TITLE HEADQUARTERS
LOCATION

CIAT Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical Cali (Colombia)
[International Centre for Tropical Agriculture]
CIFOR Centre for International Forestry Research Bogor (Indonesia)
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Miiz y El Batdn (Mexico)
Trigo [International Centre for Maize and Wheat
Improvement]
CIP Centro Internacional de la Papa Lima (Peru)
[International Potato Centre]
ICARDA International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Aleppo (Syria)
Dry Areas
ICLARM International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Manila (the
Management Philippines)


International Centre for Research in Agroforestry


Nairobi (Kenya)


ICRAF







68 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research


IARC


International
Research


Service for National Agricultural


West Africa Rice Development Association


FULL TITLE

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-
Arid Tropics
International Food Policy Research Institute

International Irrigation Management Institute
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
International Livestock Research Institute



International Network for the Improvement of
Bananas and Plantain
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute
International Rice Research Institute


Associated centres
Several international centres engaged in factor-oriented research (such as water, fertilizer,
insect, soil management, agroforestry, and vegetables) are also linked with the international
agricultural research system. They are funded by the international community, but do not
belong to CGIAR. Some of them are seeking admission to the CGIAR system. By their own
work and vigorous collaboration with NARS, they are making valuable contributions to
sustainable development in the developing world.


Objectives
All the CGIAR centres have the same common goal: to solve problems of subsistence
agriculture through multidisciplinary scientific research aimed at increasing agricultural
productivity. This has the effect of increasing farm incomes, reducing costs of food
production and improving human nutrition.
Each IARC has a different mandate and performs diverse tasks (Baum, 1986). Of the
crop-oriented IARCs, all except WARDA are independent organizations, located in
developing countries, and funded principally through CGIAR. The sustained support of
CGIAR has contributed to the success of IARCs through:
coordination and counselling;
mobilization of funds;


HEADQUARTERS
LOCATION
Patancheru,
Hyderabad (India)
Washington D.C.
(USA)
Colombo (Sri Lanka)
Ibadan (Nigeria)
Nairobi (Kenya)/
Addis Ababa
(Ethiopia)
Montpellier (France)

Rome (Italy)
Los Bailos (the
Philippines)
The Hague (the
Netherlands)
Bouak6 (CBte
d'Ivoire)


ICRISAT


IFPRI

IIMI
IITA
ILRI


INIBAP

IPGRI
IRRI

ISNAR

WARDA







Training manual for institute management 69



setting priorities;
policy making;
ensuring accountability; and
providing stability and legitimacy.


Organization and management
The CGIAR system recognizes that mission-oriented research requires a setting that is
conducive to good idea generation, risk-taking and strategic thinking. It needs:
adequate provision of resources and scientists;
an effective project management system that delegates decision making and fosters a
disciplinary structure that facilitates collegial interaction and maintains a functional
support system; and
strong linkages with clients.
All the IARCs are founded on the basis of these considerations. They are concerned with
international and regional research, specifically related to food production, and are devoted
to a mission of removing food shortages from the world. Some have a worldwide mandate
and others a geographical or regional mandate. Some also have systems research or farming
systems research as a part of their programme.
All IARCs have international status. Within their host country, they have the legal status
of an autonomous international agricultural research organization, with certain privileges and
immunities, akin to quasi-diplomatic status, although details vary between Centres.
Although there may be some differences according to mission and mandate, by and large
the organizational and management patterns in IARCs are similar. All centres have a DG
or director as the head of the centre, and a board of trustees or governing board as the
highest governing institution.
The boards have 12-15 members, representing developing and industrialized nations and
CGIAR sponsors, with one or two members from the host country. Most board members
are scientists or research administrators, and chosen for their eminence or competence, and
function generally in a personal capacity. The DG of the centre is also a member of the
board. A member is appointed for two or three terms of two years each. Once a board is
elected it becomes self-perpetuating, as two-thirds of the members are elected by the board
itself, which ensures continuous replacement. The board is responsible for establishing the
policies of the centre and guiding the DG in managing the centre. One of the important
functions of the board is to select and appoint the DG. Boards meet once or twice a year.
Most boards have executive committees empowered to act on behalf of the board between
meetings. Normally there are also:
a programme committee, which evaluates the research programmes and makes its
recommendations to the board;
a budget and finance committee and an audit committee, which make recommendations
about financial matters; and, in some cases, also
a technology transfer committee.
The boards are autonomous, and report to CGIAR through their chairpersons.






70 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research


The director or DG is the leader of the centre and thus occupies a key position.
Although appointed by the board and responsible to it, he or she enjoys a high degree of
autonomy. This calls for a rare combination of skills.
A director must be:
the scientific leader of a complex research system;
a diplomat, adept in dealing with the host country and other developing countries;
an expert in public relations, to deal with the media and public at large;
an entrepreneur in promoting the support of donors; and
manager of a large, often far-flung, enterprise.
The DG is usually assisted by a deputy director and several assistant directors, with
responsibility for research, administration, international cooperation and other core activities
of each centre.


Staff
The staff of each centre comprises administrators, scientists and technicians, from both
industrialized and developing countries.


Research programmes
Every crop-oriented centre has an experimental station and physical resources, including
research laboratories, library and other support facilities. The experimental farms are
provided by the host countries. The physical facilities are developed by the centre, using
resources provided through CGIAR funding.


Organization of research
IARCs are generally organized either along the lines of interdisciplinary, commodity research
programmes, in which the disciplinary units work as teams to fulfil the mandate of the
programme, or as disciplinary units. In single-commodity research centres, such as IRRI,
the entire staff is organized into various disciplinary or functional units. However, in recent
years the concept of interdisciplinary units has become more popular. In multicommodity
research centres, the centre is organized into various commodity research programmes, which
include breeders, geneticists, agronomists, entomologists and pathologists as part of each
specialized team. The head of a programme often called the programme leader acts as
coordinator, supported by scientific, technical and administrative staff at different levels.
Special services, such as biochemical analyses, statistics, genetic resources and farm
operations, are organized as separate administrative and functional units. Core research is
carried out mostly on the campus where the centre is located, and outreach research off-
campus in other countries, through a network of collaborative programmes with national or
regional centres of research.
In commodity research institutes, such as IRRI and CIMMYT, resource management
research (earlier called on-farm research) has become the vehicle for the adaptation and







Training manual for institute management 71



evaluation of technology, and for developing collaborative work with NARS. In these
centres, interdisciplinary teams of scientists are also organized in disciplinary units.


Organization of research projects
Research activities of IARCs are organized in the light of recognition of the fact that the
success of research depends on sharply focused objectives, organizational structures, resource
allocation to achieve the goals and monitoring of progress through internal and external peer
reviews. In interdisciplinary teamwork, it is the credit-sharing and devotion of partners in
research which together determine the success.
Every IARC has identified priorities for researchable problems, through a process of
international consultation, workshops and in-house discussions. Every centre has formulated
its strategic plan, which is approved by its board and TAC. Research programmes relate to
these strategic plans and are organized in the form of projects or thrusts. In the final
analysis, projects are the building blocks of the plans.
As the researchers select problems germane both to developing countries' needs and to
the IARC's mandate, the perception of the developing countries and their participation in the
programme, from planning to evaluation, adaptation and transfer of technology, is crucial for
success.


Networks
Most IARCs are heavily involved in networking arrangements, which have become an
important system for:
developing linkages for collaborative research;
evaluation and adaptation of technology; and
transfer of technology to client or target groups.
A number of international, regional and national networks are active, linking IARCs and
NARS. The networking system has become an effective tool of collaborative and cooperative
research between international and national agricultural research. Some IARCs have regional
centres in the countries of major concern for their particular commodity programme.
Location-specific research has to be sharply focused, and is thus best carried out at national
as well as regional level. In fact, new research systems are also establishing many
sub-networks or national networks for evaluation of technology or its transfer to farmers.
In its broadest sense, networking links individuals or institutions with a shared purpose
into some sort of collaborative effort. Baum (1986) describes three models of networks
typically associated with IARCs (Figures 2a, 2b & 2c, based on the figures on p. 241 in
Baum, 1986). The first model is the simplest form of network, where information and
materials flow from the central hub, along the spokes, to the nodes. In the second model,
participants are not only recipients but also participate actively in planning and implementing
the programme. Information flows back and forth between the hub and the nodes, as well
as along the rim. In the third model, the cooperating countries establish sub-networks, which
are of regional and local importance.







72 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research


Networking has both advantages and
disadvantages: Figure 2a First network model
By relying on existing institutions,
costly expenditure on new central
facilities is avoided and cost
effectiveness is achieved. However,
strong collaborative centres are those
which have been strengthened under
some programme involving capital
investment and human resources
improvement. Thus, resource-poor
centres are neglected.
Beneficiary countries are fully involved
in programme planning and priority
setting, which assists them in
developing strong national research
programmes.
Networking helps in maintaining the momentum of collaboration over a wide range of
scientific knowledge and plays a catalytic role in bringing together resources to focus
systematically on an important research topic, and thus establishes a critical mass of
scientific activity at relatively low marginal cost.
Flexibility in use of resources in a programme provides a mechanism to link the research
of the centre to that funded by donors through other channels. It thus helps the
developing countries in attracting more aid.
The main difficulty in managing networks is the involvement of many independent
organizations. Its effective operation requires substantial commitment of funds for
communication and travel.


Figure 2b The second network model


Figure 2c The third network model








Training manual for institute management 73


Review and monitoring system
In the CGIAR system, reviews are important for monitoring the quality of research, assessing
the relevance of research and evaluating policy effects. Reviews are conducted both
internally within a centre and externally, commissioned by TAC. CGIAR as a whole is also
reviewed periodically. Ad hoc studies of activities common to more than one centre may also
be conducted from time to time, according to perceived need.
Within an IARC, the internal review function comprises:
annual consideration of budget and programme; and
periodic internal reviews by the centre staff itself, commissioned by the DG or the board.
In addition, the CGIAR system commissions external reviews of programmes and
management. These reviews are conducted by small, multidisciplinary teams consisting of
eminent scientists and administrators from developed and developing countries. They aim
at critical evaluation of scientific performance and management efficiency. Normally, both
an External Programme Review (EPR) and an External Management Review (EMR) are done
simultaneously, once every five years, but there are two separate reports.
EPRs (formerly called Quinquennial Reviews) focus on the scientific programme of a
centre. The review team does not include a staff member of the centre. The draft report is
prepared after visits to the centre and its constituent research sites, and following extensive
discussion with the management of the centre. In the centre itself, considerable preparatory
work would have been undertaken prior to the visit of the EPR team, reflecting the
importance attached to the programme review function. The draft report is discussed with
the management of the centre and then transmitted to TAC. The team report is reviewed
closely by TAC and then thoroughly discussed in the CGIAR system in the presence of the
DG concerned. EMR reports are prepared and discussed in a similar manner.
The EPR and EMR review reports serve as important instruments for monitoring,
assessing and improving:
the research activities;
the management system of the centres; and
their excellence and relevance.
Measures for removing shortcomings and introducing improvements are also discussed.
Both EPR and EMR reports are generally frank, rigorous and critical. In some
situations, a great deal is accomplished behind the scenes during discussions between the
study team and the management of the centre. These discussions often initiate necessary
changes even before the matter formally comes to CGIAR. This has been the case
particularly with EMR reports, which have tended to raise sensitive managerial issues
pertaining to style of management, organizational design and human resources management.
EMR has led to toning up of administration, improvement in the research environment, and
enhanced donor-centre-client relations. The review system is highly dynamic, professionally
sound and administratively efficient. As a result of EPR reviews, significant changes in
research organization, structure, quality and outlook have occurred in the centres.
The EPR and EMR systems have many good features, worthy of emulation by NARS.







74 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research


Impact of international agricultural research
It is now well accepted that international agricultural research has substantially contributed
to increases in food production. Half of the area devoted to wheat and rice in developing
countries is now planted with dwarf varieties, providing some 50 million tons of additional
food, enough to feed 500 million people.
The CGIAR system has been successful as a result of clearly defined and prioritized
objectives, a mission orientation, a quest for proven technology, a professional scientific
management and viable systems of research and development.
The success of international agricultural research has to be seen in the context of outputs
of the individual research centres and linkages with NARS, with consequent synergistic
effects.


IARCs' performances
The success of individual research centres in carrying out their mandated research can be
attributed to:
their mission orientation towards solving problems of subsistence agriculture, in most
cases through a multidisciplinary scientific approach;
their location in tropical countries and associated focus on food crops, which encouraged
improving productivity of food crops in tropical environments;
the autonomy, flexibility and sound management of the CGIAR system allowing the best
use to be made of human and natural resources;
CGIAR's commitment, which enabled a critical mass of dedicated scientists from all over
the world to come together and work toward a single goal. Interdisciplinary team efforts
and economies of scale have made it possible to attack more effectively the complex
problems of raising and stabilizing the yield of individual species;
their international mandate, which promotes a broad vision and encourages plant crosses
of wider adaptability, which then through the networking system can be evaluated for
suitability under diverse environments;
their international status, with independent boards of trustees, insulating them from direct
political influence by governments and preventing diversion from their core activities to
meet short-term political considerations; and
professional management of the centres.


Linkages with NARS
The relationship between IARCs and NARS is symbiotic. The most important contribution
which IARCs have made is the flow of germplasm and segregating material at various stages
of collaborative research, with no political barriers. Outputs of their research are freely
available to NARS. In addition, they also provide the services of an international galaxy of
scientists without any direct cost.
Contrary to some doubts, the emphasis on international agricultural research has not been
at the expense of national research and extension effort. On the contrary, the spending on







Training manual for institute management 75


international agricultural research has stimulated spending on national agricultural research,
and has catalysed, strengthened and streamlined NARS. They have transferred technology
and knowledge through participation in collaborative networks, and benefitted from
professional advice in re-orientation of priorities, improved techniques and methods, training
of national scientists and joint seminars. The type of contributions made by a Centre has
been constrained by the stage of development and capacity of NARS.
Evaluation studies of linkages between IARCs and NARS have reported great
appreciation of professional contacts, particularly during collaborative research and through
networking; of the flow of germplasm and segregating material, provision of genetic materials
and breeding techniques; and of support in strengthening research and extension systems
(Anderson, Herdt and Scobie, 1988).
Even though the success of IARCs is well established, this model is not easily
transferable to NARS because of the paucity of resources, particularly scientific manpower
and funds, in the developing countries. Nevertheless, national systems are gradually being
reorganized to establish viable linkages with the international system.


AGENDA FOR THE FUTURE
In the last 30 years, food availability in the world has changed dramatically in both quality
and quantity. However, new problems have emerged.
Regions like Asia, which were considered to have almost attained self-sufficiency in
food, are rapidly becoming again net importers of food, because of the rapidly increasing
population. Africa still remains deficient in terms of food production, and the gap between
food production and demand is widening at an alarming rate.
The initial breakthrough in production technology in wheat and rice for favourable
environments has clearly shown the need for research for unfavourable ecologies or stress
environments.
It is also now well recognized that technology alone cannot solve the problem of
agriculture in developing countries. Socio-economic research, marketing and policy research
and sustainability research, coupled with environmental aspects of research, are required to
derive the best return from biological research.
Awareness of second-generation problems is increasing, such as new problems caused
by previously minor diseases and pests, and the need for relevant research is paramount and
should receive much higher priority than in the past.
Post-harvest technology for adding value to produce and improving the return to the
producer are becoming more important.
Some commodities which were neglected in the past by researchers have attracted more
attention now, and the existing IARCs are expected to give them the necessary attention.
The emergence of NARS and their increasing strength and cooperative advantage for
applied and adaptive research necessitates the collaboration of IARCs and NARS to tackle
these problems. IARCs can be expected to play a more significant role in basic strategic
research in the commodities of common interest, and to find solutions to problems of high
priority. In future, they will have to become more dynamic and alive to the changing needs
of their client countries. Both IARCs and NARS are faced with challenges which can only
be met by a dynamic approach.







76 Module 1 Session 3 Organization of international agricultural research


REFERENCES


ACIAR [Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research]. 1989. Research helps
feed the hungry. p. 14, in: An Act of Faith Canberra: ACIAR/ADIAB for CGIAR.
Baum, W.C. 1986. Partners Against Hunger: The Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research. Washington, D.C.: World Bank for CGIAR. See page 241.
ISNAR. 1987. International Workshop on Agricultural Research Management. Report of
a Workshop, 7-11 September 1987, ISNAR, The Hague. The Hague: ISNAR. See
pp. 216-217.
Jain, H.K. 1989. Organization and structure in national agricultural research systems.
ISNAR Working Paper, No. 21.
Anderson, J.R., Herdt, R.W., & Scobie, G.M. 1988. The CGIAR and its partners. In:
Science and Food. Washington, D.C.: World Bank for CGIAR.
Taylor, A. 1988. Organization and structure of national agricultural research systems in
anglophone sub-Saharan Africa. ISNAR Staff Paper, No. 88-19.







Training manual for institute management 77


DATE

TIME


Plenary participatory lecture


OBJECTIVES
At the end of this session, participants should be able to:
1. Understand the development, organization and management of national
agricultural research systems (NARS).
2. Compare the relative potential of NARS and their governance functions, and
the effectiveness of research functions.
3. Appreciate the linkage between IARCs and NARS.


Module 1 Session 4


National agricultural research
systems


FORMAT

TRAINER







78 Module 1 Session 4 National agricultural research systems


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Exhibit 1 Why NARS?
Exhibit 2 What are NARS?
Exhibit 3 Organizational models of NARS
Exhibit 4 Agricultural Research Council model (1)
Exhibit 5 Agricultural Research Council model (2)
Exhibit 6 Agricultural Research Council model (Case example)
Exhibit 7 National Research Institute model
Exhibit 8 National Research Institute model (Case example)
Exhibit 9 Organization of agricultural research in sub-Saharan Africa
Exhibit 10 University of Agriculture model
Exhibit 11 Organization of research
Exhibit 12 Effectiveness and efficiency of NARS organizations
Exhibit 13 NARS: Governance functions
Exhibit 14 NARS: Research functions
Exhibit 15 Comparing IARC and NARS systems
Exhibit 16 Future needs of NARS




BACKGROUND READING

Reading note: National agricultural research systems.: Organization and management




RECOMMENDED READING

None.




SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AND AIDS

Overhead projector and chalkboard







Training manual for institute management 79







Module 1 Session 4

Session Guide






NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS:
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

Show EXHIBIT 1 and initiate discussion with "Why are national agricultural research systems
(NARS) necessary?" List the reasons given by the participants. The need for NARS and
their strengthening in developing countries over the last three decades was stimulated by the
need to increase food production by making science and technology available for
transformation of traditional agriculture. The green revolution is primarily the result of
NARS and the emergence of international agricultural research centres (IARCs) as
instruments of change. The 'miracle' seeds and packages of technology developed through
IARCs catalysed NARS to adapt the technology and reap the full benefits. Thus, the first
phase of the revolution in production came through 'seeds of change,' and fertilizer and
irrigation interaction. Ask the participants to contribute their views and make a
comprehensive list of why NARS are necessary.
Show EXHIBIT 2 and discuss "What do NARS consist of?" and "What do they do?"
Discuss the organizational structure of NARS, as influenced by:
the number and type of organizations performing research;
the mandates of NARS and their internal characteristics;
the patterns they follow in communicating with each other; and
their governance and resource acquisition mechanism.
Agricultural research is normally supported by government either through the ministry
responsible, usually the Ministry of Agriculture or of Rural Development. Sometimes
agricultural universities are entrusted with responsibility for agricultural research, while
private industry may support it in some cases.
Show EXHIBIT 3 on organizational models of NARS. These are basically:
the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) model;
the National Research Institute (NRI) model;
the University model; or
the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture model.
Each of these organizational models should be discussed individually.
Now move to EXHIBIT 4 and initiate discussion on the ARC model. Discuss the main
features of the ARC model. It consists of managing, coordinating or funding councils
(EXHIBIT 5). Discuss each of these councils. Experience has shown that managing councils







80 Module 1 Session 4 National agricultural research systems


are quite effective because they have responsibility for coordinating, funding and managing
research programmes. Managing councils provide complete autonomy for planning and
executing research, optimizing use of available resources. The coordinating councils merely
coordinate. They lack both resources and administrative powers and are thus least effective.
The funding councils influence prioritization and direction of research through allocation of
funds but neither inspire nor catalyse research.
The ARC model can be illustrated with the case example of the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR). Show EXHIBIT 6. Discuss the features of ICAR, particularly
its wide span of control. ICAR has several bodies for management of various functions. At
the level of a research institute, management is by committee, although the institutes are
organized by discipline or division.
Internal and external reviews constitute an important feature of the ICAR system. While
policy planning, review and funding functions could be centralized, it is necessary to
de-centralize programme execution and administration. Quote the examples of ICAR,
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) and Indonesian Agency for Agricultural
Research and Development (AARD).
Move to the NRI model (EXHIBIT 7). This is common in Latin American countries,
where agricultural research is conducted only at national level. The national institutes enjoy
comparatively great freedom and autonomy. They invariably control, direct and manage all
publicly funded agricultural research. They may be autonomous or semi-autonomous, with
corresponding management patterns. Discuss the advantages of autonomous versus semi-
autonomous models in the context of budgetary support, recruitment of scientists, financial
norms and disciplines, and responsibility for technology transfer. Quote the examples of the
national institutes of Argentina, Chile and Brazil.
Using EXHIBIT 8, discuss the governance of the National Institute of Agriculture (INTA),
Argentina. It has a governing committee responsible for overall governance, a national
directorate, a directorate of research, and directorate of extension. Provoke participants by
making observations that such institutes are monolithic organizations, with central control and
direction, and have low local and regional orientation and interaction. Discuss further
whether improvements have been taking place in recent years. Ask participants
"Who makes policy decisions and counsels the director general (DG) in these institutes?"
"How is research organized?"
"What is the usual organization at project and programme levels?"
"What arrangements exist for technology transfer?"
In this context, elicit observations on structures in different countries or regions.
EXHIBIT 9 deals with the organization of agricultural research systems in sub-Saharan
Africa, where little in the way of agricultural research systems existed before independence.
Over time, NARS have been organized using three different models, representing
combinations of the NRI and ARC models.
Through EXHIBIT 10, discuss the University of Agriculture model, patterned after the
Land Grant Universities of the USA. While the universities are autonomous, their
dependence on state as well as national (federal) councils for funds influences the direction
of research conducted by them. Agricultural universities are usually not responsible for
extension, which is the responsibility of the state department of agriculture.
Ask "What is the basis for research organizations?" Answer: Experiient stations. The
number of experiment stations, their size, and organizational pattern wocld vary from country







Training manual for institute management 81


to country. They may be dedicated to one commodity or a number of commodities, and with
multidisciplinary or single-discipline orientation. In some cases, they may be designated as
national research stations and conduct basic and strategic research. In other cases, they may
be regional or commodity research stations. They may be coordinated from headquarters.
Commodity research stations are well focused and integrated research organizations, with
a holistic approach to commodity improvement research. They are characterized by cross-
disciplinary research and greater orientation towards systems research. However, they have
a weak disciplinary research base. In contrast, disciplinary research stations have disciplinary
research as their base, and are thus more effective for basic and strategic research. They
tend to specialize.
Discuss the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization and structure of NARS
(EXHIBITS 11 and 12) and observe the importance of organization. The success of an
organization depends on whether the structure promotes or retards research functions and
whether it is compatible with resources and goals.
Now discuss;
governance functions (budgetary support, personnel policies, infrastructure for research,
etc.);
research functions, which determine relevance, quality and importance of research
programmes; and
funding mechanisms, which affect autonomy (EXHIBITS 13 and 14).
The discussion would perhaps conclude that the NRI and ARC (management type) models
are most efficient.
EXHIBIT 15 compares IARCs with NARS. Observe that they have a symbiotic
relationship and create synergic effects, despite many dissimilarities.
Conclude the session by discussing EXHIBIT 16 on the future needs of NARS. Emphasize
their changing role in the context of newly emerging research problems. NARS need to:
create effective planning capacities;
emphasize de-centralization;
evolve a system of responsibility with accountability; and
link with the private sector.










TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT EXHIBIT 1
Module 1 Session 4











WHY NARS?



List here the reasons given by the participants



1


2


3


4


5


6







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


WHAT ARE NARS?


* NARS encompass a wide range of institutions and
activities

* In a given country, all institutions and organizations
actually or potentially involved in agricultural
research and technology development together
constitute the NARS of that country.

* Strong linkages are necessary between NARIs and
specialized commodity research institutes,
universities, industrial research laboratories,
development organizations and the extension
services. They are all involved in agriculture-related
development activities.

* Linkages among these entities are often very weak,
even though such linkages are especially critical for
the interfaces between technology generation,
education and technology transfer.


EXUHIBIT 2








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


EXHIBIT 3


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL MODEL




NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE MODEL




UNIVERSITY MODEL




MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE/
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MODEL









TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


EXHIBIT


May or may not include responsibility for extension


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
MODEL (1)


Autonomous research organizations, responsible for
policy making,
managing or administering
coordinating, and
funding research councils.







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


EXHIBIT 5


AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL MODEL (2)


THE COUNCILS



1. Managing Council


2. Coordinating Council


3. Funding Council


r


I.





.1







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


EXHIBIT 6


ARC Model (Case example)


* Span of control


* Management at the Council level:
General Body
Governing Body
Finance Committee
Regional Committee

* Management at the research institute level:
Director General
Organization by disciplinary divisions
Management by committees


* Review system








TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


EXHIBIT 7


Features:

Comparatively great freedom and autonomy


Autonomy:

Fully or semi-autonomous


Direction:

From a board of governors


Extension:

Responsible for agricultural extension as well







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


EXHIBIT 8


NRI Model (Case example)



NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE (INTA),
ARGENTINA



Governance:

Governing Committee
National Directorate
Directorate of Research
Directorate of Extension







TRAINING MANUAL FOR INSTITUTE MANAGEMENT
Module 1 Session 4


ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA



*Prior to independence, research organizations followed
the agricultural research pattern of the respective
colonial power




MODELS OF RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS

Semi-autonomous research councils
Semi-autonomous research institutes
Advisory and coordinating councils


IEXHIBIT91




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