Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Proceedings of the consultatio...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Appendix 1: Agenda
 Appendix 2: List of participan...
 Appendix 3: List of documents
 Appendix 4: Statements
 Appendix 5: Important issues
 Appendix 6: Recommendations
 Appendix 7: Recommendations
 Appendix 8: Recommendations
 Appendix 9: Recommendations
 Appendix 10: Summaries
 Appendix 11: Summaries
 Back Cover

Group Title: Women in food production : report of the Expert Consultation held in Rome, 7-14 December 1983
Title: Women in food production
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084639/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in food production report of the Expert Consultation held in Rome, 7-14 December 1983
Physical Description: i, 150 p. : ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1984
Subject: Women in agriculture -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Women farmers -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Women agricultural laborers -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service, Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division."--T.p.
General Note: "March 1984."--T.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084639
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 21214847

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page 1
    Proceedings of the consultation
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Appendix 1: Agenda
        Page 7
    Appendix 2: List of participants
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Appendix 3: List of documents
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Appendix 4: Statements
        Page 18
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        Page 57
    Appendix 5: Important issues
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Appendix 6: Recommendations
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Appendix 7: Recommendations
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Appendix 8: Recommendations
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
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    Appendix 9: Recommendations
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Appendix 10: Summaries
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
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        Page 108
    Appendix 11: Summaries
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
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    Back Cover
        Page 150
Full Text


Report of the Expert Consultation
held in Rome, 7-14 December 1983

Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

Rome, March 1984




Participation 1



Opening Session 2
Adoption of the Agenda 2
Nomination of Officers 2
Formation of Working groups 2


List of Appendixes

Appendix 1 Agenda 7

Appendix 2 List of Participants 8

Appendix 3 List of Documents 16

Appendix 4 Opening Statements by: Prof. N. Islam, Mrs. Eegje M. Schoo, 18
Mr. R, Moreno, Mr. D.F.R. Bommer, Mr. 0. Brauer,
Mr, P. Auriol, Mr, M.S.O. Nicholas, Mr. P. Lunven,
Mr. C.L. Quance
Appendix 5 Important Issues Underscored by all Three Working Groups 58

Appendix 6 Specific Recommendations of the Working Group on Animal 63

Appendix 7 Specific Recommendations of the Working Group on Plant 66

Appendix 8 Specific Recommendations of the Working Group on Rural 69

Appendix 9 Recommendations of Field Project Managers 73

Appendix 10 Summaries of Participants' Background Statements 76

Summaries of Documents

Appendix 11

- 1 -



The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) held in
1979 at FAO in Rome, was a major turning point in the recognition of women's role in agri-
cultural production. The Conference emphasized the need for greater support of women's
economic roles and called for a more systematic accounting of rural women's contribution
to agriculture. WCARRD also underscored the need for providing rural women with equitable
access to productive resources such as land, water inputs and services.

The FAO Committee on Agriculture (COAG) which met in 1983 further reinforced and
gave expression to the initiatives generated by WCARRD on women by reviewing the topic
"Women in Agriculture and Rural Development" as part of WCARRD follow-up. The Committee
underlined the importance of women's participation in food production, and called for
measures supporting women's productive roles. At COAG's Seventh Session held in March
1983 a recommendation was made calling for an Expert Consultation on Women in Food Pro-
duction. This Consultation was subsequently convened from 7 to 14 December 1983. It was
carried out under the auspices of the Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Develop-

ment Service (ESHW) with funding made available by the governments of the Netherlands

and Norway in addition to FAO support.


Forty-two experts from 31 countries attended, along with 13 observers from inter-
national agencies and organizations. In addition a group of FAO field project managers
were present as well as technical staff representing various divisions of FAO (see
Appendix 1 for List of Participants).

Participants were asked to bring papers and statements reflecting their experiences.
Summaries of these statements are included in the Annex. In addition 15 background papers
were prepared by resource persons who also participated in the Conference. (See Appendix
10 for summaries of background papers; see Appendix 9 for summaries of participants'
papers and statements.).

Based on an assessment of existing data and assumptions about women's roles in
development, as indicated by background documents and general discussions, the group was
to recommend changes needed in policies, programmes and implementation, suggest priorities
accordingly for action at national, regional and international levels, and to advise the
FAO Director-General on supportive policies and actions which could be considered for the
work of FAO.

- 2 -


1. To review the existing data on women in food production and to identify
additional data needed, by region.

2. To identify ways in which agrarian reform and rural development policies and
programmes help or hinder rural women in their productive roles.

3. To identify and reassess assumptions about women in rural development which
may contribute to present trends.

4. To recommend specific changes in policies, programmes and implementation so
that these will better reflect data and knowledge we are gaining about rural
women producers and facilitate their access to productive resources, inputs
and services.

5. To recommend priorities for action at the international, regional and national


Opening Session
The Consultation was opened by Prof. Nurul Islam, Assistant Director-General, Eco-
nomic and Social Policy Department, FAO. In his opening address Prof. Islam pointed out
that FAO was founded to give technical advice and assistance that would increase food pro-
duction, improve nutrition and enhance the quality of rural life. In view of this, recog-

nition of and assistance to women as food producers are relevant to the achievement of
FAO's goals. Since the historical World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Develop-
ment meeting which emphasized growth with equity and people's participation, including the
integration of women at all levels of planning, formulation and implementation of the
development,FAO has undertaken several important initiatives to promote women's full par-
ticipation in agricultural and rural development. FAO has developed a number of guide-
lines and checklists in order to promote better understanding of women's integration as a
goal as well as a means to the objectives of development. This Expert Consultation on
Women and Food Production is part of that process. The full text of Prof. Islam's opening
address is presented in Appendix 3.

Her Excellency, Mrs Eegje Schoo, Minister for Development Cooperation of the
Netherlands commended FAO for "taking the initiative to organize an expert consultation
on such an important, but often neglected, topic as women in food production". She em-
phasized that strengthening the position of women will not only lead to improved income


and nutrition for women and their families, but will also contribute to the economic
development of the country as a whole. Mrs. Schoo further pointed out "integrating women
in development" did not assure women freedom from oppression and exploitation. She empha-
sized the need for a full understanding of the totality of women's lives including their
role in decision-making structures within the household and male-dominated relationships
within the area of procreation and sexuality. Her Excellency, Mrs. Schoo's opening address
is also presented in Appendix 3.

The Consultation was also addressed by the following senior FAO officials:
Mr. Rafael Moreno, Director, Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division;
Dr. D.F.R. Bommer, Assistant Director-General, Agriculture Department, Dr. O. Brauer,
Director, Plant Production and Protection Division; Mr. P. Auriol, Animal Production and
Health Division; Mr. M.S.O. Nicholas, Director, Agricultural Services Division;
Mr. P. Lunven, Director, Food Policy and Nutrition Division and Mr. C. Leroy Quance,
Director, Statistics Division. All of them emphasized the important role women are play-
ing in food production and FAO's continuing commitments and efforts to not only enhance
women's productive capacity but also ensure that women benefit equally from development.
The full text of the addresses given by the above FAO officials is included in Appendix 3.

Plenary sessions were held during the first two days of the Consultation. The
sessions dealt with general issues of women and their participation in rural development,
and enabled the experts to exchange ideas with senior FAO officials.

Adoption of the Agenda
The Agenda presented by the Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform
Division was adopted by the Consultation. (See Appendix 2 for Agenda).

Nomination of Officers
Ms. C. Lopez de Rodriguez, Vice-Minister of Agriculture of Colombia and
Ms. Louise Fresco from the Netherlands were nominated and accepted as chairman and as
rapporteur respectively, of the Consultation.

Formation of Working Groups
Three working groups were formed to enable participants to focus on specific issues
and concerns on the basis of their expertise, and identify concrete follow-up actions.
The subject area of each working group, and the offices elected, were as follows:

Working Group 1: Women and Animal Production
Chairman: Ms. A. Muiioz, Rapporteur: Ms. I. Whalen

Working Group 2: Women and Plant Production
Chairman: Ms. F. Chenoweth, Rapporteur: Ms. A. Spring

-4 -

Working Group 3: Women and Rural Development
Chairman: Ms. P. Antrobus, Rapporteur: Ms. J. Gbegbelgbe

The specific recommendations of the working groups are given in Appendices 5-7.
The work of the Consultation was facilitated by the background papers (listed in Appendix

10) written by resource persons with specialization in specific aspects of women and food

1. The Consultation welcomed the new emphasis on rural women's economic roles
and participation in agricultural production and rural development, and encouraged further
work along these lines, not only those related to women's social roles.

2. It was urged that a comprehensive farming systems approach, adequate to re-
flect women's activities and needs in their multiple roles, be developed and adopted in
the design and implementation of FAO projects, and in policy discussions at high levels.

3. Programmes and projects should be developed which further food security at the
household level. These should be based on analyses of the linkages between factors such
as land-use, crop choice, and pricing policies on the one hand and, income and nutritional
levels on the other.

4. Meetings like this one and the recent group-country round-table on survival
strategies for rural people held in Colombia in November 1983 should be sponsored at
regional, sub-regional and national levels to emphasize rural women's economic roles and
needs to determine the best ways to address these, as was encouraged by the World Con-
ference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD). In this way, due attention
can be given to regional and cultural differences as well as common concerns.

5. FAO should continue to train and sensitize its staff and personnel in the
integration of women in development issues. The importance of these issues for the tech-
nical work of FAO should be emphasized. Furthermore, FAO should assist governments, NGOs

and other UN agencies in this regard.

6. Training of policy makers about WID should be encouraged and assisted at
national and regional levels and should include representatives of central planning units
and ministries of agriculture in particular in order to bring women's issues into the
mainstream of national policy and programmes, as was encouraged by WCARRD.

7. FAO should assist member governments to develop and utilize adequate statisti-
cal capabilities to provide the needed data on women's contributions, usually under-
reported, and on the crops and animals of particular importance to them. These can be used


to guide planning and programme implementation regarding women's contributions to and
needs in agriculture and rural development.

8. In the implementation of recommendations, consultation with rural women and
involvement of women at all stages was encouraged. Existing women's organizations which
can facilitate exchanges should be identified and utilized.

9. FAO should provide a model for the integration of women as provided for in
WCARRD. Priority should be given to the recruitment of technically qualified women for
FAO country representations, directorships and senior positions of the technical divisions
and services of the FAO. Women should also be included in FAO field missions dealing with
both technical and investment assistance.

10. The Consultation recognized that rural women's limited access to productive
resources/assets posed a major constraint on women's full and equal participation in agri-
cultural production and rural development. It was recommended that FAO emphasize actions
to overcome this constraint both within FAO projects and programmes and at national levels.

11. Women's access to credit and marketing and to membership in cooperatives and
other people's organizations was to be assisted and encouraged, through the variety of
means discussed in working groups and reflected in their more specific recommendations.
Special efforts should be made to identify and strengthen grassroots women's groups and
to promote their involvement in programmes and projects that can provide related services
and inputs. Furthermore, it was strongly recommended that FAO actively promote the pro-
vision of daycare centres in its projects as a way of supporting women's productive acti-
vities. FAO should also encourage other UN and donor agencies to find daycare centres.

12. The inadequacy of some extension delivery systems as well as the inappro-
priate content of most extension education as regards women's productive activities was
recognized. Vigorous efforts are needed to improve both. FAO's encouragement and assis-
tance to national institutions and governments can be vital. The FAO Inter-Divisional
Working Group on Training was called on to develop more adequate extension structure,
methods and materials to assist rural women and to test these at national and regional

13. A system should be developed and implemented to monitor and evaluate FAO pro-
jects with regard to the integration of women. A review of Special Action Programmes,
such as Prevention of Food Losses, Seed Improvement, Fertilizer and Dairy Development
should be undertaken in the near future and improvements made to assist women through
these programmes.

6 -

14. Care should be taken to develop appropriate technologies in consultation with
rural women to introduce technologies that support rural women's needs for increased in-
come and reduce drudgery and time demands.

15. FAO should explore possibilities of assisting governments in the determination

of appropriate pricing policies for food products, in the sale and production of which
women are or could be potentially involved.

16. FAO should encourage and promote the work of successful rural women's action
groups by enabling them to share experiences with existing and newly forming action
groups through documentation of their activities and experiences as well as the organi-
zation of study tours.

- 7 -

Appendix 1


Rome, Italy, 7-14 December 1983


1. Opening of Consultation.

(a) Opening Statements.
(b) Election of Officers.
(c) Adoption of Agenda and Timetable.

2. Introductory Statement by the Director, Human Resources, Institutions and
Agrarian Reform Division.

3. Experts' Review of Main Issues.

(a) Rural women's contribution to and needs in food production, both subsis-
tence and commercial.
(b) Misleading assumptions from the past.
(c) Implications for rural families and communities.
(d) Implications for development and development assistance.

4. Discussion of selected topics based on papers prepared for the Consultation
in the areas of:

Grains and tubers production.
Resources and Extension
and recommendations.

5. Establishment of priorities for international, regional and national research:
follow-up action.

6. Adoption of the report.


Appendix 2


Rome, Italy, 7-14 December 1983




Adviser, Women in Development
Australian Development Assistance Bureau
33, Elliott Place
Campbell, A.C.T. 2601

Ms. Patricia DONOVAN
c/o University of Western Ontario


Assistant Professor
Institute of Business Administration
University of Dhaka


Ingenieur du developpement rural
Responsable de l'Organisme Nationale
pour la Promotion des Activites de la
femme rurale
Porto Novo


Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion
Casilla 1514
La Paz


Mme. Catherine M. BUYOYA
Directrice, Institut africain de developpe-
ment economique et social
Centre africain de formation B.P. 2520


Profesora Titular
Pontificia Universidad Cat6lica de Chile
Laura de Neves 280

Institute Promoci6n Agraria (INPROA)
Calle Arturo Medina 3710


Excma. Sra. Cecilia LOPEZ DE RODRIGUEZ
Viceministro de Agricultura
Ministerio de Agricultura
Apartado Aereo 24433
Bogota, D.E.


Directeur, Centrale federale d'appui au
developpement rural (CEFADER)
B.P. 289


Ms. Fatima A. KHEIR EL DIN
Director, Women's Agriculture
Extension Department
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security


Ms. Etsegenet ABATE
Manager, Kotehe Farm
P.O. Box 247
Addis Ababa



29, rue Saint Amand
75015 Paris


Coordinadora Proyecto Incorporacion
Mujer Campesina
Institute Nacional Agrario


Ms. Anila Rasesh DHOLAKIA
Chief, Rural Wing, Self-Employed
Women's Association (SEWA)
Opp. Victoria Gardens
Ahmedabad 380 001

Ms. Devaki JAIN
Director, Institute of Social Studies
New Delhi 110 002


Bogor Agricultural University

Ms. Louise A.J. WAWORUNTU W.
Lecturer, Sam Ratulangi University


Ms. Sacco Daniela COLOMBO
Executive Vice President
AIDOS (Italian Association for Women in
Piazza Capranica 95
00153 Rome


Mme. Aminata TRAORE
Directrice des Etudes et de la planificatioi
des programmes
Ministere de la condition feminine


Ms. Florence CHENOWETH
Agricultural Economist
162-19 86 Road
Jamaica Hills, N.Y., 11432


Ms. Chandni JOSHI
Chief, Women Development Section
Ministry of Panchayat and Local Development


Coordinator, International Women's Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Hague

Emancipation Worker
Christina Arentsstraat 17
2331 EB Leiden

Ms. Louise FRESCO
Researcher, Agricultural University


Ms. Kristi Anne STOLEN
Research Fellow
Agrarian University of Norway
1432 As NLH

Consultant, NORAD
P.O. Box 8142
Oslo 1


Ms. Angelina R. MUROZ
Assistant Secretary for Education and
Ministry of Agrarian Reform
Diliman, Quezon City

Homologue du Service economic domestique
Developpement Petit Elevage
B.P. 1016

- 10 -


WAND, Extra Mural Department
University of the West Indies
Bridgetown, Barbados


Rural Sociologist
Villa No. 10 cite Marguery Derkle


Ms. Fayza Abdullah MOHAMED
Agriculture Extension Department
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation


Ms. Christina LINDHAGEN
Bredgarden 52303 Asunden

Ms. Katarina LARSSON
Parkgatan 8
11230 Stockholm

Ms. Margareta EDGREN
Consultant, International Rural Development
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
S-75007 Uppsala


Monsieur le Professor Habib ATTIA
Mattre de recherches C.N.R.S.
6 rue Tite-Live


Ms. Anita SPRING
Associate Professor and Associate Chair
Department of Anthropology
1350 GPA
University of Florida
Gainseville, FL 32611

Mr. Alan HOBEN
125 Bay State Road
Boston Mass. 02215

Ms. Michaela WALSH
President, Women's World Banking
684 Park Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10021


Monsieur Sereme MOUSSA
Directeur, Organisme regional de developpe-
ment (ORD) de Banfora
B.P. 39


Director, Instituto Agrario Nacional
La Quebradita, Vista Alegre


Ms. Asma Ahmed Ali Al Hassani
Agricultural Engineer
Rural Women's Department
Ministry of Agriculture


Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Community Development and
Women's Affairs


Ms. Irene WHALEN
Rural Sociologist
International Livestock Centre for Africa
P.O. Box 5689
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

- 11


Economic Affairs Officer
Economic Commission for Africa
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Mr. Herbert-Kurt NOOK
Senior Liaison Officer
International Labour Organisation
Geneva, Switzerland

Programme Officer for Women's Activities
United Nations Children's Fund
Geneva, Switzerland

Focal Point on Women in Development
World Food Programme
Rome, Italy

Ms. Mireille ARNOLD
Economist, Monitoring and Evaluation
Economic and Planning Department
International Fund for Agricultural
Rome, Italy

Ms. Astrid BOEL
Associate Expert
Project Management
International Fund
Rome, Italy

for Agricultural

Ms. Regina LOWASSA
Publications Assistant
Centre on Integrated Rural Development for
Box 6115
Arusha, Tanzania

Representative to FAO of the
Associated Country Women of the World
Via Fonte di Fauno 5
Rome, Italy

Mrs. R. Ayesha SAMAD
Representative to FAO of the
Associated Country Women of the World
Viale Marco Polo 87
Rome, Italy

Permanent Representative to FAO of the
International Alliance of Women
Via del Caucaso 49/15
Rome, Italy

Permanent Representative to FAO of the
International Federation for Home Economics
Via Nicolo Porpora 16
Rome, Italy

Research Assistant
International Centre for Agricultural
Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)
P.O. Box 5466
Aleppo, Syria

Research Associate
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
P.O. Box 933
Manila, Philippines

Chief Nutrition and Home Economics Officer
Ministry of Agriculture and participant in
the FAO Apprenticeship Programme for
African Women
Box M24
Kingdom of Lesotho

- 12 -


Via Monte 28
10126 Turin, Italy

Mr. Abraham BEN DAVID
Expert in Agricultural Production
5 Azar St.,

Assistant Director of Livestock
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
P.O. Box 30028 Nairobi, Kenya

Ms. Jennie DEY
c/o Martin Atkinson
79 Netheravon Road
London W4, U.K.

Ms. Paule GAUCH
Moulin de Lamothe
33210 Langon

Consultant (veterinary)
Kunostr. 12, Voerendaal
The Netherlands

Ms. Janice JIGGINS
De Dellen 4
The Netherlands

Assistant Professor
University of Ankara
c/o FAO

Tribhuvan University
10/563 Bhotahity

Research Veterinarian
Bureau of Animal Industry
Laboratory Services Division
Visayas Avenue
Quezon City


Senior Policy Adviser
The Population Council
1 Dag Hammarskjold Plaza
New York, New York 10017

Ms. Delawit AKLILU
Programme Coordinator
Society for International Development
Palazzo Civilta de Lavoro 9
00144 Rome, Italy

Mr. Frank W. MARTIN
Research Horticulturist
Tropical Agriculture Research Station
Box 76
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00709

- 13 -



Mr. N. Islam
Assistant Director-General
Economic and Social Policy Department

Mr. M.H. Abbas
Assistant to Assistant Director-General
Economic and Social Policy Department

Mr. D. Bommer
Assistant Director-General
Agriculture Department

Mr. I.R. Loerbroks
Assistant to Assistant Director-General
Agriculture Department

Mr. S. Jum'a
Assistant Director-General/Regional
Representative for the Near East

Mr. R.B. Griffiths
Animal Production and Health Division

Mr. P.J. Auriol
Chief, Animal Production Service
Animal Production and Health Division

Mr. W. Ferguson
Animal Production Officer, Rural Development
Animal Production and Health Division

Mr. R. Van Vaerenbergh
Senior Officer
Livestock Production Systems Group
Animal Production and Health Division

Mr. A.S. Demiruren
Animal Production Officer, Small Ruminants
Animal Production and Health Division

Mr. E. Gallardo
Animal Production Officer, Poultry
Animal Production and Health Division

Mr. F, Winkelmann
Dairy Officer, Education and Training
Meat and Dairy Service
Animal Production and Health Division

Mr. C.H. Bonte-Friedheim
Agricultural Operations Division

Mr. 0. Brauer
Plant Production and Protection Division

Mr. A. Bozzini
Chief, Crop and Grassland Service
Plant Production and Protection Division

Mr. U.G. Menini
Senior Officer, Field Food Crops Group
Plant Production and Protection Division

Mr. T. Ton That
Agricultural Officer, Rice Economy
Plant Production and Protection Division

Mr. M.S.O. Nicholas
Agricultural Services Division

Mr. H.J. Mittendorf
Chief, Marketing and Credit Service
Agricultural Services Division

Mr. C.Y. Lee
Senior Officer (Marketing)
Marketing and Farm Supply Group
Agricultural Services Division

Mr. E. Reusse
Senior Marketing Adviser
Agricultural Services Division

Ms. A. Ayden
Senior Programming Officer
Field Programme Development Division

Ms. T. Raik
Programme Officer
Field Programme Development Division

Mr. R. Moreno
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

- 14 -

Mr. W.D. Maalouf
Agricultural Education and Extension Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Mr. T.E. Contado
Senior Officer
Agricultural Education and Extension Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Mr. W. Lindley
Agricultural Training and Extension Officer
Agricultural Education and Extension Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Mr. L.C. Arulpragasam
Land Tenure and Production Structure Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Mr. R. Sandoval
Senior Officer, Production Structure Group
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Mr. H. Meliczek
Senior Officer, Agrarian Reform and Rural
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Mr. P. Lunven
Food Policy and Nutrition Division

Ms. F. Ronchi-Proja
Chief, Nutrition Programmes Service
Food Policy and Nutrition Division

Mr. C.L. Quance
Statistics Division

Secretariat for the Consultation

Ms. Ruth Finney
Chief, Women in Agricultural Production and
Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Mr. Savas Erozer
Senior Officer, Women in Food Systems
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Ms. Yasmin Morenas
Senior Officer, Women and Development
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Ms. Elweya Elwy
Senior Home Economics and Social Programme
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Ms. Jean Fewster
Women's Programmes Officer
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Ms. Natalie Hahn
Women's Programmes Officer
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Ms. Marie-Jane Mermillod
Home Economics Officer
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Ms. Gladys Nott
Women in Food Systems Officer
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

Ms. F. Nabulsi
Programme Officer, Women in Food Systems
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian
Reform Division

- 15 -

Field Project Managers

Mr. J.S. Bakshi
Strengthening of Agricultural Research
P.O. 24 Mogadishu

Ms. F.A. Cagampang
Rural Home Life Improvement Training
P.O. 2338

Mr. A. Carpenter
Team Leader
Box 158

Mr. A. N'Dao
Conseiller technique
Principaldu Projet de Dgveloppement
B.P. 2138

Mr. R.W. Fuller
Team Leader
Integrated Rural Development in Ronger
Region Socetti of Sudan

Ms. M. Keyser
Project Coordinator
c/o FAO B.P. 13225 (Delmas )

Mr. P.L. Nichaedides
Extension Expert
c/o UNDP
P.O. Box 1188
Yemen, People's Democratic Republic

Mr. G. Rieusset
c/o Representant de la FAO
B.P. 972
Republique populaire du Congo

Mr. M.P. Singh
Agricultural Extension
P.O. 224

Mr. H. van der Veken
c/o PNUD
B.P. 154

Other Field Personnel

Mrs. J. Lopez
Regional Home Economics and Social Programmes
RAFR, P.O. Box 1628
Accra, Ghana

Ms. E. Drewes
FAO Bay of Bengal Programme
Post Bag No. 1054,
Madras 600018, India

- 16 -

Appendix 3

Rome, Italy, 7-14 December 1983


ESH:WIFP/83/3 Rev.


ESH:WIFP/83/4 Corr. 1
Annex 1

Annex 2











The Need for Improved Agricultural
Extension Services for Women Engaged
in Agriculture, based in part on a
technical report by Janice Jiggins.

Women in Rice Farming Systems with a
Focus on Africa, by Jennie Dey.

Rice Farming Systems Case Studies of
Current Developments and Future Alternatives
in Upland Rice and Inland Swamp Rice,
by Jennie Dey.

Rice Farming Systems Case Studies of
Current Developments and Future Alternatives
in Mangrove Swamp Rice and Irrigated Rice,
by Jennie Dey.

Women's Role in Horticultural Production in
Developing Countries, by Elena Garibaldi

Work Patterns of Women in Food Production,
by Bina Pradhan.

Promoting the Participation of Women in Food
Marketing and Credit (Marketing and Credit
Service, FAO)

Women in Sheep and Goat Production and
Marketing, by Constantina Safilios-Rothschild

Appropriate Technology for Women in Food
Production, by Delawit A. Aklilu.

Women in Livestock Production with Particular
Reference to Dairying, by N.A. Chavangi and
A. Hanssen.

Follow-up to WCARRD: The Role of Women in
Agricultural Production (prepared initially
for the Committee on Agriculture, March 1983)

The Effects on Women of Land Tenure Changes
and Agrarian Reform, by TUlin Onger-Hosgor.

The State of Statistics on Women in Agricul-
ture in the Third World, by Constantina

Women and Coarse Grain Production in Africa,
by Diana Callear.

- 17 -

ESII :WIFP/83/15



The Role of Women in Food Production with
Particular Reference to Small Animals at
Village Level, based on reports prepared by
Paula Gauch and A. Ben David.

Women's Role in Root and Tuber Crops Produc-
tion by Franklin W. Martin.

Time Allocation Survey: a Tool for Anthro-
pologists, Economists and Nutritionists by
Food Policy and Nutrition Division, FAO.

- 18 -

Appendix 4

Prof. Nurul Islam
Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Policy Department

On behalf of the Director-General of FAO, I would like to welcome you to this
Expert Consultation on Women in Food Production which has been organized jointly by the
Economic and Social Policy Department and the Agriculture Department of FAO.

We are pleased that Her Excellency, Mrs. E. Schoo, the Minister of Development
Cooperation for the Netherlands, has been able to join us with her party.

We are grateful to your Government, Mrs. Schoo, and to the Government of Norway,
for supporting this meeting as well as field projects which further women's integration.
A number of other donor governments are also attending. Their interest and presence are
most welcome.

The participants in this meeting are a large and diverse group from about 38
countries; observers from international organizations and NGOs; project managers from the
field; and experts who contributed to background papers, or others who have special exper-

Recognition of and assistance to women as food producers is relevant to the achieve-
ment of FAO's goals. The Organization was founded to give. technical advice and assistance
that would increase food production, improve nutrition and enhance the quality of rural
life. Women's activities are germane to all three.

This Consultation is a first step in that direction.

The Programme of Action of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Develop-
ment emphasized growth with equity and people's participation, including the integration
of women in agricultural and rural development at all levels of planning, formulation and
implementation. The Programme of Action has provided a special impetus for the collection
of relevant statistics in women's role in agriculture.

- 19 -

The FAO Committee on Agriculture, in its last meeting, on the basis of extensive
analysis of women's role in agricultural production, recommended that a programme be
developed on women in food production.

The FAO Conference in 1983, just concluded, has made a number of specific recom-
mendations in this regard. First, it stressed the need for rural women to have direct
access to inputs, markets and services as well as other income earning activities.

Second, the importance of training women, and their participation in agricultural
extension and training programmes, was specifically emphasized.

Third, the involvement of women's non-governmental organizations in planning
women's production activities, as well as various aspects of women's training programmes,
was highlighted.

Fourth, the involvement of women in policy formulation at national levels is con-
sidered as important as their involvement at all stages of programme and project develop-

The focus of the Consultation is on the role of women in the production of food
crops. This is not to say that women are only subsistence farmers and do not seek or
earn cash income. Recent analysis confirms that women are often responsible for cash-
crop production as well. There are important policy implications resulting from the fact
that women not only play key roles in food production but also seek income for themselves
and their families.

In fact, rural women may be called on to provide all or part of daily family food
by growing or buying it. To do so, in addition to income-earning opportunities, they
must have time, command over resources and knowledge of improved agricultural practice.
While technological innovations are needed to reduce the drudgery and the heavy burden
of women's labour, at the same time they must not, on the whole, result in the reduction
of employment opportunities for women.

All too often, it has been assumed that women's agricultural activities are
relatively unimportant, and that they are adequately reached through assistance to a male
household head. Direct assistance to women as producers is needed, particularly in
situations where men and women are responsible for different aspects of agriculture, or

where women work together in production groups, or where they are heads of households,
now estimated to be thecasein 30 percent of the rural households in the Third World. This
is not easily achieved and will require imagination and creativity in addition to
commitment and resources.

- 20 -

We will welcome your advice and guidance, based on your empirical knowledge and
widely diversified country experience, so that we can devise policies as well as procedures
for planning and implementation in order to reflect more efficiently women's roles in food
production as well as enhance their productivity.

This brings us to two questions that are frequently asked. Should assistance for
women at the project level be in separate or in integrated projects? Should these be the
responsibility of a specialized ministry or bureau or unit in the national government
dealing exclusively with women's affairs? Or should they be undertaken by different
ministries which are responsible for formulating and implementing agricultural development
projects and programmes? As the projects dealing with women, evidenced in the agenda of
this Expert Consultation, range over the manifold activities in food production, the spe-
cific ministries or departments in charge of these activities are responsible for the
technical inputs. It is necessary for them, therefore, to incorporate women's concerns
and considerations relating to their projects. Women's units or bureaux may not have
authority or the resources necessary for formulation and implementation of projects which
lie within the responsibility of the specific development ministries. Ideally, such pro-
grammes and projects should be developed in consultation with women so that they are able
to articulate their requirements and needs and also enhance the possibility of their
successful implementation.

This emphasizes the need for mechanisms such as inter-ministerial committees or
coordinating ministries such as planning ministries, which may ensure the incorporation
of women's concerns in development projects. It is in this context that training for both
men and women at macro policy level, as well as at the level of programme or project
development, becomes crucial, so that increased production goes hand in hand with women's
enhanced participation. Macro-economic policies, including pricing policies, and broader
food security issues, including equitable access to food on the part of the disadvantaged
population or vulnerable groups, are issues which vitally affect both the productive and
reproductive roles of women.

In order to promote better understanding of women's integration as a goal and a
process through which other goals may be realized, FAO has developed a number of guide-
lines and checklists in respect of specific sectors or activities in agriculture and
rural development.

This has been done by the Inter-Divisional Working Group on Women in Rural Develop-
ment which has members from throughout the Organization and advises on ways to integrate
a concern for women in FAO's programmes. The Group also stimulates the development of
inter-divisional or intersectoral projects, i.e. projects involving inputs from more than
one sector or type of activity, on behalf of women, for possible consideration by donors.
It is intended that this Group will be able to generate projects in plant and animal

21 -

production, as well as progressively in other areas, which are formulated with women's
roles and needs in view. We hope they will be able to attract the donors who are interes-
ted in supporting women's activities in food and agricultural production.

Your advice on issues at the levels of both policy formulation and implementation
will be invaluable. We hope you will be able to discuss the lessons to be learnt from
projects and programmes which have succeeded in reaching rural women as food producers
and identify the policies and means which have been used. We hope that you will be
searching and critical in your analysis and specific in your recommendations so that we
may benefit from your experience and thus intensify our efforts on behalf of rural women.

- 22 -

Appendix 4


Mrs. Eegje M. Schoo
Minister for Development Cooperation of the Netherlands

Let me say, first of all, how pleased I am to address this Expert Consultation on
Women in Food Production. I congratulate the FAO for taking the initiative to organize
an expert consultation on such an important, but often neglected,topic as women in food
production. I hope that the discussion by such a wide range of experts on women and
agriculture will have an important impact on future policies of the FAO. Policies which
should be based on an understanding of the existing roles of women as agricultural pro-
ducers and household providers. Policies which will strengthen women's autonomy and
women's participation and influence in the development process.

I would like to take the opportunity of my first visit to FAO to say a few words
first on the policy of the Organization and, second, on the cooperation between FAO and
the Netherlands.

In the seventies, two world conferences have set the trend for activities in food

and agriculture and two world conferences have set the trend for activities concerning
women and development. I am referring to the World Food Conference in 1974, the World
Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) in 1979, the World Conference
for the International Women's Year in 1975 and the World Conference on the Decade for
Women in 1980. The recommendations of these conferences are still valid. They guide our
thoughts and actions today.

In the light of the results of these conferences, my Government closely followed
the development of FAO Policies and Programmes. FAO once focused its attention mainly on
introducing technological developments in agriculture in developing countries. Now, the
Organization is gradually placing more emphasis on national food and agricultural policies
of developing countries themselves. I am a staunch supporter of this road to development.

- 23 -

In my view, strengthening of the food production capacity, distribution and pricing
policies in developing countries themselves remain vital for the solution of the world
food problem. Technological development is in that connection necessary but not sufficient.
Overall policy changes are needed as well.

In his statement to the 22nd Session of the FAO Conference last month, Mr. Saouma
emphasized the importance of the quest for world food security. All people should at all
times have both physical and economic access to the basic food they need. It is necessary,
therefore, taking into account all factors affecting countries or individuals' ability to
produce or buy enough for their requirements. Mr. Saouma stressed the priority which
should be given to rural development. It is in this context that I see the importance of
the FAO Expert Consultation on Women in Food Production. By now it is known that a
greater number of women than men are suffering from hunger. The question therefore is
which policies should we develop in order to give women the means to produce food or equal
opportunities for earning money to buy food.

Since International Women's Year in 1975, FAO has been giving more attention to
the needs and situation of rural women. Up till 1977 the majority of the so-called
"women's projects" of UN organizations were only related to the traditional subjects of
home economics, nutrition and childrearing. Development policies at that time seemed to
be influenced more by a segregation of sex roles, than by an understanding of the specific
needs and interests of women. Women were seen mainly as mothers and housewives. Develop-
ment planners apparently did not see that for many rural women agricultural development
meant loss of control over resources such as land and income. Women had no access to new
facilities. Therefore women's workload increased heavily. Research carried out after
1975 has shown that women do play an important productive role in agriculture. This has
resulted in policy changes by donor organizations including FAO, and by national govern-
ments: women are now being seen as "untapped human resources".

Strategies were worked out to integrate women in development. The objective of
these strategies is to make women's contribution to development more efficient. Greater
support for rural women as food producers could lead to higher income and improved diets
for women themselves and their families. Therefore rural women should be assisted in
carrying out their responsibilities in a more efficient manner.

The present policy of FAO towards women is along the lines I have just described.
I refer here to the FAO paper "Follow-up to WCARRD: The Role of Women in Agricultural
Production" which has been presented at the Committee on Agriculture last March and which
will also be discussed at this consultation.

However, in the last few years more and more women in developing countries are
raising their voices against this exclusively economic view on women and development.

- 24 -

Alleviating women's household tasks and providing women with inputs, services and training
so that they can produce more, does not necessarily lead to a situation in which women and
men become equal participants in development.

"Integrating women in development" does not by itself provide freedom from
oppression and exploitation. It does not give women freedom of choice and the opportunity
to control their own lives inside and outside the home. They stress that a full under-
standing of all aspects of women's lives is an essential condition for any long-term
improvement in the daily lives of women.

This understanding should include visible aspects such as the sexual division of
labour. But it should also include the more hidden aspects, such as decision-making
structures within the household or male dominated relationships within the area of pro-
creation and sexuality.

At this point I would like to mention some basic principles which I consider very
important for a policy directed at increasing women's autonomy and improving her conditions
of life.

Firstly, the participation of women in development policies and implementation.
Only in this way women will be able to influence the changes which take place.

Secondly, economic independence for women. Women will have to be economically
independent of men in order to be in a position to defend their own interests.

Thirdly, strengthening women's organizations and networks. This will enable women
to become aware of their situation and work to overcome their subordinate position in the
family and in society, and to develop alternatives.

I am pleased to have been able to assist FAO financially in calling together this
wide range of expertise on women and agriculture present here today. I hope that this
consultation will be able to formulate policy recommendations and guidelines with regard
to programmes and projects in rural development, based on our understanding of all aspects
of rural women's life.

This brings me to the second point I wanted to touch upon: the cooperation between
the Netherlands and FAO. As you know the Netherlands have always been a strong supporter
of FAO. In many areas we have been cooperating for several decades.

Our contribution to FAO in the field of food security and prevention of food losses
is prominent. In this connection I noticed with interest that FAO has outlined a plan to
improve the integration of women in the post-harvest losses programme. I am prepared to

- 25 -

provide extra budgetary funding for this purpose. I understand this is necessary in the
short term, in order to integrate women's needs and interests in already existing pro-
grammes and projects. To all new projects, however, I understand that FAO is ready to
integrate explicitly the needs and interests of women from the very beginning.

Following the recommendations of the WCARRD Conference two other programmes have
received support from the Netherlands during the last few years: the People's Partici-
pation Programme and the Women's Programme. Both programmes aim at strengthening the
participation of deprived groups in development.

Let me explain why we use bilateral funds to support FAO projects. Because these
innovative projects could function as a catalyst for the programmes and activities of
other divisions within FAO and have a wider impact on the overall programme of the Organi-
zation. Moreover, this catalytic effect is not limited to FAO programmes but it also in-
fluences our own programmes and, hopefully, those of recipient governments as well.

Finally, I would like to mention the associate expert programme which was initiated
by the Netherlands and FAO together.

Our policy with the Associate Expert Programme is and I am sure this does not
surprise you in the light of what I have said before that preference is given to the
appointment of female associate experts.

It has been a great pleasure to address an international audience with so many
women present. I am also pleased to notice the presence of so many men at a consultation
on women. Improving the position of especially poor rural women in developing countries
needs the cooperation of both men and women. I hope that this consultation will contri-
bute to a better understanding of the needs and interests of rural women. This should
fill in some of the existing gaps in present policies of FAO, donor agencies and govern-
ments of developing and developed countries.

Strengthening the position of women will not only lead to improved income and diets
for women and their families, but will also contribute to the development of the country
as a whole. In this way improvement of the position of women will help build a world
in which people, men and women, live together in equality and in peace.

I would like to end with a slightly adjusted quotation of what Mr. Saouma said at
the 22nd Session of the FAO Conference last month: "In the greatest interests of humanity,
let us put aside our quarrels and build together a fairer society, a society which cares
for all its individuals, women, men and children".

- 26 -

Appendix 4

Rafael Moreno
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

It gives me great pleasure to participate in this Consultation and to have the
opportunity to summarize the objectives which several units within our Organization are
working on to improve our programmes, ideas and methods so that the integration of rural
women can be approached in a more practical, technical way.

We need to recognize that we have barely begun moving in this direction. Our
Organization will be 40 in 1985. We are proud to belong to it and to contribute to resol-
ving the problems faced by the poorest rural groups. It is, however, true that in some
new and complex areas we are still searching for an appropriate methodology and this is
certainly the case as regards women's integration. In this sector, which is so important
for the national and international community, FAO hopes to develop more active forms of
participation and integration, based on solid knowledge of the subject.

Previous to this Consultation, we organized a series of expert consultations in

various parts of the world to progressively draw up some theoretical foundations and to
try and gain an appreciation of the cultural, geographical and environmental reality in
the four regions.

The Regional Consultations for the Near East took place last October under the
auspices of the Jordanian Government, whilst in November there was the Consultation for
Latin America and the Caribbean which was held under the auspices of the Colombian Govern-
ment. You will be informed of the conclusions of these consultations as well as of
other activities to date and, although we have only just received the reports ourselves,
we hope that they will be summarized and communicated to you either in plenary session
or in the working groups by the participants themselves.

I would also like to stress that our best efforts over the next few years will be
dedicated to the eradication of the scourges afflicting the rural environment, hunger,
malnutrition and poverty. This mandate has not just been given to us by recent
conferences. It is the mandate our Organization has held from the start and independently
of the characteristics shared by all national and international organizations we believe

- 27 -

that this objective transcends their administrative function, being one of the ethical
values on which our civilization is based.

Thanks to technological progress, we are now in a position to solve problems which
only 20 years ago seemed to us to be intractable. We can send men into space and bring
them safely back to earth again. Highly complex logistic and technological problems
have been resolved, and yet at the same time we can all see (a look at this month's
papers is all that is needed) that all this highly sophisticated technology creates
nothing but anguish, fear and disarray all over the world.

People fear the outbreak of a new conflict caused by technology being pushed to
its limits and harnessed to serve the aggressive aims of "defensive" needs of those
countries able to make use of it.

In addition, we can all see that problems which should theoretically be easy to
solve, appear almost insurmountable when looked at from a national or international
perspective. In many developing countries, for instance, neither the problem of trans-
porting food products for the national market, nor the problem of post-harvest storage
has yet been solved; and although we are quite capable of finding ways to increase pro-
duction, we are still unable to keep the food in a satisfactory condition after it has
been harvested, as the Minister so clearly pointed out.

These, then are the problems we face. But although we are capable of solving
those problems which do not concern us directly, we are unable to find solutions to the
day-to-day problems confronting us. It is as if all priorities have been reversed, as
if our civilization is incapable of distinguishing the essential from the superfluous.
Thus, amidst all the many questions demanding our attention, the role of women and their
integration in food production is a new problem which calls for original solutions,
although we recognize that we lack knowledge in many areas.

Different regions have different historical and cultural traditions and human
activities are therefore allocated in different ways. It is not our aim to overturn
these traditions, indeed we are all of us proud of the soil from which we have sprung,
but we are also well aware that our own pride in our culture and traditions cannot help
us solve the problems of today's world. In an Organization like ours where there are
more men than women in the technical and administrative services, there can be no doubt
that lack of knowledge and competence in this area are often serious drawbacks.

This new line of action was adopted by the FAO (and indeed by the whole United
Nations System) in response to the mandate given to us by the World Conference on
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, thus providing us with a new analytic capacity.
The Conference produced no new discoveries, and no new ideas arose from the international
discussions, but what did occur is that governments and representatives of non-governmental

- 28 -

organizations united in agreeing that poverty could be conquered providing all the various
elements of the problem were tackled at the same time. This is not the time for simplistic
or unilateral solutions. Nowhere is it possible to solve the problem by acting on just one
of the variables; the world today is too complex a place for that.

Women's participation is a subject which is particularly relevant to the rural
environment. This has always been so but the exact role has never been clearly understood.
When dealing with it today we should use the same technical and pragmatic language as in
other areas. One of our objectives is to contribute towards increasing production and
productivity in the rural world and in the livestock, silvicultural and fishery sectors,
but what do we really know about the people who are the real protagonists in the different
sectors, in the different regions? We have impressions, and opinions, but we lack any
real basis for constructing a concrete programme. That is why separate and joint studies
have been undertaken in several regions to help in defining the role of women in productive
sectors. But some areas require particular attention.

The Minister referred to the problem of women's organizations in the rural environ-
ment: What are the different types of organization, and What forms do they take? Are
their structures anything more than just political or formal ones? Do they represent
women's real interests and do they give them effective access to resources and to the
means of production? These are all questions to be considered.

There is a second aspect which should also be mentioned: access to land. Tra-
ditionally, the law on land ownership and the land use and development systems which have
been in force almost everywhere in the world for the last century, have tended to favour
men as regards ownership, inheritance and enjoyment of land. Indeed, we know that this
bias is at the very base of constitutions, civil codes, laws and regulations. And so
another question might be asked: Is it possible to modify the legal structures regulating
access to land and the means of production?

A third subject should be mentioned here and it, too, needs discussing during the
course of the next few days: namely, the role and the function which each of us has
individually in the transfer of knowledge and techniques. In theory, were we to apply
the knowledge we now have, the problem of world food production, could be solved; we even
know that there is a surplus amounting to 10 percent of our average theoretical require-
ments. The problem is one of distribution, equity and justice, but over and above this
the problem is simply that in the vast majority of developing countries the available
knowledge is not accessible to the men and women who actually work on the land.

The whole gamut of modern technological knowhow is available to those at the fore-

front of modern agriculture, but it is not available in a form which can be used by the
millions of peasant men and women, the smallholders and agricultural labourers, who are
deprived of access to the land and who constitute the rural work force.

- 29 -

There are other questions which we might ask: are our extension services really
effective, are we satisfied with the methods adopted by our institutional structures,
with our public administrations, with our systems for input distribution, or with the
accessibility of knowhow not just in the towns, but also in the country? Quite apart from
whether extension workers are male or female, these are matters which require careful con-

These, then, are some of the themes which we will be developing in the days to
come, and the reason why this Consultation was convened.

We have a lot of confidence in the outcome of your discussions, both because the
experts, both men and women, invited to this Consultation have all been carefully selected
and because we hope that at the end of the United Nations Decade for Women in 1985 we
will be able, in our individual spheres of competence, to celebrate not only the symbolic
end of a decade, but also the fact that we will have made a substantial contribution to

resolving the problem of rural women.

The problem of hunger and of poverty cannot be solved without the participation
of all the men and women who live in poverty-stricken environments. Nobody today would
dare to suggest that world poverty could be solved by granting gifts or privileges to a
minority, pending the day when the masses could benefit from them too. We know that this
is not the way our world works, not in this day and age, and that is why we are looking
to this Consultation to show us the way, to lay down guidelines for us to follow, and it
is buoyed up by this hope that the Consultation begins its work.

- 30 -

Appendix 4


Dr. D.F.R. Bommer
Assistant Director-General, Agriculture Department

My introductory remarks are intended to lead into the more detailed presentations

of my colleagues from the Agriculture Department on experiences and on-going programmes
related to the role of women in crop and horticultural production, in animal production,
in farm management, marketing and credit.

The vital role of women in nearly all stages of food production, processing and
marketing, was recognized more than 50 years ago in anthropological and sociological
studies at the village or ethnic group level. However, it is only during the past ten
years that investigations by FAO and others have started to improve the quantitative pic-
ture of women's contribution to food production.

As yet there have been only limited attempts by planners to shape agricultural
policies in a manner that responds to the specific needs and nature of women's contribution

to food production. But the existence of strong regional, national and ethnic group
differences in the nature of women's contribution to production, processing and marketing
indicates clearly that there are no simple policy prescriptions.

In Africa South of the Sahara women commonly provide much of the labour input to
food crop production. Though men tend to do the bulk of the heavy intermittent jobs of
land clearing and preparation, it is the women who do much of the crop husbandry, parti-
cularly the weeding, which is vital to the achievement of good yields. Similarly in Asia
women provide much of the labour for staple food production, and in Nepal, for example,
they can be responsible for circa 66 percent of planting, 75 percent of weeding, and all
of the cleaning and storage of rice.

Women's contribution to animal production is also commonly of substantial pro-
portions. In Pakistan, for example, women are responsible for 60-80 percent of the feeding
and milking of cattle, and in Egypt, they raise the bulk of the goats and poultry.

- 31 -

Small ruminants and poultry raised by women often make a greater contribution to
the diet of low income groups than beef cattle. Furthermore, the importance of small
ruminants and poultry is likely to increase in the future. FAO's "Agriculture: Toward
2000" Study shows that in many countries cattle herds will be unable to expand rapidly
enough to satisfy projected demand for beef, but small ruminant and poultry production
could substitute for beef production. Hence, the role of women in livestock production
may even grow in the future.

Almost all food processing and storage is done by women. They make many of the
decisions about how and when to store grain, and hence measures to reduce post-harvest
losses need to be addressed more directly to women. Similarly, women are very active in
marketing, and in some countries are totally responsible for trade in some foods.

As the Agriculture Department in FAO is responsible for all aspects of food and
agricultural production, the use and conservation of biological land and water resources,
farming systems, processing, marketing, credit and research it is of major concern to us
in our work how we can better reach women in our programmes recognizing their important
role in all aspects of them.

In attempting to better direct our programme to the needs of women we are facing
numerous constraints, which had already been addressed during the morning session. I
wish to address only a few of them.

There is the lack of awareness amongst many planners and other people engaged in
agricultural development of the nature and importance of the role of women.

Secondly there is the difficulty of access for women to production inputs, credit,
and advice from agricultural extension workers. In some countries women are not able to
obtain credit to buy fertilizers, etc., since they do not own the land, and cannot join
producer cooperatives because they are not the legal owners of the cattle they are tending.

Furthermore there is the competition between the time which women need to spend
on food production and that they must devote to fuelwood gathering, water collection, food
preparation, and other domestic responsibilities. Thus, many women have to spend 2-3
hours or more a day on each of the non-food production activities, so the time they are
able to spend for food production is limited and under competing demand.

Partly related to the time constraint, is the lack of awareness in research and
technology development of the particular needs of women producers. Here I mean not only
suitable farm implements for reducing the time on cultivation, crop processing, etc., but
also technologies which could reduce the time women have to spend on food preparation,
fuel gathering, etc.

- 32 -

A major constraint exists in education and training provided for women and parti-
cularly in arranging training programmes in which women can be reached to provide to them
equal or even specialized knowledge in all technical and economic aspects required for
improved food production and related fields.

In spite of all constraints we have made considerable progress in orienting our
programmes to women's needs, and we are strongly committed to seek further improvements
to which this Expert Consultation will greatly contribute.

FAO projects related to rural women have been increased four-fold when we compare
figures from 1977 and 1981 in the number and percentage of projects which recognize and
support women's roles. In 1977, only a small number of these dealt with agricultural
production. In 1981. most did so, while many also took into account women's domestic
roles. The figures also show a reduction of 38 percent in 1981 of projects the staff of
which is considered to be in fields "unsuitable for a women's component". This indicates
our growing realisation of the broad responsibilities which rural women have. We want to
learn even more.

We have participated actively in the development of checklists and guidelines for
the integrating of women with regard to specific technical fields and have found this a
useful training exercise, along with staff orientation meetings and efforts to include
this element in Regular Programme planning. For example, we are developing special pro-
grammes for women in credit and marketing which will be outlined in more detail.

The analytical tool to analyse farming systems, the Farm Analysis Package (FARMAP),
which is now ready for use in various national programmes provides for particular recog-
nition of the role of women in all aspects of farm and household situations.

Our interest in activities at field level can be furthered by a better understan-
ding of the need and methods to integrate women's components into larger projects or
simply to recognize and make explicit the fact that in some fields projects are naturally
women's projects, such as could be the case in post-harvest losses or rural animal pro-
duction. In order to help develop guidelines for identifying the need for such components
or reorientations, we have helped bring to this meeting outstanding project managers to
participate as resource people. Also they will meet as a group to take your recommen-
dations into account and draw out the implications for projects.

For the future, we want to further develop the interdisciplinary projects that
will combine technical, social and economic aspects. For example, a dairy production
project might well include child-care facilities to meet women's needs for this, and at
the same time facilitate increased production.

- 33 -

We have conducted honest and searching reviews of projects in key areas for FAO's
work with and for women, such as PFL, poultry and animal care. The results have not always
been positive but they have provided us with better learning. We have also participated
in country reviews, to look at the possibility for women's integration and have demon-

strated the potential waste of dwindling development dollars if women producers are not
reached directly. This is in addition to the neglect of women themselves.

I do not want to anticipate what my colleagues will cover in more detail but I do
want to indicate the strong support of the Agriculture Department for this approach and
our interest in applying it on a country rather than on a sectoral basis. Your experience

with these two approaches would be helpful for us to know as well.

With your help, we aim to improve our activities to better reflect our commitment
and the priorities you identify.

- 34 -

Appendix 4


Dr. O. Brauer
Plant Production and Protection Division

The participation of women in agriculture is as natural as the development of
agriculture itself. Where the fruit has been eaten, there do the seeds take root and
grow. And this is as true for agriculture as for other professions.

Women Responsible for Feeding the Family
Right at the beginning, when man was still living in caves, there was a division

of labour: men were responsible for the heavy, dangerous and difficult work, whilst the
women were given lighter, easier and less hazardous duties.

But who is it who allocates the tasks thus involved?

Some jobs, like pulling up trees in tropical forest clearance work, do clearly
require strenuous effort. On the other hand, amongst the less demanding chores set aside
for women might be put ... the ability to use their imagination.

Transplanting rice in muddy ground covered by 20 cm of water, the barefoot peasant
woman stoops to plant each seedling. How many times? On average, one hectare of rice
field involves transplanting 200 000 plants, and between 20 and 40 days are needed to
complete the job. In other words, 20 to 40 people can finish it in one day. For a number
of reasons, productivity is very variable. However, if we work on the basis of 1/40 ha in
eight hours, then this gives 5 000 plants transplanted in one day, or 630 an hour, or more
than ten every minute ... one for each breath taken ("Riso Amaro" Italian film). How
many times a day do these women have to bend down and straighten up again? How much time
do they spend bent down? I would think that many champion athletes would find it hard to
keep up such a pace after the first day and they might not last even that long.

The fairly simple machines which have been developed for transplanting rice work

very well when used by women and considerably improve their efficiency.

- 35 -

Harvesting of Basic Foods: This involves going into the fields with a basket and
gathering the maize ears or cassava roots, filling the basket and returning home carrying
about 30 kg. Now this journey may well be two or three kilometres or even longer.. If

daily production were, let us say, to be 600 kg, this would represent 20 trips a day or
between 80 and 120 km on foot. What woman would want to increase production if this
meant making more journeys?

And in the event of the harvest producing more than the household's own require-
ments, then the chances are that the money goes straight into the man's pocket so he can
stay in the village without having to return home.

All this is just to give you an idea of the type of farm work which is most often
performed by women. I would now like to give a few examples which demonstrate the effec-
tiveness of women's participation in food production and in improving agricultural tech-

Integrated Control of Rice Disease in the Philippines: Many of the control per-
sonnel are women. Technical assistance has been given to rural communities via individual
households. Women are responsible for nearly half of rice production in the Philippines.
Women also run the household economy and take an active part when it comes to making
decisions concerning the purchase of inputs. With the aid of technical service personnel,
rural women have learnt to recognize different rice diseases, and the useful insects and
the other natural ecological and biological agents which can help to prevent the spread
of disease. Insecticides are only used when natural agents are not considered powerful
enough to stop the disease.

In order to gain the confidence of farmers and obtain their participation, they
are first given the opportunity to describe the problems they face, and account is taken
of their own practical skills. Problems are discussed in groups which include women and
other members of the family. This is a stimulating experience for all.

Appropriate technology is more readily accepted in rural communities when women
are involved in its diffusion.

FAO Bulletin and National Plant Protection Service.

Horticultural crops There are many different types of work here, involving the
handling of seeds and fragile seedlings. In this area, deft feminine hands work

Gabon Fruit tree nurseries to produce healthy young plants (certified) sowing,

grafting and pruning.

- 36 -

Senegal Irrigated horticultural plots. Improvement in household nutrition, and
fresh products for sale in local markets.

Sri Lanka Edible mushroom production.

Southeast Asia Household vegetable crops.

Countries with arid climates Vegetable crops under cover (glass or plastic) -

Preparation of Food Products at Home: It is common knowledge that the preparation
of cassava and the washing of the "bitter" roots requires many hours of manual work by
women. Introducing less bitter varieties therefore reduces women's workload.

Preparation of maize-based foods, as in Mexico and Central America, also requires
a lot of so-called "light" work by women. Industrial methods have been developed employ-
ing various techniques so that "tortillas" can be prepared as easily as bread is baked
in the towns. These techniques are very important, enabling local products to be used,
and reducing the need to import other food products.

In some regions, the introduction of "new" crops which are more productive and
are a richer source of food, depends on consumer acceptance of them. Women have an impor-
tant role here, and by using the new foods they can bring about a change in eating habits.

How can Women's Work be Improved? FAO projects dealing with basic food production,

vegetable crops, plant protection and seed production involve women in them so that exis-
ting habits are not too badly upset.

In the final analysis, however, the responsibility for the success of any change
that has been introduced, whether through training or practical demonstrations, lies with
governments. FAO technicians can provide know-howand lay down guidelines but contact
with women farm workers can only be effective if there is an adequate national organization
backed up by appropriate political decisions taken at national and local levels.

- 37 -

3. Marketing of animal products
In traditional production systems, there are usually considerable seasonal
variations in production. This is particularly true as regards milk and egg production.
At the same time, even in cases where production is low or where the household's own con-
sumption is significant, there are almost always periods when there is surplus production
which has to be sold. This is all the more so, given that long-term preservation tech-
niques for animal products are not available to small producers. Furthermore, women need
money to be coming in regularly in order to support the family and this leads them to mar-
ket a certain proportion of their production, even when this threatens the family's own
food supply. Women are almost entirely responsible for the sale of farmyard products in
rural markets. Sometimes, they may sell sheep and goats; cattle, however, are always sold
by men.

IV. Future Role of Women
I have already remarked that women's importance in animal production is directly
linked to the existence of traditional production systems. The future of women's role is
therefore tied to a great extent to the future of these same traditional production

Except in countries where there is still land available for development, there
remain only two possibilities for increasing animal production: either introduce modern
production techniques within the framework of large-scale specialized livestock farms, or
improve traditional production systems by making them more intensive and efficient. I
have already mentioned the serious criticisms which can be made with regard to industrial
livestock production, particularly as concerns their impact on rural development.

The questions which need to be posed now are the following: to what extent can
traditional systems be improved? and what will be the consequences for women?

The existence of small family holdings is partly connected to the increase in the
agricultural population. It should be said here that, in the majority of Third World
countries, although agricultural population is falling as a percentage of the total, it
continues to increase in absolute terms.

Between 1965 and 1981, the agricultural work force increased at the following
annual rates:

Latin America + 0.5 %/year
Asia + 0.9 %/year
Africa + 1.9 %/year
Western Europe 3.1 %/year
U.S.A. 4.1 %/year

- 38 -

It is unlikely that these trends will be reversed between now and the end of the
century, given the limited scope for emigration and the poor prospects for new job creation
outside the agricultural sector. This means that the arable land area available for each
worker will continue to shrink, in contrast to what is happening in the developed countries.
It is worthwhile recording that the area per worker is already less than 1 ha in Southeast
Asia, whilst it is between 1 and 2 ha in Africa and in the Near East. Given the spread of
these very small holdings, many people believe that the role of livestock is becoming less
and less important. However, traditional peasants in China and Java have already shown
this not to be the case. More recently, in India and Bangladesh, it has been shown that
livestock systems exist which are perfectly adapted to these mini-farms. Some forms of
animal production, such as dairy production and especially poultry and rabbit production
are particularly appropriate. They not only enable household requirements to be covered,
but they also contribute to supplying the towns.

It must, however, be said that improvement in traditional livestock methods does
not occur spontaneously: it is absolutely essential that small producers, and women in
particular, receive the technical and economic support which they need (extension services,
veterinary services, forage seeds, feed, breeding animals and artificial insemination ...),
not to mention access to credit and adequate structures for product marketing. At national
level, governments should ensure that small livestock production is not crushed by the
large industrial firms capable of saturating the market. In this respect, it may be worth-
while to associate industrial and family livestock farming with one supporting the other;
this has already been done successfully in some Eastern European countries (Hungary,
especially). Some operations are better suited to small scale enterprises, whilst others
are better suited to being conducted on a large scale.

Once these preliminary conditions have been fulfilled, there is no reason why
women should not benefit as much as men from improvements in production. Their task would
be facilitated by certain technical innovations: for example, the erection of fences
which would avoid the need to watch over the flocks, the construction of chicken runs and
the introduction of more productive breeds, the supply of complete feeds, etc. However,
many other aspects of development will be negative: for example, it is certain that the
days will soon be over when small ruminants and pigs are allowed to wander round the
villages given the inconvenience they cause and the damage done to crops. Women will in
future have to spend more time feeding the animals in their enclosures. As a result,
except perhaps in the case of poultry, intensification of livestock production will require
more work. Can women, who already have more than enough to do be asked to devote even
more time to livestock, especially when their daughters are not so readily available to

help (school)? The answer is "yes", if the time women spend on other domestic activities,
such as gathering fuelwood and fetching water, can be reduced. These two tasks alone
could be made considerably lighter by using pack animals, in those areas where trypanoso-
miasis no longer exists. Furthermore, the introduction and improvement of animal-drawn
cultivation could liberate women on condition that crop weeding and harvesting could also

- 39 -

Appendix 4


P. Auriol, Animal Production and Health Division (AGA)

First of all I would like to review the role currently played by women in the
production, utilization, processing and marketing of animal products. I will then go on
to study the consequences which the inevitable intensification of livestock systems is
likely to have on women's future role. Finally, I will rapidly outline how the Animal
Production and Health Division is participating in FAO activities in this area. But
before dealing with the subject proper, it seems to me that it would be useful to first
describe the importance of livestock in rural development.

I. Role of Livestock in Rural Development
Let me first say that the role of livestock has been greatly underestimated,
apart from those situations where livestock is the only possible form of agricultural
activity, as for example in arid and semi-arid zones. For various reasons, the governmen-
tal services concerned, as well as the bi- or multi-lateral cooperation agencies have,
with a few rare exceptions, tended to concentrate their efforts and their resources on
developing livestock systems adapted to large specialized production units, requiring a
large degree of technical supervision and calling on modern production techniques as well
as heavy investment. In particular, I am referring to the numerous ranch projects which
have been financed in different parts of the world, and to poultry centres which have
appeared in many countries. The vast majority of these projects have had no positive
impact on rural development; indeed, in some cases, their effects have even been negative.

It is only recently that governments have begun to realize the importance of tra-
ditional family livestock farming and this is the context with which I will be dealing
for the remainder of this expose. This type of livestock farming acts not only as a motor
for rural development but it can also make a considerable contribution towards satisfying
national requirements for animal protein, even if the official statistics often tend to
neglect the fact.

- 40 -

People often talk about the lack of integration between agriculture and livestock
farming. It is true that this is the case in many regions of the world, but that does
not mean that this type of animal production does not exist. Indeed, the small family
farm which has no animals is an exception, whilst large numbers of landless rural
labourers also have animals.

Of course there can be disadvantages in having animals on an agricultural holding:
e.g., damage to crops by wandering animals and, more seriously, they compete with man for
arable land and grain production.

However, where it is appropriate, animal production holds out a considerable num-
ber of advantages for small holdings:

(1) diversification of risks (the main crop can be destroyed by disease or because
of drought);

(2) more efficient use of household labour; because crop production is seasonal,
so too is employment. On the other hand, activities connected with livestock
are spread over the entire year;

(3) with cereal crops and cash crops money usually only comes in once a year,
but livestock income is spread over the whole year. For the small peasant
who is continuously short of cash and has no savings to speak of, this is
the main advantage which animal production has over crop production;

(4) supply of manure and/or fuel;

(5) in those cases where there is genuine association between agriculture and
livestock farming, there are new additional advantages such as:

the work done by draught animals;
the benefits to be derived from crop by-products which otherwise would be
lost, either because they do not keep, or because it would be too expen-
sive to take them to market;
the need to have a forage field, thus replacing bare fallow land, protec-
ting soil from erosion and improving its fertility (if forage legumes are
better utilization of village land (for example, sloping or mountain pas-
ture land, forest grazing land, etc.): in this way, the best use is made
of the different types of land available, some of which would be abandoned
if there were no livestock.

- 41 -

There are a number of examples, the most famous being perhaps 'Operation Flood' in
India, which demonstrates that livestock farming, far from acting as a brake on small-
holdings in the Third World, can on the contrary do much to stimulate rural development.

But to what extent do women participate in livestock production?

II. Present Role of Women in Traditional Livestock Production

In many livestock systems and in many different ethnic groups, women traditionally
play a major role. You have already received the documents which deal with particular
forms of production such as milk production and small ruminants (sheep and goats).
Furthermore, in this room there are many colleagues who are specialized in the sphere of
animal production and who will be participating in the work of this Expert Consultation.
Consequently, I will not go into too much detail and will restrict myself to summarizing
the main situations before underlining certain problems.

The extent to which women participate in livestock production is directly related
to the distance between their dwellings and the place where the animals are raised: the
nearer the animals are to the house, the more women participate in raising them.

1. Livestock farming in the immediate vicinity of the dwelling
This mainly involves farmyard animals:

poultry of all sorts, depending on the country: chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys,
guinea fowl, pigeons, etc.;
small ruminants: sheep, goats;

rabbits, guinea pigs.

The animals are herded together at night in rudimentary shelters and during the
day they are left to wander through the village where they find part of their food (kitchen
leftovers and weeds). Women are usually responsible for watching over the animals,
whether they belong to them or not, as well as for distributing food to them (cassava
peelings, bean pods, weeds, water). Apart from vaccinating against the major epizootic
diseases, no other measures are taken with regard to animal health, and reproduction is
left to change.

draught animals and beasts of burden
With a few rare exceptions, horses and mules are not looked after by women.

On the other hand, in many regions, women are given responsibility for donkeys. The women
use these for transporting. Oxen are always a male responsibility. Women sometimes help
in guiding the teams with the man behind the plough.

- 42 -

raising of young animals
Young animals (lambs, kids, calves) are almost always kept in proximity
to the dwellings and women and children are usually responsible for their feeding until
they are weaned.

milking animals
Animals kept for milk production (cows, goats, ewes) are usually kept
near the dwelling or, at least, they are milked near the dwellings. In traditional

livestock systems, women are usually responsible for milking the animals. At the same
time, they are responsible for distributing concentrated feed and forage. Indeed, it is
often their task to collect the forage, as well.

2. Livestock farming where animals are brought back to the village at midday
and evening
In this system of production which mainly concerns small ruminants and milk cows,
a large amount of time is spent watching over the herds or flocks which is usually done
by children and old people, although this depends on ethnic group and family resources -
but women may also participate. As regards other livestock operations, the comments made
in the preceding paragraphs apply.

3. Livestock farming where animals are brought back to the village only at night
In this production system, which is very common in the Near East and the Mediter-
ranean Zone, the main activity is once again watching over the herds or flocks. This
work is usually done by male herdsmen/shepherds. Women are involved in milking and in
looking after the young animals.

4. Nomadic livestock farming
In this livestock system, some or all of the animals are moved from one area to
another according to a fixed timetable and a fixed route. Where the herds are moved only
over a short distance (usually less than 100 km), women, children and old people remain
in the base village with all or some of the milk-producing animals and those animals
which are too young for the long journey.

In the case where long distances are covered (sometimes several hundred kilometres),
the entire family follows the herd. Women and children are then closely associated with
livestock activities, particularly as concerns watching over the animals and milking, but
there are differences from one ethnic group to another.

Finally, and without touching on details which will be covered by other speakers,
it can be observed that the role of women in traditional livestock farming varies consider-
ably according to the nature of the production system, the human groups who practice them
and the type of animal raised. However, the most important factor appears to be whether
the animals are kept close by the dwellings or camps, or further away.

- 43 -

III. Role of Women in the Utilization, Processing and Sale of Livestock Products
Special reports on these subjects have already been distributed to you. Con-
sequently I will not go into detail.

1. Subsistence farming
Generally speaking, the role of women is crucial as regards the extent to which
households are self-sufficient: it is women who are most often responsible for providing
the household with food, using their own money or that given to them by the head of the

The level of self-sufficiency varies according to the type of animal products and
size of production. There are considerable differences between products: poultry and

eggs, and rabbits are partly consumed by the producers themselves, at least when pro-
duction is high. But poultry meat and eggs are not eaten every day: they are reserved
for feast days and celebrations. Consumption of mutton and goat is even less frequent.
This kind of meat is usually kept back to make important gifts, to provide dowries and to
be used on certain religious occasions. Beef is very rarely eaten by small producers,
except in exceptional circumstances. As regards milk and certain dairy products, the
situation varies according to race. For most nomadic herdsmen, milk is an essential food,
whether it comes from cows, ewes or camels. On the other hand, consumption of milk is
very low amongst sedentary groups. The reason for this is either because of long-
established customs, or because milk has a high value in local markets or in nearby towns,
thus encouraging producers to sell it rather than drink it.

2. Processing of animal products
Here again, the role of women is very variable, depending on the product and on
traditions. Generally, traditional methods of processing and preservation are very pri-
mitive except in some countries in the Far East, although food of animal origin is parti-
cularly perishable, especially in hot and humid climates. Meat which is surplus to
requirements is sometimes cured or salted or simply dried and smoked. However, there is
nothing comparable to what used to be done and is still done, in certain rural areas of

Fresh milk is rarely drunk. Usually it is partially skimmed to make butter which
is often kept in a liquid state or fermented (for yogurt production, for example). It is
even more unusual for the producer to make cheese. Women are often given entire respon-
sibility for milk processing.

I would like to mention, in passing, another form of processing animal products
which is often done by women: hand weaving of wool and carpet weaving.

- 44 -

be mechanized. As more and more girls go to school, this makes housework an even greater
burden for their mothers, unless village creches are set up for children of pre-school
age, as has been done in some countries. The creation of producer groups could also help

to solve many problems.

Finally, unless special steps are taken, the role of women in traditional live-
stock farming will continue to diminish during the course of the next decades. Similarly,
the development of national processing and preservation industries for animal products may
act as a brake on the development of preservation techniques which could be used by the
villagers themselves, with all the repercussions that could have on the family diet and

V. Role of Women in Modern Livestock Production
This brings me to another question: the place of women in modern livestock pro-
duction. I will only say here that the example of what is happening in the developed
countries and in some developing countries shows that women can contribute as much as men
to the development of livestock farming, even where this involves considerable mechani-
zation. Indeed, some forms of intensive livestock production seem to be particularly
compatible with the usual domestic chores: I am thinking particularly of pig, poultry or
rabbit farms as well as small farms for producing cow and goat milk.

Finally, a lot still remains to be done to promote women in careers associated
with livestock farming as extension workers, vets and zootechnicians, laboratory workers
and workers in pharmaceutical industries, etc.

VI. Contribution of the AGA Division to FAO Activities Aimed at Promoting the Role of
Women in Food Production
As in other FAO Divisions, emphasis is increasingly put on small peasants and
livestock farmers and on the development of production systems appropriate to their working
conditions and resources. Two posts previously for general zootechnicians have been
divided up: one is now for a zootechnician who liaises with all units involved in rural
development and who coordinates the Division's activities in this area, whilst the other
post is for a zootechnician specializing in animal production systems. Only if studies
are carried out into production systems can progress be made.

Two years ago an Expert Consultation met in Rome to discuss the development of

small poultry and rabbit farms. More recently a consultation took place on the use of
animal power in agriculture. All these activities have a bearing,directly or indirectly,
on today's meeting. The AGA has financed a number of missions on the role of women in
livestock farming. The consultants who took part in the missions are here today and I
believe that their contribution to the discussions will be most useful. In its budget for
1984/85, the AGA has earmarked some funds for technical support of rural livestock develop-
ment centres. The Meat and Dairy Service intends to give greater emphasis to developing
procedures for non-industrial preservation of animal products.

- 45 -

General Conclusions
The role of women in livestock production is often very important in traditional
agricultural production systems which are well adapted to the millions of small farms
which constitute the foundation of agriculture in the Third World. During the next few
decades, the number of these farms will continue to increase in the majority of the
developing countries and, if they are to survive on their holdings (which are becoming
smaller and smaller all the time), peasants will be obliged to intensify both their crop
and their animal production. However, unless special steps are taken by governments,
such intensification of production may well result in a reduction of women's role in ani-
mal production.

Rural women make a significant contribution to the utilization and marketing of
animal products produced on family farms. If they were introduced to the appropriate
techniques, women could play a greater role in preserving animal products on-farm. However,
competition with the industrial food preservation enterprises will grow increasingly

It should always be remembered that women are essential agents in the development
of animal production and thus in rural development,too. One of FAO's biggest challenges
will be to enable them to continue in this role so that tens of millions of peasant fami-
lies can live in decent conditions. It is my hope that this meeting, thanks to the
quality of its participants, can make its own contribution to this.

- 46 -

Appendix 4


M.S.O. Nicholas
Agricultural Services Division (AGS)

Thank you for this opportunity to give you a brief introduction on the role and
functions of the Agricultural Services Division of FAO and how it fits into the institu-
tional framework surrounding the topic of this consultation.

The Agricultural Services Division consists of four Services dealing with:

farm management and production economics;
agricultural engineering;
food and agricultural industries; and
marketing and credit.

In addition, AGS is responsible for the Prevention and Post-Harvest Food Losses (PFL) in
which women also play a major role and PFL is coordinated with the relevant areas of acti-
vity both within AGS and the rest of the House.

Clearly, the above includes areas of potential support as well as conflict, vis-
a-vis the role of women in food and agriculture in particular, and rural development in

If, for example, production economics and farm mechanization are viewed with a
bias towards theoretical economics, in under-estimation of the human and social component
of development, results can be catastrophic.

Similarly, if capital-intensive, labour-saving agro-industrial projects attract
the planner by their promise of low per-unit cost, standardized output quality and complex
by-product utilization dependent on full capacity operation, the artisanal home or village
scale processing industry a domain of the rural female entrepreneur as well as an im-
portant source of household income for many rural families is threatened.

- 47 -

This threat can be avoided since on close examination, artisanal industries are
more competitive regarding extraction rates, by-product utilization, specific product
characteristics and marketing arrangements than the promoters of large-scale technology
tend to assume. Capital intensive technology, on the other hand, carries the real risk
of under-employed capacity with consequential excessive overhead costs, a risk that has
far too often materialized in developing countries particularly where local raw material
supplies are uncertain or raw material is imported. The real risk, therefore, for the
artisanal industry often only becomes a reality when planners ignore the structural and
social disadvantages of large-scale technology and persist with heavy subsidization to
sustain them.

One of the earliest actions to promote women's participation in food and agricul-
ture was the organization by AGS of a Seminar on the Role of West African Women in Mar-
keting held in Accra in 1977. A highlight of that event was the lively blend of partici-
pants comprising researchers, government executives and trade women, and the revolutionary
use of simultaneous translation into two West African languages (Ga and Twi).

Since then, a great deal of specific work has been undertaken by AGS on the im-
provement of the role of women in marketing and credit systems in developing countries.
A summary of the experience gained and the conclusions drawn from this work is included
in your Seminar reading material under the title "Promoting the Participation of Women
in Marketing and Credit".

A principal conclusion of that paper is that because women's multiple role gives
rise to constraints and needs which are different from men, many marketing strategies,
policies and projects are not adequately orientated to women and may even be detrimental
to them. The paper, therefore, concludes that women's needs should be catered for more
specifically if marketing policies and projects are to lead to effective development,
bearing in mind that "women account for an important, if not dominant share of rural
trade" in most developing countries.

As an important focus for mobilizing and implementing marketing improvement pro-
jects the paper suggests the public market place which especially in rural areas provides
the natural centre for economic as well as social communication. Any physical and human
investment to improve the attractiveness and functional efficiency of these markets
would, therefore, improve the working conditions and economic viability of women's parti-
cipation in the marketing process.

These markets are also major communication foci for obtaining the views and par-
ticipation of women in local and state government activities on such matters as marketing
facilities, rural transport and communications infrastructure and marketing and pricing
policies. They can be used as foci for forming traders' associations, which can be very
useful vehicles for channelling technical assistance to the food and agriculture sector.

- 48 -

This year AGS has launched a pilot project identification programme to improve
Women's Activities in Marketing. It is being initiated in ten African, three Latin
American, two Caribbean and two Asian countries.

Again this year, the name of one of the Services of my Division has been changed
from Farm Management and Production Economics to Farming Systems Service to reflect a new
approach which is being adopted.

The philosophy behind the farming systems research and development programme is
that agricultural research should start with the farmer and end with the farmer. On this
basis, the programme has the following objectives:

(i) to describe and analyse existing farming systems with the aim of identifying
farm production constraints (socio-economic, bio-technical, etc.) which
will then be the focus of institutional and on-farm research activities;

(ii) to assess new technologies generated by various research activities so as
to ascertain their suitability to farmers' circumstances as well as their
profitability and acceptability;

(iii) to integrate appropriate technologies into improved and viable farming
systems which will then be tested and evaluated on farmers' fields and
unit farms before their release for general extension.

Special attention will be given to identifying and quantifying the various farm
and non-farm activities performed by women and the amount of time devoted to such activi-
ties. Allow me to quote some interesting information. Previous studies have shown that,
for example, on average 37 percent of farms in semi-arid Eastern Kenya are managed and
operated by women. Further, a high proportion of men are absent during the major portion
of the year working off the farms to augment the low incomes obtained from agriculture.
It is therefore necessary to document and highlight this important role of women. It
should also be mentioned that in spite of this important contribution to family welfare
and overall agricultural production and development, women farmers in the area have little
or no formal education. For example, in a study conducted in lowland Machakos District
in 1981, it was found that in a sample of 100 farmers only 17 out of 47 women had been
to school. In contrast, of the 53 men farmers, 28 had been to school. The average num-
ber of years of school attendance was 5.6 years for men and 4.4 years for women. In
general, the educational picture of the area is that of a high rate of illiteracy for
both sexes, but more so for women.

- 49 -

Farming systems activities will include identifying and testing various ways and
means of reducing the drudgery of farm and non-farm tasks and the overall time required by
women to perform such tasks. This will be done simultaneously with the testing of alter-
native ways of increasing overall farm productivity, incomes and the quality of living.
Training programmes will be designed for women operating selected case farms which are to
be used for testing and evaluating improved whole-farm systems.

The activities of Farm Management and Production Economics Service, now renamed
as mentioned, are mainly concerned with the improvement of smallholder farming systems.
While the men in the farming community are often involved with cash crop production, the
majority of food crop producers amongst the smallholders in the developing countries are
in fact women. They are concerned not only with the production of food crops, but they
are equally concerned with the processing, storage and preparation of food. The farm and
household data surveys which are being undertaken provide us with a profile of the small-
holder; the constraints to the present farming system are identified; and possible tech-
nical solutions can be suggested by comparing the experience of the better smallholders
with the mass. This provides the extension services with socially acceptable improved
whole farm systems, and poses need-orientated questions to the agricultural research

Much of the work of the agricultural engineers in selecting improved hand tools,
animal draught equipment and appropriate mechanization leads to increasing the productivity
of women smallholders. Improved house and village storage facilities contribute to the
tasks of women in preserving the food quality of cereals and pulses.

The work of the Agro-industries Service of introducing village cereal mills,
decorticators, winnowers and sellers, of improved house and village level food processing
and preservation, can greatly reduce the drudgery of women's traditional tasks. The work
on biogas, producer gas and solar energy can provide a labour and energy-saving alternative
to the collection, and transport of firewood. Regarding apiculture and sericulture, these
are activities in which women, and indeed whole,families can participate to supplement
family income.

AGS is particularly pleased with the great interest expressed by Her Excellency,
the Minister of Development Assistance of the Netherlands in supporting the PFL activities
in developing countries that have a strong women component.

Since the beginning of the PFL Programme, women have played an important role in
a number of PFL projects, and particularly in projects in the Africa Region. A few
examples can be mentioned: a PFL project in Cameroon provided assistance to women's
groups concerned with post-harvest handling of maize, cocoyams and potatoes. The income
generated from this cooperative activity by women has considerably improved their storage

- 50 -

structures and methods of post-harvest handling of crops. Likewise projects in the Central
African Republic, Upper Volta and Mali are focussing their assistance on the involvement
of women in post-harvest activities.

Similar projects in other regions can be found in India, Pakistan and Peru. The
projects in India and Pakistan are concerned with rice,and in Peru,with potatoes.

It is apparent from our work that the contribution of women to the prevention of
food losses can be made much more effective by the introduction of simple, practicable
refinements to their existing activities because in several countries women have an
established role in the collection, transportation and marketing of food. In the case of
highly perishable commodities, it is in this chain where most of the losses occur,
especially where highly perishable but nutritious foods such as vegetables and fruits are
concerned. The recent expansion of the PFL Programme to include these perishables provides
further opportunity to assist our womenfolk in developing countries.

- 51 -

Appendix 4

Mr. P. Lunven
Director, Food Policy and Nutrition Division

As indicated by the title of the Meeting in which we have the honour to partici-
pate, the experts grouped together in this room are here to discuss the role of women in
food production. The items appearing on the Agenda will help in defining strategies and
recommending activities which, whilst highlighting the role of women in food production,
will perhaps finally enable them to share in decisions and responsibilities as they are
entitled to do.

I would, however, like to comment on another aspect of rural life which is just
as if not more important for family welfare and which has a particular bearing on the
essential role played by women in providing and preparing food for the household.

However, before broaching this aspect of women's activities and initiatives, it is,
I think, useful to recall that for cultural, social, economic and physiological reasons,
adolescent girls and adult women are amongst the groups who, periodically or permanently,
are most at risk from malnutrition.

For cultural reasons: because tradition or a spirit of self-sacrifice means that
at mealtime women only serve themselves after the men and the boys; or they may be forbid-
den to eat certain foods.

For social reasons: because they have to cope with domestic chores in addition
to working in the fields and looking after the children.

For economic reasons: because their work is underpaid (when it is paid at allI)
and because they increasingly find themselves having to keep the farm going on their own
since the men have gone away to look for better paid work elsewhere.

Finally, for physiological reasons: which mean that their nutritional require-
ments are greater during pregnancy and breast feeding, thus exposing them, to a greater
degree than men, to certain specific illnesses such as iron-deficiency anemia, and goiters.

- 52 -

I do not think it would be incorrect to say that of the 450 million people in
the world who are in immediate danger of serious malnutrition, women and children from
the most impoverished groups are in a majority. Unfortunately, as you have been able to
see for yourselves during the course of your discussions, women are statistically
'invisible' and it is impossible today to assess, even approximately, the full extent of
malnutrition amongst women.

Recently, within the framework of our research on the energy requirements of
rural populations, we have been able to identify and quantify the contribution made by
women (and by children) to household food provisioning. The initial results of this work
can be seen in document ESH:WIFP/83/17.

It would take too long to go into all the details of this study today. Suffice
it to say that, thanks to the analysis of time-allocation surveys, we are now able to
determine with some accuracy the daily level of work carried out by each member of a rural

The results are striking, as they confirm beyond any possible doubt that in the
countries studied (Central African Republic, Nepal and Ivory Coast) women and girls do
60 percent more work than the men and the boys. They provide 60 percent of household
food and have the exclusive and unenviable privilege of being in charge of collecting
water and gathering fuelwood. To sum up, we can say that about two-thirds of the work
done in a household is performed by women.

This situation, which is probably applicable to the majority of poor countries,
gives rise to two observations. First, women's energy requirements are greater than

nutritionists originally thought, meaning that specific action needs to be taken either
on the earnings side or directly on the nutritional side. Second, time-allocation analysis
enables rural development planners to avoid the risk of over-burdening working women, as
is far too often the case, with inevitable consequences for the family's nutrition. The
analysis also allows identification of activities for increasing food production and
women's earnings.

Finally, it enables the social and economic impact of the introduction of appro-
priate technology to be foreseen, and helps avoid those failures which used to occur in
the past, examples of which can be found in the documentation before you.

The logical conclusion which can be drawn from this analysis is that food crop
related projects should primarily be directed at women. Unfortunately, the large amounts
of time which they must devote to non-agricultural activities, and the fact that they play
no role in decision-making, mean that it is difficult for them to make their voices heard.

53 -

It is my hope that one of this consultation's main recommendations will be to
provide women with the necessary institutions and mechanisms to enable them to participate
more actively and effectively in food security, at both national and household levels, as

equal partners in the development process.

- 54 -

Appendix 4

Mr. C. Leroy Quance
Statistics Division

A. Need for Improved Statistics on Women in Agriculture
Improved statistics on women in agriculture are necessary for formulating, imple-
menting, monitoring and evaluating agrarian reform and rural development policies and pro-
grammes focusing on growth with equity through people's participation. More and better
statistics are needed to:

1. Guide policy makers to effectively integrate women in appropriate ARRD po-
licies and programmes;

2. Indicate when women heads of household or all women should be targeted as
beneficiaries of ARRD policies, programmes and projects;

3. Uncover and correct implementational inequities and evaluate intentional
and unintentional impacts of development interventions on women.

Now, although a wealth of relevant data can be made available through the disaggre-
gation of socio-economic indicators by rural/urban and sex (or sex of head of household),
additional disaggregations by socio-economic status and age groups increase the usefulness
of statistics. These additional disaggregations make it possible to monitor and evaluate
the extent to which policies and development assistance are helping alleviate rural pover-

ty across socio-economic groups at one point in time and within socio-economic groups from
one generation to another.

B. Activities of the Statistics Division Regarding Statistics on Women in Agriculture
The Statistics Division has had a long standing interest in improving the avail-

ability and quality of statistics on women in agriculture. More recently, the on-going
project on the development of guidelines for monitoring and evaluating agrarian reform

- 55 -

and rural development on the basis of socio-economic indicators has included considerable
work on statistics on women. This emphasis reflects the overall WCARRD concern about
growth with equity through people's participation. It requires the identification of rural
socio-economic groups and the orientation of ARRD toward the disadvantaged of such groups.
Disaggregations by sex or by sex of head of household, as well as by socio-economic status,
age groups and geographic region are, therefore, needed to uncover which groups of women
with what characteristics and in what geographic regions, are most disadvantaged and in
what respects, i.e., with regard to access to land, credit, agricultural extension infor-
mation, membership in cooperatives, etc.

In 1982, with SIDA funds, FAO organized expert consultations on socio-economic
indicators for monitoring and evaluating ARRD in each of the four developing regions.
Pilot studies of socio-economic indicators were sponsored in five countries in each such
region. These pilot studies provided the basis for the expert consultations and were
prepared according to guidelines for needed indicators provided by the Statistics Division
which specified disaggregations by sex on a number of important indicators; some of the
most useful documents prepared for these expert consultations were a series of papers by
a consultant specialist on socio-economic indicators for women. Each paper in this series
discussed the adequacy of existing socio-economic indicators in each region for monitoring
and evaluating ARRD policies and programmes with regard to disadvantaged rural groups of
men and women and suggested needed additional indicators and/or disaggregations appropriate
for each region. These papers emphasized women's invisible role in agriculture in some
countries because the conceptualization and operationalization of economic activity in
agriculture do not accurately measure the phenomenon. The definition of agricultural
work based on a week as a reference point used in some countries is not suitable and does
not adequately reflect the seasonal nature of women's agricultural work. Also the
operationalization of the concept of agricultural work does not always take into account
socio-cultural factors which in some countries lead men and women, interviewers and
interviewees, to view women's agricultural involvement as secondary to their family roles
even when it is as primary as that of men.

Experts attending these consultations, including directors of statistical services
and of rural development, accept the need to improve statistics about women's role in agri-
culture, mainly through disaggregations by sex and/or sex of head of household.

The guidelines on monitoring and evaluating ARRD presently under preparation in-
clude a detailed discussion of socio-economic indicators and appropriate disaggregations
that will allow developing countries to monitor and evaluate the impact of ARRD policies
and programmes on rural women and report the results within the overall context of periodic
reporting on progress and problems in agrarian reform and rural development, such as at
the 1987 Conference. The broad categories of socio-economic indicators covered in these
guidelines include: (1) access to land, institutional and non-institutional credit,
improved agricultural inputs, agricultural extension information; agricultural paid

- 56 -

employment; education and agricultural training; membership in cooperatives and farmers'
organizations; participation in local decision-making bodies as well as in the design,
monitoring and evaluation of agricultural and rural development programmes; (2) income
distribution; (3) unemployment and under-employment; (4) nutritional status; and (5)
health status.

These guidelines will form part of a system approach to the development of food
and agricultural statistics at the national level that the Statistics Division is develop-
ing; manuals for agricultural censuses, household surveys and community level statistics
will underline the need for disaggregations by sex or by sex of head of household in order
to ensure the availability of statistics on rural women.

The National Household Survey Capability Programme (NHSCP) is a major technical
cooperation effort sponsored by the UN, UNDP and the World Bank. The topics covered by
the national programme include demography, health and nutrition, labour force and employ-
ment, income and expenditure, agriculture and others. In all surveys, the need for dis-
aggregation by urban rural, by geographic region and by sex is stressed.

The Statistics Division, with the assistance of the same consultant,contributed a'
paper on "The State of Statistics on Women in Agriculture in the Third World" to the
Expert Group on Improving Statistics and Indicators on the Situation of Women, convened
in New York, 11-15 April 1983, by the statistical office of the UN in cooperation with
the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of
Women (INSTRAW). This paper is being published by the Statistics Division and is used as
document for this expert consultation.

In addition to the above, a case study on statistics on the roles of women, chil-
dren and the aged in agriculture in India has also been prepared by an Indian consultant
and will be published soon.

C. Future Activities of the Statistics Division
In preparation for the 1985 Conference on the Decade for Women, the Statistics
Division is planning two pilot studies aiming to assist countries in assembling, analysing
and utilizing existing statistics about women's roles in agriculture in order to integrate
women in the formulation of ARRD policies and programmes. We hope to collaborate with ESH
in carrying out more such pilot studies and perhaps in preparing a Global Basebook on
women in agriculture that includes available quantitative and qualitative data and dis-
cusses their policy implications for important ARRD policies and programmes in the different
developing regions. However, beyond the two country pilot studies, these activities are
contingent on finding sufficient extra-budgetary funds.

- 57 -

Thus, the emphasis of the Statistics Division in the near term is on better con-
ceptualizing and operationalizing needs and methods for improving the statistical coverage
of women in agriculture in statistical development programme manuals and in assembling and
analysing existing data. In the longer run, through training and technical assistance
projects covering agricultural censuses, surveys and other data development programmes,
bring about a more adequate flow of statistics on the role of women in agriculture into
national information systems for decision-making in food and agriculture, especially with
respect to monitoring and evaluating agrarian reform and rural development.

D. Post Script
Several questions asked and comments made by delegates to this Consultation indi-
cate that changing national statistical programmes and even FAO Headquarters activities and
procedures to more adequately account for women's role in agriculture requires some innova-
tive approaches that we do not yet fully comprehend. Thus, in the months ahead, we will
think and consult on these matters more fully so that, hopefully, the statistical develop-
ment manuals we have under preparation and the statistical assistance we offer member
countries will more adequately provide for the role of women in agriculture.

- 58 -

Appendix 5

Important Issues Underscored by all Three Working Groups

It is the consensus of the Expert Group that the current organization and procedures
of most development agencies are not well suited to the adoption of a holistic farming
system approach. Experience shows that rural families combine different strategies to in-
crease family income, spread risks and optimize the household's welfare. These include:

farm production of a variety of crops and livestock for auto consumption and cash

agricultural wage labour (local or distant);

non-farm employment (wage employment, trades and crafts, marketing, etc.);

remittances from short- or long-term migration.

Each of these aspects offers a set of different possible opportunities for house-
holds to generate income. Today, in developing countries most households follow stra-
tegies that involve them in many of these activities.

For these reasons rural households' allocation of labour and other resources to
the production of food crops must be understood in the wider context of their income
generating activities.

The past failure of agricultural development planning to take account of women's
productive roles, the sexual division of labour and resource ownership patterns within
the household has resulted in the further marginalization and deprivation of rural women.

- 59 -

Agrarian Reform and Land Ownership

1. In FAO executed land-use planning, resettlement projects and agrarian reform
advisory services, household structure, management of farming systems, labour and remuner-
ation should be examined so that women are not adversely affected by land allocation.
WCARRD provisions on women's rights to land and water for crop and livestock production
should be implemented whenever possible.

2. Land reform legislation in practice has failed to give women equal access to
land and has in fact undermined women's existing rights. Women as household heads, indi-
viduals and family members should be given land title or equitable shares. In places
where there are communal rights and titles, women should be given titles as well in order
to avoid depriving them of access to land and other sources.

3. At the project level women should be on land allocation committees where these
exist and, in schemes, it may be better to give smaller areas and set aside plots for
different family members. Subsequently, both men and women could increase holdings based
on need and performance.

Agricultural Extension Services

1. Manpower projections and planning for rural development should include
mechanisms for increasing the number of women extension workers. Qualifications that act
as barriers should be examined and either removed or imaginative alternative approaches
devised. Use of couples or wives or male extension workers can be considered.

2. Wherever possible, the existing extension staff should be given a mandate to
work with women. In many cases the male extension staff should be legitimized to work
with women in groups under specific conditions and using approved procedures rather than
always requiring that only female staff work with women.

3. Training of extension staff should place a greater emphasis on the important
functions of roots and tubers, traditional cereals and vegetables in local farming systems
and consumption patterns.

4. Extension agents, already specialized in only one crop, should be trained in
and instructed to help farmers in integrating their different field and tree crops and
animal production.

- 60 -

5. Extension should concentrate on activities and topics that women need and
want and on labour saving devices. As such, activities, be they agricultural or domestic,
that women are already doing should be eased by new technologies.

6. Governments and agencies should improve the training for men and women on hor-

ticulture and nutrition.

7. More women should be placed in top decision-making positions relating to ex-

tension services.

8. Statistics should be collected on extension contacts to women and men farmers.
Development projects should collect and utilize sex disaggregated statistics concerning
participation in project services.

9. Women should be taught farm book-keeping skills. Even illiterate women can
handle this subject.

Women have difficulties obtaining credit because: (1) they lack collateral and
they do not have land titles; (2) established patterns and networks by-pass them; and (3)
they are uninformed about procedures.


1. The demands and requirements for obtaining credit by government on FAO projects
must be reviewed and policies should be redefined so that credit can be channelled to

2. Within FAO projects, the eligibility for credit should not be tied to title
to land, but should be based on farmer performance and reliability. Investigations should
be made as to whether or not it is possible to use traditional networks of trust and
accountability to determine credit worthiness.

3. Whether or not credit is given in fixed inputs or capital should be examined
in light of women's needs. The size of input packages (in terms of land availability and
harvesting/processing constraints) must also be considered.

4. Credit should be available for food production. Repayment in kind and in
instalments should be allowed wherever possible.

5. Women's self-help savings groups should be encouraged and supplied with rota-
ting funds. Other institutions such as banks could be established to meet the needs of

- 61 -

6. Credit institutions at all levels should have women members at decision-making

7. FAO projects should make an effort to train women as credit officers.

8. Pricing policies should be examined in terms of their effects on production
by women.

9. Established or new cooperatives should not jeopardise women's control of pro-
ducts marketed and should be examined to see how women are affected by the cooperative

Women's Time Allocation, Nutritional Status and Technology

1. FAO projects should consider the impact of new technologies and new varieties
on women's labour. If they increase women's labour while decreasing that of men, they
should be reconsidered.

2. Technologies that reduce women's burden should be stressed in particular and
labour factors should be included in costing out alternative technologies, especially in
areas where women are over-burdened by agricultural and domestic jobs.

3. If new technologies brought by projects displace women from wage labour, the
technology should be controlled and/or alternative income production should be offered.

4. When introducing new crops or cash crops, planners should look carefully into
the impact of such crops on family food security and the nutritional status of the family.

5. Agricultural projects should include nutritional components both in the assess-
ment of the project's impact and in helping reduce conditions such as anemia in women
(which lowers work capacity and consequently their agricultural productivity).

6. Development of appropriate technology should be done in collaboration with
the potential women users. Otherwise their requirements and needs will not be met. It
is particularly important that poor rural women producers be consulted.

Agricultural Research
Research on food crops should be grounded in a thorough understanding of the con-
text in which they are used. This requires careful investigation of the priorities and
problems of the women who cultivate, process, store, prepare, consume and sell the crops

62 -

Some suggested priorities for research on women are to:

(a) assess the impact of technological change on the poorest women, including the
inter-connections between earnings, employment, work burdens, nutrition and

(b) analyse the impact of government agricultural policy on women; and

(c) document and analyse successful and unsuccessful grassroots experiences of
women organizing to gain access to the benefits of agriculture and rural

- 63 -

Appendix 6

Specific RECOMMENDATIONS on Animal Production

Animal Extension Services
The failure of animal extension services to reach rural women was recognized as a
key issue. Recommendations aimed at rectifying this problem in the following areas:
Technical training, extension staffing, extension methodology, extension training, and
production support and agricultural services.

1. Technical Training Training in the treatment of livestock needs to be given
to rural women themselves and not only to extension workers. In this regard the experience
of non-government organizations in providing technical skills and information to non-
literate women should be taken into account. Areas of training should include:

management and nutrition of young animals;
hygienic production and processing of milk and milk products;
veterinary information of vaccinations, treatment against parasites, etc;
storage and marketing of the products;
use of by-products for income generation or household use as appropriate.

2. More females should be recruited for extension In order to facilitate effec-
tive contacts between women extension workers and rural women, care should be taken to

recruit women who are mobile and acceptable to the intended beneficiaries.

3. Appropriate timing and location of extension Because of their multiple roles,
training programmes for women should give attention to the time and location of meetings,
demonstrations, etc., to ensure that these are convenient and accessible to women.

- 64 -

4. Curricula In order that men as well as women extension workers will be sen-
sitized to rural women's condition, the curricula of farmer training institutes, agricul-
tural and veterinary colleges and livestock and veterinary training institutions should
include detailed information on women's roles and work in animal production. Greater
attention should be given to marketing and trading of animal products by women, the
relationship between male and female work in the livestock sectors, and the implications
of this for the household economy. Training centres should provide informal education
and teaching methods easily transferable to rural women.

5. Relation of livestock activities to women's other tasks All extension repor-
ting forms and statistical information should be disaggregated by gender. Women's role
in animal production should be seen in relation to their other tasks and projects need to
be designed accordingly.

Agricultural Organizations and Institutions
The critical problem here is one of women's lack of access to credit and marketing,
cooperatives, as well as stock insurance programmes. At present these institutions tend
to exclude women from participation as women lack the necessary collateral in the form of
land or capital resources to gain membership to them.

1. Adaptation of credit regulations (a) Extension agents should be trained to
identify traditional savings groups as a vehicle for linking them to institutional savings
and credit. (b) Animal husbandry services which are responsible for credit should draw
on the lesson of non-governmental organizations and project 'banks' in using alternative
forms of collateral (e.g. group guaranteed repayment; repayment in kind under revolving
fund arrangements, institutionalized repayment at point of sale through organized markets
of animal production, etc.). In this respect the importance of recognizing and assisting
organized women's groups was also stressed.

2. Improved pricing policies to encourage women's livestock production was empha-
sized. The implications of government price interventions should be examined so that
animal products which are presently under women's control will not receive less consider-
ation than others.

3. Studies on activities of women in marketing More research is needed into
the needs, constraints, opportunities and priorities of women's marketing activities.
These studies should be product oriented. Rural women's accumulated experience and know-
ledge should be integrated with conventional animal research work.

S65 -

Institutional Linkages and Policies of FAO
Policies and actions to promote greater participation of women within FAO and
country level programmes are called for as follows:

1. FAO's Interdivisional Working Group on Women in Development should develop a
means to monitor all livestock sector projects, (particularly investment centre ones),
with the intention of furthering the integration of women in these projects.

2. Recruitment of women in FAO Animal Production and Health Division The FAO
Animal Production and Health Division should recruit women animal production and health
staff members with experience in women's livestock projects and/or expertise in women's
roles in animal production and marketing. Such specialists should also participate in
project identification missions. It should also provide training and guidelines in these
subjects for present staff.

3. Development of Training Models FAO should develop models for village-based
farmer training as these are more accessible to women. They should include practical
application and make use of existing training techniques which are appropriate for illi-
terate people.

4. FAO should consider convening a Women and Animal Production Conference in
cooperation with the International Livestock Centre for Africa in 1984 to set priority
areas for assuring positive impacts and benefits for rural women farmers.

5. Case studies should be commissioned by FAO to assist animal husbandry and
veterinary extension services to evaluate from these structural/organizational options for
orienting their work to take into account women's contribution (e.g. senior women officers
within the livestock sector).

6. FAO's statistics relating to the livestock sector should be disaggregated by
gender. Existing formats should be redesigned to reflect women's participation.

- 66 -

Appendix 7

Specific RECOMMENDATIONS on Plant Production

Roots and Tubers Production
Policy makers should recognize that increasing dietary dependance on cassava in
many places is often associated with changing patterns of land availability and land use.
Frequently, increasing cultivation of cassava is a sign of increasing rural poverty and
malnutrition. This may be due to:

(a) increasing population pressure that shortens the fallow cycle or keeps farmers
inactive, thus reducing soil fertility to a point where only cassava is productive;

(b) the fact that caloric returns on land and labour are higher than in the case
of alternative crops;

(c) a shortage of male labour which may limit the clearing of new forested land.

RECOMMENDATIONS on Research and Statistics
1. Research on roots and tubers should focus on improved cultivation methods,

the breeding of high yielding, disease and pest resistant varieties, and rapid vegetative
propagation which can be undertaken in small rural research and extension centres with a
view to multiplying new plant material.

2. Development of consistent and comparable methods of statistical data collection
of root and tuber crop yields.

RECOMMENDATIONS on the Processing and Marketing of Roots and Tubers
Processing is generally the major constraint on the small farm production of cas-
sava for sale and eventual urban consumption. The choice of technology for processing is
likely to be the most important factor determining the distribution of benefits from

- 67 -

increased cassava production. Both research and project design should favour low cost,
more intensive technologies that can be controlled by women or groups of women over capi-
tal intensive processing technologies that result in centralized control and collection
and favour large-scale commercial production.

Because roots and tubers generally have a low value in relation to their weight
and bulk and are perishable, their marketing can best be improved by projects that:

(1) lower transport costs.
(2) improve processing at the household and community level.

Decentralized marketing systems with many collection points are most likely to
benefit women who produce and/or process roots and tubers.

Government attempts to control the marketing or pricing of roots and tubers have
not generally proved as efficient or beneficial to low-income rural women as marketing
systems based on indigenous traders.

Rice Production
Intensification of production often requires additional labour from women, whose
opportunity cost of time is already high. Several issues are important for women here:

(a) Ensuring access to and control over income from intensification of rice pro-
duction (i.e. access to land in irrigation projects).

(b) Reducing the labour input in rice production through, for example, introduction
of direct seeding, weed control by herbicides or small threshers.

(c) Recognizing specific problems of landless women who are recruited to rice

(d) Promoting the development of yield-increasing labour-using rice technologies
with public support rather than private investment which gets low returns on them.

(e) Creating opportunities for remunerative employment outside agriculture since
rice agriculture cannot absorb all future increases in labour supply.

Recommendations on Cereals and Vegetables
1. Projects that bring in milling operations should facilitate the ownership of
mills by women through identification of women entrepreneurs (as individuals or members
of cooperatives), give them access to credit, and technical advice for the maintenance
and operation of the technology.

- 68 -

2. Horticulture, which is of great importance in family nutrition and women's
income, should be given more attention in agricultural research, extension and marketing.

Post-Harvest Storage and Marketing
In many places women are responsible for storing and selling crops and yet storing
facilities are not easily accessible to them. Projects need to have storage places, con-
trolled by women and preferably close to the site of production. Projects that move
storage away from the producer subject the farmer to the risk of having her crop manipu-
lated by others. Men need to be educated about food storage as well.

Price policy will influence the choice of crops grown and the amounts marketed and
determine whether or not women are encouraged to sell their surplus. Other aspects that
need consideration are cheaper transportation, the encouragement of competition and local-
ization of markets.

- 69 -

Appendix 8

Specific RECOMMENDATIONS on Rural Development
The integration of women in agricultural and rural development has been for FAO a
continuing consideration in the designing of its programmes and projects. Endorsing FAO
policies and actions, it is urged that the contribution and participation of women in
agricultural production and rural development should be perceived within a broader con-
text. The approach should be holistic, taking into account women's multiple roles, em-
phasizing their economic contributions and the obstacles which confront poor rural women.

It is within the framework of this broad perspective that the following policy re-
commendations with regard to integration of women, monitoring and evaluation, factors of
production, credit and marketing and extension services are made to FAO policy-making

A. Integration of Women
1. The Director-General of FAO is urged to make a further statement on the impor-
tance of rural women's roles and activities related to food systems, and the implication
of these for FAO policies and activities.

2. To ensure the reflection of women's concerns at the regional and national
levels, FAO should establish inter-divisional working groups on women in development,
promote inter-country technical cooperation, disseminate women-in-development guidelines,
develop and review training methodologies.

3. In accordance with the recommendations for the WCARRD Follow-up, FAO should
encourage and assist governments to:

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(a) have at the senior level a staff member within the Ministry of Agriculture
and/or an inter-ministerial committee to ensure a strong commitment to the integration of
women in rural development and monitor the implementation of recommendations. This policy
advisor committee should work closely with the National Machinery for the Integration of
Women in Development;

(b) establish a Special Women Unit within the Ministry of Agriculture to:

(i) plan and prepare projects;
(ii) ensure implementation through supervision and monitoring;
(iii) monitor and evaluate programmes of the Ministry;
(iv) place emphasis on recruiting male and female agricultural extension
staff from rural and farm backgrounds.

4. FAO should develop a farming systems model in addition to sectoral approaches
as the basis for women's integration. These should include elements pertinent to women's
productive activities in the home and on the farm as well as their access to productive

5. FAO's programme and project formulation activities for women should emphasize
a participatory and consultative approach.

B. Monitoring and Evaluation
1. Given the understanding that there is very little data on women as project
beneficiaries, monitoring and evaluation strategies must be developed which support and
improve project design for rural women. To achieve this FAO should prepare case studies
in rural development, based on the evaluation of their projects. These should focus on
project formulation and implementation strategies, evaluation techniques, and data use.
The case studies should be discussed at expert consultations and with regard to extension
training and organization.

2. FAO should also organize consultations to analyse the need for various project
inputs in light of existing data on women.

3. FAO should work more closely with research and training institutions at
national and regional levels to build capability and promote linkage between these insti-
tutions and women's programmes. Emphasis should be placed on qualitative research reflec-
ting attitudes, needs and concerns of rural people and extension agents.

4. FAO should also help establish monitoring systems in specific ministries to
ensure that its projects achieve desired objectives. For this FAO should provide expert
assistance to the ministries in the design of monitoring systems including women's

- 71 -

integration, and undertake programmes to:

(a) develop skills of staff in a special monitoring unit in the relevant ministry;

(b) sensitize planners about the need for monitoring as a systematic and useful
management tool;

(c) train field staff to collect, process and disseminate information according
to the needs of decision makers.

C. Credit, Marketing and Factors of Production
1. FAO should assist governments to establish marketing systems to support women's
household production through the following initiatives:

(a) help establish a market intelligence system to provide information to rural
women on market conditions;

(b) help organize institutional support for storage of products, development of
government and/or cooperative buying institutions, and creation of public market infra-

(c) help organize mass media to promote women's household products for local con-
sumption; and

(d) establish village advisory assistance for women through government bodies to
help them have better access to markets.

2. Priority should be given by FAO to managerial training for rural women in
fields related to credit and marketing.

3. FAO should include women in programming, project identification and formulation
missions in order to sensitize such issues as women's control over factors of production and
the equitable distribution of the benefits of development. Support should be given to
develop women's capacity to control their incomes and make decisions regarding marketing,
investment and credit and ensure their participation in these activities. FAO should
initiate credit and production programmes as well as savings and investment programmes
for the benefit of women.

D. Extension Service and Training
Extension officers are very important for the success of any women's programme in
agriculture and special attention should be given to their selection, training and work.

- 72 -

In many rural development projects the extension service is ineffective because:

(i) extension agents have insufficient incentives;
(ii) many extension agents are insensitive to women's issues;
(iii) support services (transport and housing) are often inadequate;
(iv) too little time is allocated for actual field work.

1. For effective extension service, it is necessary that genuine interaction
exist between extension workers and target groups. Assistants from recipient rural
groups should be appointed to work with carefully chosen extension officers.

2. Extension training programmes should have two basic goals:

(i) Arrange reorientation programmes for extension staff to sensitize them to the
role of women in agriculture and rural development and equip them with the skills and
methodologies for reaching the most marginal groups of rural women. In addition FAO
should cooperate with research and training institutions and appropriate women's organi-
zations at national and regional levels in the development of model programmes for the
training and reorientation of extension workers.

(ii) Provide for the joint training of male and female extension workers and for
their training programmes to include inputs on topics of special concern to rural women,
e.g. appropriate technology, time budgeting and integrated farming systems.

(iii) Ensure that extension staff help to organize the work more closely with
organized women's groups and involve them as partners (para-professionals) in extension
services. Ministries of Agriculture should give consideration in providing these groups
with facilities and resources to enable them to work more effectively with rural women.

(iv) Provide appropriate facilities and services (e.g. housing and transportation)
for female extension workers to enable them to carry out their responsibilities.

(v) FAO should establish closer linkages with non-governmental organizations as
they provide alternative approaches in working directly with the poorest groups.

- 73 -

(c) Inter-relation between Welfare and Production Goals: Assistance to women
should be part of a unified system for the supply of rural development support services
to the appropriate members of the family, who are the target for achieving development
goals. In designing projects, the inter-relation between the welfare of producers' fami-
lies and their achievement of economic/production goals must be taken into account. In
the past, the two aspects have been taken too much in isolation. Among the factors to
incorporate are:

(i) The assessment of projects must take into account both their technical pos-
sibility and their financial profitability. The ultimate viability of these activities
will depend on their ability to generate self-sustaining funds.

(ii) Social, cultural and economic constraints or misconceptions of these by
governments, planners and implementers have often prevented women from being equal parti-
cipants in the development process. Rural women's participation in all phases of project
design and implementation is a prerequisite for bringing about appropriate changes. FAO
should assist governments to implement pilot projects with the full participation of both
men and women. These projects should incorporate a coherent strategy, taking account of
the complete chain from producer to consumer, including training, farm inputs and credit
and marketing. These pilot projects will assist governments to develop skills and imple-
mentation strategies that reflect the needs of all family members including women.

3. Institutional Framework

(a) Location of Women-Oriented Activities: Rather than relying solely on
specialized Women's Units Divisions, organizations and technical units in governments and
within FAO should increase their technical expertise regarding improved incorporation of
women in their activities by recruiting technical staff with experience in women's issues
and by administering training programmes for their staff.

(b) Recruitment of Women: FAO should encourage governments to assign female
counterparts. FAO project planning and evaluation missions should include women members.

(c) Inter-Divisional Consultation: Further support should be given to the initia-
tive already taken with FAO to establish and implement procedures for inter-divisional
consultation on project identification, preparation and technical back-stopping.

4. Cooperatives: Women should be encouraged and trained to become more active
members in cooperatives, participating not only as producers but also as decision-makers.
In mixed-sex cooperatives, safeguards should be devised to ensure such participation.

(a) Women Production Groups: Should be supported as pre-cooperatives which can
lead to the subsequent establishment of formally constituted cooperatives.

- 74 -

Appendix 9

RECOMMENDATIONS by Field Project Staff

1. Data Collection Use of Existing FAO Projects: Although it is becoming
generally recognized that women play an important role in agricultural production and
food security, quantitative data on their involvement are limited. Data on topics such
as the following: division of labour in agricultural and non-agricultural paid and un-
paid work by sex, time allocation between different farm, household and off-farm activi-
ties, control of incomes, women's informal groups and constraints on more effective par-
ticipation of women,will assist government planners and FAC to identify more effective
methods for promoting increased agricultural production and thereby narrowing the gap
between potential and actual production. In this respect, FAO field projects staff
should be asked to use existing data, and where gaps exist, generate new data for an
analysis of the impact of their activities on women. They should insure, among other
things, that new technology will not adversely affect women. This information should be
supplied to relevant government organizations for incorporation in future legislation or
rural development planning exercises and to FAO technical divisions for use in the design
of future projects and policy.

2. Project Formulation:
(a) Coordination of Experiences and Activities: FAO activities and experiences
should be coordinated with the work of other national and international agencies on a
national, regional and inter-regional basis. The exchange of data, ideas for project
formulation and experience in implementation will promote a more concerted effort with
less duplication of effort and mistakes.

(b) Women in Project Formulation: More technically qualified women should be
recruited for work on project identification and implementation.

- 75 -

(b) Support for the Landless: The needs of landless women must also be recognized
and the formation of organizations which protect their interests must be supported.

(c) Governments to Provide Facilities: FAO should encourage governments to orient
policy toward the more equitable access of women to establish facilities such as credit,
marketing and improved technologies which enhance women's role in production.

(d) Pricing Policy: FAO should encourage governments to allow more financial in-
centive for producers of traditional agricultural products, such as manioc and coarse
grains, which are basic foodstuffs but which consume both time and energy while only
yielding marginal profits.

5. Extension: Need for innovative approaches.

(a) Para-Professionals: Particularly women should be trained and deployed to pro-
vide practical and relevant skills oriented toward solving farmers' problems and satisfy-
ing their needs.

(b) Supply of Facilities to Women: FAO should encourage governments to shift the
supply of facilities in favour of women so that more women can receive extension education.
Among the items needed are better accommodation and incentives for women.

- 76 -

Appendix 10

Summaries of the Participants' Background Statements brought to the Expert
Consultation on Women in Food Production

Rome, 7-14 December 1983

* These summaries were prepared by FAO staff. The names given with each title are

those of the authors of the original participants' papers and statements.

- 77 -

Appendix 10


Sereme, Moussa Role des femmes dans la production Vivriere a la Province
de la Comoe.

The paper discusses the important role of women in food production in Upper Volta.
The author further underlines the significance of women's participation in food production
by pointing out that issue of food security in Upper Volta is one that is largely depen-
dent on women's productivity. In order to more closely analyse the problem of women in
food production the author focuses on a specific area of Upper Volta, the Province of


The various agricultural activities undertaken by women of this region is described
in some detail, and clearly demonstrates women's high labour contribution to food pro-
duction. Despite women's active involvement in agriculture they are completely by-passed
by agricultural support services such as extension credit etc. Yet women have shown them-
selves to be receptive to the use of new technology and other inputs aimed at the improve-
ment of their productivity. Moreover the author indicates, that in fact those inputs that
are introduced to men often in practice tend to undermine women's productivity, due to the
manner in which they are introduced and used.

The paper concludes by making concrete recommendations on how to promote the role of
women in food production. He stresses the need to recognize and redress the false
assumptions and misconceptions that underlie many programmes of assistance aimed at women
in food production.

- 78 -

Appendix 10


Pudjiwati Sajogyo Women in Food, Animal and Plant Production in Indonesian

Rural Development

The paper begins with a description of the Indonesian agricultural economy and sets
the context within which the role of Indonesian rural women should be examined. The paper
acknowledges women's important role in the rural economy and focuses on three distinct
areas where women play significant productive roles.

Women's participation in agricultural production especially rice production is dis-
cussed at some length. It is pointed out that despite the commercialization of rice cul-
tivation there remains a clear sexual division of labour with women doing the transplanting,
weeding and harvesting. The author further indicates such intensive efforts at moderni-
zation of agriculture as the Green Revolution have had a negative impact on Javanese
rural women mainly by reducing their sources of income.

Women also play an important role in small ruminant production. They are involved
in such activities as herding, feeding, watering and controlling the health of animals.
The third area of women's active participation is in plant production, more specifically
in rubber and tobbaco production where women play a significant role as labourers in the
field or as foreman in the factories.

In reviewing the overall situation of rural women in Indonesia the author concludes
that they are far from being fully integrated in rural development efforts and makes spe-
cific recommendations at different levels to bring about positive and effective change for
women. Recommendations are made regarding government policy, research and project design,
delivery monitoring and evaluation.

- 79 -



Else Skjonsberg Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD)

The paper presents the growing interest and support of the Norwegian Agency for
International Development (NORAD) for funding of women and development projects. The
agency is at this time in the process of developing a plan of action to ensure the integ-
ration of women's concerns into the total development aid process.

The author stresses NORAD's plan of action should be strategic and practical in
directing Norwegian aid to the optimal benefit of women. The author advocates that aid
should be channelled to women-specific projects. It is stressed that it is only through
such a concentration of inputs in a specific area that optimal results will be produced.

In summarizing the extent of Norwegian bilateral aid to agriculture development she
explains it has been modest and moreover in most cases promoted integrated rural develop-
ment projects rather than women-specific projects funded. The author indicates that an
evaluation of integrated projects reveals that in general women's conditions have worsened
as a result of such projects.

In conclusion the author identifies eight areas which the NORAD Plan of Action should
take into account. Furthermore, for immediate action the author suggests, among others
that all Norwegian agricultural aid projects and programmes be evaluated and the results
systematized for their impact on women; additional inputs to ongoing projects be recom-
mended to improve effect on women and a long term plan of aid for women within the agri-
cultural sector be drawn up.

- 80 -



Le role des femmes dans la production vivriere Burundi

The paper prepared by INADES FORMATION a non-governmental organization presents
extensive information on the agricultural sector in Burundi and underlines the important
role of women in this sector. A detailed breakdown of the various food crops grown in
Burundi is given.

The paper explicitly states the sexual division of labour in agriculture and provides
us with detailed information on the extent of labour inputs by men and women regarding
various agricultural operations. It is clear that women in Burundi have a major responsi-
bility for food production.

Women also have an important role in the marketing of food products. Here also there
is a sexual division in marketing activities. Food products destined for home consumption
are sold by women but other food products marketed for food industries are handled by men.
The author explains that there are no "market women", independently making a living off
their marketing activities as is the case in W. Africa. In Burundi women are occupied
with cultivation of land and cannot afford to be full-time "riarket women".

The paper stresses the importance of training rural women in various aspects of agri-

cultural production. A list of the various national institutions undertaking development
programmes to promote women's role and productivity is given.

The paper concludes by suggesting several areas for improvement and possible actions
that can be taken by the International Association of INADES in alleviating the problems
of rural development in Burundi.

- 81 -


Habib Attia Seminaire sur le Role des femmes dans la production vivriere

The paper acknowledges women's role in food production and focuses on women's signi-
ficant participation in the livestock sector, an important sector for the Maghreb region.

The author points out that due to the increasing mechanization and commercialization
of the agricultural sector, the labour input of women has increased tremendously.

As the land area under cultivation has expanded labour intensive activities such as
weeding and harvesting usually carried out by women have also increased.

Women's important role in small ruminants is also discussed. The range of activities
undertaken by women in livestock production is briefly discussed. It is pointed out that
despite the significant involvement of women their role is understated. This is becoming
increasingly so as this sector of the agriculture is becoming more modernized and the
role of women is being by-passed.

The author points out there is a growing polarization in the livestock sector caused
by the increasing commercialization and modernization of this sector. This is to the det-
riment of household level production which has played an important role in promoting family
income and providing some of the basic food needs of the family. It is further pointed
out that even as the household production is being overtaken it is still women who have
the responsibility for taking care of the livestock.

In conclusion the author calls attention to the need to recognize the important role
of women and to promote their active participation in agricultural development. The need
to train and educate women in agriculture is also emphasized.

- 82 -

Appendix 10


Anita Spring Men and Women Smallholder Participants in a Stall Feeder
Livestock Programme in Malawi

The paper focuses on an integrated rural development project in Malawi which included
an animal husbandry component, one aspect of which was a stall feeder livestock programme.
The paper analyzes the impact of the addition of such a livestock enterprise on the far-
ming system and on the farmer's income. The paper highlights the differentiated recruit-
ment of women and men farmers to the programme as well as differences in labour, training
and use of income gained.

The author points out that in most cases women did not have access to training ex-
tension or other livestock services despite their high labour contribution to the main-
tenance of the livestock.

The author draws some conclusions on the basis of her evaluation of the programme.
Among those relevant to women are: women are interested in new technologies and willing
to invest the time and labour but unfortunately are by-passed by agricultural support
services; women's participation and contribution in various enterprises are invisible and
unrecognized despite the income earned through these activities. The author stresses the
need to give full recognition to women's participation in livestock enterprises and to
provide them with the full benefit of project services.

- 83 -



Michaela Walsh-President Women's World Banking, an Intermediate Organization

The author highlights the objectives and growth of the Women's World Banking (WWB)
a non-profit financial institution with a capital fund of US$ 2.5 million. The institution
was an outcome of the 1975 Mexico City, U.N. Conference on Women where women decided to
create a financial institution that will encourage development and commercial banks to pro-
vide credit to women entrepreneurs.

WWB has local affiliates in 34 countries and is open to work in any country and with
any institution involved in encouraging women as producers. WWB and the local affiliate
guarantee the loan, 50 percent and 25 percent respectively, made by the local financial
institution, with the latter assuming only 25 percent of the risk. In addition, the local
affiliate provides ongoing technical and training backing to loan recipients. Through
this scheme, WWB attempts to overcome the two principal constraints lending institutions
face in extending loans to small women businesses high risk and high administrative

- 84 -

Appendix 10


Angelina Muiioz Women's Role in Areas Covered by Agrarian Reform in the Philippines

The paper discusses the Agrarian Reform programme in the Philippines and particularly
the efforts of the Ministry of Agrarian Reform in making women equal beneficiaries of the

programme. It highlights the Ministry's efforts to implement some of the social and eco-
nomic objectives of the land reform programme, and women's role in this programme. All
land reform efforts aimed at improving the farm family's situation take into account the
important role of women as integral and productive members of the farm family. It is
pointed out that all women in the Philippines have equal access to land and property owner-

Philippine women participate fully in the land reform implementation process. They
attend meetings and rallies where land rights and obligations are discussed. The paper

further goes on to state that women are active if not equal participants in the management
of the farm. In the more progressive farm households women are involved in the financial
and business transactions of the farm. In the poorer households women of necessity take
up more physically demanding tasks such as threshing, harvesting and storing.

The land reform programme has taken into account the multiple roles of farm women

and thus has initiated several programmes to meet these needs. In addition to government
projects there are UN projects which have been successful in promoting women's welfare.
Among the most successful have been income generating projects including farm and non-farm

- 85 -

Appendix 10


Sayed Saad Andaleeb Women in Food Production: Target Groups, Organizing Issues
and Invdlvement Options

Based on experiments gained in Bangladesh, the author argues for the need to cate-
gorise and define specific target groups, even among rural women, in order to ensure that
women's projects reach their objectives. The paper cites evidence where women groups of
different socio-economic levels aspire for different types of assistance. The target
groups that should be the focus of development projects are the poorest women primarily
composed of divorcees or widows. This group not only lacks resources but also the confi-
dence and initiative to get involved in new activities. Other women groups who also need
assistance are identified and their profile discussed.

The paper stresses the need for organizing women into cooperatives or other informal
groups so as to improve women's bargaining position in terms of marketing, provision of
inputs and access to credit facilities. The problems associated with organizing women as
well as the related issues of production, procurement, marketing and financing are dis-
cussed based on the experiences of poultry projects in Bangladesh.

- 86 -

Appendix 10


A.L. Makwavarara Women and Food Production in Zimbabwe

The author begins with a general statement of the important role of African rural
women in food production and continues to explain the specific conditions of rural
Zimbabwean women. In Zimbabwe women's contribution to agricultural production is grossly
under-valued even though most of the men work as migrant labourers and therefore it is
the women who are left with the responsibility of managing the farm and seeing to family
food production.

Women in Zimbabwe are in the exceptionally unenviable position of having to under-
take such physically taxing farm labour as ploughing, planting, weeding and harvesting due
to the migration of the male farmers. Yet women play no role in the decision-making process
of the farm household.

The paper highlights some of the more important constraints regarding women and
food production in Zimbabwe. Several studies and consultations undertaken by the Ministry
of Community Development and Women's Affairs point out several areas of improvement.
These are: income generation activities during the low farming season, a change in land-
use patterns, where food crops would be given higher priority than cash crops, land rights,
education and training opportunities, village technology, the provision of Day Care centres,
primary health, communication and marketing facilities. The paper concludes by identifying
ten potential areas where improvement would make a marked difference to rural women's
equal and full participation in food production in Zimbabwe.

- 87 -

Appendix 10


Anila R. Dholakia Rural Women and Food Production A Challenge

The paper deplores the increasing poverty and marginalization of rural women in the
Third World and particularly India, and in the author's own words "not in spite of develop-
ment but because of development". Looking at the Indian scene she points out that the num-
ber of Indian women in agricultural employment has not grown since the early twentieth
century while the female population has doubled in size from 1911-71. Instead, what has

happened is that the number of female producers has decreased while now half of the casual
labourers, daily-wage workers and contract and bonded labourers in agriculture are women.

The author feels that the various proposals put forward by experts, such as those
exclusively focusing on food production or those emphasizing mainly non-agriculture income
generation do not adequately address the problem. The author asserts that to avoid further
marginalization women must stay on the land and income generating activities should be
agriculturally based on farm activities.

India has recognized rural women's role in food production and the sixth development
plan specifically calls for the need to train women in agriculture. The author cites
several examples of where rural women have been given access to agricultural training pro-
grammes. The difficulties encountered in getting the acceptance of such programmes for
women from the community and the men folk are vividly recounted.

Based on her experience the author tells us that agrarian reform programmes have
not benefitted rural Indian women. She explains this is due to the continuing subordina-
ting social and economic status of Indian rural women. In conclusion the author calls for
several measures among them: a change in attitude among policy planners, participation of
the poor and the use of simple technologies.

- 88 -



Devaki Jain Women and Rural Development. A Short Statement India

The author begins by pointing out that the role of women in economic development is
recognized in India and has been incorporated in India's Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85)
where a special chapter is devoted to women. She however goes on to state that the
crucial problem in India is one of methodology, that is the integration of women into the
plan as a whole and the provision of a participatory delivery process of programmes in-
puts, provision services to the poorest women. For the author the key issue is one of
developing a clear flexible modality which would first allow for the articulation and ex-
pression of women's roles by the givers and secondly respond to their felt needs with
financial and human resources.

Recent studies of Indian rural women indicate that women not only make up the
largest group in the unemployed category but qualitatively are in poorer condition than men
due to the nutritional deprivation aggravated by intra-household inequality in food distri-
bution. In recognition of the inability of the agricultural sector to absorb a substantial
number of men and women in the future, several general rural development programmes of
poverty alleviation have been launched across the country. The author doubts the effec-
tiveness of such an approach as these programmes are not supported by minimum linkages and
an infrastructure of services such as inputs, marketing or technology.

The experiences of voluntary agencies in this areaare also discussed. The paper
sums up the situation by stating that both the efforts of government and voluntary agencies
will not be productive without massive mobilization and awakening of the rural poor.
Moreover the author emphasizes that the fundamental basis for the success of any rural
project or programme is community participation.

- 89 -

Appendix 10


Chandi Joshi Women in Food Production in Nepal

The paper begins by underscoring the recognition given to the agricultural sector
in Nepal's national development plan, and the important role of women in efforts to
develop this sector. It is emphasized that Nepalese women have a major responsibility for
the management of the farm enterprise in view of their high labour contribution and their
participation in decision-making.

The author draws attention to the significance of the farm women's income for the
well being of the family. For the most part this income is spent on the food, health and
educational needs of the family. Despite this the author indicates most studies of women
and agricultural production tend to under-value women's contribution to the farm family
and to the subsistence sector where in fact women's contribution begins at an early age.

The paper points out the negative effect on women caused by structural imbalance
created during the process of economic development. In Nepal, as agricultural mechanization
and modernization proceed, women are increasingly being pushed out of their traditional
income earning activities. Consequently the author stresses the need to provide for alter-
native means of employment and training for women so as to avoid their further marginali-
zation and dependency and ultimately a general decline in rural development.

- 90 -

Appendix 10


Margareta Edgren Integration of Women into Agricultural Development Programmes

The paper relates the experience of the Swedish International Development Agency
(SIDA) in promoting the equal participation of women in SIDA supported rural development
projects. Among the measures taken by SIDA is the establishment in 1981 of a special post
for a consultant on women's concerns at the Rural Development Centre.

The Centre's main task is to assist SIDA in the planning, backstopping and evaluation
of rural and agricultural projects and programmes ensuring that rural women are equal bene-
ficiaries of such projects. The Centre has developed a roster of 600 technically qualified
women. In addition the Women's Consultant assists in the recruitment of consultants,mostly
women who specialize in socio-economic analysis rather than sectoral experts who tend to
have narrower specialization and are less suited to target group analysis. Through these
efforts the Centre is attempting to systematically increase the LDC experience among mem-
bers of its roster so as to widen the human resource base of this programme.

An equally important goal of the Centre is to increase awareness and understanding
of women's concerns among male colleagues both in Sweden and in the programme countries.
In conclusion the paper emphasizes the need for a donor agency like SIDA to systematically
study the gender aspect of development, make special efforts to recruit female experts and
administrators and to clearly designate responsibilities at all levels of the administration
to implement checklists and guidelines found in project manuals.

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Appendix 10


Louise Fresco Some Thoughts on Agricultural Research and its Relevance for Farm

The paper highlights the importance of making agricultural research, particularly
the development of agricultural technologies relevant to the needs of women farmers. The
author argues that most current agricultural research is not adequately geared towards
meeting farmer women's needs. This is because there is still a basic misunderstanding of
the farm household structure and its intra-household dynamics. Moreover most research does
not take into account the complexity of the farm women's roles within the household.

It is pointed out that most research goals aim at production increase, economic

feasibility and profitability rather than the integration of the research results into a
holistic picture of the farm household as a production unit with both constraints and
potential. Researchers do not adequately take into account the perceptions and objectives
of the farmers, especially female farmers for whom, for example,the objective of increased
production may be of minor importance if the accrued income is consumed by other members
of the household.

Fresco suggests an alternative strategy in the so-called farming system research
(FSR) approach. She points out that the FSR approach has been used in French-speaking
Africa for the past 30 years and in recent years increased efforts have been made to develop
the theory and practice of FSR. This approach looks at the totality of the farm including
livestock production, off-farm employment and post harvest processing. FSR provides the
linkage between the technical/research component and the farmers, with the farm household
participating actively in the development of strategies for rural improvement.

The FSR process entails several distinct steps. The author points out there are
some limitations to this approach. However, if carefully accounted for these can be over-
come and still make the FSR a viable approach in meeting the needs of women farmers. Case
studies are presented to show the validity of her argument. These are drawn from two UNDP
financed and FAO executed rural development projects. Using the FSR method it became clear
that any effort to develop the traditional agricultural sector, mainly food production,
must focus on women and in this case the food crop was cassava a food crop cultivated by

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Appendix 10


Etsegenet Abate Women's Contribution to Food Production with Emphasis on
Dairying: Country Experience Ethiopia

The paper briefly discusses the nature of the livestock sector in Ethiopia and
examines the practice of livestock husbandry practiced by two distinct groups the high-
landers and the nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralists. The specific role of women in live-
stock production among the two groups is also discussed. It is noted that women farmers in
the highlands as well as the lowlands are solely engaged in subsistence livestock production
due to the lack of technical know-how and the absence of adequate farm support services
such as extension, veterinary services and credit.

However, around the perimetres of the major cities, a number of commercial dairy
farms, based on high-yielding exotic breeds are present. The author, who has one such
commercial dairy farm near Addis Ababa, then discusses the issues and problems involved in
operating such a commercial enterprise.

In order to help rural women benefit from the opportunities available in commercial
dairy farming, the author makes eight specific recommendations. Among these are: the need
to organize rural women into cooperatives; the importance of a strong extension service to
disseminate improved breeding programmes and better feeding systems and to provide the
necessary veterinary services; the need for an effective credit system; the necessity of
effective market outlets.

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Appendix 10


Peggy Antrobus Notes from the Commonwealth Caribbean

The author sets out by depicting the declining state of the agricultural sector in
the CARICOM countries. In view of this, several priorities have been established for agri-
culture in this region. One of the new policy directions is the greater integration of
women in the development process both as individuals and as a resource factor.

It is pointed out that in the Caribbean women contribute significantly to small
farm production and post-harvest preparation of commodities for the market and yet their
roles are not recognized as a strategic focus in development planning in the region. This
is reflected in the non-reporting of women's work in national statistics. An elucidating
profile of a typical rural woman in the CARICOM countries taken from a survey is presented.

Since 1975 many programmes for the integration of women in development have been
established at different levels in the CARICOM region. Among them is WAND, established in
1978 within the Extra Mural Programme of the University of the West Indies. WAND's objec-
tives and strategies have been to promote linkages and cooperation between the 12 different

countries served by the University and to promote capacity, consciousness and cohesion in
WID programmes for the region. In particular WAND has developed special links with the
Faculty of Agriculture and with Ministries of Agriculture which have facilitated the use
of action-research projects and research influencing programme design and policy in rural

Among other things strategies for the integration of women in the region have
focused on: data collection and research, model-building, technical assistance, training
and orientation of the extension staff of the ministries, of community development, agri-
culture and health; strengthening institutional links between ministries of agriculture,
national machinery for integration of women and NGOs; establishing and/or strengthening
links between action/outreach, research and teaching branches of the University. Two pro-
jects containing some of the strategies mentioned above are presented.

- 94 -

Appendix 10


Christine Lindhagen Women in Farm Production

The paper discusses the role of women in the Swedish Agriculture. About 55 percent

of the women work on the farm which is often jointly owned by the husband and wife. The
possibility of dividing the farm income between the husband and wife gives the women a
professional status and insurance privileges. Women usually take care of animals and the
book-keeping and participate in sowing and harvesting, in addition to their role as mothers
and home managers. Since farm technology is developed without taking the needs of women
into consideration most of the mechanical equipment are not used by women to lessen their

Although the national cooperative organization (LRF) has had little direct interest
in issues affecting women, it has recently started to include women in some of its activi-
ties. Study circles and special subject days are now organized by LRF to create a sense of
solidarity among women professionals and provide them with new skills in crop production,
finance and cooperation.

- 95 -

Appendix 10


Hugo Trivelli Frenzolini The Participation of Women in Food Production in Chile:

A Summary of Some Observations

In the absence of a nation-wide study of women's participation in food production in
Chile, this paper draws on studies completed in a community 130 km northeast of Santiago
(1982) in Pupuya, in the Central Coast Region (1983) and in the Cooperative of El Coraz6n
(1983) 300 km south of Santiago, to formulate a picture of the role women play in these
activities. Census figures understate the extent of women's employment in agriculture,
but the first study referred to indicates that over 60 percent of women living on small
holdings were working both as wage labourers on cash crops and on the family farm holding.

In Pupuya 60 percent of the smallholders have less than 3.7 ha and production is
primarily for home consumption. The average working day for a woman is 12-15 hours long.
This includes domestic tasks and child care, work on the home farm and off-farm employment.
On the home farm women contribute 20-25 percent of the total labour input on field crops
(wheat, chick peas, peas, lentils) for sale and home consumption, 96 percent of the labour
on the home garden and 70 percent of the labour on small animal enterprises. Seasonal
off-farm employment is found on small, medium and large farms in the area and primarily
involves cultivation, weeding and harvesting tasks on horticultural crops. In addition,
some women find slightly higher paying employment in the fruit packing houses in the

In El Coraz6n the average holding size is between 4.5 and 6.7has and the landholders
belong to a cooperative to which they contribute half their production of maize, wheat,
vine fruits, tobacco and water melons for joint sale. Here the participation of women in
the production of field crops destined for cash sale declined to 7 percent of the total
labour input, although women retained responsibility for the home garden and care of
dairy cattle and small animals. Women's sale of milk, cheese, poultry and eggs represented
an average of 26.3 percent of family cash income.

It was observed that in a village on the coast of Chile, where the majority of the
men emigrate to work seasonally and return only for the fishing season, women take on

nearly all the on- as well as off-farm tasks.

But despite the importance of women's participation in food production and after an
initial impetus toward the formation of rural women's groups in the 1960s, in recent years
women's organizations have declined and women receive little support.

- 96 -

Appendix 10


Irene T. Whalen Women and Agriculture in the Ethiopian Highlands

At the outset the paper highlights the characteristics of Ethiopian highland agri-
culture and the role of women in that particular agricultural system. The discussion
focuses more specifically on the participation of women in the livestock sector and develop-
ment programmes that have promoted their role in this sector.

It is pointed out that women are responsible for the cleaning of animal stalls and
the milking of cows. Furthermore, butter and cheese is made by women for household con-
sumption and for sale. Animal manure is also collected by women and it provides major
source of fuel in the highlands. According to the author highland women play an active
and equal role in livestock production as compared to crop production. This is demonstrated
by women's participation in decision-making regarding the acquisition and sale of livestock.

Because of the importance of livestock in Ethiopian economy various projects have

been implemented to improve productivity in this sector. The International Livestock
Centre for Africa's (ILCA) smallholder dairy research programme in Debre Ziet is one such
project. In an effort to develop an appropriate package of small scale dairy development
for small holders, ILCA began research in 1978 with local farmers who purchased crossbred
cows. The author took the opportunity to conduct research among participating farmers to
examine the intra-household processes which affected adoption and maintenance of crossbred
cows and to gain additional knowledge on the involvement of women in the programme.

The author concludes by stating there are general constraints limiting women's pro-
ductive participation in agriculture and the livestock sector in particular. Though some
progress has been made, the author calls for more concerted and systematic efforts to meet
the effective needs of Ethiopian highland women.

- 97 -

Appendix 10


Fayza Abdullah Mohamed The Role of Rural Women in Agricultural Development
in the Sudan

Development is the result of a reaction between people and the environment, which
gradually leads to the improvement of the social and economic conditions. It is, there-
fore, important to utilize, in an efficient way, the natural resources in order to arrive
at development. 80 percent of Sudan's population are making their living in the rural
areas and out of them 50 percent are women. It is, therefore, important that the rural
women are given a prominent socio-economic role together with the men. In Sudan women
are facing difficulties due to the backward conditions in the social life. It is impor-
tant that proper attention is given to rural women and the following actions should be

1) reduce illiteracy;
2) inform women of their important role and encourage them to participate in
solving development problems;
3) give importance to the family, particularly children and mothers; and
4) support economic measures for consumption.

The main problems affecting women in the agricultural sector are:

(i) illiteracy, which prevents them from getting access to technical
(ii) the lack of services, particularly health;
(iii) backwardness in the rural areas;
(iv) the consideration of the role of women as secondary;
(v) impressing on women that their place is in the house;
(vi) the attitude of the community, which deprives women of their self-
(vii) women's lack of experience, which makes them rely on other people
for solving their problems;
(viii) the lack of interest on the part of planners to identify the role of
women, as well as the lack of training facilities;
(ix) the heavy workload of women who have to work in the fields and in the

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