• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Checklists
 List of annexes
 Purpose, structure, and application...
 Policy objectives and principl...
 Project/programme activities involving...
 Unit 1: Summary checklist
 Unit 2: Fish production
 Unit 3: Fish processing
 Unit 4: Fish processing
 Unit 5: Non-fisheries activiti...
 Unit 6: Community activities and...
 Unit 7: Organizational, technical,...
 Unit 8: Household food securit...
 Unit 9: Population activities
 Unit 10: Impact of new technologies...
 Annex 1
 Annex 2
 Back Cover














Group Title: Women in fishing communities : guidelines : a special target group of development projects.
Title: Women in fishing communities
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084632/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in fishing communities guidelines : a special target group of development projects
Alternate Title: Women in fishing communities
Physical Description: viii, 63 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Haque, F
Tietze, U
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations -- Fishery Industries Division
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1988
 Subjects
Subject: Rural development projects -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women -- Employment -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "This document was prepared in the Fishery Industries Division, FAO Fisheries Dept., by F. Haque and U. Tietze."--P. iv.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084632
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 41764969

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Copyright
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    Checklists
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of annexes
        Page viii
    Purpose, structure, and application of guidelines
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Policy objectives and principles
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Project/programme activities involving women
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Unit 1: Summary checklist
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Unit 2: Fish production
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Unit 3: Fish processing
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Unit 4: Fish processing
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Unit 5: Non-fisheries activities
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Unit 6: Community activities and social services
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Unit 7: Organizational, technical, and financial support
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Unit 8: Household food security
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Unit 9: Population activities
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Unit 10: Impact of new technologies and economic and social structures
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Annex 1
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Annex 2
        Page 63
    Back Cover
        Page 64
Full Text
a special target group of I
development projects

WOMEN
IN FISHING
COMMUNITIES




FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS........


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS






a special target group of
development projects

WOMEN
IN FISHING
COMMUNITIES

GUIDELINES










FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 1988













Reprinted, 1989


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without
the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement
of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications
Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla.
00100 Rome, Italy.


FAO 1988


The designations employed and the presentation of
material in this publication do not imply the expression of
any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city
or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation
of its frontiers or boundaries.










Preface


Women play an important role in fishing communities all over the world.
This role encompasses social and economic responsibilities and duties,
both within and outside the family, including marketing, processing, and
also harvesting of aquatic products. Development efforts over the last few
decades have made it clear that sustained improvements in the produc-
tivity and in the lives of fisherfolk depend upon recognition of the crucial
role of women. The Strategy for Fisheries Management and Development
endorsed by the FAO World Conference on Fisheries Management and
Development in 1984 particularly stresses this role and postulates that
fisheries development programmes should further enhance it.
In order to carry out its mandate, the Fisheries Department of FAO
has initiated a number of new activities, both through field projects and
through the Regular Programme, including the establishment of a
Departmental Core Group on "Women-in-Fisheries" matters, regular
review of pipeline project proposals and ideas as to their adequate
consideration of women as a target group, and the production and
distribution of an audiovisual and a bibliography for training and
information purposes.
These guidelines are meant to ensure that women as an important
section of the target group of fisheries development efforts are adequately
considered at every stage of identification, preparation, implementation
and evaluation of development activities both in the field and at FAO
headquarters.
The guidelines incorporate a number of suggestions from other
departments and services in FAO concerned with women in development,
as well as suggestions from FAO field projects, adding to their
comprehensive character.
Guidelines however comprehensive they may be can only be
effective if they are implemented in an adequate way. It is hoped that
these guidelines will be applied with imagination, sensitivity and care, so
that women in fishing communities, particularly in the poorer sections,
will actually benefit from them.

Armin Lindquist
Assistant Director-General a.i.
FAO Fisheries Department


















































Acknowledgements

This document was prepared in the Fishery Industries Division, FAO
Fisheries Department, by F. Haque and U. Tietze.

iv









Contents


Page
Preface iii


Purpose, structure and application
of guidelines 2


Policy objectives and principles 3
Rural and fisheries development 3
Women in fisheries development 5


Project/programme activities involving
women 7
Economic activities 8
Community activities and social services 10
Organizational, technical and financial support 11
Household food security 11
Population activities 12
Impact of new technologies and economic and
social structures on the role of women 12










Checklists




UNIT 1
SUMMARY CHECKLIST
1 Assessment of the general situation of women in small-scale
fisheries 16

UNIT 2
FISH PRODUCTION
2 Assessment of the current situation 22
3 Project design 24

UNIT 3
FISH PROCESSING
4 Assessment of the current situation 26
5 Project design 28

UNIT 4
FISH MARKETING
6 Assessment of the current situation 30
7 Project design 32

UNIT 5
NON-FISHERIES ACTIVITIES
8 Assessment of the current situation 34
9 Project design 36

UNIT 6
COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL SERVICES
10 Assessment of the current situation 38
11 Project design 40















UNIT 7
ORGANIZATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL
SUPPORT
12 Assessment of the current situation 42
13 Project design 45

UNIT 8
HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY
14 Assessment of the current situation 48
15 Project design 50

UNIT 9
POPULATION ACTIVITIES
16 Assessment of the current situation 52
17 Project design 53

UNIT 10
IMPACT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND ECONOMIC
AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES
18 Assessment of the current situation 55
19 Project design 56









Annexes


ANNEX I

BASIC FEATURES OF WOMEN'S INVOLVEMENT IN
FISHERIES' IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 59
Women's roles 59
Women's constraints 60


ANNEX II

GUIDELINES AND CHECKLISTS FOR
NON-FISHERIES ACTIVITIES 63







































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Purpose, structure and application
of guidelines




The following guidelines are meant to ensure that women as part of
fishing communities are adequately addressed by projects, project
activities and FAO Regular Programme activities. They are also intended
to be of use to other international and national organizations concerned
with fisheries development.
The guidelines commence by reviewing relevant policy objectives and
principles (Chapter 2).
Chapter 3 of the guidelines describes project/programme activities
involving women separately for economic activities, viz. production,
processing, marketing, non-fisheries economic activities; community and
social services; organizational, technical and financial support; household
food security and population activities, as well as the impact of new
technologies and economic and social structures on the role of women.
Regarding each area of activity, there are two checklists, one concerning
assessment of the current situation and the other concerning project
design (Checklists 2-19). A summary checklist is contained in Unit 1. It
should be applied when the use of more specific checklists is not
appropriate because of limited resources, information, scope, etc.
The checklists will be most helpful to missions that identify,
formulate, review and evaluate projects. Ideally, the appropriate
checklist, depending on area, type of project, etc. could be incorporated
into the terms of reference of missions and, furthermore, serve as a
yardstick to measure reports and recommendations of missions, as to
whether they adequately consider the role of women in fisheries develop-
ment.
The guidelines have two annexes. Annex I gives a summary of the
basic features of women's involvement in fisheries, while Annex II
contains a list of guidelines and checklists for non-fisheries activities.









Policy objectives and principles







The rationale for singling women out as a special target group for FAO
fisheries programmes and projects in the developing world is based on a
combination of common sense and years of experience in rural develop-
ment in general and fisheries development in particular. Women often
play a major role in small-scale fisheries. They may be producers in their
own right, may directly support men's activities, or may be engaged in a
variety of post-harvest and non-fisheries activities, all of which are crucial
to the welfare of their families and community. Too often in the past, the
priority given to large-scale operations and to production, activities
which are normally dominated by men, has caused project planners to
ignore the contributions and needs of fisherwomen. The result has been
that women's economic role has been undervalued and ineffectively
supported, their potential as partners in development largely untapped,
and their needs and interests as human beings neglected. The FAO
Fisheries Department is committed to ensuring that women's role in
fisheries is fully recognized, their activities effectively supported, and their
economic and human potential realized.


RURAL AND FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT

The fundamental goal of rural development, and thus of small-scale
fisheries, can be simply stated: it is the sustained, equitable improvement
of nutritional and living standards, of working conditions and opportuni-
ties, and of the natural, economic, social and political environment for all
segments of the rural population, especially the most needy.
The basic ways in which programmes and projects seek to achieve
this goal can also be broadly summarized. They attempt to:

- conserve, maintain and enhance those natural and human resources
which are currently available to the people;









- improve present sources or introduce new or improved resources; and
- eliminate obstacles and constraints.

The basic guidelines for rural development in the Third World, of
which fisheries are a natural part, are articulated in the Peasants' Charter
adopted by the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural
Development (WCARRD) in 1979. Several of its principles are directly
relevant here:

- "the fundamental purpose of development is individual and social
betterment, development of indigenous capabilities and improvements of
the living standards of all people, in particular the rural poor";
- "maximum efforts should be made to mobilize and use productively
domestic resources for rural development";
- "diversification of rural economic activities ... is essential for broad-
based rural development";
- "understanding and awareness of the problems and opportunities of
rural development among people at all levels and improving the interac-
tion between development personnel and the masses through an efficient
communication system are prerequisites for the success of rural develop-
ment strategy";
-"constant vigilance should be kept to ensure that benefits of ... rural
development are not offset by the reassertion of past patterns of concen-
tration of resources in private hands or by the emergence of new forms of
inequity";
- "women should participate and contribute on an equal basis with men
in the social, economic and political processes of rural development and
share fully in improved conditions of life in rural areas".

The WCARRD Programme of Action also identifies six broad areas
for consideration in formulating rural development strategies. All are
relevant to fisheries:

access to essential natural resources;
the active participation of the people in all levels of planning,
implementation and evaluation;
access to inputs, markets and services;
the development of alternative sources of employment and income;
education, training and extension; and
the integration of women in all phases of rural development.










WOMEN IN FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT


The framework for fisheries development in the Third World was
provided by the World Conference on Fisheries Management and Devel-
opment in 1984, which adopted a Strategy of Guiding Principles and
approved five Programmes of Action. The Strategy stresses the need for
full use of all fishery resources to meet economic, social and nutritional
goals; urges a greater contribution of fish to national self-sufficiency in
food production; and encourages the promotion of self-reliance in the
management and development of fisheries.
In its Strategy for Fisheries Management and Development, FAO
points out that women play a prominent role in production, processing
and marketing in small-scale fisheries and aquaculture in many countries.
The Conference endorsed that they should be included in all appropriate
development programmes enhancing that role.
The basic goal for women in fisheries development is to make them
equal partners, and productive and self-reliant participants, in the process
of improving their own and their family's nutritional and living stan-
dards, and to enable them to realize their full potential as human beings
in their own right and as members of their family and community.
Fisherwomen must be given the opportunity to acquire appropriate
knowledge, develop adequate skills and use appropriate .technologies
enabling them to make the greatest possible economic and social contri-
bution. Experience has shown that it is unrealistic to assume that the
benefits material, educational and psychological of programmes
and projects aimed at men will automatically trickle down to women. It is
therefore essential to provide direct support to women in their domestic,
economic and social roles. Such action includes:

- providing basic education and literacy;
- providing education in child care, sanitation and nutrition;
- developing facilities that will ease the burden of such domestic chores
as collecting household water and fuel;
- introducing improved methods of food preparation and cooking;
- introducing improved technologies and methods in fields, both within
and outside fisheries, where women have an economically productive role;
- making women direct beneficiaries of training and extension services
related to their economic and social needs and interests;
- increasing the number of women trainers and extension officers;
- ensuring women have equal legal rights to property and other assets;










- ensuring that women have equitable access to credit;
- developing opportunities for a wider range of income-generating
enterprises;
- including women at all stages of project planning, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation;
- encouraging women to be active participants in cooperative enter-
prises and in community activities and decision-making bodies.










Project/programme activities involving
women




Fisheries projects can either focus directly on women as the primary or
sole target group or have women as one component. Depending on local
needs, resources, and economic and social patterns, as well as on the
funding and staff available the project may concentrate on providing
support for women in one or more of the following broad areas:

- economic activities
- social services and community activities
- organizational, technical, and financial support
- household food security
- population activities.

Whatever the specific focus and whatever the specific activities,
project planners must carefully assess the impact of new technologies and
new economic and social structures on the role, productive capacity and
welfare of women.
Effective fisheries programmes or projects can only be designed and
implemented if planners and field staff have a thorough understanding of
the complex dynamics of rural development in general and of fisheries
development in particular and of the contributions, actual and
potential, of women to the process. But planners and staff must also have
a clear knowledge of the particular conditions within which a given
project must operate. They must be sensitive to local patterns and
methods of work, traditional attitudes and habits, and existing economic
and social structures, including women's roles. They must understand
and be emphatic toward the real and perceived needs of the people the
project is designed to assist. This understanding can only be achieved by
getting accurate answers to the right questions.
In the following, various areas of activity are described and the
checklists to be used for assessment of the current situation and for
project design are indicated. When the use of more specific checklists is
not appropriate because of limited resources, information, scope, etc.,
Checklist 1 is to be used.









ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES


Fisherwomen must be given the opportunity and the means to increase
their capacity to contribute to their own welfare and that of their families
and community through effective economic activities. These activities not
only generate resources which help to improve standards of living and
nutrition, but they also assist women to become more self-reliant,
acknowledged partners in development. Although the list of such
activities is virtually endless, three broad categories can be usefully
identified: activities directly related to fisheries production, processing
and marketing; non-fisheries income-generating activities; and financial
activities: investment, credit and savings.


FISHERIES ACTIVITIES

Production. In some regions, women engage in fishing in their own right.
Sometimes they serve as crews on boats with men or may fish from small
boats, canoes or the shore; they may collect molluscs or seaweeds. They
may also cultivate and harvest fish in ponds or weirs. In many more
communities, women indirectly contribute to production by making
and/or mending fishing gear.

Handling, preservation and processing. In most fishing communities,
women have a major or even an exclusive role in post-harvest fisheries
activities. Despite their best efforts, post-harvest losses are often very high
due to primitive technologies, ineffective methods and inadequate storage
facilities. Thus improvements in equipment and methods can make a
significant difference in the amounts of fish available for home consump-
tion and for sale even without any increase in the size of catches.
Women's post-harvest activities are many. Women often assist in
unloading boats and nets, and are normally responsible for whatever
processing is done with the catch. This may include: sun-drying, salting,
smoking, preparing fish paste and cakes, etc. Time-consuming and
physically exhausting auxiliary tasks are related to these procedures, such
as the collection of fuel for smoking ovens, salt or fresh water.

Marketing. In many regions of the developing world, women have the
primary and often exclusive responsibility for marketing fisheries prod-
ucts. Since the sale of fresh or processed fish is generally the family's sole









source of income, the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing are critical
elements in determining a family's standard of nutrition and living. This
is all the more true where women control this income, for they are more
likely than men to spend the money on food and other basic household
necessities.
The success of women in marketing depends on a large number of
factors. First of all, there must be adequate demand and reasonable
prices; both of these are affected by forces normally beyond women's
control: the level of competition from large-scale and small-scale fisheries,
the availability of market outlets, government price policies, local eating
habits and the like. When markets are located considerable distances
from the village, transportation and preservation of fresh fish become a
major problem. Knowledge of marketing techniques and basic
accounting are also important.
In order to identify or evaluate fisheries-related income-earning
activities for women, Checklists 2-7 should be applied. These checklists
should be used by all missions preparing or evaluating projects, as
appropriate.


NON-FISHERIES INCOME-GENERATING ACTIVITIES

Fisheries are often a seasonable occupation periods of plenty and
periods of scarcity. Women as well as men thus often face long stretches
of unemployment or underemployment. Fisheries are also basically
monocultures and so particularly vulnerable if that single source of food
or income fails. And as valuable a source of protein as fish is, it alone
cannot provide an adequate diet supplementary foods are necessary if
the people are to survive with even a modicum of health. Since most
fisherfolk do not own arable land, nor do they have the knowledge and
skills for farming, the means for raising crops are limited.
It is essential that there be opportunities for fisherfolk to engage in
non-fisheries activities that can produce this food or supply the income
needed to buy it, and that serve to broaden the economic base upon
which the family's survival depends. Women should be a particular target
here because the income earned by women usually goes directly to
children and the household.
The types of non-fisheries activities for women to be strengthened or
introduced by a project naturally depend on a number of factors: local
physical resources, the nature of the rural economic structure, the









community's need for and capacity to absorb goods and services,
women's traditional work patterns, women's skills and interests, etc.
Since most women will continue to have domestic duties which require
their presence at or near their homes, small-scale, home-based activities
tend to be most viable.
In order to identify or evaluate non-fisheries income-generating
activities for women, Checklists 11 and 12 should be applied.' These
checklists should be used by all missions preparing or evaluating projects,
as appropriate.


COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES AND SOCIAL SERVICES

Individuals and families, even if they live physically outside villages, are a
,part of, and to some degree dependent on, their general social environ-
ment. The support that this environment, the community, provides or
fails to provide can be a determining factor in the level of nutrition
and the living standard of the people. Women make up at least half this
community, yet too often their potential contributions to its health are
ignored and the benefits they receive from its institutions and services are
negligible. One of the major goals of development for fisheries is the
strengthening of the fishing community and increasing the participation
of women in its various functions. Including women as a specific target
group in fisheries projects thus does not benefit women alone but the
community as a whole.
While the specific needs of fisherwomen, the forms that social
services should take and the ways that women can effectively participate
may vary from place to place, there are a number of elements that are
common to all situations. Women need to be aware that they are
important as individuals and as contributors to community welfare; they
must be given opportunities to develop and exercise leadership roles, and
they must be given the chance to share in making decisions that will affect
their own future and that of their community. All women should have
access to basic educational and medical services if they are to escape from
the twin traps of illiteracy and disease. All women need access to
adequate supplies of household fuel and clean water. In addition, the
community needs access to child-care services capable of monitoring the


More specific checklists for non-fisheries activities are listed in Annex II.









nutritional status of children. These should be supported by basic
information on nutrition, health practices and sanitation.
In order to identify or evaluate community and social services and
activities for women, Checklists 10 and 11 should be used by all missions
identifying or evaluating projects, as appropriate.
Rural development projects will be most effective when women are
seen not just as passive beneficiaries of improved community services but
also as active participants in their establishment.


ORGANIZATIONAL, TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT

The success of a development project may hinge on the degree to which
women are given the appropriate organizational, technical, and financial
support for their domestic, economic and social activities. This support
can take a wide variety of forms: research aimed at developing improved
technologies in fish processing or non-fisheries enterprises in which
women are engaged, extension services and training, provision of banking
services and credit facilities, the formation of self-help groups and the
like. Too often project support is directed primarily or exclusively toward
men's activities or may be provided in locations, at times or in settings
which hinder women's participation. When trainers and extension staff
are men, as is generally the case, women may be reluctant, out of personal
timidity or social custom, to take part in available programmes.
In order to identify or evaluate organizational and technical support
for women, Checklists 12 and 13 should be used by all missions preparing
and evaluating projects, as appropriate.


HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY

One of the primary objectives of any fisheries project is to improve
household food security: the ability of families to provide all their
members with enough nutritious food every day. This involves ensuring
that sufficient food is available throughout the year and that families
have the means to obtain it. The role of women here is absolutely crucial,
for not only may they contribute to family food supplies directly by
harvesting fish or producing other foods through tending home gardens
and raising small livestock, but they may earn money to purchase food
through marketing the catch or engaging in other income-generating










activities. In most communities, it is the women who buy the food, and in
all it is women who prepare it for family consumption. Thus the degree to
which women have a voice in how family resources are spent, the
nutritional value of the foods they choose to purchase, and the methods
they use to store and prepare the food are all key factors in determining
the family's diet.
In order to identify or evaluate the factors that promote or limit
women's roles in providing household food security, Checklists 17 and 18
should be used by all missions preparing or evaluating projects.


POPULATION ACTIVITIES'

Improvement in living standards of artisanal fishing communities can
only be sustained when accompanied by a planned population growth,
which is why special attention has to be paid to population education/in-
formation as well as to the identification and consideration of other
factors that influence population growth.
In order to identify or evaluate these factors which are relevant to
population activities and population growth, Checklists 16 and 17 should
be used.


IMPACT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
STRUCTURES ON THE ROLE OF WOMEN

While the economic and social structures of small fishing communities
may appear relatively simple and straightforward, they are, in fact, a
complex web of interdependent elements. Some of these elements may be
very stable, either difficult to damage or hard to modify, others may be
less deep-rooted, more delicate, more vulnerable to change. Because the
elements that make up the community system are interconnected, an
alteration in one or more will have a "ripple effect" immediate or
long-term, major or minor, observable or invisible. Small changes can
sometimes make big differences positive or negative.
Because fisherwomen often occupy marginal roles and live and work
on the periphery of the centres of economic, social and political power,
they tend to be especially vulnerable. It is imperative, therefore, that
fisheries project and programme planners and field staff take into
account, as far as possible, the "ripple effect" on women when new










technologies are introduced or traditional economic and social structures
are modified. Great care must be taken that such changes do not
inadvertently worsen women's position as individuals or reduce their
capacities to help support themselves and their families.
The introduction of improved technology and methods aimed at
increasing the fish catch better craft and fishing gear, improved
methods for preserving fresh fish at sea, etc. will normally increase
women's work load in processing and marketing. This increase may be
beneficial to women, permitting them to earn more income, but it can
also be detrimental if it burdens them with additional work for which
they get no economic reward or for which they are not adequately
equipped. The introduction of large-scale processing activities may also
work against the interests of women by interfering with traditional work
habits and patterns, making women's traditional activities redundant,
inhibiting local incentive, or relegating women to the position of depen-
dent and often poorly paid wage labourers. Large-scale operations may
also introduce complicated technologies for which women are
unprepared. Projects that enlarge or mechanize women's traditional
activities may become male-oriented, thus depriving women of essential
sources of income.
Changes in marketing structures wholesale buying for processing
plants or export, for example may also cause women to lose their
traditional roles as processors and sellers. Providing women with credit
can help them become more productive and independent, but it may also
make them the target of backlash from local moneylenders. Programmes
and activities that give women a more prominent social position or more
economic power may arouse resentment among men, possibly creating
new and difficult pressures for women. Special programmes for women
may boomerang, isolating them even further.
In order to identify or evaluate the impact of technologies and
economic and social structures on women, Checklists 16 and 17 should be
applied by all missions preparing and evaluating projects.










UNIT 1


SUMMARY CHECKLIST


-. ., r-i
* .:- *


?--






Assessment of
the general situation
checklist 1 of women In
small-scale fisheries



Food security and nutrition


l To what extent is household food security achieved in the
community?

O Do traditional dietary customs make the best possible use of
available nutritional food?

O Are any food and nutrition survey data available?

O What percentage of catches is consumed by the household and
what percentage is sold?

O To what extent are fisheries the primary or sole source of food?

O What other sources, actual or potential, of food exist in the
community?
farming/home gardens
raising livestock or poultry
raising fruit-trees








checklist 1


Assessment of
the general situation
of women in
small-scale fisheries


Income


O To what extent are fisheries the primary or sole source of income
for men? for women?

El What other sources, actual or potential, of income exist in the
community?
non-fisheries cottage industries
trade
services
other

D Are fisheries activities year round or seasonal?

O Who controls the family's cash income?

D] Who owns the means of production: boats, nets, traps, ovens,
ponds, land, etc.?






Assessment of
the general situation
checklist 1 of women in
small-scale fisheries



Community services


O To what extent are basic community services available directly
related to women's domestic role?
child-care facilities
water for household use
fuel for household use

O Are basic educational facilities available and used by women?

D Are population education, family planning programmes available?

O Are basic medical facilities available?

O Are basic financial services available (savings and credit)? Are they
available to/used by women?

D Do women have access to cooperatives and community
organizations?







Assessment of
the general situation
checklist 1 of women in
small-scale fisheries


19
Division of labour


0 To what extent are there clear, traditional distinctions between the
roles of men and women?
in fisheries activities
in other productive activities
in handling and control of finances
in social/community activities
in political/decision-making activities

D What percentage of women's labour is devoted to domestic tasks,
including collection of water and fuel?

D In what activities are women engaged in their own right and in
what activities are they directly supportive of men's activities?

O Are there traditional restraints on women working or associating
with men outside prescribed limits?

O Are there traditional taboos that prevent women from engaging in
certain types of activities on their own?


Overview


E[ What are the major local resources available for development?
sources of food
cash-crop production
sources of income from fishing, agriculture, crafts, services,
earnings sent by migrant workers
community services
cooperatives
other economic, social and political organizations or patterns






Assessment of
the general situation
checklist 1 of women in
small-scale fisheries



E Are they used to their fullest potential?

O What are the major obstacles or constraints to local development?
lack of basic natural resources
climate and climatic disasters
lack of income-earning opportunities
lack of community facilities: medical, educational, credit,
extension, transportation, markets, etc.
seasonal migration
inefficient or destructive work patterns and methods
poor dietary habits, including child feeding
inhibiting social patterns and taboos
governmental policies, priorities, laws and regulations

O Can these, realistically, be modified or eliminated?

[l What base-line data are available on the economic and social life
of the community, including the position of women? Is it accurate
and up-to-date?

O Have other programmes or projects been launched in the area? If
so, with what success?

O Have local inhabitants, including women, been effectively
consulted on their priorities and needs?





UNIT 2

FISH PRODUCTION 21




r ..-law.-








checklist 2


Assessment of
the current situation


]E Are women fishers in their own right?
as crew on fishermen's craft
in their own craft
from the shore
collecting shellfish, molluscs, seaweed, etc.


E If women serve as crew, do they get an equitable share of the
catch?

E Are women engaged in small-scale aquaculture?

O Is aquaculture an individual or a collective enterprise?

D Do women control the activity and any income they might earn?

E How is their catch used?
for human consumption
by the family
sold at market
as bait for fishermen
other

[ Is their fishing a normal part of their work or only in
emergencies?

El Is their fishing seasonal or year round?

O In the case of seasonal migration, do women participate in
migration or do they stay back? What are their duties and special
problems during migration?

] What percentage of their work time is devoted to fishing or
aquaculture?







checklist 2


Assessment of
the current situation


l Do women make nets, sails, traps, fishing craft, etc.? Do they earn
from this activity?

O Are institutional credit facilities available to women to invest in
fishing craft/gear or aquaculture? What are the non-institutional
credit arrangements?

El Do women repair fishing gear? Do they earn from this activity?







checklist 3 Project design


L Are women's traditional fishing activities reflected in the project?

O Are new fishing activities for women being introduced?

] Does the project recognize women's supportive activities (making
and repairing fishing gear)?

O Does the introduction of new materials or technology assist
women in these supportive activities or does it threaten to make
them redundant?

O Does the project actively support women's production roles?
by introducing improved, appropriate technologies
by training in appropriate skills
by providing credit facilities for women

] Does the project ensure that women receive a fair share of
benefits?

O Does the increase in production increase women's work-load in
handling, processing and marketing?






UNIT 3

FISH PROCESSING


. -I .








checklist 4 Assessment of
the current situation



[ Are women engaged in fish processing?

E] How is the processed fish used?
for family consumption
for sale
other

O What are the major causes of post-harvest losses?

O What processing techniques are used? Are they effective?
Could they be improved?
in terms of reducing losses
in terms of improving the nutritional value of the processed
product

D What equipment is used? Could it be improved? Can improved
equipment be manufactured locally?

O Do women own the processing equipment they use?

O Does the processing impose a significant burden of ancillary work:
collecting fuel, salt, water, etc.?

O Do women have access to credit for fish processing facilities?

O Is processing done on an individual household basis or on a joint
cooperative basis?

O Are there adequate storage facilities for fish?








checklist 4 Assessment of
the current situation


27
O Does the role of women in fish processing suffer from the effects
of seasonal migration?

E] Do women control whatever income may come from fish
processing?

[l Are institutional credit facilities available to women to invest in
fish marketing?
What are the non-institutional credit arrangements?








checklist 5 Project design


0 Does the project include a specific component for fish processing?

OI Does the project create new forms of processing that conflict with
the traditional types or methods used by women?

O Are the new processing technologies appropriate for local
conditions, needs and skills?

D Does the project include training women in the new technologies?

O What type of processing tools and equipment do women want?

O What type of tools, equipment and methods do they need to
reduce post-harvest losses?

O Does the project, either in its production or its processing
component, increase the work-load of women?

O Does the processing component take into account the possibility
of increasing the nutritional value of the processed fish?

O Does the project ensure that women get a fair share of the
benefits from improved processing techniques?

EL Does the project provide for access to credit for women for
purchasing processing materials and equipment?

O Does the project encourage women to form cooperative ventures
for processing?





UNIT 4

FISH MARKETING








checklist 6 Assessment of
the current situation


0 To what extent must catches be sold in order to purchase food or
other basic necessities?

O To what extent are the more valuable or nutritious species sold
and the less valuable or nutritious retained for home
consumption?

L Are women responsible for fish marketing?
all fishery products
only some

[] Does the role of women in marketing suffer from seasonal
migration?

O Do women manage their earnings from marketing?

O Do women face significant competition in marketing fish?
from large-scale sellers
from men
from other women

l If there are government price policies on fish, are they favourable
to the small-scale seller?

L[ Are there government or self-imposed quality controls?

D Are adequate markets available?

EL How do women transport the fish to market?

D Are transportation facilities adequate and reasonably priced?







checklist 6


Assessment of
the current situation


D What type of equipment do women need for marketing?
baskets or tubs
stands/stalls
storage facilities

O Does this equipment require a significant outlay of capital?

O Are there middlemen/wholesalers between the women and the
consumer market? If so, are they necessary?

] Are women knowledgeable about appropriate marketing and
bookkeeping techniques?

O Are there women cooperatives for fish marketing?

I Do women have access to institutional credit for fish marketing?
What are the non-institutional credit arrangements?

O What do women perceive as their most critical marketing needs?








checklist 7 Project design




[l Does the project reflect the traditional position of women in fish
marketing?

El Does the project threaten this traditional position?

O Does the project increase women's marketing work-
load/opportunities?

E] Does the project ensure that women get a fair share of the
benefits from improved marketing activities?

E] Does the project directly address women's marketing needs?
transportation
equipment
facilities

L[ Does the project train women in marketing and bookkeeping
skills?

L[ Does the project provide women with access to credit for
marketing activities?

EL Does the project encourage women to engage in cooperative fish
marketing ventures?





UNIT 5

NON-FISHERIES ACTIVITIES








checklist 8 Assessment of
the current situation



E What physical resources are available for non-fisheries activities?
arable land for home gardens, fruit-trees, etc.
forests, mangrove stands for fuelwood or charcoal
livestock or poultry
raw materials suitable for manufacture
cane or bamboo
wood
reeds for matting
wool or cotton
other

[E Are these resources being fully exploited?
by fisherfolk
by others

E Are any imported materials for manufacture easily available at
reasonable cost?

E Is the local economy able to absorb more or new non-fisheries
activities?
manufacture of consumer goods
-trade
services

O What are the major needs/demands in these areas?
locally
nationally

E Do local moneylenders, merchants, etc. control the market and
credit? If so, will they create obstacles for women who try to enter
the market independently?

] Are institutional credit facilities available for women?







checklist 8 Assessment of
the current situation


35
D Do government price policies favour or inhibit manufacturing
activities?

D How much time or energy do women have to engage in
non-fisheries activities?

O Do women manage/control whatever income they earn?

O Are there social constraints that prevent women from engaging in
some/all non-fisheries income-generating activities?

D Are women by custom or habit restricted in their movements or
activities beyond the household?

O Do local traditions assign low status to certain occupations or
activities?

D Do women engage in traditional manufacturing enterprises? If so,
can the economy absorb increased production?

D Are there manufacturing activities that are traditionally for men
but in which women could also be involved?

O Are women engaged in non-fisheries trade or services?

D What marketing/distribution services are available? Do women
have access to them?

E[ Do women possess traditional skills that are not being fully
utilized?

D What activities, food or income-producing, appeal to women?

E Are women involved in non-fisheries cooperative activities?








checklist 9 Project design


EL Does the project make full use of available physical resources?

O Do proposed activities depend on imported materials that are
expensive or difficult to obtain?

EL Do proposed activities take into account local economic patterns,
structures and facilities?

O Do proposed activities address local or national consumer needs?

O Have women been actively involved in project planning and in
setting project priorities?

O Is credit available to women for these activities?

[l Do proposed activities take into account women's traditional work
patterns, skills and interests?

L] Do these activities require special training? If so, is the training
being provided?

L[ Does the project include assistance in the formation .of cooperative
enterprises for women?





UNIT 6


COMMUNITY
AND SOCIAL


ACTIVITIES
SERVICES








checklist 10 Assessment of
the current situation


E Are there community structures that permit or encourage women
to express their ideas and opinions?

El Do women play an active part in community decision-making
processes? Are their views listened to, respected?

D Do women ever assume leadership roles?
within women's groups
within mixed groups

D Do women feel that they have a meaningful role in community
activities and decisions?

O What do women see as their most pressing social needs?

[E Do they have ideas about how these could best be met?

E What do women see as their most important social/community
contributions?

O What changes in their social status would women most prefer?

El Do they have ideas how these changes could be made?

E What social services exist in the community?
schools
medical centres
public sanitation facilities
child-care centres
community water and fuel
markets for food and other basic essentials

E Are these services easily accessible and do they adequately serve
the people's needs?







checklist 10 Assessment of
the current situation


39
O Are these services equally available to women?

O Are girls encouraged to enrol in formal education/literacy
programmes?

O What informal training/education/socialization do they receive (in
family, religious groups, etc.)?

E Do women have an adequate knowledge of basic nutrition, child
care and sanitation?

E How do women learn what they do know of these matters?

D Is the infant mortality rate high? What are the chief causes?

[ Are traditional infant feeding patterns/diets appropriate within the
family resources available?

O Do traditional methods of preparing fish and other foods retain
the full nutritional value of the food?

D Is any form of family planning practised?







checklist 11 Project design


W Has the project taken into account women's traditional social
status and community activities?

O Has the project taken into account women's own perceptions of
their social needs?

O Does the project include activities that will directly or indirectly
contribute to improving women's status and their participation in
community decision-making?

[I Does the project include training women in decision-making and
leadership skills?

O Do project activities draw on talents and skills that women
already possess?

El Does the project include the formation of women's groups that
serve as a forum for the exchange of ideas, a means for increasing
social awareness and developing leadership skills, and a base for
collective action?

O Does the project address the problem of illiteracy among women?

O Does the project aim at improving basic community services?

[ Have women been consulted in setting priorities for such services?

O To what extent will improved services directly benefit women?

O Does the project train women in basic nutrition, child care and
sanitation?

O Do local women assist in this training?





UNIT 7

ORGANIZATIONAL, TECHNICAL,
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT








checklist 12 Assessment of
the current situation



[l Are extension services and banking services available in the
community?

O Do they include direct support for women's activities?
fisheries activities
non-fisheries income-generating activities
domestic activities
credit, savings, investment

O Is the staffing adequate in size and professional training?

D Are women included in the extension staff?

O Are extension services provided in locations, at times and in
settings that encourage women to take part?

El Are the technologies available to women adequate?

l Is research being conducted on ways to improve these
technologies?

D Are training programmes being offered to women?
in fisheries
fisheries management
stock assessment
fishery statistics
new fishing technology
aquaculture
boat building
making/repairing fishing gear
fish, handling
fish processing
marketing
in non-fisheries activities
in small-scale business and financial management, credit/savings








checklist 12


Assessment of
the current situation


D Are there extension or training services designed for men in which
women could be included?

E Are there any self-help groups/organizations/cooperatives for
women already in place?

O Are they registered as formal organizations, viz. cooperatives,
associations, etc. or are they of an informal nature?

O Are these groups/organizations/cooperatives supported by larger
organizations/institutions, such as churches, political parties,
administrations, trade unions, cooperative federations, etc.?

O Is the membership exclusively reserved for women or are men
members too, or could they become members?

[l What are the main areas of activities/purposes of women's
groups/organizations?

O To what extent is the group/organization/cooperative succeeding in
achieving its goals? What are the major obstacles in achieving the
goals?

O What is the membership of the group/organization/cooperative in
relation to the size of fishing community? How many members are
women?

O Are there any special criteria for membership? Are certain
sections/social strata of fisherwomen more prominent among
members of the group/organization/cooperative than others?

El How often do all members meet and for what purpose?








checklist 12 Assessment of
the current situation



0 Does the group/organization/cooperative have any executive
bodies/management bodies/committees? How are they elected?
How often do they meet, and for what purpose? How many
members are women?

E Has any outside agency provided managerial training or
assistance?

El Does the group/organization/cooperative make a surplus of income
over expenditure and/or does the group/organization/ cooperative
depend on subsidies?


] What do women see as their most urgent or practical
organizational and technical support needs?








checklist 13 Project design


45
[l Does the project involve strengthening existing organizational and
technical support?
government extension services
non-government services
research
banking services for women

E Will this strengthening directly benefit women?

E Does the project involve initiating new organizational and
technical support services for women?
governmental
non-governmental
project
research

E Is adequate staff available? Is appropriate training provided?

E Does the staff include women? Are local women included?

O Are local women trained as trainers or training assistants?

E Are the staff men and women sensitive to the needs and
interests of fisherwomen?

E Does the project provide training in courses for women or which
include women?
fisheries
fisheries management
fishery statistics
stock assessment
new fishing technology
aquaculture
boat building
making/repairing fishing gear








checklist 13 Project design


fish handling
processing
marketing
non-fisheries
cottage industries
home gardening
livestock or poultry raising
marketing, bookkeeping, business management
use of credit and savings

E Does the project make adequate provisions for the continuation of
support after the project per se ends?

D Does the project include the formation of self-help
groups/organizations/cooperatives for women and/or support to
already existing groups/organizations/cooperatives in the form of
membership training regarding general socio-political
awareness, literacy, responsibilities and privileges of members
vocational training of members
managerial assistance to the group/organization/cooperative
and related training, including further
development/transformation of informal groups into registered
organizations/cooperatives
implementation of project activities through self-help
groups/organizations/cooperatives
conduct of studies/workshops through self-help
groups/organizations/cooperatives
funding support (fixed assets, working capital, credit, etc.)







UNIT 8

HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY


-'U53
v-. -. 2~ -r
,t- '*-ch ~ slk
'- J-.S ~n~c
-; -9








checklist 14 Assessment of
the current situation



Food security and nutrition


O To what extent is household food security achieved in the
community?

O Is there evidence that increased earnings lead to increased food
purchases?

D Do traditional dietary customs make the best possible use of
available nutritional food?

O Are any food and nutrition survey data available?

[ What percentage of catches is consumed by the household and
what percentage is sold?

O To what extent are fisheries the primary or sole source of calories?

El What other sources, actual or potential, for calories exist in the
community?
farming/home gardens
raising livestock or poultry
growing fruit-trees








checklist 14 Assessment of
the current situation


49
Income


O To what extent are fisheries the primary or sole source of income
for men? for women?

O What other sources, actual or potential, for income exist in the
community?
non-fisheries cottage industries
trade
services
other

l What percentage of income earned by men/by women is used to
purchase food?

O Are fisheries activities year round or seasonal?

O Who controls the family's cash income?

El Who owns the means of production: boats, nets, traps, ovens,
ponds, land, etc.?








checklist 15 Project design




0 Does the project contain a specific component aimed at improving
women's contribution to household food security?

[l Does the project take into account ways by which women can
contribute to household food security during fishery off-seasons?

O Does the project encourage giving women a greater say in
allocating family income to food purchase?

O Does the project include training women to make the best possible
use of available nutritional food?
modifications of traditional dietary customs
use of neglected local foods
improved methods of food preparation
improved methods of family food storage
courses in basic nutrition

l Does the project include a component to introduce women to the
production of non-fisheries sources of food?
farming/home gardens
raising livestock and poultry
growing fruit-trees

[l Does the project promote or limit women's ownership of the
means of food production: boats, nets, traps, ovens, ponds, land,
etc.?





UNIT 9


POPULATION ACTIVITIES


fAMILY PLANNING V


r.Ll *








checklist 16 Assessment of
the current situation



L Are there any data available on family sizes, population growth,
birth rates, etc. in fishing villages situated in the project area?
Summarize information with regard to family sizes, population
growth and birth rates, as well as factors influencing the same.
How do the figures compare with neighboring villages not
inhabited by fisherfolk?

O Have any population education/information and/or family
planning programmes been carried out in the fishing villages of
the project area? What were the results and experiences?

E Have any population education/information and/or family
planning programmes been carried out in neighboring villages not
inhabited by fisherfolk? In which way did the results differ from
the results achieved in the fishing villages of the project area?

O Are there any ongoing and planned national and regional
population education programmes? What are the programmes and
what institutions/agencies are involved?








checklist 17 Project design



53
E Does the project envisage studies generating data on family sizes,
population education efforts? If not, could these topics be
incorporated into studies planned by the project?

[E Does the project link its activities to ongoing population education
programmes or facilitate fisherfolk's access to these programmes?

O What might be the project's impact on population growth and
population planning?

E Is there any monitoring mechanism set-up within the project with
which this impact could be measured?






UNIT 10

IMPACT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES
AND ECONOMIC
AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES





Ii.








checklist 18 Assessment of
the current situation


55
O Have new technologies or economic and social structures recently
been introduced which have changed or are changing women's
traditional roles?

El Are these changes positive or negative?
from the project planners' point of view
from women's point of view
from men's point of view

L Are men receptive to the possibility of women increasing their
economic power and independence?

D Are men receptive to the possibility of greater social status for
women?








checklist 19 Project design


0 Is the project introducing new technologies?
for fish production
for fish processing
for non-fisheries activities

D Are these technologies primarily in fields which are traditionally
dominated by men? If so, will they have an impact on women?
positive
open up new employment opportunities for women
provide additional sources of income for women
negative
unduly increase women's work-load
eliminate or reduce women's traditional work
deprive women of traditional sources of income

D Are new technologies in fields traditionally occupied by women
being introduced?
in fisheries activities
in non-fisheries activities

El Are these technologies appropriate for women's level of education
and skills?

O Have women been consulted before introducing these innovations?

] Is there a danger that newly introduced technologies aimed at
women will become appropriated/monopolized by men?

O Does the project involve large-scale fisheries operations? Will the
effects of these be positive or negative for women?

O Are changes in marketing patterns or systems part of the project
design?








checklist 19 Project design



57
El Is there a danger that these will reduce or eliminate women's
traditional role in marketing? If so, what steps are being taken to
prevent this?

O If the project includes credit for women, what measures have been
taken to protect them from retaliation from the informal credit
market?

[l What steps have been taken to lessen possible male resentment
against improved economic and social conditions and
independence for women?

D Do special projects for women help to integrate women more fully
into the community/development process or do they isolate them
further?














Annex I


BASIC FEATURES OF WOMEN'S INVOLVEMENT IN FISHERIES
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

While fisherwomen share many of the activities, have many of the needs
and face many of the problems of other rural women, their situation has
some particular dimensions:
The most obvious difference is that fisheries involve special knowl-
edge, skills and problems in harvesting, handling, processing and even
marketing the catch. Fisherfolk and fishing communities are among the
poorest and most undernourished of the rural poor, with all the terrors
and constraints that accompany severe malnourishment and abject
poverty. Few fisherfolk have either the land or the skills to grow crop
foods and so depend on a single source for food and income. Due to the
nature of various fishing types, requiring men to spend extended periods
at sea, many fisherwomen are alone much of the time. Ocean fishing,
especially, is often extremely hazardous; injuries and deaths are not
uncommon, so it is not unusual that women find themselves the sole
providers for their families.


WOMEN'S ROLES

In most rural communities, there are essential differences between the
economic, social and political roles of men and women. This also holds
true for fishing communities. While these roles and the responsibilities
they entail may differ from country to country and even from community
to community, a number of basic features can be identified.

- Women have primary responsibility for all household tasks: child
care, preparation of food, collection of water and fuel for domestic use,
cleaning, etc.
- Women normally purchase whatever food the family eats beyond
what the household itself produces; they therefore tend to have a central
role in determining, within the family's resources, the nutritional value of
the diet.










- Women often have primary responsibility for meeting all household
expenses and thus may have discretionary control over some part of the
family's financial resources.
- In some communities, women are engaged in the actual harvesting of
fish from boats or from the shore.
- In most communities, women play a major, sometimes exclusive, role
in making and/or mending fishing gear and in such post-harvest activities
as handling, processing, preserving, storing and marketing the catch;
while, in some areas, women may be employed as wage labour in
large-scale processing operations, generally their efforts are small-scale
and home-based.
- In a few regions of the developing world, women are important
fisheries entrepreneurs, earning, handling and controlling significant
amounts of money and financing a variety of fisheries enterprises.
- Where aquaculture is practised, women often play a major role in
nurturing and harvesting.
- If foods other than fish are produced by the household, it is generally
the women who are in charge.


WOMEN'S CONSTRAINTS

In most rural communities in the developing world, women not only face
most or all of the constraints confronting men but also many which men
do not face. Again, these may differ in kind, severity and importance
from region to region; however, some generalizations can be made.

- Due to their domestic duties women tend to be more restricted in their
movements than men, in the amount of time they can spend away from
home and in the amount of time they can devote to economically
productive activities. Hence, an additional activity which would call upon
women's time would have to be justified in terms of economic and social
benefits and/or financial returns.
- In many regions, custom and habit have traditionally reserved formal
education, if available, largely for males, with the result that illiteracy
among women is usually higher than among men.
- Too often, when training and extension services are offered, they are
geared to the needs and interests of men rather than women.
- Training and extension, even when appropriate for women, may be
held in locations or at times which make regular attendance a hardship.









- The vast majority of training sessions and extension services are
conducted by men and, in cultures where contact with men outside the
immediate family is discouraged or even prohibited, women will be
unable to take full advantage of such programmes.
- In many cases, women find it more difficult than men to obtain credit
from rural financial institutions, either because they are considered
greater risks (they usually have no assets of their own to use as collateral
and may have little or no control of whatever income they do earn), or
because they are unfamiliar with banking procedures.
- The introduction of large-scale development projects, mechanization
or improved technology may increase productive capacities, but it can
also increase the post-harvest work burden of women or deprive them of
traditional forms of employment and income; if a fisheries activity is
enlarged or mechanized, it often suddenly or gradually becomes male-
oriented.
- Women are generally under-represented in cooperatives and thus lack
the support and economic power that such collective enterprises can
offer.
-Men tend to hold the vast majority of leadership positions, both
social/political and economic; women, therefore, have little or no say in
many areas which affect their lives and little chance to develop leadership
and decision-making skills.




















I' I
I -. N










Annex II




GUIDELINES AND CHECKLISTS FOR NON-FISHERIES ACTIVITIES

Guidelines for the integration of women in agricultural and rural
development projects. Rome, FAO. May 1977. (Reprinted 1980)
FAO/UNDP, WCARRD Programme of Action Integration of
Women in Rural Development (WCARRD World Conference on
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, 1979). World Conference of
the United Nations Decade of Women: Equality, Development and
Peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-30 July 1980.
Checklist for women in development for programming and project
formulation. Rome, FAO. July 1981.
Integrating nutrition into agricultural and rural development projects: a
manual. Nutrition in Agriculture, No. 1. Rome, FAO. 1982.
Guidelines -Women in land and water development. Land and Water
Development Division. Rome, FAO. 1982.
Country fact sheets to identify women's role in agriculture and food
production. FAO. March 1983.
Report of the Training Session -FAO/INSTRAW Advisory Service:
Regional Training Session on Development and Use of WID Guidelines
and Checklists at National Level. Dhaka, Bangladesh. 24-28 August
1986.


































































MIS8640E/2/3.90000




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