Title: Food for home and victory
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Title: Food for home and victory
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Hampson, C. M.
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Copyright Date: 1942
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Bibliographic ID: UF00084600
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 226228950

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COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director



FOOD
FOR


HOME
AND


VICTORY
By C. M. HAMPSON
Economist in Farm Management






AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Circular 61


March, 1942















A study of farms and homes was made during 1940 at the re-
quest of a County Agricultural Planning Committee. The pur-
pose of the study was to help farm families to a better living. The
Agricultural Experiment Station assigned Mr. Bruce McKinley
(since deceased) and Mr. Donald Brooke to the work; the State
Agricultural Extension Service assigned Miss Ruth Durrenberger,
Home Demonstration Agent; and the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics assigned Mr. Frederick M. Hodge. Subsequent to the
collection of the data and employment for that purpose, Mrs.
Ruth Durrenberger Ferguson directed the classifying of the home
management data and their tabulations. Valuable assistance was
rendered by various other staff members of the Experiment Sta-
tion, Extension Service, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and
Farm Security Administration. Chart designs by Frances Bo-
zorth.




The standard amounts of foods and other standards used in
this circular were secured from Florida scientists and specialists
and publications of the Bureau of Home Economics. The infor-
mation about planting vegetables will apply to farming areas of
Florida from Sumter County northward to the State of Georgia
and westward to Escambia County. This circular is intended to
help farm families to determine if they are producing and using
proper quantities of different kinds of foods.









FOOD FOR HOME AND VICTORY

By C. M. HAMPSON


ARE YOU WELL FED?

Every man and woman wants to be well fed.
All fathers and mothers want to feed their families well.
Every boy and girl wants to be well fed.
The best way for farmers to be well fed is for them to pro-
duce all of the vegetables, fruit, milk, butter, eggs, meats, syrup,
grits and meal they need on their own farms.
The government wants farmers to grow large supplies of food
for themselves, also for the men at war, for the nation's workers
and their families, and for our allies.
Florida farmers want to help win the war by feeding people
well, but some do not know if they are well fed. This circular
tells how some are much better fed than others. Here is a story
of what was learned about food for farm families in a farming
area typical of northern Florida. One hundred forty-four farms
and homes were visited to learn what kinds of foods the farmers
produced and how much they produced for home use. The
farmers and their wives were asked many questions and records
were made of their answers. Records of white farmers were
placed in two piles, one for owners and one for renters. Records
of Negro farmers were sorted in the same way. The records were
further divided according to the amounts of home-grown foods
the families used. This story tells about the home-grown foods
used by the white owner farmers and their families.
The families are shown as being poorly fed, better fed and
best fed. These words are used in a popular sense. The poorly
fed families had less to eat than is needed for a good diet. They
had a small variety of vegetables and often lacked milk or some
other food believed to be necessary. The better fed families had
more to eat than the poorly fed and they had a greater variety
of foods. The best fed families had the most to eat and had the
greatest variety of vegetables. There were 13 poorly fed families,
35 better fed families and 23 best fed families.






Cooperative Extension Work


VEGETABLES
The poorly fed families grew only 5 to 14 kinds of vegetables
and had most of those fresh for only a few weeks in the year.
Some weeks they had no fresh vegetables at all. The families
who were better fed grew 12 to 18 kinds of vegetables and many
kinds were available fresh from 6 weeks to 4 months at a time.
Some vegetables like collards and potatoes were available 6
months or more. The families who were best fed raised 15 to 24
kinds of vegetables and every day in the year they could choose
from at least 4 kinds of fresh vegetables.
The poorly fed people had only 3/5 the amount of vegetables
to eat as the better fed people, and 1/2 as much as the best fed
people. If you will look at Chart 1 on this page you will see the
big difference.
Each basket on the chart stands for 100 pounds of vegetables
for each person for a year. Each poorly fed person had about 3
baskets weighing 100 pounds each. This is shown on the first
row of the chart. Each better fed person had about 51/2 baskets
weighing 100 pounds each. See the second row of the chart. And
each of the best fed persons had almost 6 baskets weighing 100
pounds each. This is shown on the third row of the chart. These
baskets are equal to 307 pounds for each poorly fed person, 541
pounds for each better fed person, and 589 pounds for each best
fed person.
Poorly Fed
Families 307 Pou


Better Fed
Families 541 Pou


Best d 589 Pou
Fami lies58 o


Chart 1.-Pounds of home-grown vegetables used per person. (Each
basket stands for 100 pounds.)

Food specialists say a good standard for each one of us is to
have from 450 to 600 pounds of vegetables in a year. The amount
needed is affected by age, sex, amount of work being done and
other foods eaten. One-fifth of the white owners we visited had






Food for Home and Victory


much less than an average of 450 pounds for each one in their
family. The other farm owners met the standard and had a
good supply of home-grown vegetables to use.

FRUITS
The standard amount of fruits for each person is 2 bushels or
more in a year. We visited the farmers in a very poor fruit year
and no one had a good supply. But the better fed and the
best fed families had more fruit trees, bushes and vines than the
poorly fed families. Chart 2, row 1, shows only one plate of fruit
for each poorly fed person, while rows 2 and 3 show 3V2 plates
per person for the better fed and 41/2 plates for the best fed. Each
plate stands for 10 pounds.
Each family should have 20 to 40 fruit trees, bushes and vines.


orly Fed 10 Pounds
miles


ter Fed 35 Pounds



miles
st Fed Y A J 46 Pounds


Chart 2.-Pounds of home-grown fruits used per person. (Each plate
of fruit stands for 10 pounds.)

MILK
A quart of milk a day all through the year is a good standard
for a child a year or more old, and a pint each day is a good
standard for a man or woman. In a family of 5 this would mean
about 270 quarts per person in a year. The poorly fed people had
only 137 quarts per person. Chart 3 shows this in row 1. The
better fed folks met the standard by having 265 quarts per per-
son, and the best fed folks had 320 quarts per person. Rows 2 and
3 show the better fed and the best fed folks had twice as much
as those poorly fed. Each bottle in the chart stands for 30 quarts
of milk.






Cooperative Extension Work


Poorly Fed K
Families 137 Quar


Better Fed
Families 265 Quar

Best Fed n32Quar
Families 320 Quar

Chart 3.-Quarts of home-produced milk used per person. (Each
bottle stands for 30 quarts.)

One-third of the poorly fed families had no cow. A cow can
be kept on almost any farm in northern Florida because there
usually is open range for cows. A family of 5 could well use at
least 2 cows. If 1 cow freshened in the spring and the other
in the fall, there could be milk for the family every day in the
year.
BUTTER
Chart 4, row 1, shows that the poorly fed folks had only 5
pounds of butter each for the year. The better fed folks had 3
times as much as the poorly fed folks and the best fed had nearly
4 times as much as the poorly fed.
See rows 3 and 4 on the chart. Each box stands for 5 pounds
of butter. A good standard is 10 to 25 pounds for children and 25
to 50 pounds for adults each year.

Chart 4.-Pounds of home-produced butter used per person. (Each
box stands for 5 pounds.)

Poorly Fed ] 5 Poun
Families BUri


Better Fed 16 Poun
FamiliesTTER


Best Fed 19 Poun
Families y j I BUTTER BUTjTER BUTT






Food for Home and Victory


EGGS
A good standard of eggs for each person is at least 3 to 5 per
week. This is equal to 13 to 22 dozen eggs in a year. Most of the
families visited had a sufficient amount of eggs. This is shown
in Chart 5.


>orly Fed
mi lies


stter Fed
imi lies


Q0


O0


17 Dozens


27 Dozens


Fed 35 D

Chart 5.-Dozens of home-produced eggs used per person. (Each egg
stands for 10 dozen eggs.)
About 25 hens should supply a family of 5 with all of the eggs
they need. Thirty-five or more hens would be better, so as to
have a few eggs for sale and a few hens to eat.

MEATS
Eighty to 200 pounds of lean meat each year is a good stand-
ard. It is well to include a fair share of beef and chicken and
fish. Most farm people visited had plenty of home-produced
meat. Chart 6 shows that even the poorly fed folks had an
average of 102 pounds of fresh and cured pork.
Chart 6.-Pounds of home-grown dressed pork used per person.
(Each pig stands for 100 pounds of meat.)


lorly Fed
nailies


siter Fed
unilies


st Fed
miles


C-1/





-Py


K2


102 Pounds,



141 Pounds


199 Pounds


ist
rii I


ozens





Cooperative Extension Work


Poorly Fed
Families

Better Fed
Families


Best Fed
Families


Chart 7.-Pounds of home-produced poultry used per person. (Each
rooster stands for 10 pounds of dressed poultry.)
Chart 7 shows the poorly fed families had 14 pounds of poul-
try. They also had 5 pounds of other meats: beef, fish and game.
This is a total of 121 pounds. Each person in the better fed fam-
ilies had 141 pounds of pork, 21 pounds of poultry, and 11 pounds
of other meat, or a total of 173 pounds. The best fed folks had an
average of 249 pounds of meat each.
LARD
The poorly fed folks had an average of 14 pounds of home-
produced lard to use, but this was only half as much as the bet-
ter fed folks had. Chart 8 shows that the amounts of lard used
were 14 pounds per person in a year in the poorly fed families,
24 pounds in the better fed families, and 33 pounds in the best
fed families. Twenty-five to 50 pounds of lard, side meat and fat
back per person is a good standard.


Chart 8.-Pounds of home-produced lard used per person. (Each lard
can stands for 5 pounds.)
ey Fed 14 P
Lies P


14 Pound


21 Pound


35 Pound


Poorly
Family


Better Fed
Families


Best Fed
Families


oun(


24 Poun<


33 Poun(


~;;;


i


~~~~98


~6~1~1~3~~






Food for Home and Victory


A family of 5 can have all of the meat and lard they need
and the right kinds of meat if they butcher one fat calf weighing
200 pounds, 5 hogs weighing 200 pounds each, and 70 chickens in
a year, or some similar combination.
SYRUP
Chart 9 shows that the poorly fed folks each had about 3
gallons of syrup in a year. The better fed and best fed folks had
nearly twice as much.

mi lies 2.8 Gallons




lies qJ J J 5.5 Gallons


st Fed
liFed 5.5 Gallons
Chart 9.-Gallons of home-produced syrup used per person. (Each
pail stands for 1 gallon.)


A good standard is 2 to 5 gallons of syrup per person. Sorghum
molasses, honey or sugar may take the place of some of the
syrup. One-fifth acre or more of cane is usually needed to
furnish enough syrup for a year for a family of 5.
MEAL AND GRITS
Eighty to 150 pounds of meal and grits for each person in a
year is a good standard. The amounts used will be less if con-
Chart 10.-Pounds of home-produced meal and grits used per per-
son. (Each sack stands for 50 pounds.)

rly Fed I ma AL [ 128 P
Li lies


ter Fed E L 158 P
Lilies 1-8 A


t Fed i 163 P
lilies
<_ -UJ)_I


pounds


pounds


pounds






Cooperative Extension Work


siderable wheat bread is used. The poorly fed families had an
average of 128 pounds of meal and grits per person, Chart 10.
The better and the best fed families had about 160 pounds per
person.

ALL HOME-PRODUCED FOOD
If all of the milk, eggs and syrup in the charts are changed to
pounds we can add and see how many pounds of all kinds of
home-grown food the people ate. Chart 11 shows that the poorly
fed people each had an average of 956 pounds of home-grown food
to eat in a year. But this was only 5/8 as much as the better
fed had, and only 1/2 as much as the best fed. Each basket
stands for 500 pounds of food.
Specialists in food needs have set standards of 1,650 to 2,000
pounds of food needed by a person in a year. Adults who are not
very active and children 6 to 10 may need only about 1,400
pounds, while older children and active adults may need 1,700 to
2,000 pounds.*

Poorly Fed 956 Pour
Families 956 Pour


Better Fed
Families 1650 Pour


Best Fed
Families 1938 Pou


Chart 11.-Pounds of all home-produced foods used per person. (Each
basket stands for 500 pounds.)

The poorly fed people visited reported an average of only 956
pounds of home-grown food per person. The better fed people
had 1,650 pounds per person and the best fed had 1,938 pounds
per person.
The best fed had extra large supplies of vegetables, milk and
meats. These are very fine foods for growing children and work-
ing men.
*The standard A ration for U. S. soldiers for a year is approximately
2,000 pounds.






Food for Home and Victory


MONEY SPENT FOR FOOD
Did the poorly fed people buy enough food to make up for
what they did not raise? They did not. Chart 12 shows they
spent only $30 per person in a year for food, while the better
fed people spent an average of $25, and the best fed spent an
average of $26.
,orly Fed C CI -r $30
imi lies &j-I L13 L E $30


tter Fed
imi lies LQ LQ25


st Fed
ijies $ 07 0 07 0 0 26
Chart 12.-Dollars spent for food per person. (Each bill stands for
5 dollars.)

The extra $5.or $4 per person spent by the poorly fed families
would buy less than 200 pounds of fruits or vegetables and less
than 50 pounds of expensive foods. However, most of the money
spent for groceries by all classes of farm families visited was
spent for coffee, flour, sugar, rice, salt, and other things a farmer
cannot produce. The better fed and best fed families had much
higher incomes than the poorly fed and could have afforded to
buy more food if that were necessary.

FOODS AND SICKNESS
The poorly fed families visited reported considerably more
eye troubles, tooth troubles, constipation, headaches and colds
than the better fed and best fed families reported. This fact may
be largely on account of lack of food, or it may be more on ac-
count of lack of money to secure medical attention, lack of sani-
tation, poor lighting in the homes, or various other causes. How-
ever, the fact remains that the better fed and best fed families re-
ported better health than the poorly fed families.
FOOD FOR NEGROES
The records of Negro farmers visited show that their families
ate more vegetables, meal and grits per person than white folks,
but they had much less of milk, butter, eggs and meats. They
grew an average of only 12 kinds of vegetables while white fam-






Cooperative Extension Work


ilies grew an average of 15 kinds. Some colored families pro-
duced as much food as the best fed white families. All colored
families could produce as much as their white neighbors.

FOOD FOR LARGE FAMILIES
The records show that most large families are not as well
fed as small families. Their small patches of vegetables, few
fruit trees, 1 cow, few hens, 1 litter of pigs, and small patch of
cane do not provide enough to feed a large family well. Large
families should produce in proportion to their size.

FOOD FOR RENTERS
Not many renters were visited, but the records indicate that
the'good renter families fared as well as the good owners, and
that noor renters were no worse off than poor owners.

CANNED FOODS
The well fed families not only had a good supply of fresh
food to eat but they canned more food than the. poorly fed fam-
ilies. The canned foods helped out when fresh foods were scarce.
The poorly fed families canned an average of only 16 quarts of
food per person, Chart 13. The better fed families canned an
average of 28 quarts and the best fed families canned an average
of 42 quarts per person. All of this canned food is included in
discussions on pages 4 to 10.
One hundred quarts of foods per person is a good standard.
This should include about 50 quarts of vegetables, 30 of fruits,
and 20 of meats.

Chart 13.-Quarts of food canned per person. (Each jar stands for 5
quarts.)

Poorly Fed n Pi
Families 16 Quar


Better Fed 28 Quar
Families e K 28 Quar

Best Fed
Fami lies






Food for Home and Victory


VEGETABLE PRODUCTION
Chart 14 shows all of the vegetables grown by one of the best
fed farm families visited. At the top of the chart are the names
of the months of the year. At the left are the names of the vege-
tables grown. The black bars show the months in which each
vegetable was available fresh. The vegetables are listed in the
order in which they became available, beginning in February.
Lettuce was available in February, March and April. Cabbage
was available the last half of February, all of March and half of
April. Carrots were available in March and April. A similar bar
is given for each vegetable. Twenty-two vegetables were grown,
and at least 4 vegetables were available fresh for the table every
month in the year.

Jan Feb M Ap y ay Ju Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Lettuce
Cabbage
Carrots
Beets
Garden Peas
String Beans
Cucumbers
Squash
Field Peas
Lima Beans
Green Corn
Okra
Tomatoes
Peppers
Eggplant
Onions
Irish Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Lustard
Turnips .
Rutabagas
Collards

Chart 14.-A good supply of vegetables.


One-third of the white owner farmers grew about as good
a supply of vegetables as this one. Some grew a better supply.
Nearly every farmer in North Florida could grow a good supply
if he desired.






Cooperative Extension Work


Jan l'e Mar Apr My Jun Jul __ Sep Oct Nov Dec

Cabbage
Carrots
Beets

String Beans
Cucumbers
Squash
Field Peas

Green Corn
Okra
Tomatoes
Peppers
Eggplant
Onions
Irish Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes- m
Mustard
turnips

Collards -

Chart 15.-A fair supply of vegetables.


Chart 15 shows the supply of vegetables grown by a family
in the better fed group. The chart shows that the supply from
October 1 until April 15 is very scarce except for sweet potatoes
and collards. There were 18 kinds of vegetables. This was a fair
supply of vegetables, but the farmer could do better. About
half of the white owner families grew a supply about like Chart
15.






Food for Home and Victory


Jan FeUb M Apr May J. Ju~lg Sep Oct Isv Dec

Cabbage -



String Beans

Squash
Field Peas
Lima Beans
Green Corn
Okra
Tomatoes -



Irish Potatoes
Sweet Potatoes
Mustard
Turnips

Collards -
Chart 16.-A poor supply of vegetables.


Families that were poorly fed grew only a small amount of
vegetables. Chart 16 shows the supply grown by one family
visited. There were only 13 kinds of vegetables and most of them
were available for only a short time, 4 to 8 weeks. This family
had no fresh vegetables in April, had only sweet potatoes in
November and only collards in March. Not enough of any kind
of seed excepting peas and squash were planted. This family
could have done as well as the best. One-fifth of the white owner
families visited grew poor supplies of vegetables. A few families
grew only 6 or 8 kinds and those for only a few weeks.







Cooperative Extension Work


WHEN TO PLANT
Chart 17 gives the best time to plant different vegetables in
northern Florida. In some sections planting may be done earlier
than shown in the chart because the section is warmer than the
surrounding area. In other sections planting may need to be
delayed because of cold. Many kinds of seeds should be planted
2 or 3 times with 2 to 3 weeks between planting dates. This
method gives more chances for at least one good stand of each
vegetable, also a longer time that each vegetable will be avail-
able.
Bulletin 107, The Florida Home Garden, gives much valuable
information about varieties, how much to plant, transplanting,
fertilizers, etc. The bulletin may be secured from your County
or Home Demonstration Agent or from the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, Gainesville, Florida.

Chart 17.-PLANTING CHART FOR VICTORY GARDENS IN FLORIDA
Early Spring-January, February
Beets Irish potatoes Tomato, pepper and
Cabbage seeds or Mustard eggplants in flats
plants Onions Radishes
Carrots Peas Spinach
Collards Sweet potato beds Turnips
Late Spring-March, April
Bush beans Eggplant Onion sets
Lima beans Field peas Peppers
Pole beans Irish potatoes Squash
Cantaloupes Mustard Sweet potato plants
Collards New Zealand spinach Tomatoes
Corn Okra Turnips


Cucumbers

Lima beans
Pole beans
Field Peas

Bush beans
Okra


Early Summer-May, Jun
Okra
Squash


Watermelons


Sweet potato plants
Tomatoes


Late Summer-July, August
Onion seeds or plants Squash
Turnips


Beets
Cabbage seeds or
plants
Carrots

Beets
Cabbage seeds or
plants


Early Fall-September,
Collards
Lettuce
Mustard


October
Onion seeds or plants
Rutabagas
Spinach
Turnips


Late Fall-November, December
Carrots Radishes
Collards Spinach
Mustard Turnips
Onions




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