Circular 60 January, 1942
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE
AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
University of Florida, State College For Women, and United States
Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
WILMON NEWELL, Director
Ai R EE DOM
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
1942 PRODUCTION GOALS FOR FLORIDA
Dairying.-312,000,000 pounds, a 7 percent increase in milk
production; 4,000 more cows to be milked than in 1941. (375,811,-
216 pounds signed.)
Poultry.-10 percent increase in turkeys, 14 in chickens and
broilers slaughtered; 16,987,000 dozen eggs, 1,800,000 dozen more
than in 1940. (18,231,544 dozen signed.)
Hogs.-93,632,000 pounds, 10,512,000 pounds more than in
1940. (103,104,000 pounds signed.)
Cattle and Calves.-65,055,000 pounds, about 7,000,000 pounds
above 1940; increase in slaughter rather than production request-
ed. (92,324,400 pounds signed.)
Peanuts.-73,000 acres for edible trade, same as in 1941; 111,-
000 acres for oil, an increase of 90,000 acres; peanuts needed also
for grazing. (141,544 acres signed.)
Gardens.-At least 61,500 home gardens, an increase of 32,815
over 1939; every farm family needs a home garden for its own
benefit. (39,959 gardens signed.)
Commercial Vegetables.-201,000 acres; major increases over
1940: 10,000 more acres of tomatoes, 4,000 more of cabbage, 2,000
more of green peas; snap beans decreased by 500 acres.
Upland Cotton.-Goal of 54,000 acres is 5,000 acres less than
Tobacco (flue-cured)-13,735 acres (announcements already
have indicated that this will be increased 10 percent).
Corn.-850,000 acres, an increase of 13,000 acres over 1940.
Oats.-The goal of 12,000 acres is an increase of 2,000 acres.
Hay.-120,000 acres, an increase of 8,000 acres over 1940.
Citrus Fruits.-No increase requested.
Sugarcane for Sugar.-No goals, but no limitation of acreage.
Naval Stores.-107,400 units (1 bbl. turpentine and 31 bbls.
rosin), an increase of 20,840 units over 1940.
The following 2 goals are for the entire South.
Lumber.-13.9 billion board feet, increase of 2.6 billion over
Pulpwood.-7,300,000 cords, an increase of 400,000 cords over
FLORIDA FARMERS AND FOOD FOR FREEDOM
By J. FRANCIS COOPER
Editor, Florida Agricultural Extension Service
There are two reasons why farmers should make ad-
justments in their farming operations during early 1942.
First, it is their duty in national defense; second, it will
pay them financially.-Secretary Wickard.
Florida farmers have
been asked by the Na-
tion's leaders to join in
a vast speedup of food
production in 1942, to
assure this country's in-
habitants of all the foods
they need and at the
4 same time furnish foods
to the democracies. Ever
patriotic, ever depend-
able, the farmers are re-
Int spending enthusiastical-
ca farm ly and in a manner
which bespeaks a deter-
mination to accomplish
the desired results.
Both military and civilian populations d reut
must be kept strong and healthy with Early in the fall of
plenty of good food. 1941 the United States
Department of Agriculture assembled information as to the
amounts of various food products needed by Great Britain and
other embattered democracies during 1942, figured the amounts
likely to be required by the civil and military populations of the
United States, considered potential producing capacity of Ameri-
can farms, and then announced tentative goals of production de-
sired in each state.
It was declared at the time that certain food production goals
were minimums-that it would be desirable to exceed them, if
possible. After the United States declared war on Japan on
December 8, 1941, the Secretary of Agriculture said he would
immediately reconsider the goals, and if necessary he would in-
crease some of them. In signing their farm plans for 1942 Florida
farmers have indicated that they will materially exceed the goals
for milk, eggs, hogs and beef cattle.
Today Florida farmers, along with those of other states, face
the biggest production task in the history of their country. They
are being called upon to produce some foods in amounts they
have never produced before. They must-they will-make tre-
mendous efforts, exert every energy, sacrifice if necessary, sweat
more certainly, but in the end have the satisfaction of knowing
that they have done their part in a tremendous world struggle
involving the very life of democracy.
But their task is one of planned production-not hit or miss,
helter-skelter. The Department of Agriculture has determined
what is needed and is asking that those needs be met. Every
furrow of the plow, every lick of the hoe must be made to count
for the most possible good, not wasted on crops of which there
are still surpluses. Farmers will be producing for needs, in
some cases desperate needs.
The Secretary of Agriculture has announced that until De-
cember 31, 1942, the Department will support prices, at about 85
percent of parity, on hogs, eggs, evaporated milk, dry skimmilk,
cheese, and chickens. It is expected that price support on peanuts
for oil will be announced before the season gets under way. The
price supports may be extended beyond 1942 under existing laws
if need of increased production continues.
DOUBLE PEANUT PRODUCTION
Florida peanut acreage will need to be practically doubled in
1942 if the goal of a 90,000-acre increase for oil production is met
or exceeded. In addition to the state's 73,000-acre allotment for
the edible trade and 111,000 acres requested for oil production,
Florida farmers will need to grow more peanuts for "hogging
off" to help increase their pork supply. (They have signed up
for 141,544 acres of peanuts for edible trade and oil.)
More acres and more peanuts per acre both can help. To
produce the maximum amount of peanuts per acre on good lands,
runners should be planted 6 to 8 inches apart in rows 30 inches
apart, Spanish 3 to 4 inches apart in rows 22 to 24 inches apart.
This will require at least 2 bushels per acre of runner seed, 4
bushels of Spanish. Plant them thick and make more peanuts
and more profits.
If the land has a tendency to produce "pops" instead of nuts,
apply 200 pounds of landplaster per acre, before planting or as
a side-dressing. If the fertilizer is available it might be desirable
to apply from 200 to 400 pounds of a 2-10-4 per acre.
The Agricultural Adjustment Administration suggests that
where peanuts are planted with corn on rolling land they be
planted in strips rather than in every other row. Strips of pea-
nuts at least 13 feet wide, hogged off, will count towards the
erosion-resisting requirements of the agricultural conservation
program on special allotment farms, while those in alternate rows
will not. The Extension Agronomist says that on level lands it is
better to interplant corn with peanuts, and to plant enough
fields of solid peanuts to meet the erosion-resisting requirements.
FILL THE PORK BARREL
Florida farmers are asked to furnish 93,632,000 pounds of
pork, 10,512,000 pounds, or 12.5 percent, more than in 1940. (In
1939 Florida produced 101,400,000 pounds. They promise to pro-
duce 103,104,000 pounds in 1942.) This goal should not be diffi-
cult to meet, since too many Florida hogs have been marketed at
light weight in recent years anyway. Hogs fed out to No. 1
weights (180 to 240 pounds) not only will produce more pork
but also will bring higher prices per pound.
By raising six pigs per litter, instead of the average five, pig
numbers could be increased 20 percent without any increase in
the number of sows. Healthy sows and healthy pigs
will consume from 15 to 30 percent less feed for the
same amount of gain. Bred sows should be kept thrifty,
given plenty of minerals and protein feeds, and run in
fields of grazing crops. When sows farrow in oat fields
or on other cultivated land and the pigs are kept away
from old hog lots and water holes the pigs are more
thrifty, more apt to live, and grow off more rapidly. Each sow
can be made to produce two litters a year in Florida.
A succession of grazing crops-so that the hogs have some-
thing to graze all the time-will prove of material value in feed-
Sing hogs and keeping them thrifty. Grazing crops
which can be grown in Florida include oats, Sudan
grass, cat-tail millet, cowpeas or soybeans, rape,
sweet potatoes, chufas, corn and peanuts.
A mineral mixture kept before the hogs at all times will help
very much in keeping them thrifty. One used with satisfaction
at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station is composed of
50 pounds steamed bone meal, 50 pounds marble dust or ground
limestone, 25 pounds common salt, 25 pounds red oxide of iron,
and 1 pound pulverized copper sulfate.
The Florida goal of 65,055,000 pounds of beef, including cattle
and calves, is only about 7,000,000 pounds more than the 1940
slaughter. Florida has become a beef cattle state of the
first water and reaching this goal should be easy for its
cattlemen. In fact, they say they will slaughter 230,811
animals in 1942, easily surpassing the goal. Better blood,
better pastures, more feed, mineral mixtures, and remov-
al of obstacles have combined to give the beef industry
a tremendous boost during the past decade. In 1938
Florida produced 65,735,000 pounds of beef and the state
has more cattle now.
More slaughter, rather than more production, is requested
during 1942. The beef cattle cycle is near the peak in numbers of
animals, and the Department believes that a little heavier
slaughter will serve the double purpose of supplying more meat
and at the same time leveling off the curve of cattle numbers.
Florida cattlemen have a splendid opportunity to apply the
selective service test to their herds and eliminate any unprofit-
able, old, non-producing animals now while meat prices are
high, leaving young, productive animals in the herd for the fu-
FILL THE MILK PAIL
The goal of
312, 0 0 0 0 0
pounds of milk
is almost all
intended f o r
amoun t s of
are being ship-
ped to Great
ters, less out-
milk will come
and the state's
plies of this
L healthful food.
Plenty of good feed and proper care will help duction is 375,-
Bossy to keep the milk pail full. 811,216 pounds.
Better feeding and care of dairy cows, a milk cow for every
farm family, and the addition of 4,000 cows to Florida
herds are believed to be desirable and necessary.
Here is one place where Florida farm families should
profit greatly, long after the present war has ceased.
Reports reveal a recent and substantial consumer
shift from fresh to canned milk right here in Florida.
Canned milk is at the top of the list of foods being sent
LET THE EGG BASKET OVERFLOW
Because eggs are among the most nutritious foods and can
be preserved and shipped in concentrated form, they have been
designated as one of the foods most urgently needed in the agri-
cultural defense program. Florida farmers and poultrymen
have been asked to increase their production about 1,800.000
dozen to 16,987,000 dozen, almost 12 percent. They say they will
do even better and gather 18,231,544 dozen.
The sub-committee for poultry and egg production of the Ad-
visory Committee on Agriculture of the State Defense Council
recommends two methods of stepping up egg production.
First, it recommends that commercial producers of eggs and
poultry meat operate their plants to full capacity. This means
keeping the laying houses filled and op-
erating the broiler plants more effic-
iently with present facilities. The com-
mittee does not recommend that pro-
'. ducers construct new buildings to as-
sist in securing the 1942 goals.
Second, increases should be obtain-
ed in the small flocks found on Florida
farms, which may be accomplished with
the addition of only a few birds per
Keep it overflowing, farm. A comparatively high percent-
age of Florida's poultry industry is in
flocks of less than 100 birds each. USDA figures show that be-
tween 58 and 60 percent of the chickens on hand or chickens
raised and 43 percent of the eggs produced are in flocks of less
than 100 birds.
The committee believes that Florida producers may have
some difficulty in obtaining sufficient hatching eggs and baby
chicks, since nearly 40 percent of the hatching eggs used in
Florida last season came from other states, and it seems likely
that the supply from other states this season will be limited.
It has been estimated that there will be an increase of 25
percent in the number of breeding hens in Florida, and this will
help to meet the goals if arrangements are made for sufficient
good quality hatching eggs.
The desired increases in broilers, fryers and turkeys can be
easily met. In fact, some poultry leaders are already dropping
words of caution about the broiler business in Florida.
TWO HOME GARDENS FOR ONE
Despite all of its desirable qualities, its fine, fresh foods al-
ways available, the home garden has been missing on entirely
too many Florida farms.
Leaders now have set a
goal of a home garden
on every farm, and this
will mean doubling the
number of gardens in
the state. Surely, this
is one call that will be
answered without hesi-
tation. Answering it
means tremendous bene-
Set fits to ourselves as well
as to our nation.
Two good home gardens are needed on Home gardens help
Florida farms for every one now found.
Uncle Sam by keeping
his people healthy, help to solve the transportation problem by
producing at home things needed at home, and conserve metals
(used in canning foods) which are necessary in the manufacture
of war materials. Victory gardens not only defend the Nation,
they are money in the food and health bank of our families.
Despite all the teachings of every agency engaged in agri-
cultural work in the South for the past quarter cen-
tury, the "fullness of our day" of which Henry W.
Grady spoke more than a half century ago has not
broken yet. "When every farmer in the South shall
eat bread from his own fields and meat from his
own pastures, and disturbed by no creditor and en-
slaved by no debt, shall sit amid his teeming gardens, and
orchards, and vineyards, and dairies, and barnyards . then
shall be breaking the fullness of our day." It is time
for day to break now.
As yet, there is no need for city families to plow
up their backyards to plant to gardens. This might
impede-by using fertilizers, seeds and other things
needed on farms, where there is more chance of suc-
cess-rather than help the program.
COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES ABOUT RIGHT
Only slight increases in commercial vegetable production in
Florida are requested-10,000 acres of tomatoes, 4,000 acres of
cabbage, 2,000 acres of green peas.
Officials say that this is emphatically not the time for a sub-
stantial number of new producers to go into the vegetable busi-
ness-or into the production of poultry or dairy products, for
that matter. This might result in the same sort of situation
which followed World War I-a mistake that should be avoided
FIELD CROP SITUATION
Even though domestic demand has jumped, there is still too
much cotton on hand, and the Department recommends that
Florida cotton farmers plant even less than their allotted acres.
Tobacco supplies also are bountiful, and the goal for flue-cured
tobacco calls for only 13,735 acres-the same as the state acreage
allotment. (Probably will be increased 10 percent.)
But with corn, oats and hay-food crops needed all of the
time but especially to produce more milk and meat-Florida is a
deficiency state and normally imports feeds from other areas.
More acres and better seed will help to increase corn yields.
Florida W-l, a hybrid developed especially for Florida condi-
tions, has yielded best in five years of tests. Florident White
and Yellow and Whatley's are other high-yielding varieties.
REPAIR MACHINERY PROMPTLY
IS THE TIME TO
at all times, and given constant
Farmers will be working for
record production of food, and
there will be much less new
farm machinery manufactured.
At the same time, fewer
farm workers will be available,
and the need for machinery will
be greater. All of this means
that much machinery that nor-
mally would be discarded must
be used and maintained at max-
imum efficiency. Machinery
will need to be properly stored
when not in use, properly oiled
attention and care.
Putting existing farm machinery in the best possible repair
without delay and taking constant good care of it is of the ut-
USE CREDIT WISELY
While farm products are selling at good prices it is a fine
time to pay off indebtedness, rather than incur new obligations.
But no doubt many farmers will need credit for their operations,
particularly if they are to expand their food production. If
banks and other private lending agencies will not supply the
necessary credit, the farmer will do well to contact some federal
Among the federal agencies extending loans are Farm Security
Administration, Production Credit Associations, and the Federal
Land Bank of Columbia.
The Agricultural Adjustment Administration extends credit
against expected payments in the purchase of certain materials.
County agents and other federal representatives in the county
can assist producers in contacting sources of credit.
INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE
Various agencies have accumulated a storehouse of informa-
tion which can be of material assistance to growers. These in-
clude the United States Department of Agriculture, the Agricul-
tural Experiment Station in Gainesville, the Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, which is represented by county and home demon-
stration agents, and other organizations. Many of these have
available for free distribution bulletins bearing on the food pro-
ducts of which increased production is desired.
Among the Extension Service bulletins of interest may be:
Bul. 107, The Home Garden; Bul. 81, Butchering and Curing Pork
on the Farm; Bul. 82, Feeding for Milk Production; Bul. 86,
Screwworms in Florida; Bul. 101, Hog-Lot Equipment for Flori-
da; Bul. 104, Beef Production in Florida; Bul. 60, Culling for Egg
Production; Bul. 77, Houses and Equipment for Poultry; Bul.
94, Growing Healthy Chicks and Pullets, and Circ. 50, Portable
All-Purpose Poultry House.
Experiment Station Bulletins of general interest include:
Bul. 325, Pasture Clover Studies; Bul. 351, Winter Clover Pas-
tures; Bul. 355, Corn Varieties and Hybrids; and Bul. 274,
Management of Dairy Cattle. A complete list of bulletins can
be obtained by writing to the Experiment Station or inquiring at
the office of the county agent .
DESTRUCTIVE PRACTICES NOT NECESSARY
These goals can be reached without destroying our assets for
the future. The state goals have been broken down to the coun-
ties on a basis which takes soil conservation into consideration.
There is no need to destroy the heritage we hope to leave to fu-
Increased production of lumber and pulpwood are requested,
but here again it will be easy to meet the goals without destruc-
tive or clean cutting. Plenty of seed trees should be left on every
acre of forest land to insure a future supply of timber and a
future income from the land.
PRODUCE FOR HEALTH
It took the Selective Service Act, under which the cream
of the country's young manhood was called up for military ser-
vice-and something like 40 percent of it rejected for physical
disabilities-to shock us into a realization that with all our
vaunted scientific advancements and knowledge, we are distress-
ingly lacking in the most vital thing of all-robust health. Poor
health is a liability to ourselves, our families and our country.
Those who have studied the situation are convinced that im-
proper nutrition is at the bottom of a large percent of our health
difficulties. Living in the midst of plenty, we are lacking in
either the knowledge or the ability to procure for our tables the
proper kinds of foods in sufficient quantities. There is need for
these foods to be produced and then used on our tables.
In 1939 56 percent of the Florida farms did not have a milk
cow, 88 percent kept no cattle for beef production, 48 percent had
no hogs, 31 percent no chickens, and 50 percent no garden. All
of these things are elemental, fundamental, primary, in food
production on the farm. No doubt other farms had inadequate
cows, hogs, chickens and gardens. The situation most certainly
will be remedied in 1942.
Ralph McGill, executive editor of The Atlanta Constitution,
"We are aroused about food, we are determined, and properly
so, to feed ourselves, our soldiers, and the people of Europe. Yet
we know that a great portion of our own people are inadequately
fed, undernourished and hungry. We know that they have
been so for a great span of years. If we fail to include in our
planning some emotional arousement which will make sure that
the people of this Nation, too, are fed adequately and well, we
shall have lost the very fight we set out to win."
Better living from more and better foods produced on our
own farms is an important part of national defense.
THE TASK BECKONS
Secretary Wickard says, "All of us must do our best to reach
these goals. Labor will be scarce in some sections, farm machin-
ery will be scarce, so will fertilizers, spray materials and other
essentials. It would be an offense against national safety to
waste any of these scarce things on producing farm products that
are not needed. This is the time to work together, as if the
United States were one big farm, to produce just what we need."
American agriculture is mobilized and ready for action.