Title: Green feed for poultry in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00084598/00001
 Material Information
Title: Green feed for poultry in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Sowell, Dan Franklin,
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida,
Copyright Date: 1941
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00084598
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 226225797

Full Text






COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director




q4ee" eed J64 Poa&%f in &l7&44a
By D. F. SOWELL
Extension Poultry Specialist, University of Florida

Green feed is recognized as an important part of the poultry
diet. It can be fed in the succulent or dried form. Dehydrated
alfalfa leaf meal and dehydrated cereal grasses are popular forms
of dried greens. Succulent cereals, clovers, pasture grasses, and
green leafy vegetables can be used to advantage in poultry rations
During the four years from 1927 through 1932 Brumley made
226 poultry farm studies. The average number of birds per farm
was 679 in 1927-28, 810 in 1928-29, 874 in 1930-31 and 788 in 1931-


Fig. 1.-Layers grazing on rye grass.


June, 1941


,Circular 59








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


32. Varn made a study of 60 Florida poultry farms that averaged
570 birds each for the year from October 1, 1935, to September
30, 1936. The value of green feed was indicated in both of these
studies. Farms feeding succulent green feed all the year pro-
duced more eggs per bird, had a lower percentage of mortality,
and realized greater value of eggs over feed.
In discussing poultry management in the 1939 U. S. D. A. Year-
book of Agriculture, Titus makes the following comment: "When
poultry is kept without access to the soil and to sunshine, much
more attention must be given to the diet. This is accounted for
in part by the facts that sunshine may serve as a source of some
or even all of the vitamin D that is required and that green
growing grass and other plants may serve as sources of all the
other vitamins. Furthermore, poultry that has access to the soil
is less likely to suffer from a deficiency of some of the mineral
elements, for example, manganese, than is poultry that is kept off
the soil."
Gish and Payne in a study comparing the value of cereal
grasses, oat silage, greenmelk, condensed buttermilk, and dehy-
drated alfalfa leaf meal at the Kansas Experiment Station found
that pullets fed immature cereal grasses gave larger net returns
per bird and had about as satisfactory livability, hatchability,
and egg size as pullets fed on greenmelk or condensed buttermilk
and dehydrated alfalfa leaf meal. They found that pullets fed
on greenmelk or immature cereal grasses did not have as severe
a winter production pause as pullets fed on alfalfa leaf meal plus
condensed buttermilk. They indicate that the value of grasses
lies in their abundant content of protein, minerals, and vitamins,

TABLE 1.-RELATION OF USE OF GREEN FEED TO EGG PRODUCTION AND
RETURNS, 60 FLORIDA FARMS 1935-36.
(Data of Varn)
I Value I
Number Eggs Percentlof Eggs Feed I Feed
of per | Mor- Over Percent Cost I Cost
Farms Layer tality Feed Pullets per Doz. per Bird
No green I I
feed 23 165.5 17.1 $1.91 62.4 $ .149 $2.08
Green feed
part of yr. 28 167..6 17.1 2.01 60.6 .148 2.00
Green feed
all year 9 9 183.8 11.8 2.33 56.6 .139 2.17
Average or I I I $
total 60 169.5 16.4 $1.99 60.8 1$ .147 $2.05







Green Feed for Poultry in Florida


TABLE 2.-RELATION OF GREEN FEED TO EGG PRODUCTION AND RE-
TURNS.
(Data of Brumley)


Ws P4 r, '0 P4 ",


99 Farms, 1927-28

No green feed 10 129 15.0 59 74 $2.22 $1.71
Green feed part of year 33 137 11.2 68 77 2.37 1.59
Green feed all of year 56 156 9.7 67 78 2.42 2.27
All farms 99 147 10.7 61 77 $2.37 $7.02
60 Farms, 1928-29

No green feed 9 129 12.5 31 72 $2.07 $1.79
Green feed part of year 18 144 12.1 42 74 2.13 2.13
Green feed all of year 33 154 11.3 53 78 2.27 2.46
All farms 60 150 11.5 48 77 $2.18 $2.33


No green feed
Green feed part of year
Green feed all of year
All farms


36 Farms, 1930-31

6 135 14.6
12 151 13.2
18 167 12.5
36 156 13.1


72 $1.77 $1.18
76 1.80 1.32
79 1.95 1.64
75 $1.86 $1.45


31 Farms, 1931-32


No green feed
Green feed part of year
Green feed all of year
All farms


66 71 $1.40 $1.07
62 70 1.16 1.24
54 76 1.49 1.22
56 73 $1.34 $1.19


and that they reach their maximum nutritive value at about the
first jointing stage.
In cutting experiments with Bahia grass, Leukel and Barn-
ette found frequently cut grasses to be more palatable, higher in
protein, and lower in crude fibrous materials than the grasses cut
less frequently. Leukel, Camp and Coleman found the same to
be true of Bahia, carpet, centipede and Sudan grasses. They con-
clude that nitrate fertilization, economically practiced, results in
an increased production of a more vegetative herbage high in
protein and having a longer growing period. Further comment
by these workers indicates that pasture grasses not grazed or cut
sufficiently, soon pass into a reproductive growth stage and cease







Florida Agricultural Extension Service


Fig. 2.-Green feed being fed on a wire floor sun porch.

vegetative growth. Such plants are fibrous, less palatable, and
low in protein and minerals.
Blaser found that some clovers were adapted to certain soils
in Florida, and that frequently cut clover develops new growth
and furnishes feed for a longer period than that infrequently cut.
The evidence at hand suggests the importance of the mowing
machine for the poultryman with permanent poultry pasture and
the need for frequent cutting to the poultryman who is harvest-
ing and hand feeding succulent green feed.
Tough mature grasses and other mature plants are of little-
nutritive value to poultry. In the preparation of dried greens,
such as alfalfa, they are cut in the succulent stage and are proper-
ly cured to retain the natural green color. When succulent greens
are planted they should be fertilized liberally in order to pro-
duce a rapid growing plant that will be palatable to poultry. A
succession of plantings of various crops should be made to pro-
vide succulent material for the birds at all times.
When green crops are harvested and hand fed, four to six
pounds of edible succulent green feed per day is sufficient for
100 birds.







Green Feed for Poultry in Florida


At the Beltsville Research Center, Denton and Titus fed in-
dividually 120 grams per day of fresh cereal grass along with a
typical all-mash laying ration which contained 4.4 percent al-
falfa leaf meal. The 120 grams per bird is equivalent to 26/2
pounds per 100 birds, which is about five times the usual amount
of succulent green feed recommended. This amount of fresh
cereal grass did not make the white watery or the yolk weak, as
measured by the albumen index, percent of firm albumen and
yolk index. The only marked effect was the increase of pigment
in the yolk which made it darker in color.
Additional work with other succulent green feeds is needed,
as birds fed large amounts of succulent green feed have been
known to produce "grass eggs" which are similar in appearance
to olive yolks produced on rations containing cereal grass silage
or excessive amounts of cottonseed meal.
With the use of dried greens, poultry rations can be com-
pounded that are complete without the use of succulent green
feed, but experiment station and commercial poultry farm stud-
ies reveal the practicability of using succulent greens.
Table 3 was prepared for those who wish to supplement the
dried greens that are in prepared rations.
S--


Fig. 3.-Double insurance-a crop to graze and one to be cut and
fed by hand.








TABLE 3.-Green Feed for Poultry.


Crop


Pasture




Chinese cabbage
Collards
Kale

Mustard

Rape
Carrots


Rye
Cowpeas

Oats

Lespedeza sericea

Millet


Kind or Variety Preferred
in Order Named

Lespedeza (common)
Carpet grass, Bermuda
grass, Clover (white
Dutch, Calif. Bur,
Hop, etc.)
Any variety
True Ga. White
Imperial Long Standing
Curled Scotch
Southern Giant Curled
Chinese Broad Leaved
Dwarf Essex
Improved Long Orange,
Red Cored Chantency,
Danvers Half Long
Fla. or Ga. Black
Brabham
Iron


Hastings 100-Bushel
Fulghum
Sericea

Cattail or Pearl


Amount of Seed to Plant
per Acre, Lbs. or Bu.
as indicated
10-20 lbs.
10-20 lbs.

4-6 lbs.

lb.
1/2 Ib.
% lb.
8 lbs.

5 Ibs.

15 lhs.

4 lbs.

/4-11/ bu.
1/ to 1 bu.


2-4 bushels

10-20 lbs.

10-20 lbs.


When to
Plant

Mar. to Nov.
Mar. to Nov.

Oct. to Nov.

Sept.-March
Any Season
August-April

Sept.-Oct.
Feb.-April
Sept.-Jan.

Aug. to Mar.

Oct.-Nov.-Dec.
Mar. to Sept.

Oct., Nov., Dec.

April to July


How Soon Available
After Planting

3 to 6 months
3 to 6 months
3 months

45 days
50 days
45 days

40 days

40 days

75-90 days

50 days
50-70 days

45 days

60-90 days


TABLE 3.--Green Feed for Poultry.








Peanuts
Napier grass

Swiss chard
Lettuce

Soybeans


TABLE 3.-GREEN FEED FOR POULTRY.-Continued.


Fla. Runner
Elephant, Merker or
Napier are all the same
Giant Lucullus
Chicken Lettuce,
Grand Rapids
Otootan


2 bu.
Plant roots or canes

5-6 lbs.
1-2 lbs.

V4 to 1/2 bu.


Mar. to June
Feb. if roots
July if canes
Sept. to Mar.
Oct. to Mar.

March to June


Remarks:
Rape may be sown in with oats and rye if rich, moist land is used.
Millet: If for pasture, plant broadcast; if to be cut, plant in rows 3 to 4 feet apart, drilling seed in row.
Napier grass: Set divided root clumps 2 feet apart in 4 to 6 foot rows or stick 3-joint-length canes in prepared
ground at 45 degree angle, leaving top joint sticking out of ground.
To get the most succulent and palatable feed, the crops mentioned must be kept green and growing, which
means that in most instances liberal amounts of fertilizer must be used, and a succession of plantings of most crops
should be made. Most any good truck crop fertilizer applied at the rate of 400 to 600 pounds per acre a week
or 10 days ahead of planting, and side or top dressings of quick-acting nitrogenous fertilizer as the plant indicates
a need for nitrogen, will be found satisfactory.
Table prepared by W. E. Stokes, F. S. Jamison and J. Lee Smith.


80-120 days
100 days

50 days
50 days

60 days








Florida Agricultural Extension Service


For additional information on pasture crops and vegetables
in Florida obtain a copy of each of the following:

1. Permanent and Temportary Pasture Crops for Florida.
Florida Experiment Station Mimeographed circular. W. E.
Stokes, Geo. E. Ritchey, W. A. Leukel and R. E. Blaser, 1938.

2. Florida Vegetables. Florida Extension Bulletin 90. A. P.
Spencer, 1937.

3. The Home Garden. Florida Extension Bulletin 107. F.
S. Jamison, 1941.

REFERENCES

1. Blaser, Roy E. Pasture Clover Studies. Fla. Exp. Sta. Bul. 325.
1938.
2. Brumley, Frank W. An Economic Study of Commercial Poultry
Farming in Florida. Fla. Ext. Bul. 105. 1940.
3. Denton, Charles A., and H. W. Titus. Effect of Fresh Cereal Grass on
Interior Quality of Eggs. Poultry Science 20: 188-192. 1941.
4. Gish, C. L., and L. F. Payne. The Importance of Herbage in Poul-
try Management. Poultry Science 19: 35-41. 1940.
5. Leukel, W. A., and R. M. Barnette. Cutting Experiments with
Bahia Grass Grown in Lysimeters. Fla. Exp. Sta. Bul. 286. 1935.
6. Leukel, W. A., J. P. Camp, and J. M. Coleman. Effect of Frequent
Cutting and Nitrate Fertilization on the Growth Behavior and Rela-
tive Composition of Pasture Grasses. Fla. Exp. Sta. Bul. 269. 1934.
7. Lippincott, W. A., and L. E. Card. Poultry Production. 6th Edition.
p. 390-394. Lea & Febiger. 1939.
8. Russoff, L. L. Vitamins in Poultry Feeding. Fla. Exp. Sta. Press
Bul. 543. 1939.
9. Sanborn, N. W. Florida Pasture and Feed for 100 Hens. Fla. Ext.
Bul. 21. 1919.
10. Titus, H. W., USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, p. 837. 1939.
11. Varn, M. N. A study of 60 Florida Poultry Farms. Fla. Ext. Mim-
eographed Cir. 1938.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs